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ECE503 Digital Signal Processing

Problem Set 03

1. Consider the signal:

x(n) = 2 + 2 cos

 n 
4

+ cos

 n 
2

1
+ cos
2

3n
4

(a) Determine and sketch its power density spectrum


(b) Evaluate the power of the signal

2. Determine and sketch the magnitude and phase spectra of the following periodic signals:


(n 2)
(a) x(n) = 4 sin
3




2
2
n + sin
n
(b) x(n) = cos
3
5




2
2
n sin
n
(c) x(n) = cos
3
5
3. Compute the Fourier transform of the following signals:
(a) x(n) = u(n) u(n 6)
(b) x(n) = 22 u(n)
 n
1
(c) x(n) =
u(n + 4)
4
(
2 12 n, |n| < 4
(d)
0,
elsewhere

4. Determine the signal x(n) if its Fourier transform is as given in Figure 1:

5. Consider the signal:

X()
2
1
(8/10)

- -(8/10)

X()

X()
W
2
1

- -

Figure 1: The three versions of the signal x(n) used in Question 4.

x(n) = {1, 2, 3, 2, 1}

With Fourier transform X(), compute the following quantities without explicitly computing
X():
(a) X(0)
(b) X()
(c) X()
(d)

X()d

6. Determine and sketch the Fourier transform X1 (), X2 () and X3 () of the following signals:
(a) x1 (n) = {1, 1, 1, 1, 1}

(b) x2 (n) = {1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1}

(c) x3 (n) = {1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1}

(d) Is there any relation between X1 (), X2 () and X3 ()? What is its physical meaning?

7. Prove that:

XN () =

N
X
sin(0 n)

ejn

may be expressed as:


Z

sin((2N + 1)( /2))


d
sin(( )/2)

8. A signal x(n) has the following Fourier transform:

X() =

1
1 ej

(a) x(2n + 1)
n

(b) e 2 x(n + 2)
(c) x(2n)
(d) x(n) cos(0.3n)
(e) x(n) x(n 1)
(f) x(n) x(n)

9. From a discrete time signal x(n) with Fourier transform X(), shown in Figure 2, determine
and sketch the Fourier transform of the following signals:
3

X()



-

Figure 2: The signal x(n) used in Question 9.


(
x(n), n is even
(a) y1 (n) =
0,
n is odd
(b) y2 (n) = x(2n)
(
x( 12 n), n is even
(c) y3 (n) =
0,
n is odd
Note that y1 (n) = x(n)s(n), where s(n) = {..., 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1...}.

10. Openended MATLAB Question: Phonemes


In this weeks open-ended question, you will leverage the techniques just investigated in the
lectures dealing with frequency analysis in order to classify different vowel phonemes produced
during human speech. In general, human speech can be decomposed into a set of basic sounds
called phonemes, each of which possesses unique frequency characteristics over time. In this
problem, you will be designing a system that will classify the vowel phonemes /i:/, /I/, /e/, and
// based on the spectral location of their first three harmonic frequencies or formants.
(a) Load into MATLAB the audio files phoneme ii.wav (for /i:/), phoneme i.wav (for /I/),
phoneme e.wav (for /e/), and phoneme ae.wav (for //). What are the frequencies of the first,
second, and third formants for each audio file?
(b) Now load into MATLAB the file phoneme unknown.wav. Design an algorithm that can
classify each segment of this audio as either /i:/, /I/, /e/, or //. Provide the resulting classification.

Here are several hints to get you started with this problem:
4

To load an audio file into MATLAB, use the command


[phoneme,fs]=wavread(phoneme.wav);.
The audio signal in MATLAB will be in stereo. To verify this, use the command size(phoneme),
which should show that this file has two columns with column 1 being left audio and column 2 being right audio.
To play an audio signal in MATLAB, use the command soundsc(phoneme,fs);.
To visualize the frequency/time characteristics of a sound, use the command spectrogram.