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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore

Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

1.

LINGKUP

Prosedur ini menguraikan sistematis kerangka


penilaian risiko pipeline dan menyediakan cara
untuk meningkatkan keamanan sistem pipeline.
Program manajemen integritas menyediakan
informasi bagi operator untuk secara efektif
mengalokasikan sumber daya yang tepat untuk
pencegahan, deteksi, dan kegiatan mitigasi yang
menghasilkan peningkatan keselamatan dan
pengurangan kecelakaan.
Penilaian risiko mencakup sistem pipa darat, seperti
flowline, jalur transmisi, jalur layanan, dan jalur
distribusi, baik untuk jaringan pipa minyak dan gas.

P-219 Rev. 1

1.

SCOPE

This procedure outline a systematic pipeline risk


assessment framework and provide the means to
improve the safety of pipeline systems. The integrity
management program provide information for
operator to effectively allocate resources for
appropriate prevention, detection, and mitigation
activities that results in improved safety and
reduction of accidents.
The risk assessment cover onshore pipeline
systems, such as flowlines, transmission lines,
service lines, and distribution lines, for both oil and
gas pipelines.

Pada transportasi gas menggunakan ASME B31.8


meliputi desain, fabrikasi, instalasi, inspeksi, dan
pengujian fasilitas pipa Sedangkan ASME B31.4
meliputi desain, bahan, konstruksi, perakitan,
inspeksi, dan pengujian pada pipa transportasi
cairan seperti minyak mentah, kondensat, natural
gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum
gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous
ammonia , dan produk petroleum cair.

ASME B31.8 covers the design, fabrication,


installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline
facilities used for the transportation of gas. While
ASME B31.4 covers the design, materials,
construction, assembly, inspection, and testing of
piping transporting liquids such as crude oil,
condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids,
liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid
alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid
petroleum products.

2.

2.

TUJUAN

PURPOSE

Penilaian risiko pipeline memiliki tujuan sebagai


berikut:

Pipeline risk
objectives:

- Prioritas pipeline / segmen untuk penjadwalan


penilaian integritas dan tindakan mitigasi
- Penilaian terhadap manfaat yang diperoleh dari
tindakan mitigasi
- Penentuan langkah-langkah mitigasi yang paling
efektif untuk mengidentifikasi ancaman.
- Penilaian pada dampak integritas dari perubahan
interval inspeksi.
- Penilaian terhadap penggunaan atau kebutuhan
metodologi pemeriksaan alternative.
- Alokasi sumber daya yang lebih efektif

- Prioritization of pipelines/segments for scheduling


integrity assessments and mitigating action
- Assessment of the benefits derived from
mitigating action
- Determination of the most effective mitigation
measures for the identified threats
- Assessment of the integrity impact from modified
inspection intervals
- Assessment of the use of or need for alternative
inspection methodologies
- More effective resource allocation

assessment

has

the

following

Penilaian risiko memberikan ukuran terhadap Risk assessment provides a measure that evaluates
evaluasi baik dampak potensial dari jenis kejadian both the potential impact of different incident types
yang berbeda dan kemungkinan terhadap peristiwa and the likelihood that such events may occur..
yang dapat terjadi.

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

3. TANGGUNG JAWAB

3.

- Engineer Pipa Penyalur bertanggung jawab atas


pekerjaan penilaian risiko pipa penyalur.

- Pipeline Engineer responsible to perform the


pipeline risk assessment

- Senior engineer bertanggung jawab atas kualitas


dan kesesuaian pekerjaan dengan Order yang
diberikan.

4. DEFINISI
Pipa penyalur darat adalah pipa minyak atau gas
bumi yang meliputi pipa alir sumur, pipa transmisi,
pipa induk dan pipa servis yang dioperasikan didarat
5.

INSTRUKSI

RESPONSIBILITES

Senior engineer responsible for quality of work


and complian to work orders.

4. DEFINITION
Onshore pipeline is an oil or gas pipelines including
flowline, transmission pipelines, mainline and service
lines
5.

INSTRUCTIONS

5.1 Pengumpulan dan Peninjauan Data

5.1 Data Collection and Review

Langkah pertama dalam pengumpulan data adalah


mengidentifikasi
sumber-sumber
data
yang
diperlukan untuk penilaian risiko pipeline. Sumbersumber dapat dibagi menjadi lima kelas yang
berbeda.

The first step in gathering data is to identify the


sources of data needed for pipeline risk assessment.
These sources can be divided into five different
classes.

Desain, Material, dan Data Konstruksi


-

Segmen Pipa
Rute Pipeline
Diameter pipa
Ketebalan pipa
Material pipa
Tekanan disain dan operasi
Tanggal konstruksi atau umur
Tipe dan kondisi coating
Tipe dan kondisi katodik proteksi
Lokasi valve
Relief devices
Tipe tanah

Right-of-Way Data
-

Lebar right-of-ways
Kedalaman penguburan
Kondisi hak-caraFrekuensi dan jenis patroli
Perambahan cek dan mitigasi
Pipa spidol dan signage
Deskripsi
penggunaan
lahan:
pedesaan,
perkotaan, pertanian, industri
- Highway dan perlintasan kereta api: casing,

Design, Material, and Construction Data


-

Pipeline segment
Pipeline route
Pipe diameter
Pipe wall thickness
Pipe material, grade
Design and operating pressures
Construction date or age
Coating type and condition
Cathodic Protection type and condition
Valve locations
Relief devices
Soil type

Right-of-Way Data
-

Width of right-of-ways
Depth of burial
Condition of right-of-way
Frequency and type of patrolling
Encroachment check and mitigation
Pipeline markers and signage
Description of land use: rural, urban, farm,
industrial
- Highway and railroad crossings : cased, uncased
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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

uncased
Sungai danau dan penyeberangan
Pipa dan penyeberangan utilitas lain, berbagi
kanan dari arah koridor
Publik kesadaran pipa
Pipa paparan laporan

Data Operasi, Inspeksi Perawatan dan Perbaikan


-

Hasil inspeksi in-line (ILI)


Hasil penilaian anomali ILI
Data tekanan pengujian hidrostatis
SCADA dan deteksi kebocoran
Rencana tanggap darurat, bor dan pelatihan
Tumpahan rencana pengelolaan
Kualifikasi operator dan rencana pelatihan
Tekanan isi line atau servise
Tekanan siklus dan profil tekanan
Suhu operasi
Pembacaan pipe to soil
Close interval survey
Inspeksi Coating
Pemeriksaan katodik proteksi
Inspeksi kedalaman pemakaman
Re-route, pergantian section
Cara perlindungan pipeline di sungai, sungai,
danau dan air
- Perlindungan dan pemantauan pipeline di tanah
yang tidak stabil

Bagian-bagian pipeline di area sensitive:


-

Dekat dengan air minum: dalam 100m


Dekat dengan daerah berpenduduk
Dekat dengan peternakan
Dekat dengan taman dan hutan
Dekat dengan tambak

Sejarah insiden kebocoran


- Lokasi
- Penyebab dan akar penyebab kegagalan
- Konsekuensi
- Tindakan perbaikan
- Sejarah perbaikan
- Encroachment history

P-219 Rev. 1

- River, creek and lake crossings


- Pipeline and other utility crossings, sharing rightof-way corridor
- Public awareness of pipeline
- Pipeline exposure reports

Operation, Maintenance Inspection and Repair Data


-

In-line inspection (ILI) results


Results of ILI anomaly assessment
Hydrostatic pressure testing data
SCADA and leak detection
Emergency response plan, drill and training
Spill management plan
Operators qualification and training plan
Line pressure content or service
Pressure cycles and pressure profile
Operating temperature
Pipe to soil readings
Close interval survey
Coating inspection
Cathodic protection inspection
Depth of burial inspection
Re-route, replace sections
Pipeline protection in river, creek, lakes and water
ways
- Pipeline protection and monitoring in unstable
ground

Portions of Pipeline at Sensitive Areas:


-

Proximity to drinking water: within 100m


Proximity to populated areas
Proximity to farms
Proximity to parks and forests
Proximity to commercial fishing waters

Past history of incidents, leaks


- Location
- Failure causes and root causes
- Consequences
- Remedial action
- Repair history
- Encroachment history

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

5.2 Pemeriksaan Lapangan

P-219 Rev. 1

5.2 Field Inspections

Pemeriksaan lapangan dilakukan apabila diperlukan, Field inspection carried out if necessary, these can
pemeriksaan tersebut meliputi:
include:
- Pembacaan Kathodik Proteksi (Instruksi Kerja I- - Cathodoc Protection Reading (Work Instruction I302)
302)
- Pengukuran Ketebalan (Instruksi Kerja I-303)
- Thickness Measurement (Work Instruction I-303)
- Survey ROW (Instruksi Kerja I-304)
- ROW Survey (Work Instruction I-304)
5.3 Segmentasi

5.3 Segmentation

Pipeline tidak memiliki potensi bahaya yang konstan


sepanjang pipeline. Kondisi di sepanjang rute
pipeline berubah, demikian juga gambar risiko.
Karena gambar risiko tidak konstan, lebih efisien
menilai pipeline pada bagian yang lebih pendek.
Setiap bagian akan memiliki hasil penilaian risiko
sendiri. Memutus garis menjadi beberapa bagian
pendek meningkatkan akurasi penilaian untuk
setiap bagian

Pipeline does not have a constant hazard potential


over its entire length. As conditions along the lines
route change, so does the risk picture. Because the
risk picture is not constant, it is efficient to assess
pipeline in shorter sections. Each section will have its
own risk assessment results. Breaking the line into
many short sections increases the accuracy of the
assessment for each section.

5.4 Penilaian Resiko


5.4.1 Gambaran Umum

5.4 Risk Assessment


5.4.1 Overview

Risiko
paling
sering
didefinisikan
sebagai
probabilitas dari suatu peristiwa yang menyebabkan
kerugian dan besarnya potensi kerugian itu. Dengan
definisi ini, risiko meningkat ketika salah satu
kemungkinan meningkat atau ketika potensi
kerugian (konsekuensi) meningkat. Transportasi
produk-produk dengan menggunakan pipa berisiko
karena ada beberapa kemungkinan pipa gagal,
melepaskan isinya (bocor), dan menyebabkan
kerusakan (di samping potensi kerugian dari produk
itu sendiri).

Risk is most commonly defined as the probability of


an event that causes a loss and the potential
magnitude of that loss. By this definition, risk is
increased when either the probability of the event
increases or when the magnitude of the potential
loss (the consequences of the event) increases.
Transportation of products by pipeline is a risk
because there is some probability of the pipeline
failing, releasing its contents, and causing damage
(in addition to the potential loss of the product itself).

Definisi yang paling umum dari risiko sering The most commonly accepted definition of risk is
dinyatakan sebagai hubungan matematis:
often expressed as a mathematical relationship:
Risk = (Peluang) x (Konsekuensi)

Risk = likelihood x consequence

Risiko sering dinyatakan dalam jumlah yang terukur A risk is often expressed in measurable quantities
seperti frekuensi kematian, cedera, atau kerugian such as the expected frequency of fatalities, injuries,
ekonomi.
or economic loss.

5.4.2 Model Risiko

5.4.2

Penyajian risiko dalam bentuk matriks adalah cara


yang efektif menunjukkan pembagian risiko dengan
komponen yang berbeda tanpa nilai numerik. Pada

Presenting the results in a risk matrix is an effective


way of showing the distribution of risks for different

Risk Model

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

matriks risiko, katagori konsekuensi dan probabilitas


tersebut diatur sedemikian sehingga komponen
risiko tertinggi berada di pojok kanan atas. Kategori
risiko (Tinggi, Sedang dan Rendah) dapat dilihat
pada kotak-kotak dalam matriks risiko.

components in a process unit without numerical


values. In the risk matrix, the consequence and
probability categories are arranged such that the
highest risk components are toward the upper righthand corner. Risk categories (i.e. High, Medium, and
Low) are assigned to the boxes on the risk matrix.

LIKELIHOOD

Gambar 5.1 menunjukkan matriks risiko yang


Figure 5.1 shows Risk matrix which is used for
digunakan untuk menentukan risiko pipeline.
determining and plotting pipeline related risk .

Likely
Unlikely
Very Unlikely
Rare
Remote

5
4
3
2
1
Low

10
8
6
4
2
Minor

15
20
12
16
9
12
6
8
3
4
Medium
Significant
CONSEQUENCE

Low

Medium Risk

25
20
15
10
5
Catastrophic

High

Figure 5.1 Risk Matrix


5.4.3

Probability Of Failure

5.4.3

Probability Of Failure

a. Kerusakan Pihak Ketiga

a. Third Party Damage

Kedalaman dari Penutup

Depth of Cover

Kedalaman minimum penutup adalah jarak tanah,


atau penutup setara pipa yang berfungsi untuk
melindungi pipa dari pihak ketiga kegiatan. Poin
harus dinilai berdasarkan lokasi dangkal dalam
bagian yang dievaluasi. Evaluator harus merasa
yakin bahwa kedalaman data tutupan adalah lancar
dan akurat, jika tidak, titik penilaian harus
mencerminkan ketidakpastian.

The minimum depth of cover is the amount of earth,


or equivalent cover, over the pipeline that serves to
protect the pipe from third-party activities. Points
should be assessed based on the shallowest
location within the section being evaluated. The
evaluator should feel confident that the depth of
cover data are current and accurate; otherwise, the
point assessments should reflect the uncertainty.

Penguburan pita-peringatan dari bahan yang sangat


terlihat dengan peringatan jelas tercetak di atasnyadapat membantu untuk mencegah kerusakan pada
pipa

Burial of a warning tape-a highly visible strip of


material with warnings clearly printed on it-may help
to avert damage to a pipeline

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Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria
Above 1 m, with additional concrete slab
Above 1 m, with additional warning tape
1 m and above
Less than 1 m, or unknown
Not buried

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Activity Level

Activity Level

Dalam analisis potensi kerusakan oleh pihak ketiga,


sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat aktivitas area dekat
pipeline. Hal ini secara jelas bahwa aktivitas menggali
meningkatkan kesempatan untuk terkena pipa.
Penggalian sering terjadi dalam instalasi sistem
utilitas seperti kabel listrik, kabel telepon, pipa air
bersih, pipa gas.

In analysis of third-party damage potential, the area


of opportunity is strongly affected by the level of
activity near the pipeline. It is intuitively apparent that
more digging activity near the line increases the
opportunity for a line strike. Excavation occurs
frequently in installation of utilities systems such as
electricity cables, telephone cables, fresh water pipe,
gas pipelines.

Adanya utilitas penguburan secara logis mengarah ke


aktivitas penggalian lebih sering sebagai sistem The presence of other buried utilities logically leads
to more frequent digging activity as these systems
perbaikan, pemeliharaan dan pemeriksaan.
are repaired maintained and inspected.

Criteria

Score

None: remote area, no chance of any digging, or other harmful thirdparty activities
near the line
Low: location class 1, rural, low population density, less digigng or construction
activities
Medium: location class 2, medium population density, few digging or construction
activities
High: location class 3, residential/industrial areas, high digging or construction
activities
Very High: location class 4, multistorey buildings with underground utilities, heavy and
dense traffics

1
2
3
4
5

Fasilitas diatas tanah

Aboveground Facilities

Fasilitas diatas tanah sangat rentan terhadap


gangguan oleh pihak ketiga. Komponen pipa ditas
tanah memiliki tipe yang berbeda dari kerusakan oleh
pihak ketiga yang terexpose dibandingkan dengan
bagian dikubur. Termasuk dalam jenis ancaman
benturan kendaraan dan pengrusakan

This is a measure of the susceptibility of


aboveground facilities to third-party disturbance.
Aboveground pipeline components have a different
type of third-party damage exposure compared to the
buried sections. Included in this type of exposure are
the threats of vehicular collision and vandalism
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P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria

Score

No aboveground facilities

Aboveground facilities inside fences / plant area, with warning signs (i.e. hazards,
no trespassing)

Aboveground facilties > 15 m from roads, and separated by structures

Aboveground facilties, near roads, separated by tress, wall, other structures, or


ditch

Aboveground facilties near roads and/or easy to reach by public.

Line Locating

Line Locating

Program dan prosedur proses identifikasi lokasi


pipeline yang tepat pada pipa yang terkubur agar
pihak ketiga menggali dengan aman
untuk
menghindari pihak ketiga kerusakan.

A line locating program or procedure-the process of


identifying the exact location of a buried pipeline in
order for third parties to safely excavate nearby-is
central to avoiding third-party damages.

Beberapa metode yang umum digunakan untuk Some methods common used for detecting buried
mendeteksi lokasi pipa yang terkubur sebagai berikut. pipeline locations were as follow.

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P-219 Rev. 1

Kondisi Right-of-Way

Right-of-Way Conditions

Pengukuran item ini kemampuan mengenali dan


memeriksa pada koridor pipeline. Sebuah ROW,
ditandai dengan jelas mudah dikenali mengurangi
kerentanan gangguan pihak ketiga dan membantu
dalam deteksi kebocoran (kemudahan spotting uap
atau tumbuhan mati pada tanah atau patroli udara).

This item is a measure of the recognizability and


inspectability of the pipeline corridor. A clearly
marked, easily recognized ROW reduces the
susceptibility of third-party intrusions and aids in leak
detection (ease of spotting vapors or dead
vegetations from ground or air patrols).

Pilih skor nilai yang sesuai dengan deskripsi terdekat Select the score values corresponding to the closest
dari kondisi ROW yang diamati sebenarnya di bagian description of the actual ROW conditions observed in
bawah.
the section below.

Criteria
Score
Excellent: clear ROW, signs and markers visible at road, railroads, ditches, water
crossings, all changes of direction are marked.
1
Good: clear ROW, well marked, no overgrown vegetations.
2
Average: ROW not uniformly clear, more markers are needed for better identification.
3
Below average: ROW are overgrown by vegetation at some area, poorly marked.
4
Poor: No or indistinguishable pipeline ROW, no markers present.
5

Patroli

Patrol

Patroli pipeline adalah metode yang terbukti efektif


mengurangi gangguan pihak ketiga. Frekuensi dan
efektivitas patroli harus dipertimbangkan dalam
penilaian jumlah patroli.

Patrolling the pipeline is a proven effective method of


reducing third-party intrusions. The frequency and
effectiveness of the patrol should be considered in
assessing the patrol value.

Pengamatan dilaporkan harus mencakup sebagai Reportable


berikut:
following:
- Gerakan tanah: tanah longsor, ambles, erosi
- Kegiatan konstruksi, baik di dekatnya dan
cenderung bergerak
- Gangguan-gangguan:
bangunan,
perubahan
lansekap, taman
- Penggandaan kegiatan ROW: kendaraan off-road,
sepeda motor
- Marker hilang,
- Penanaman pohon, taman
- Perubahan pihak ketiga pada lereng atau drainase.

observations

should

include

the

- Land movements: landslides, subsidence, bank


erosion
- Construction activity, both nearby and likely to
move
- Encroachments: buildings, landscaping changes,
gardens
- Unauthorized activities on ROW: off-road
vehicles, motorcycles
- Missing markers, signs
- Plantings of trees, gardens
- Third-party changes to slope or drainage.

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Criteria

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Daily patrol.
Weekly patrol.
Monthly patrol.
Quarterly patrol.
Annual patrol.

Penyuluhan Masyarakat

Public Education

Program penyuluhan masyarakat adalah peranan


penting dalam mengurangi kerusakan pipeline oleh
pihak ketiga. Kebanyakan kerusakan oleh pihak
ketiga dikarenakan oleh ketidak sengajaan dan
ketidak tahuan. Ketidak tahuan ini tidak hanya pada
lokasi pipeline yang terkubur, tetapi juga ketidak
tahuan indikasi adanya pipa diatas tanah dan pipa
secara umum.

Public education programs are thought to play a


significant role in reducing third-party damage to
pipelines. Most third-party damage is unintentional
and due to ignorance. This is ignorance not only of
the buried pipeline's exact location, but also
ignorance of the aboveground indications of the
pipeline's presence and of pipelines in general.

A pipeline company committed to educating the


Perusahaan pemilik pipeline berkomitmen untuk community on pipeline matters will almost assuredly
melakukan penyuluhan pada masyarakat mengenai reduce its exposure to third-party damage.
masalah pipeline, yang akan secara pasti mengurangi
dampak kerusakan oleh pihak ketiga.

Criteria
Regular education programs for community nearby, officials,
contractors / excavators
Regular education programs for community nearby.
Door to door contact with adjacent residences.
Reading materials (i.e pipeline safety brochures) for community
nearby.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

None

b. Korosi

b. Corrosion

Potensi kegagalan pada pipeline disebabkan oleh


korosi merupkan bahaya ya ng paling familiar yang
berhubungan dengan pipeline baja. Korosi, seperti
yang digunakan dalam prosedur ini, fokus utama
pada berkurangnya logam pipa. Korosi merupakan
perhatian lebih karena kehilangan ketebalan dinding
pipa selalu berarti pengurangan integritas struktural
dan meningkatnya risiko kegagalan.
Korosi Atmosfir

The potential for pipeline failure caused by corrosion


is perhaps the most familiar hazard associated with
steel pipelines. Corrosion, as it is used in this
procedure, focuses mainly on a loss of metal from
pipe. Corrosion is of concern because any loss of
pipe wall thickness invariably means a reduction of
structural integrity and hence an increase in risk of
failure.
Atmospheric Corrosion

Korosi Atmosfer pada dasarnya adalah perubahan Atmospheric corrosion is basically a chemical
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P-219 Rev. 1

kimia pada material pipa yang dihasilkan dari interaksi


materi dengan atmosfer. Paling umum interaksi ini
disebabkan oksidasi logam. Untuk menilai potensi
korosi di sini, evaluator harus melihat item seperti
fasilitas yang rentan, jenis atmosfer, dan pengecatan /
kondisi lapisan.

change in the pipe material resulting from the


material's interaction with the atmosphere. Most
commonly this interaction causes the oxidation of
metal. To assess the potential for corrosion here, the
evaluator must look at items such as susceptible
facilities, atmospheric type, and painting/coating
conditions.

Evaluator harus menentukan risiko terbesar dari


korosi atmosferik dengan terlebih dahulu mengetahui The evaluator must determine the greatest risk from
lokasi bagian dari kondisi pipa terekspose atmosfer atmospheric corrosion by first locating the portions of
the pipeline that are exposed to the most severe
yang paling parah.
atmospheric conditions.
Udara / air interface - juga dikenal sebagai zona
splash, dimana pipa bergantian terkena air dan udara, Air/water interface - also known as a splash zone,
mekanisme bekerja di sini biasanya konsentrasi where the pipe is alternately exposed to water and
oksigen sel. Perbedaan konsentrasi oksigen air, the mechanism at work here is usually oxygen
mengatur daerah anodik dan katodik pada logam. concentration
cells.
Differences
in
oxygen
Dalam skenario ini, mekanisme korosi ditingkatkan concentration set up anodic and cathodic regions on
sebagai oksigen baru yang terus dibawa ke daerah the metal. Under this scenario, the corrosion
korosi dan karat yang terbawa.
mechanism is enhanced as fresh oxygen is
continuously brought to the corroding area and rust
Ground/udara interface - tanah ke interface udara is carried away.
dapat menjadi berat dari sudut pandang korosi. Ini
adalah titik di mana pipa masuk dan keluar dari tanah Ground/air interface - the ground to air interface can
(atau berbaring di tanah). Kekerasan ini disebabkan be harsh from a corrosion standpoint. This is the
sebagian oleh potensi kelembaban perangkap point at which the pipe enters and leaves the ground
terhadap pipa (menciptakan interface air / udara). (or is lying on the ground). The harshness is caused
Gerakan tanah karena adanya perubahan kadar air, in part by the potential for trapping moisture against
pembekuan, dll, juga dapat merusak lapisan pipa, the pipe (creating a water/air interface). Soil
mengekspos logam telanjang untuk elektrolit.
movements due to changing moisture content,
freezing, etc., can also damage pipe coating,
Isolasi - pipa atas tanah untuk menangkap air yang exposing bare metal to the electrolyte.
menerpa dinding pipa, yang memungkinkan korosi
untuk melanjutkan terdeteksi. Jika kelembaban Insulation - aboveground pipe is notorious for
secara berkala diganti dengan air tawar, pasokan trapping moisture against the pipe wall, allowing
corrosion to proceed undetected. If the moisture is
oksigen segar dan mendukung korosi.
periodically replaced with freshwater, the oxygen
supply is refreshed and corrosion is promoted.

Atmospheric Exposure
Criteria
Not applicable.
Air, low humidity area.
Marine, swamp, coastal, high humidity area.
Air to water / soil interface, insulation.
Chemical, corrosive environment.
Coating conditions

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria
Excellent: high quality coating suitable for its environment, new
condition or recently repair; or not required.
Good: high quality coating, in good condition, less than 10% damage.
Fair: adequate coating, fair condition, less than 30% damage.
Poor: coating in-place, more than 30% damage
Absent: no coating

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Internal Corrosion

Internal Corrosion

Internal korosi adalah pengurangan dinding pipa atau


kerusakan yang disebabkan oleh reaksi antara
dinding pipa dalam dan produk yang diangkut.
Aktivitas korosif seperti itu tidak hasil dari produk yang
diangkut melainkan hasil dari pengotor dalam aliran
produk.

Internal corrosion is pipe wall loss or damage caused


by a reaction between the inside pipe wall and the
product being transported. Such corrosive activity
may not be the result of the product intended to be
transported but rather a result of an impurity in the
product stream.

Gas alam (metana) tidak akan membahayakan baja,


tapi air asin dan kotoran lainnya pasti bisa
mendukung korosi. Zat pendukung korosi kadangkadang ditemukan dalam gas alam termasuk CO,
klorida, H2S, asam organik, oksigen, air gratis,
padatan atau presipitat, atau belerang-bantalan
senyawa.

The natural gas (methane) will not harm steel, but


saltwater and other impurities can certainly promote
corrosion. Other corrosion-promoting substances
sometimes found in natural gas include CO,
chlorides, H2S, organic acids, oxygen, free water,
solids or precipitates, or sulfur-bearing compounds.

Mikroorganisme secara tidak langsung dapat


mendukung korosi juga harus dipertimbangkan di sini.
Sulfat-mengurangi bakteri anaerobik dan bakteri
penghasil asam kadang-kadang ditemukan dalam
minyak dan pipa gas. Mereka masing-masing
menghasilkan H2S dan asam asetat, yang keduanya
dapat medukung korosi.

Microorganisms that can indirectly promote corrosion


should also be considered here. Sulfate-reducing
bacteria and anaerobic acid-producing bacteria are
sometimes found in oil and gas pipelines. They
produce H2S and acetic acid, respectively, both of
which can promote corrosion.
Some of the same measures used to prevent internal
corrosion, such as internal coating, are used not only
to protect the pipe, but also to protect the product
from impurities that may be produced by corrosion.
Jet fuels and high-purity chemicals are examples of
pipeline products that are often carefully protected
from such contaminants.

Beberapa langkah yang sama digunakan untuk


mencegah korosi internal, seperti lapisan internal,
digunakan tidak hanya untuk melindungi pipa, tetapi
juga untuk melindungi produk dari kotoran yang
dihasilkan oleh korosi. Jet bahan bakar dan tinggi
kemurnian bahan kimia adalah contoh dari produk
pipa yang hati-hati dilindungi dari kontaminan
tersebut.
Product Corrosivity
Product Corrosivity
Penilaian ini terhadap relatif agresivitas dari isi pipa This is an assessment of the relative aggressiveness
yang kontak langsung dengan dinding pipa. Ancaman of the pipeline contents that are in immediate contact
terbesar ada dalam sistem di mana produk tersebut with the pipe wall. The greatest threat exists in
tetap bertentangan dengan material pipa. Ancaman systems where the product is inherently incompatible
lain muncul ketika kotoran korosif secara rutin bisa with the pipe material. Another threat arises when
corrosive impurities can routinely get into the
masuk ke produk.
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Karakteristik aliran normal harus mewakili ukuran dari


korosivitas produk diangkut dalam pipa. Langkah ini
menilai potensi korosi dari kontak normal antara
produk mengalir dan dinding pipa, berdasarkan
spesifikasi produk dan / atau karakteristik analisis
produk. Karakteristik aliran dapat dibagi menjadi dua
kategori utama: air terkait dan padatan terkait - untuk
tujuan mengevaluasi korosivitas.

P-219 Rev. 1

product.

The normal flow stream characteristics should


represent a measure of the corrosivity of the
products transported in the pipeline. This measure
assesses corrosion potential from normal contact
between flowing product and the pipe wall, based on
product specifications and/or product analyses.The
flow stream characteristics can be divided into two
Kontaminasi air terkait, seperti: kadar air, oksigen, main categories: water related and solids related - for
PH, H2S, suhu, klorida. Kontaminasi padatan terkait, purposes of evaluating corrosivity.
seperti MIC, padatan tersuspensi (potensi erosi),
Water-related contaminations, such as: water
sulfat, karbonat.
content, oxygen, PH, H2S, temperature, chlorides.
Solids related contaminations, such as MIC,
suspended solids (erosion potential), sulfates,
carbonates.

Criteria
Low corrosion: reasonable material selected for tranport products,
normally product is not corrosive, low corrosion rate.
Medium corrosion: damage of pipeline is possible but in slower rate,
low percentage of acidic products, medium corrosion rate.
High corrosion: rapid corrosion is possible, material selected
incompatible with products, high percentage of H2S, CO2 and other
acidic products, high corrosion rate.

Score
1
3
5

Internal Corrosion Prevention

Internal Corrosion Prevention

Internal monitoring

Internal monitoring

Biasanya, hal ini dilakukan salah satu dari dua cara:


1) oleh penyelidikan elektronik yang terus menerus
dapat mengirimkan pengukuran yang menunjukkan
potensi korosi atau 2) dengan kupon yang benarbenar berkarat dengan adanya produk mengalir dan
dikeluarkan dan diukur secara berkala.

Normally, this is done in either of two ways: 1) by an


electronic probe that can continuously transmit
measurements that indicate a corrosion potential or
2) by a coupon that actually corrodes in the presence
of the flowing product and is removed and measured
periodically.

Inhibitor injection

Inhibitor injection

Ketika mekanisme korosi dipahami sepenuhnya,


bahan kimia tertentu dapat disuntikkan ke dalam
aliran produk yang mengalir untuk mengurangi atau
menghambat reaksi. Karena oksigen merupakan
bahan korosi utama dari baja, sebuah "oksigen
scavenging" kimia dapat menggabungkan dengan
oksigen dalam produk tersebut untuk mencegah
oksigen bereaksi dengan dinding pipa. Sejenis yang

When the corrosion mechanism is fully understood,


certain chemicals can be injected into the flowing
product stream to reduce or inhibit the reaction.
Because oxygen is a chief corroding agent of steel,
an oxygen-scavenging chemical can combine with
the oxygen in the product to prevent this oxygen from
reacting with the pipe wall. A more common kind of
chemical inhibitor forms a protective barrier between
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P-219 Rev. 1

lebih umum dari inhibitor kimia membentuk the steel and the product - a coating, in effect.
penghalang pelindung antara baja dan produk lapisan, berlaku.
Inhibitor ini diterapkan kembali secara berkala atau
terus-menerus disuntikkan untuk menggantikan
inhibitor yang diserap atau tergeser oleh aliran
produk.
Dalam
kasus
di
mana
aktivitas
mikroorganisme adalah masalah, biocides dapat
ditambahkan ke inhibitor.

Inhibitor is reapplied periodically or continuously


injected to replace the inhibitor that is absorbed or
displaced by the product stream. In cases where
microorganism activity is a problem, biocides can be
added to the inhibitor.

Sebuah program pigging mungkin diperlukan untuk


melengkapi injeksi inhibitor. Pigging akan dirancang
untuk menghapus cairan bebas atau penutup koloni
bakteri pelindung, yang dapat saja mengganggu
inhibitor atau kinerja biosida.

A pigging program may be necessary to supplement


inhibitor injection. The pigging would be designed to
remove free liquids or bacteria colony protective
coverings, which might otherwise interfere with
inhibitor or biocide performance.

Internal coating

Internal coating

Lapisan internal dapat mengambil beberapa bentuk


termasuk aplikasi semprot dari plastik, mortir, atau
beton serta penyisipan liners untuk jaringan pipa yang
ada. Teknologi material baru memungkinkan untuk
pembuatan pipa "berlapis". Ini biasanya sebuah pipa
baja luar yang diisolasi dari produk berpotensi
merusak dengan bahan yang kompatibel dengan
produk yang diangkut. Plastik, karet, atau keramik
adalah bahan pengisolasi umum. Mereka dapat
diinstal selama fabrikasi pipa awal, selama konstruksi
pipa atau kadang-kadang material dapat ditambahkan
ke pipa yang ada.

Internal coating can take several forms including


spray-on applications of plastics, mortar, or concrete
as well as insertion liners for existing pipelines. New
materials technology allows for the creation of lined
pipe. This is usually a steel outer pipe that is isolated
from a potentially damaging product by a material
that is compatible with the product being transported.
Plastics, rubbers, or ceramics are common isolating
materials. They can be installed during initial pipe
fabrication, during pipeline construction or
sometimes the material can be added to an existing
pipeline.

Criteria
Not needed
Internal coating
Inhibitor injection
Internal corrosion monitoring
None

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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P-219 Rev. 1

Subsurface Corrosion

Subsurface Corrosion

Soil Corrosivity

Soil Corrosivity

Karena sistem pelapisan selalu dianggap penghalang


yang tidak sempurna, tanah selalu diasumsikan
bersentuhan dengan dinding pipa di beberapa titik.
Korosivitas tanah sering sebagai ukuran kualitatif
seberapa baik tanah dapat bertindak sebagai elektrolit
untuk mendorong korosi galvanik pada pipa.

Because a coating system is always considered to


he an imperfect barrier, the soil is always assumed to
he in contact with the pipe wall at some points. Soil
corrosivity is often a qualitative measure of how well
the soil can act as an electrolyte to promote galvanic
corrosion on the pipe.

Resistivitas tanah atau konduktivitas adalah fungsi


dari variabel yang saling tergantung seperti kadar air,
porositas. temperatur, konsentrasi ion, dan jenis
tanah.

Soil resistivity or conductivity is a function of


interdependent variables such as moisture content,
porosity. temperature, ion concentrations, and soil
type.

Criteria

Score

Relatively less corrosive (25000)


Mildly corrosive (10000 - 25000)
Moderately corrosive (10000 - 5000)
Corrosive (2000 - 5000)
Very corrosive (0 - 2000)

1
2
3
4
5

Stress Corrosion Cracking

Stress Corrosion Cracking

Setiap segmen harus dinilai untuk kemungkinan


ancaman risiko SCC jika termasuk semua kriteria
berikut:

Each segment should be assessed for risk for the


possible threat of SCC if all of the following criteria
are present:

(a) Operating stress level > 60% SMYS

(a) Operating stress level > 60% SMYS

(b) Umur dari pipa> 10 tahun

(b) Age of pipe >10 yr

(c) Semua sistem pelapisan korosi selain plant


applied or field applied fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) or
liquid epoxy

(c) All corrosion coating systems other than plant


applied or field applied fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)
or liquid epoxy

Setiap segmen harus dinilai untuk kemungkinan


ancaman risiko SCC pH tinggi jika memenuhi kriteria
di atas dan semua kriteria berikut:

Each segment should be assessed for risk for the


possible threat of high pH SCC if the above criteria
are present and all of the following criteria are
present:

(a) suhu operasi> 100 F (38 C)


(b) jarak dari stasiun kompresor 20 mil (32 km)
Jika kondisi untuk SCC ada (yaitu, memenuhi kriteria
di atas), pemeriksaan tertulis, pengujian, dan rencana
evaluasi harus disiapkan.
Jika pipa mengalami kebocoran di-service atau pecah

(a) operating temperature >100F (38C)


(b) distance from compressor station 20 miles (32
km)
If conditions for SCC are present (i.e., meet the
criteria above), a written inspection, examination,

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yang dikaitkan dengan SCC, segmen tertentu harus


dikenakan tes hidrostatik dalam 12 bulan.

Metode yang direkomendasikan untuk pemeriksaan


SCC adalah bell hole inspection, in-line inspection
(intelligent pigging) dan hydrotest.
Indikasi terjadinya SCC ditemukan selama inspeksi,
harus ditangani dengan menggunakan pedoman
dalam tabel berikut yang menunjukkan kriteria
keparahan dari SCC.

P-219 Rev. 1

and evaluation plan shall be prepared.


If the pipeline experiences an in-service leak or
rupture that is attributed to SCC, the particular
segment shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test
within 12 months.
Recommended methods for SCC inspection are bell
hole inspection, in-line inspection (intelligent pigging)
and hydrotest.
Any indications of SCC found during inspection, shall
be addressed using guidance in the following table
shows the severity criteria of SCC.

Criteria
SCC not possible, or SCC with severity category 0
SCC very unlikely, or SCC with severity category 1
SCC unlikely, or SCC with severity category 2
SCC likely, or SCC with severity category 3
SCC very likely, or SCC with severity category 4

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Cathodic Protection

Cathodic Protection

Kehadiran arus pelindung yang memadai biasanya


ditentukan oleh pengukuran perbedaan (potensi)
tegangan antara logam pipa dan elektrolit. Dengan
beberapa praktek umum dan persyaratan standar,
potensi pipa-ke-tanah minimal -0.85 volt (-850
milivolt), yang diukur dengan elektroda referensi
tembaga-tembaga sulfat, adalah kriteria umum yang
menunjukkan perlindungan yang memadai dari korosi.

The presence of adequate protective currents is


normally determined by measurement of the voltage
(potential) difference between the pipe metal and the
electrolyte. By some common practices and standard
requirements, a pipe-to-soil potential of at least -0.85
volts (-850 millivolts), as measured by a coppercopper sulfate reference electrode, is the general
criterion indicating adequate protection from
corrosion.

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P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Aerial, or no CP required
CP installed, providing very good protection (lower than -1,000 mv)
CP installed, providing adequate protection (lower than -850 mv)
CP installed, but underprotection (higher than -850 mv)
No CP installed, broken or missing

CP Potential Interference

CP Potential Interference

Korosi adalah proses elektro-kimia dan metode


pencegahan korosi dirancang untuk mengganggu
proses itu, seringkali dengan metode listrik seperti
proteksi katodik. Namun, metode pencegahan itu
sendiri rentan untuk mengalahkan dari efek listrik
lainnya. Istilah umum untuk efek ini adalah
interference.

Corrosion is an electro-chemical process and


corrosion prevention methods are designed to
interrupt that process, often with electrical methods
like cathodic protection. However, the prevention
methods themselves are susceptible to defeat from
other electrical effects. The common term for these
effects is interference.

Pipa dekat fasilitas transmisi listrik AC terkena


ancaman. Baik melalui kesalahan tanah atau proses
induksi, pipa dapat menjadi bermuatan listrik. Tidak
hanya perubahan potensi bahaya untuk orang yang
datang kontak dengan pipa, juga berpotensi
berbahaya untuk pipa itu sendiri.

Pipelines near AC power transmission facilities are


exposed to a unique threat. Through either a ground
fault or an induction process, the pipeline may
become electrically charged. Not only is this charge
potentially dangerous to people coming into contact
with the pipeline, it is also potentially dangerous to
the pipeline itself.

Criteria
No AC power within 300 m, or very low AC power
AC power nearby but preventive measures are taken, or survey
confirm no induction occuring
AC power nearby but no preventive actions are taken

Score
1
3
5

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P-219 Rev. 1

Sub-surface coating conditions

Sub-surface coating conditions

Coating harus dapat menahan sejumlah tekanan


mekanis dari konstruksi awal, tanah, kerikil, gerakan
akar, dan dari perubahan suhu, pipa bergerak
melawan tanah disekelilingnya. Lapisan ini akan terus
terkena kelembaban tanah dan merusak zat-zat yang
terkandung dalam tanah. Selain itu, lapisan memadai
harus melayani tujuan utamanya: mengisolasi baja
dari elektrolit.

Coating must be able to withstand a certain amount


of mechanical stress from initial construction, from
subsequent soil, rock, root movements, and from
temperature changes as the pipe moves against the
adjacent soil. The coating will be continuously
exposed to ground moisture and any damaging
substances contained in the soil. Additionally, the
coating must adequately serve its main purpose:
isolating the steel from the electrolyte.

Sistem pelapisan yang umum termasuk:


- Cold-applied asphalt mastics
- Layered extruded polyethylene
- Fusion-bonded epoxy
- Coal tar enamel and wrap
- Tapes (hot or cold applied).

Typical coating systems include:


- Cold-applied asphalt mastics
- Layered extruded polyethylene
- Fusion-bonded epoxy
- Coal tar enamel and wrap
- Tapes (hot or cold applied).

Faktor yang mempengaruhi kegagalan meliputi:


- Kerusakan mekanik dari gerakan tanah, batu,
akar, kegiatan konstruksi
- Disbondment disebabkan oleh generasi hidrogen
dari berlebihan arus proteksi katodik
- Jenis lapisan yang tidak benar atau aplikasi untuk
kondisi operasi pipa dan lingkungan
- Air

Factors contributing to failure include:


- Mechanical damages from soil movements, rocks,
roots, construction activities
- Disbondment caused by hydrogen generation
from excessive cathodic protection currents
- Incorrect coating type or application for the
pipeline operating condition and environment
- Water penetration

Criteria
Excellent: high quality coating suitable for its environment, new
condition or recently repair
Good: high quality coating, in good condition, less than 10% damage.
Fair: adequate coating, fair condition, less than 30% damage.
Poor: coating in-place, more than 30% damage
Absent: no coating

Sub-surface Coating Surveys

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Sub-surface Coating Surveys

Evaluator harus memuaskan dirinya bahwa operator The evaluator should satisfy himself that the operator
memahami teknik ini dan dapat menunjukkan understands the technique and can demonstrate
beberapa keberhasilan dalam penggunaannya untuk some success in its use for coating inspection.
inspeksi coating.
Typical
coating
faults
include
cracking,
Kesalahan lapisan umum termasuk retak, lubang pinholes,impacts (sharp objects). compressive
kecil, dampak (benda tajam). tekan beban (susunan loadings (stacking of coated pipes), disbondment,
coating pipa), disbondment, pelunakan atau mengalir, softening or flowing, and general deterioration
dan
penurunan
umum
(misalnya
degradasi (ultraviolet degradation, for example).
ultraviolet).
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P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria

Score

Excellent: A formal, thorough inspection is performed. Inspections performed by qualified and


experienced personel at appropriate intervals. One or more indirect assesment techniques
were used and followed by direct assesment.
Good: A formal, thorough inspection is performed. Inspections performed by qualified and
experienced personel at appropriate intervals. One or more indirect assesment techniques
were used.
Fair: Inspections are informal, but performed routinely by qualified personel, using indirect
technique.
Poor: Little inspection is done; reliance is on chance sighting of problem areas by using visual
inspection.

Disain

2
3
4
5

Absent: No inspection done.

5.2.3

5.2.3

Design

Safety Factor

Safety Factor

Dalam sistem pipa, 'Perbandingan Desain Tekanan


dengan MOP' dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui
perbedaan antara system komponen yang dapat
dilakukan dan apa yang saat ini sedang diminta untuk
melakukan. Bila rasio ini sama dengan 1.0, saat ini
tidak ada faktor keamanan, ini berarti sistem sedang
dioperasikan pada batasnya. Jika rasio kurang dari
1.0 secara teoritis sistem dapat setiap saat gagal. Jika
rasio lebih besar dari 1.0 berarti saat ini ada faktor
keamanan, dan sistem beroperasi di bawah batasnya.

In the pipeline system, Design Pressure to MOP


Ratio can be used show difference between what a
system component can do and what it is presently
being asked to do. When this ratio is equal to 1.0
there is no safety factor present, this means the
system is being operated at its limit. If the ratio less
than 1.0 the system theoretically can fail at any time.
A ratio greater than 1.0 means that there is a safety
factor present, and the system is being operated
below its limit.

Criteria
Design to MOP ratio > 2.0
Design to MOP ratio: 1.5 - 2.0
Design to MOP ratio: 1.25 - 1.5
Design to MOP ratio: 1.0 - 1.25
Design to MOP ratio < 1.0

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Kelelahan

Fatigue

Kelelahan adalah melemahnya material akibat siklus


stress yang berulang-ulang. Besar melemahnya
tergantung pada jumlah dan magnitude dari siklus.
Tekanan yang lebih tinggi terjadi lebih sering, dapat
menyebabkan kerusakan material lebih banyak.
Faktor-faktor seperti kondisi permukaan, geometri,
fracture toughness, jenis tegangan, dan proses
pengelasan rentan terhadap pengaruh fatigue failure.

Fatigue is the weakening of material due to repeated


cycles of stress. The amount of weakening depend
on the number and magnitude of the cycles. Higher
stresses, occurring more often, can cause more
damage to materials. Factors such as surface
conditions, geometry, fracture toughness, type of
stress applied, and welding process influence
susceptibility to fatigue failure.
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P-219 Rev. 1

Criteria
Fatigue is not expected to lead to failure within the given time frame.
Fatigue could possibly lead to failure within the given time frame.
Fatigue is expected to lead to failure in the given time frame.

Struktur penahan

Score
1
3
5

Support
Criteria

Pipeline support properly


Support damage recorded, assessed and no remediation required.
Support damage recorded, not assessed and remediation.
Support damage recorded, minor pipe deformation found.
Support damage recorded, major pipe deformation found.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Surge Potential

Surge Potential

Potensi efek pressure surge atau water hammer,


adalah konversi tiba-tiba energi kinetik menjadi energi
potensial. Sebuah massa fluida yang mengalir dalam
pipa mempunyai sejumlah energi kinetik, jika massa
cairan tiba-tiba yang dibawa ke berhenti, energi
kinetik diubah menjadi energi potensial dalam bentuk
tekanan. Sebuah penutupan valve mendadak,
menjalankan dan menghentikan pompa adalah
kemungkinan inisiator.

The potential for pressure surge or water hammer


effects, is the sudden conversion of kinetic energy to
potential energy. A mass of flowing fluid in pipeline
has certain amount of kinetic energy, if this mass of
fluid is suddenly brought to a halt, the kinetic energy
is converted to potential energy in form of pressure.
A sudden valve closure, starting and stopping pumps
are the possible initiator.

Criteria
Not possible: means fluid property can not produces a pressure surge
greater than 10% MOP.
Low probability: surge can happen, but pipeline completed with
mechanical devices such as surge tank, relief valves, and slow valve
closures.
High probability, exist where closure devices, equipment and fluid
velocity support the possibility of pressure surge. No mechanical
preventers in-place. Operating procedures may not be in-place.

Score
1
3

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P-219 Rev. 1

Integrity Verification

Integrity Verification

Integritas pipa dipastikan dengan dua usaha utama:


(1) deteksi dan penghapusan anomali yang
mengancam integritas dan (2) menghindari ancaman
masa depan bagi integritas (melindungi aset).

Pipeline integrity is ensured by two main efforts: (1)


the detection and removal of any integritythreatening anomalies and (2) the avoidance of
future threats to the integrity (protecting the asset).

Upaya pertama melibatkan pemeriksaan dan


pengujian merupakan dasar untuk memastikan
integritas pipa. Tujuan dari inspeksi dan pengujian
adalah untuk memvalidasi integritas struktural dari
pipa dan kemampuannya untuk mempertahankan
tekanan operasi dan beban lainnya. Tujuannya
adalah menguji dan memeriksa sistem pipa pada
interval cukup sering untuk memastikan integritas
pipa dan menjaga margin of safety.

The former effort involves inspection and testing and


is fundamental to ensuring pipeline integrity. The
purpose of inspection and testing is to validate the
structural integrity of the pipeline and its ability to
sustain the operating pressures and other anticipated
loads. The goal is to test and inspect the pipeline
system at frequent enough intervals to ensure
pipeline integrity and maintain the margin of safety.

Cacat yang dianggap akan ada anomali pipa tidak


diinginkan, seperti crack. gouge, dent atau metal loss,
yang kemudian dapat menyebabkan kebocoran atau
tumpahan. Tidak semua anomali cacat. Beberapa
gouge, dent, metal loss, dan bahkan crack tidak akan
mempengaruhi pelayanan saluran pipa.
Asumsi konservatif yang mendasari verifikasi
integritas adalah bahwa cacat yang hadir di dalam
pipa dan tumbuh pada tingkat tertentu. Dengan
memeriksa atau menguji pipa pada interval tertentu,
pertumbuhan ini dapat terganggu sebelum cacat
mencapai ukuran kegagalan.
Metode penilaian integritas yang dapat digunakan
adalah inspeksi inline, pengujian tekanan, penilaian
langsung, atau metode NDT lainnya. Metode
penilaian integritas didasarkan pada ancaman
segmen yang rentan. Lebih dari satu metode dan /
atau alat mungkin diperlukan untuk mengatasi semua
ancaman dalam segmen pipa.

A defect is considered to be any undesirable pipe


anomaly, such as a crack. gouge, dent. or metal
loss, that could later lead to a leak or spill. Note that
not all anomalies are defects. Some dents, gouges,
metal loss, and even cracks will not affect the service
life of a pipeline.
A conservative assumption underlying integrity
verification is that defects are present in the pipeline
and are growing at some rate. By inspecting or
testing the pipeline at certain intervals, this growth
can be interrupted before any defect reaches a
failure size.
The integrity assessment methods that can be used
are inline inspection, pressure testing, direct
assessment, or other NDT methods. The integrity
assessment method is based on the threats to which
the segment is susceptible. More than one method
and/or tool may be required to address all the threats
in a pipeline segment.

Criteria
Very good, where inspection and testing have a high probability of detecting the damage
mechanisms under consideration and is able to accurately measure the extent of this
damage; and with comprehensive coverage of expected damage locations. i.e
combination of ILI and direct assement.
Good, where the inspection and testing are generally effective in detecting and
measuring the damage under consideration, and with good coverage of expected
damage. i.e. UT scan, CIPS, DCVG.
Average, where the inspection and testing are insensitive at low damage levels, with
adequate coverage of expected damage locations, i.e. spot UT and CP readings.

Score
1

2
3

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Below average, where the inspection and testing are insensitive to the suspected
damage mechanism or with inadequate coverage of expected damage locations, i.e
visual inspection, random UT spot.
Poor, where no inspection program established or inspection activity is inappropriate for
the damage concerned and does not cover expected damage locations.

Ground Movement

Ground Movement

Pipa dapat mengalami tegangan akibat gerakan tanah


dan / atau peristiwa geoteknik dari berbagai macam.
Gerakan-gerakan ini bisa mendadak dan sebagai
bencana atau mungkin deformasi yang menyebabkan
tekanan pada pipa selama jangka waktu tahunan.

A pipeline may be subjected to stresses due to land


movements and/or geotechnical events of various
kinds. These movements may be sudden and
catastrophic or they may be long-term deformations
that induce stresses on the pipeline over a period of
years.

Ini
dapat
menyebabkan
kegagalan
atau These can cause immediate failures or add
menambahkan tekanan yang cukup besar untuk pipa considerable stresses to the pipeline and should be
considered in a risk analysis.
dan harus dipertimbangkan dalam analisis risiko.

Tanah Longsor

Landslide

Banyak skenario gerakan lahan berpotensi berbahaya


yang memiliki kemiringan (lihat Gambar di bawah).
Kehadiran lereng menambahkan gaya gravitasi.
Tanah longsor dapat terjadi dari hujan lebat, terutama
di lereng atau bukit dengan pemotongan berat
tanaman atau beban dari konstruksi atau kegiatan lain
yang mengganggu tanah. Slide juga dapat
disebabkan
oleh
aktivitas
seismik.
Longsor
perpindahan pipa dapat menyebabkan kerusakan
struktur dan kebocoran oleh kekuatan eksternal
meningkat jika pipa yang terkubur di bawah tanah
pengungsi.

Many of the potentially dangerous land movement


scenarios have a slope involved (see Figure below).
The presence of a slope adds the force of gravity.
Landslides can occur from heavy rain, especially on
slopes or hillsides with heavy cutting of vegetation or
loadings from construction or other activities that
disturb the land. Slides can also be caused by
seismic activity. Landslide displacement of pipe can
cause structural damage and leaks by increased
external force loading if the pipeline is buried under
displaced soil.

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Criteria
Very stable: no evidence of threatening instability events occurring
from the presence of soil, earth or water characteristics.
Infrequent movement: ground movements are possible but rare, or
unlikely to affect the pipeline integrity.
Frequent movement: where damaging ground movements are
common or severe, or where movements are likely to affect the
pipeline integrity. Or unknown.

Score
1
3
5

Gempa bumi

Seismic

Ancaman dari peristiwa gempa bumi menyebabkan


pipa bergetar karena penjalaran gelombang seismik.

Threats from seismic events cause pipeline seismic


shaking due to the propagation of seismic waves.

Pipa dipasang di daerah gempa harus memiliki desain


teknik yang tepat, untuk menahan kekuatan gempa,
mempertimbangkan jenis gempa dan parameter
frekuensi.

Pipeline installed in seismic area shall have proper


engineering design, to withstand seismic forces,
considering earthquake type and frequency
parameters.

Scour dan erosi

Scour and erosion

Erosi adalah ancaman umum untuk pipa dangkal atau


di atas, terutama ketika dekat sungai atau daerah
yang biasa banjir kecepatan arus tinggi. Bahkan pipa
terkubur terkena ancaman dari gerusan dalam situasi
tertentu. Potensi kedalaman penutup yang mengikis
selama arus banjir, memperlihatkan pipeline tersebut.
Jika gaya lateral yang cukup besar, pipa bisa menjadi
tertekan.

Erosion is a common threat for shallow or abovegrade pipelines, especially when near stream banks
or areas subject to high velocity flood flows. Even
buried pipelines are exposed to threats from scour in
certain situations. A potential is for the depth of cover
to erode during flood flows, exposing the ipeline. If a
lateral force were sufficiently large, the pipeline could
become overstressed.

Persilangan pipa

Pipeline Crossings

Criteria
No pipeline crossings with roads, railway or rivers, etc
Design of Pipeline Crossing is CORRECT
Design of Pipeline Crossing is ADEQUATE
Design of Pipeline Crossing is INADEQUATE
Design of Pipeline Crossing UNKNOWN

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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P-219 Rev. 1

c. Operasi

c. Operation

Indeks ini menilai potensi kegagalan pipa disebabkan


oleh kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh personil pipa
dalam perancangan, konstruksi, operasi, atau
memelihara saluran pipa. Human error secara logis
dapat berdampak salah satu probabilitas-kegagalan
sebelum indeks-aktif korosi, misalnya, dapat
menunjukkan
kesalahan
dalam
kegiatan
pengendalian korosi. Scoring potensi kesalahan
dalam indeks yang terpisah memiliki keuntungan
untuk menghindari penilaian ganda untuk banyak
variabel risiko yang bersangkutan. Misalnya, penilaian
program pelatihan dan penggunaan prosedur tertulis
umumnya akan berlaku untuk semua mode
kegagalan. Menangkap penilaian seperti di lokasi
pusat adalah kenyamanan pemodelan dan lebih
mempermudah identifikasi peluang mitigasi risiko
dalam tahap manajemen risiko. Jika evaluator merasa
bahwa ada perbedaan dalam potensi kesalahan
manusia untuk setiap mode kegagalan, dia dapat
mendasarkan skornya pada kasus terburuk atau
mengevaluasi variabel kesalahan manusia secara
terpisah untuk setiap mode kegagalan.

This index assesses the potential for pipeline failure


caused by errors committed by the pipeline
personnel in designing, construction, operating, or
maintaining a pipeline. Human error can logically
impact any of the previous probability-of-failure
indexes-active corrosion, for example, could indicate
an error in corrosion control activities. Scoring error
potential in a separate index has the advantage of
avoiding duplicate assessments for many of the
pertinent risk variables. For instance, assessments of
training programs and use of written procedures will
generally apply to all failure modes. Capturing such
assessments in a central location is a modeling
convenience and further facilitates identification of
risk mitigation opportunities in the risk management
phase. If the evaluator feels that there are
differences in human error potential for each failure
mode, he can base his score on the worst case or
evaluate human error variables separately for each
failure mode.

HAZID / Penilaian Risiko

HAZID / Risk Assesment

Di sini, evaluator memeriksa untuk melihat bahwa


upaya yang dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi semua
bahaya yang kredibel terkait dengan pipa dan
operasi. Bahaya harus dipahami dengan jelas
sebelum
langkah-langkah
pengurangan
risiko
digunakan. Hal ini termasuk semua mode kegagalan
yang mungkin dalam penilaian risiko pipa.

Here, the evaluator checks to see that efforts were


made to identify all credible hazards associated with
the pipeline and its operation. A hazard must be
clearly understood before appropriate risk reduction
measures can be employed. This would include all
possible failure modes in a pipeline risk assessment.

Points are awarded based on the thoroughness of


Poin diberikan berdasarkan ketelitian dari studi the hazard studies, with a documented, current, and
bahaya, dengan proses identifikasi bahaya yang formal hazard identification process getting the
terdokumentasi, arus, dan formal mendapatkan nilai highest score.
tertinggi.
Criteria
Formal hazard identification / risk assessment performed,
documentation is available, recommendations are fully implemented
Formal hazard identification/ risk
assessment performed,
documentation is available, recommendations are partially
implemented
Informal hazard identification / risk assessment performed,
documentation is available, recommendations are either fully or
partially implemented

Score
1
2

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Informal hazard identification / risk assessment performed,


documentation is not available, recommendations are either fully or
partially implemented
No hazard identification / risk assessment performed.

4
5

Potensi MOP

MOP Potential

Kemungkinan melebihi tekanan di mana sistem


tersebut dirancang dari elemen gambar risiko.
Sebuah sistem di mana tidak mungkin secara fisik
melebihi tekanan desain, kemungkinan secara
inheren lebih aman. Hal ini sering terjadi ketika sistem
pipa dioperasikan pada tingkat jauh di bawah desain
aslinya.

The possibility of exceeding the pressure for which


the system was designed is an element of the risk
picture. A system where it is not physically possible
to exceed the design pressure is inherently safer
than one where the possibility exists. This often
occurs when a pipeline system is operated at levels
well below its original design intent.

Mustahil: operasi normal dapat memungkinkan sistem


untuk mencapai MOP. Overpressure akan terjadi
cukup cepat akibat incompressible fluid or rapid
introduction dari volume cairan kompresibel yang
relatif tinggi.

Impossible
: Normal operations could allow the
system to reach MOP. Overpressure would occur
fairly rapid due to incompressible fluid or rapid
introduction of relatively high volumes of
compressible fluids.

Sangat Tidak mungkin: overpressure dapat terjadi Very Unlikely : Overpressure can occur through a
melalui kombinasi kesalahan prosedural atau combination of procedural errors or omissions, OR
failure of safety devices.
kelalaian, atau kegagalan perangkat pengaman.
Tidak mungkin: overpressure mungkin (tekanan
sumber cukup), dapat terjadi melalui kombinasi
kesalahan prosedural atau kelalaian, dan kegagalan
alat pengaman

Unlikely
: Overpressure is possible (sufficient
source pressure), can occur through a combination
of procedural errors or omissions, AND failure of
safety device

Kemungkinan: overpressure mungkin (tekanan


sumber cukup), tetapi hanya melalui sebuah
rangkaian kesalahan, kelalaian, dan kegagalan
perangkat keamanan yang tidak mungkin.

Likely : Overpressure is possible (sufficient source


pressure), but only through an very unlikely chain of
events including errors, omissions, and safety device
failures.

: The pressure source cannot, under


Rutin: tidak ada sumber tekanan, di bawah setiap Routine
any conceivable chain of events, overpressure the
kejadian yang mungkin, overpressure pipa.
pipeline
Criteria
Impossible
Very Unlikely
Unlikely
Likely
Routine

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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P-219 Rev. 1

Sistem Pengaman

Safety Systems

Sistem Pengaman sebagai cadangan situasi di mana


kesalahan
manusia
menyebabkan
atau
memungkinkan terjadi MOP. Evaluator harus berhatihati mempertimbangkan semua sistem keamanan di
tempat. Sebuah sistem Pengaman atau perangkat
adalah perangkat, mekanik listrik, pneumatik, atau
dikendalikan komputer yang mencegah pipa
overpressured.

Safety systems exist as backup situations in which


human error causes or allows MOP to be reached.
The risk evaluator should carefully consider any and
all safety systems in place. A safety system or
device is a mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, or
computer-controlled device that prevents the pipeline
from being overpressured.

Pencegahan dapat berupa mematikan sumber


tekanan atau mengurangi isi pipa bertekanan.
Perangkat Pengaman umumnya meliputi valve
pelepas, disk pecah, dan switch yang dapat menutup
valve, shut down equipment, dll, berdasarkan kondisi.

Prevention may take the form of shutting down a


pressure source or relieving pressurized pipeline
contents. Common safety devices include relief
valves, rupture disks, and switches that may close
valves, shut down equipment, etc., based on
conditions.

Sistem pengaman tidak diperlukan: Dalam item


sebelumnya, potensial MOP, poin terbanyak diberikan
untuk situasi di mana tidak mungkin pipa mencapai
MOP. Dalam skenario ini, tingkat tertinggi poin juga
diberikan untuk variabel ini karena tidak ada sistem
keamanan yang diperlukan.

Safety systems not needed: In the previous item,


MOP potential, the most points were awarded for the
situation in which it is impossible for the pipeline to
reach MOP. Under this scenario, the highest level of
points is also awarded for this variable because no
safety systems are needed.

Onsite, satu tingkat sistem pengaman. Untuk kondisi


ini single device, terletak di lokasi, melindungi dari
overpressure. lokasi ini bisa menjadi sumber tekanan
pipa. Saklar tekanan yang menutup valve adalah
contoh mengisolasi segmen pipa. Contoh lain adalah
relief valve dengan ukuran pada pipa itu sendiri.

Onsite, one level safety system. For this condition a


single device, located at the site, offers protection
from overpressure. The site can be the pipeline or
the pressure source. A pressure switch that closes a
valve to isolate the pipeline segment is an example.
A properly sized relief valve on the pipeline itself is
another example.

Onsite, dua atau lebih tingkat Sistem Keamanan: Di


sini, lebih dari satu perangkat keamanan dipasang di
lokasi. Setiap perangkat harus independen dan
didukung oleh sumber daya yang berbeda dari yang
lain. Ini berarti bahwa setiap perangkat memberikan
tingkat independen dari keselamatan. Poin lebih
harus diberikan untuk situasi ini karena redundansi
perangkat keselamatan jelas mengurangi risiko.

Onsite, two or more levels Safety Systems: Here,


more than one safety device is installed at the site.
Each device must be independent of all others and
be powered by a power source different from the
others. This means that each device provides an
independent level of safety. More points should be
awarded for this situation because redundancy of
safety devices obviously reduces risk.

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Remote, observation only. Dalam hal ini, tekanan


dimonitor dari lokasi remote. Remote control tidak
mungkin dan otomatis perlindungan overpressure
tidak ada. Meskipun tidak ada pengganti untuk sistem
pengaman otomatis, observasi remote seperti
menyediakan beberapa cadangan tambahan personil
pemantauan setidaknya bisa memberitahu personil
lapangan untuk mengambil tindakan.

Remote, observation only. In this case, the pressure


is monitored from a remote location. Remote control
is not possible and automatic overpressure
protection is not present. While not a replacement for
an automatic safety system, such remote
observation provides some additional backup the
monitoring personnel can at least notify field
personnel to take action.

Remote, observasi dan kontrol. Ini adalah situasi yang


sama seperti sebelumnya dengan fitur tambahan
kemampuan remote control. Pemberitahuan tingkat
tekanan meningkat, pengamat mampu untuk jarak
jauh mengambil tindakan untuk mencegah tekanan
berlebih. Berarti menghentikan pompa atau
kompresor dan membuka atau menutup valve.
Remote control umumnya dengan membuka atau
menutup valve dan menghentikan pompa atau
kompresor.

Remote, observation and control. This is the same


situation as the previous one with the added feature
of remote control capabilities. On notification of rising
pressure levels, the observer is able to remotely take
action to prevent overpressure. This may mean
stopping a pump or compressor and opening or
closing valves. Remote control generally takes the
form of opening or closing valves and stopping
pumps or compressors.

Criteria
Safety systems not needed
Onsite, two or more levels Safety Systems
Onsite, one level safety system
Remote, observation and control
Remote, observation only, or no safety system

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Specifikasi Material

Material Specifications

Evaluator harus mencari bukti bahwa bahan-bahan


yang diidentifikasi dan ditentukan tepat. Hal ini
termasuk pipa, fitting, flensa, pelapis beton, pelapis
internal dan eksternal, mur dan baut, support, dan
(load-bearing) anggota struktural dari sistem.

The evaluator should look for evidence that proper


materials were identified and specified. This would
include pipes, fittings, flanges, concrete coatings,
internal and external coatings, nuts and bolts,
supports, and the structural (load-bearing) members
of the system.
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Criteria
Materials selection study was performed, and documented material
specifications available.
Documented material specifications available.
No material specification available.

Score
1
3
5

Konstruksi

Construction

Untuk tahap konstruksi, evaluator harus mencari bukti


untuk memastikan langkah yang diambil bahwa pipa
dibangun dengan benar. Variabel yang dapat
dievaluasi dalam penilaian adalah sebagai berikut:
Inspeksi, material, joint, Backfilling, Coating.

For the construction phase, the evaluator should find


evidence that reasonable steps were taken to ensure
that the pipeline section was constructed correctly.
Variables that can be evaluated in the assessment
are as following: Inspection, Materials, Joining,
Backfilling, Coating.

Inspeksi: poin maksimum yang diberikan ketika


seorang
inspektor
yang
berkualitas
dan
berpengalaman hadir untuk mengawasi semua aspek
konstruksi dan inspeksi dengan kualitas yang terbaik.
Jika pemeriksaan diketahui tidak lengkap, poin
minimal yang dapat diberikan.

Inspection :Maximum points can be awarded when a


qualified and experienced inspector was present to
oversee all aspects of the construction and the
inspection provided was of the highest quality. If
inspection is a complete unknown, minimal points
can be awarded.

Material: Idealnya, semua material dan komponen


: Ideally, all materials and components
telah diverifikasi untuk keasliannya dan kesesuaian Materials
terhadap spesifikasi sebelum instalasi mereka. were verified as to their authenticity and
Diperlukan bukti bahwa dilakukan dengan benar.
conformance to specifications prior to their
installation. Evidence that this was properly done is
Joining : poin tertinggi diberikan bila pengerjaan required.
kualitas tinggi terlihat dalam semua metode
: Highest points are awarded when high
penggabungan pipa, dan lasan diperiksa dengan cara Joining
yang sesuai (radiografi, uji ultrasonik, dye penetrant, quality of workmanship is seen in all methods of
dll) dan semua kesesuaian dengan spesifikasi joining pipe sections, and when welds were
standar.
inspected by appropriate means (radiography,
ultrasonic test, dye penetrant, etc.) and all were
Backfill: Jenis pengurukan yang digunakan dan brought
into
compliance
with
standards
prosedur penimbunan penting untuk kekuatan jangka specifications.
panjang struktural pipa dan kemampuan untuk
: The type of backfill used and backfilling
menahan korosi. Tidak terjadi kerusakan pada coating Backfill
selama instalasi pipa. Seragam dan dipadatkan pada procedures are often critical to a pipelines long-term
tempat
material
biasanya
diperlukan
untuk structural strength and ability to resist corrosion. It is
mensupport pipa dengan benar. Kemungkinan titik important that no damage to the coating occurred
konsentrasi Stres hasil dari pengurukan yang tidak during pipeline installation. Uniform and (sometimes)
compacted bedding material is usually necessary to
benar atau bedding material.
properly support the pipe. Stress concentration
Coating: Semua sistem pelapisan akan peka terhadap points may result from improper backfill or bedding
persiapan permukaan. Idealnya, aplikasi pelapisan material.
dengan hati-hati dikendalikan dan diawasi oleh
individu terlatih dan sebelum diterapkan pelapisan Coating
: All coating systems will be sensitive to
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dengan hati-hati, diperiksa dan diperbaiki sebelum surface preparation. Ideally, the coating application
instalasi akhir dari pipa.
was carefully controlled and supervised by trained
individuals and pre-applied coating was carefully
inspected and repaired prior to final installation of
pipe.

Criteria
All construction aspects, such as inspection, materials, joining, backfilling,
coating were performed properly as per standards requirements, with
highest quality, and well documented.
Construction aspects, such as inspection, materials, joining, backfilling,
coating were performed properly as per standards requirements, with good
quality, and well documented.
Construction aspects, such as inspection, materials, joining, backfilling,
coating were performed as per standards requirements , and well
documented.
Construction aspects, such as inspection, materials, joining, backfilling,
coating were performed below standards requirements.
No evidence that constructions were performed to meet standards
requirements.

Score
1

3
4
5

Prosedur Operasi

Operating Procedures

Evaluator harus diyakinkan bahwa prosedur tertulis


yang mencakup semua aspek operasi pipa ada.
Harus ada bukti bahwa prosedur ini secara aktif
digunakan, review, dan direvisi.

The evaluator should be satisfied that written


procedures covering all aspects of pipeline operation
exist. There should be evidence that these
procedures are actively used, reviewed, and revised.

Contoh prosedur operasi meliputi:

Examples of operating procedures include:

- Prosedur operasi pipa (kondisi normal dan dalam


perbaikan)
- Program untuk penanganan fasilitas berbahaya
- Program untuk operasi dalam perubahan tekanan
- Program untuk pemeriksaan berkala
- Program untuk pipa pengawasan
- Program untuk mencegah pecahnya pipa karena
penggalian
- Prosedur untuk kebakaran dan perlindungan
lingkungan
- Darurat tanggapan
- Cek katup arus utama dan pemeliharaan
- Pemeriksaan alat keamanan dan kalibrasi
- Pipa shutdown atau startup
- Operasi pompa / kompresor
- Perubahan Produk

- Pipeline operating procedure (normal condition


and under repair)
- Program for handling of dangerous facilities
- Program for operation in pressure change
- Program for Periodical inspection
- Program for pipeline supervision
- Program to prevent pipe rupture due to
excavations
- Procedure for fire fighting and environment
protection
- Emergency responses
- Mainline valve checks and maintenance
- Safety device inspection and calibration
- Pipeline shutdown or startup
- Pump/compressor operations
- Product movement changes
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Pemeliharaan ROW
Arus meteran kalibrasi
Instrumen pemeliharaan
Keselamatan alat uji
Manajemen perubahan
Patroli
Survei
Korosi kontrol
Kontrol pusat tindakan
Lock-out dan peralatan isolasi

Program prosedur yang kuat adalah bagian penting


dari mengurangi kesalahan operasional, tersedia dan
dilihat oleh semua tingkat operasional. Poin maksimal
harus diberikan di mana prosedur kualitas dan
penggunaan yang tertinggi.

P-219 Rev. 1

Right-of-way maintenance
Flow meter calibrations
Instrument maintenance
Safety device testing
Management of change
Patrol
Surveys
Corrosion control
Control center actions
Lock-out and equipment isolation

A strong procedures program is an important part of


reducing operational errors, as is available and seen
by the all operational level. Maximum points should
be awarded where procedure quality and use are the
highest.

Criteria
Operating procedures established for all operation tasks, well
documented and readily available for operator's references.
Operating procedures established for most operation tasks, well
documented and available for operator's references.
Operating procedures established for critical operation tasks, well
documented and available for operator's references.
Operating procedures established for only some operation tasks, or
not available for operator's references.
Operating procedures not established.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

HSE Programs

HSE Programs

HSE program adalah salah satu faktor yang tidak


berwujud dalam persamaan risiko. Hal ini diyakini
bahwa komitmen seluruh perusahaan untuk HSE
mengurangi potensi kesalahan manusia. Evaluator
harus mencari bukti komitmen untuk HSE. Bukti
tersebut dapat mengambil beberapa atau semua hal
berikut:

HSE program is one of the nearly intangible factors


in the risk equation. It is believed that a companywide commitment to HSE reduces the human error
potential. The evaluator should look for evidence of a
commitment to HSE. Such evidence may take the
form of some or all of the following:

- Written company statement of HSE philosophy


- pernyataan perusahaan yg tertulis pada filosofi - HSE programs designed with high level of
HSE
employee participation
- Program HSE dirancang dengan tingginya tingkat - Strong HSE performance records (recent history)
partisipasi karyawan
- Signs, slogans, posters, etc., to promote HSE
- Catatan HSE yang kuat (sejarah)
culture
- Tanda-tanda,
slogan,
poster,
dll,
untuk - Full-time HSE personnel.
mempromosikan budaya HSE
- Good housekeeping
- Full-time HSE personil.
- Housekeeping yang baik.
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Criteria
HSE programs in-place and excellent implementation, compliance is
assured and exceed expectations.
HSE programs in-place and well implemented, compliance is good
and concistent.
HSE programs in-place and implemented, some inconsistent found
HSE programs exits but less socialization, little HSE awareness
observed in the work force.
No HSE programs in-place, or informal.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Pelatihan

Training

Pelatihan dilihat sebagai awal untuk melawan


kesalahan manusia dan untuk pengurangan
kecelakaan. Untuk tujuan ini pelatihan penilaian risiko,
yang berkonsentrasi pada pencegahan kegagalan
adalah yang paling vital. Sebuah program pelatihan
yang efektif, akan memiliki beberapa aspek penting,
termasuk topik-topik umum di mana semua karyawan
harus dilatih.

Training should be seen as the first line of defense


against human error and for accident reduction. For
purposes of this risk assessment, training that
concentrates on failure prevention is the most vital.
An effective training program, however, will have
several key aspects, including common topics in
which all pipeline employees should be trained.

Topik yang dibahas:


- Produk karakteristik
- Pipeline material stresses
- Korosi pipa
- Kontrol dan operasi
- Pemeliharaan
- Darurat latihan
- Job prosedur (yang sesuai)

Topics covered:
-

Product characteristics
Pipeline material stresses
Pipeline corrosion
Control and operations
Maintenance
Emergency drills
Job procedures (as appropriate)

Criteria
Training programs in-place for all pipeline operators and management.
The implementation exceed requirements.
Training programs in-place and well implemented, for all pipeline
operators.
Suitable training programs in-place and implemented for some
pipeline operators
Training programs exits but less implementation, little participation of
operators.
No training programs in-place, or informal.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

Perawatan

Maintenance

Salah perawatan adalah jenis kesalahan yang dapat


terjadi pada beberapa tingkatan dalam operasi.
Kurangnya
perhatian
manajemen
untuk
pemeliharaan, persyaratan atau prosedur perawatan
yang salah, dan kesalahan yang dilakukan selama
kegiatan pemeliharaan yang sebenarnya adalah
semua kesalahan yang mungkin langsung atau tidak
langsung menyebabkan kegagalan pipa.

Improper maintenance is a type of error that can


occur at several levels in the operation. Lack of
management attention to maintenance, incorrect
maintenance requirements or procedures, and
mistakes made during the actual maintenance
activities are all errors that may directly or indirectly
lead to a pipeline failure.

Pemeliharaan rutin harus mencakup prosedur dan


jadwal untuk operasi valve, memeriksa peralatan
proteksi katodik, kalibrasi pengujian instrumentasi dan
alat pengaman, inspeksi korosi, pengecatan,
penggantian komponen, pelumasan dari semua
bagian yang bergerak, mesin / pompa / kompresor
pemeliharaan, pengujian tangki, dll
Frekuensi pemeliharaan harus konsisten dengan
persyaratan peraturan dan standar minimum industri.

Routine maintenance should include procedures and


schedules for operating valves, inspecting cathodic
protection
equipment,
testing
calibrating
instrumentation and safety devices, corrosion
inspections, painting, component replacement,
lubrication of all moving parts, engine /pump/
compressor maintenance, tank testing, etc.
Maintenance frequency should be consistent with
regulatory requirements and industry standards as a
minimum.

Criteria
Maintenance programs in-place for all pipeline, components, and supports
facilities; using predictive and preventive maintenance methods, exceed
requirements of standards/codes; having excellent implementation and
records are well documented.
Maintenance programs in-place for pipeline, components, and supports
facilities. Having routine schedules meet to requirements of
standards/codes, very good implementation, records are well documented.
Maintenance programs in-place for pipeline and components, having
routine schedules, and good implementation, records are well
documented.
Maintenance programs exits, but less implementation, records available.
No routine maintenance programs in-place, or informal; records /
evidences not available.

Operasi Cleaning Pig

Score
1

3
4
5

Cleaning Pig Operation

Cleaning Pig adalah alat yang ditrasportasikan Cleaning pig is a device transported through the
melalui pipa untuk menghilangkan kerak dan pipeline to remove scale and sediment.
endapan.
Criteria
Pipeline cleaning pigged regularly, more than recommendation of required
frequency

Score
1

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

Pipeline cleaning pigged regularly in line with a recommendation of


required frequency
Pipeline cleaning pigged regularly, but less than a recommended
frequency of pigging
Pipeline cleaning pig performed, but no recommendation of required
pigging frequency.
No pipeline cleaning pig ever performed.

2
3
4
5

Sejarah Kebocoran

Leak History

Pipa yang bocor akan sering rentan terhadap


kebocoran lebih lanjut sehingga sejarah dapat
mengidentifikasi kemungkinan kegagalan pipa.
Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut atas kebocoran terjadi
diminta untuk mengidentifikasi masalah, penyebab
dan untuk menentukan tindakan mitigasi yang
diperlukan.

A pipeline that has leaked will often be susceptible to


further leaks so the history can identify pipelines
likelihood of failure. Further investigation of leak
occurred was required to identify the problems,
causes and to determine the required mitigation
actions.

Criteria

Score
1
2
3
4
5

No leak history
One leak caused by third party
One leak caused by corrosion
More than one leak caused by third party or corrosion
More than one leak, caused by both third party and corrosion

5.4.4

Consequence Of Failure

5.4.4

Consequence Of Failure

Risiko adalah bentuk matematis dari probabilitas dan


konsekuensi hasil suatu kejadian terhadap kegagalan.
Risiko dapat diturunkan dengan mengurangi baik
probabilitas atau kosensekuensi kegagalan, atau
keduanya. Pada section ini secara khusus membahas
bagian konsekuensi pada persamaan risiko. Operator
harus mempertimbangkan konsekuensi dari potensi
kegagalan ketika melakukan prioritas inspeksi dan
tindakan mitigasi.

Risk is the mathematical product of the likelihood


(probability) and the consequences of events that
result from a failure. Risk may be decreased by
reducing either the likelihood or the consequences of
a failure, or both. This section specifically addresses
the consequence portion of the risk equation. The
operator shall consider consequences of a potential
failure when prioritizing inspections and mitigation
activities

a. Keselamatan

a.

Kerugian produk
Kerugian produc meningkat dengan meningkatnya
diameter pipeline

Product Loss
Product loss increase with the increase of pipeline
diameter.

Safety

Criteria
Pipeline not in operation, having good preservation
Pipeline less than 6 inches diameter

Score
1
2

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

Pipeline 6 inches to 12 inches diameter


Pipeline greater than 12 inches to 24 inches diameter
Pipeline greater than 24 inches diameter

3
4
5

Faktor Tekanan

Pressure Factor

Konsekuensi kegagalan meningkat dengan


meningkatnya energy tekanan.

Consequence of failure increase with the increase of


pressure energy.

Criteria
Pressure less than 16 barg
Pressure 16 barg to 40 barg
Pressure greater than 40 barg to 80 barg
Pressure greater than 80 barg to 120 barg
Pressure greater than 120 barg

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Mudah terbakar

Flammability

Kebanyakan produk pipeline sangat mudah terbakar.


Flash point adalah salah satu indicator yang mudah
terbakar.

Many common pipeline products are very flammable.


The flash point is one indicator of this flammability.

Flash point di definisikan sebagai suhu minimum


dimana uap diatas cairan yang mudah terbakar akan
flash bila terkena api bebas. Ini memberitahu kita
suhu yang diperlukan untuk melepaskan uap yang
mudah terbakar mendukung adanya api. Bahan
dengan titik nyala rendah (<100 "F) menyalakan dan
mudah membakar. Jika bahan ini juga memiliki titik
didih kurang dari 100F, itu dianggap berada dalam
kelas yang paling mudah terbakar. Ini termasuk
metana, propana, etilen, dan etana.

The flash point is defined as the minimum


temperature at which the vapor over a flammable
liquid will flash when exposed to a free flame. It tells
us what temperature is required to release enough
flammable vapors to support a flame. Materials with
a low flash point (<100F) ignite and burn readily and
are deemed to be flammable. If this material also has
a boiling point less than 100F, it is considered to be
in the most flammable class. This includes methane,
propane, ethylene, and ethane.

A material is termed combustible if its flash point is


Sebuah bahan yang mudah terbakar jika disebut titik greater than 100F and it will still bum. This class
nyala yang lebih besar dari 100 F dan akan tetap includes diesel and kerosene.
bum. Kelas ini mencakup diesel dan minyak tanah.

Gunakan daftar berikut untuk menentukan nilai NFPA


Nf.

Use the following list to determine the NFPA Nf value

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

Derajat racun

Toxicity

Rating NFPA untuk faktor bahan kesehatan adalah


Nh. Nilai Nh hanya mempertimbangkan bahaya
kesehatan dalam hal bagaimana bahaya yang
mempersulit respon pada emergency personnel.
Sebagaimana didefinisikan dalam NFPA, toksisitas
produk pipeline dinilai pada skala berikut.

The NFPA rating for a materials health factor is Nh.


The Nh value only considers the health hazard in
terms of how that hazard complicates the response
of emergency personnel. As defined in NFPA, the
toxicity of the pipeline product is scored on the
following scale.

Criteria
Nh = 0 No hazard beyond that of ordinary combustibles.
Nh = 1 Only minor residual injury is likely.
Nh = 2 Prompt medical attention required to avoid temporary
incapacitation
Nh = 3 Materials causing serious temporary or residual injury.
Nh = 4 Short exposure causes death or major injury.

Kematian

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Fatality
Criteria
No lost time injury. Slight injury / illness first aid or medical treatment case.
Single lost time injury without disability.
Single lost time injury with disability or multiple lost time injuries.
Single fatality or multiple lost time injuries with disabilities.
Multiple fatalities of employees, contractors, or the public.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

P-219 Rev. 1

b. Lingkungan

b. Environment

Penyebaran

Dispersion

Isi pipa dapat berdampak pada daerah tertentu,


ditentukan oleh sejumlah pipa dan karakteristik lokasi.
Ukuran area yang terkena dampak adalah subyek
dari penilaian konsekuensi. Karakteristik dan lokasi
produk yang tumpah menentukan pergerakan
tumpahan. Kemungkinannya tumpahan ke atmosfer,
permukaan air , tanah, air tanah, dll

A release of pipeline content can impact specific


area, determined by a host of pipeline and site
characteristics. The size of impacted area is the
subject of this consequence assessment. The
characteristic of spilled products and site determine
the movement of spill. The possibilities are spill to
atmosphere, surface water, soil, groundwater, etc.

Criteria
Negligible, little dispersion, no effect on environment
Localised, limited dispersion, spill remains localised and is relatively
easy to clean up
Medium scale, some dispersion, transport of the spill will occur but
relatively slowly, away from environmental receptors
High dispersion, where the spill rapidly transport away from the spill
location to environment receptors.
Major dispersion, where the major spill rapidly transport away from the
spill location to High Consequence Area.

Isi produk

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Product Containment

Criteria
Water
Sweet natural gas
Toxic and/or flammable gases, except sweet natural gas
Produced water, condensate, and other flammable liquids except
crude oil
Crude oil and heavy fractionates

Pelepasan kuantitas

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Release Quantity

Criteria
Gas or water pipeline OR shut in (purged or filled water)
Pipeline < 6 inches diameter OR produced water pipeline OR shut in
(product in line at ambient pressure)
Pipeline 6-10 inches diameter
Pipeline >= 12 in OR shut in (product line in low pressure)
Oil pipeline greater than 24 inches diameter OR shut in (product line in
high pressure)

Score
1
2
3
4
5

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Prosedur Pipeline Onshore


Onshore Pipeline Risk Assessment Procedure

c. Ekonomi

P-219 Rev. 1

c. Economic

Konsekuensi keuangan didefinisikan sebagai biaya The financial consequences are defined as the
produksi yang hilang setiap harinya/ ditangguhkan product of the daily cost of lost/deferred production
dan waktu yang diperkirakan untuk melakukan and the time estimated to conduct a repair
perbaikan

Criteria
Minimal impact, up to 1% lost production, minor repair
1-10% production loss, minor repair less than 3 days
11-20% production loss, medium repair 3 7 days
21-30% production, major repair 7-14 days
31-50% production, pipeline and facilities repair more than 14
days

d. Reputasi
Konsekuensi
dibawah.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

d. Reputation
dari reputasi diberikan pada Tabel The consequences to the reputation of the company
are given in Table below

Criteria
Local impacts, quickly forgotten
Regional press, short-term concern
Regional press & TV coverage
National press & TV coverage.
International press or TV coverage.

Score
1
2
3
4
5

Halaman 38 | 44