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15-18 October 2007

Presented by

Hlne Rebel
Head of A330/A340 Operational Standards
Flight Operations Support

Airspeed Discrepancy

14th Flight Safety Conference

Foreword
2002: Just after takeoff on an A340-300, the following
sequence of events occurred:
VFE

OVERSPEED warning during climb associated with buffet,


but with the Captain and First Officer airspeed indications below
VFE.
OVERSPEED warning with the Captain and First Officer
airspeed indications below VMO.

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VMO

ALTN

LAW

ADR1

+ ADR2 FAULT

Erroneous speed led to unlimited rudder deflection


Uneventful landing Fin and rudder changed after the flight

Foreword
2006: During descent on an A310, the following sequence of
events occurred:
Sudden

speed decrease associated with thrust increase and


pitch attitude decrease.
OVERSPEED warning with the Captain airspeed
indication below VMO, but with the First Officer airspeed
indication above VMO.

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VMO

Significant

nose down rate of descent, up to 12 000 ft/min and


speed increase up to 131 knots above VMO.

Speed

indication eventually back to normal on Captains


side - Uneventful landing

Foreword
Unreliable Speed

Difficult to:
Rapidly

identify the situation


Fly the aircraft

Generally however, not a permanent situation:


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It

is transient, or
It can be stopped via use of an appropriate drill

Good knowledge of the symptoms is important for:


Early

detection,
Taking appropriate decision

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

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BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Detecting an Unreliable Airspeed presents some traps:
All

indications may be consistent but equally unreliable,

may differ
=> potential difficulties to determine the correct value.

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Indications

Important contributors to a timely detection:


Instrument

scanning,
Flight crew awareness of typical characteristics of
speed / pitch / thrust

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


No single set of cues can be defined, but the following

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observations are an obvious attention getter:

Speed
related
cues

Altitude
related
cues

Autothrust or
Autopilot
related
cues

Warning /
System
related
cues

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Speed related cues
Abnormal

large speed fluctuations

Unusual

CAPT - F/O or
IAS - target speed differences

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CAPT
Unusual

Speed

speed / aerodynamic noise relationship

indication

Increasing with large nose-up pitch attitude,


Decreasing with large nose-down pitch attitude.

F/O

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Autothrust / Autopilot related cues
Abnormal

A/THR or AP/FD behavior, when in SPD mode.

Altitude related cues

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Positive

or negative V/S while in level flight

Constant

indicated altitude while in climb or descent

Inconsistency

between radio altitude and pressure altitude

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Warning / System related cues
Unexpected

stall warning (and stick shaker activation on A300/A310)

Simultaneous

activation of overspeed warning and stall warning / stick

shaker.
Unexpected

and undue overspeed warning or ADR DISAGREE caution


(Fly-by-wire aircraft)
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Unexpected
Unexpected

IAS DISCREPANCY caution (optional)

system behavior:
FLAP RELIEF message on the ECAM (A330/A340)
Automatic flap retraction
Slat Speed Lock Function
Non-extension of the L/G via normal control

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

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BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness

Recommendations
The Unreliable Speed procedure concept includes:
Cues

for recognition of the Unreliable Airspeed condition


(expanded information in FCOM procedure),

Memory

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QRH

items (pitch/thrust data) for short term flight path control,

action steps and fine pitch/thrust data tables for long term
flight path control, down to landing.

Recommendations
When an unreliable speed situation is suspected/detected:

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Crosscheck of Captain PFD,


First Officer PFD and Standby
speed/altitude indicator

SAFE CONDUCT
OF THE FLIGHT
NOT AFFECTED

Recommendations
When an unreliable speed situation is suspected/detected:

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Memory Items

SAFE CONDUCT
OF THE FLIGHT
AFFECTED

Recommendations
General procedure philosophy
Memory Items

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Stabilization and troubleshooting

Faulty ADR(s) not


identified or
All ADRs unreliable

Faulty ADR(s)
identified

2 ADRs OFF
(only for fly-by-wire)

Faulty ADR(s) OFF

Pitch/Thrust Tables

Flight Continuation, Diversion or


Immediate turn back

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

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BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness

Backup Speed Scale


What is the Backup Speed Scale?
When the crew select all ADRs OFF:
The

Backup Speed Scale replaces


the PFD speed scale on both PFDs.
Altitude replaces the Altitude
Scale on both PFDs.

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GPS

Enables flying at a safe speed:


Above

stall speed,
Below maximum structural speeds.

Allows to reach a safe speed, by


adjusting thrust and pitch.

Backup Speed Scale


When the Backup Speed Scale can be used?

The BackUp Speed Scale (BUSS) will be offered:


As

an option on A320 and A330/A340 aircraft families


As a basic item on A380 aircraft

It will be activated following ECAM procedure or paper


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procedure, when ADR 1+2+3 are selected OFF

The new idea: If the crew detects an Unreliable Speed


situation
Use of the BUSS instead of Thrust/Pitch tables

Backup Speed Scale


General philosophy
Memory Items

Troubleshooting

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Faulty ADR(s) not


identified or
All ADRs unreliable

Faulty ADR(s)
identified

Faulty ADR(s) OFF


ADR 1+2+3 OFF
Flight Continuation, Diversion or
Immediate turn back
FLY THE GREEN

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

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BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness

Increase Flight Crew Awareness


To help the airline in training, Airbus
Has

provided several presentations during:

Operational Liaison Meetings


Performance and Operations conferences
Develops

training aids:

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Specific Briefing Guide in the DVD 1 (FFS 7)


PDP (Procedure Data Package) presentation on MFTD
Flight Crew Training Manual ref. 03-34
New tool: E-briefing available on Airbus World
Communicates:

During previous Flight Safety conferences


Via Safety First magazine

Increase Flight Crew Awareness

The aim of these presentations/tools is to enhance the pilots


awareness and provides some cues/information:
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To facilitate
To ensure

the detection of the anomaly

correct application of the procedure by

Ensuring proper understanding the procedure structure


Avoiding any mistake when isolating the faulty ADR
Describing the flying technique

Contents

Early detection: Symptoms and Cues


Taking appropriate decision: Recommendations

AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

BackUp Speed Scale


Increase Flight Crew Awareness
Conclusion

Conclusion
Rapid detection of Unreliable Speed is essential
Thanks to the procedure proposed by Airbus, Unreliable Speed could
be a temporary situation:
is important to apply the QRH procedure, in order to identify the faulty
ADR,
Normal flight is recovered, once the faulty ADR(s) switched off.
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It

In the meantime, fly pitch/thrust memory items when needed.

Conclusion

Be aware of the symptoms


Consider what could be wrong

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Apply the procedure

To improve situation awareness and procedure understanding

TRAINING IS A KEY ELEMENT

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and proprietary document.
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sole property of AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S.. No intellectual
property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or
the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be
reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express
written consent of AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. This document
and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than
that for which it is supplied.
The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They
are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed
in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these
statements are not shown, AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. will be
pleased to explain the basis thereof.

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