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STANDAR OPERASIONAL PROSEDUR

STORYTELLING
IMPLEMENTASI INDIVIDU PADA PRAKTIK KOMUNITAS
DI TK IT AL KAMILAH BANYUMANIK

Oleh :
Eny Rahayu D. P

22020110200016

PROGRAM PROFESI NERS ANGKATAN XVII


PROGRAM STUDI ILMU KEPERAWATAN
FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN
UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO
SEMARANG
2010

STANDAR OPERASIONAL PROSEDUR


STORYTELLING
IMPLEMENTASI INDIVIDU PADA PRAKTIK KOMUNITAS
DI TK IT AL KAMILAH BANYUMANIK
A. LATAR BELAKANG
Konsentrasi belajar anak adalah bagaimana anak fokus dalam
mengerjakan atau melakukan sesuatu, hingga pekerjaan itu dikerjakan dalam
waktu tertentu. Pada beberapa anak bisa mengalami kesulitan, kesusahan dan
gangguan dalam hal konsentrasi dan atensi yang ia berikan. Banyak pula
orangtua yang juga mengeluh dan bingung dalam meningkatkan dan mengatasi
anak yang sulit berkonsentrasi.1
Gangguan Konsentrasi tergolong ke dalam salah satu jenis gangguan
ADHD, singkatan dari Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder atau dalam
bahasa Indonesia Gangguan Pemusatan Perhatian dan Hiperaktivitas (GPPH),
suatu kondisi yang juga dikenal sebagai Attention Deficit Disorder (sulit
memusatkan perhatian. Berbagai macam hal dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi
anak dengan sulit konsentrasi. Salah satunya dapat dilakukan dengan story
telling.1 Sementara itu Pellowski (1977) mendefinisikan storytelling sebagai
sebuah seni atau seni dari sebuah keterampilan bernarasi dari cerita-cerita
dalam bentuk syair atau prosa, yang dipertunjukkan atau dipimpin oleh satu
orang di hadapan audience secara langsung dimana cerita tersebut dapat
dinarasikan dengan cara diceritakan atau dinyanyikan, dengan atau tanpa
musik, gambar, ataupun dengan iringan lain yang mungkin dapat dipelajari
secara lisan, baik melalui sumber tercetak, ataupun melalui sumber rekaman
mekanik.2
Menurut penelitian oleh Dina Nurcahyani Kusumastuti, storytelling dapat
meningkatkan minat baca anak,3 selain itu juga dari hasil penelitian oleh Rd.
Safrina, Sri Setyarini dan Ika Lestari D bahwa storytelling dapat meningkatkan
hasil pembelajaran bahasa Inggris pada siswa. 4 Banyak sekali manfaat yang
bisa kita peroleh melalui dongeng salah satunya adalah mampu melatih daya

konsentrasi. Storytelling sebagai media informasi dan komunikasi yang


digemari anak-anak, melatih kemampuan mereka dalam memusatkan perhatian
untuk beberapa saat terhadap objek tertentu. Ketika seorang anak sedang asyik
mendengarkan dongeng, biasanya mereka tidak ingin diganggu. Hal ini
menunjukkan bahwa anak sedang berkonsentrasi mendengarkan dongeng.5
Bila dilihat dari permasalahan yang di temukan di TK IT Al Kamilah
sesuai dengan skrining awal dan MES 1 bahwa terdapat risiko kemungkinan
gangguan ADHD. Berdasarkan hasil tabulasi data didapatkan data bahwa
perilaku yag mengalami gangguan adalah masalah konsentrasi. 4 dari 6 anak
yang merupakan anak kelolaan ini merupakan anak-anak yang termasuk dalam
data anak-anak dengan risiko kemungkinan gangguan ADHD, sehingga
dilakukan story telling sebagai implementasi individu pada kasus kelolaan.
B. STRATEGI PELAKSANAAN
1. Hari/Tanggal

: Rabu, 4 November 2010

2. Waktu

: 09.00 WIB-09.25 WIB

3. Tempat

: TK Al Kamilah Banyumanik

4. Jumlah Peserta : 5 anak


C. PROSEDUR PELAKSANAAN
No
.
1.

Tahap
Pra Interaksi

Kegiatan
a. Persiapan perawat
Kognitif
- Perawat mengetahui tujuan
storytelling.
- Perawat mengetahui prosedur
storytelling.
- Perawat mengerti dan
memahami cerita yang akan
dibawakan.
- Perawat dapat berkomunikasi
efektif dengan anak.
Afektif
- Perawat bersikap sabar
dengan anak.

b.

2.

Orientasi

3.

Kerja

4.

Terminasi

c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
a.
b.
a.
b.

Psikomotor
- Perawat dapat menggunakan
peralatan yang sesuai dengan
cerita yang akan dibawakan.
- Perawat dapat memiliki
ekspresi sesuai dengan cerita
yang akan dibawakan.
Persiapan anak
Kognitif
- Anak dapat mengetahui dan
memahami
jalan
cerita
dengan baik.
Afektif
- Anak kooperatif
Psikomotor
- Anak dapat duduk saat
storytelling berlangsung.
Kontrak waktu
Persiapan alat
Memberikan salam
Menjelaskan tujuan dan maksud
Menanyakan kesiapan anak dan
pembuatan peraturan bersama
Storytelling
Evaluasi
Mengakhiri kontrak
Salam penutup

D. EVALUASI
1.

Evaluasi Struktur
a. Menyiapkan SOP (Standar Operasional Prosedur)
b. Waktu pelaksanaan telah disepakati dan ditetapkan
c. Tempat dan perlengkapan telah dipersiapkan
d. Materi dan media telah dipersiapkan

2. Evaluasi Proses
a.Siswa aktif mengikuti kelangsungan kegiatan.
b.

Media dan alat bantu dapat digunakan secara efektif.

c.Kegiatan dapat berjalan sesuai rencana.


3. Evaluasi Hasil

a.

50%

siswa

yang

hadir

dapat

siswa

yang

hadir

dapat

menyebutkan 2 tokoh dalam cerita.


b.

50%

menyebutkan tentang pelajaran apa yang terdapat dalam cerita.


c.

75% siswa tidak meninggalkan tempat


sebelum kegiatan selesai.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
1. Muhammad Baitul Alim. 2009. Melatih Konsentrasi Anak.
http://www.psikologizone.com/melatih-konsentrasi-anak. Diakses pada
tanggal 26 Oktober 2010
2. Boltman, Angela, 2001. Childrens Storytelling Technologies: Differences in
Ellaboration and Recall. http://itiseer.1st.psu.edo/563253.html. Diakses pada
tanggal 26 Oktober 2010
3. Dina

Nurcahyani

Kusumastuti

2010.

http://eprints.undip.ac.id/22141/1/dina_imut2.pdf
4. Rd.

Safrina.

http://perpustakaan.upi.edu/artikel/administrasi/upload/rd._safrina__fpbs.pd
f
5. Asfandiyar, Andi Yudha, 2007. Cara Pintar Mendongeng, Jakarta: Mizan

PENGARUH KEGIATAN STORYTELLING TERHADAP


PERTUMBUHAN MINAT BACA SISWA DI TK BANGUN 1 GETAS KEC.
PABELAN KAB. SEMARANG
ABSTRAK
Judul skripsi Pengaruh Kegiatan Storytelling Terhadap Pertumbuhan Minat Baca
Siswa di TK Bangun 1 Getas Kec. Pabelan Kab. Semarang. Tujuan penelitian ini
adalah untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pengaruh layanan storytelling terhadap
pertumbuhan minat baca anak di TK Bangun 1 Getas. Metode pada penelitian ini
menggunakan metode eksplanatori (penjelasan) yaitu menyoroti dan menerangkan
keterkaitan masing-masing variabel. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah
keseluruhan siswa TK baik kelompok A dan B yang berjumlah 52 responden.
Sampel penelitian adalah keseluruhan dari populasi karena populasinya kurang
dari 100. Teknik pengumpulan data yaitu menggunakan angket, wawancara, dan
studi pustaka. Berdasarkan penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kegiatan storytelling
yang diadakan oleh sekolah berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan minat baca siswa, dan
lebih dari 90,77% siswa benar-benar menggemari kegiatan storytelling di sekolah.
Tujuan kegiatan storytelling adalah untuk menarik minat siswa agar gemar
membaca dan mampu menangkap pengetahuan serta pengalaman tentang berbagai
hal positif yang diceritakan sejak dini. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan berguna
bagi Guru untuk lebih meningkatkan metode kegiatan bercerita menjadi lebih
baik. Sekolah sebaiknya menambah bahan perpustakaan yang dimiliki serta
menampilkan cerita melalui media yang beraneka ragam. Simpulan penelitian ini
menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan storytelling di TK Bangun 1 Getas sangat besar
pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan minat baca anak.
Kata kunci: storytelling, pertumbuhan minat baca

Dr. David Rabiner: New Research


* HOW ADHD AFFECTS PRESCHOOLERS'

UNDERSTANDING OF STORIES
One of the most profound effects that ADHD can have on
children's development is in the area of academic performance.
Numerous studies - several of which have been reviewed in
ADHD RESEARCH UPDATE - have documented that children with
ADHD are at substantial risk for academic difficulties, and that
the majority fail to achieve at a level that is consistent with their
academic ability. As indicated in the study reviewed above,
children with high levels of attention problems but not high levels
of conduct problems were at specific risk for academic difficulty
over a 6-year period and to require special educational services.
In my own work, I have found that attention problems specifically
- and not hyperactive/impulsive symptoms - exert substantial
negative effects on the development of children's reading skills.
A study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Child
Psychology provides an extremely interesting look at how ADHD
can have an adverse impact on skills related to academic
performance even before academic problems are likely to be
evident. In this study (Sanchez, R.P., Lorch, E.P., Milich, R., &
Welsh, R. (1999). Comprehension of televised stories by
preschool children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child
Psychology, 28, 376-385), the authors looked at how preschool
children with and without ADHD might differ in their
understanding of televised stories.
Televised stories- actually, they used a series of clips from
Sesame Street - were used because the children were young
enough so that most of them would not yet be expected to be
reading. In addition, the benefits of using television to examine
young children's comprehension of stories is that it is a familiar
context for children, it captures children's attention at an early

age, and can provide a less-monotonous context than do many


laboratory tasks that are used to investigate ADHD.
It is certainly a common experience for parents to observe that
their child with ADHD can attend faithfully to his or her favorite tv
shows for an extended period of time, even though the same
level of attending to homework is rarely evident. Children's
ability to understand and comprehend televised stories can thus
serve as a useful medium to learn about their comprehension of
story material more generally. If problems are evident in this
context - which probably captures children with ADHD operating
at their best in terms of attending - then it can inform parents,
educators, and clinicians about the struggles that are even more
likely to occur in a classroom context.
Participants in this study were 27 boys and girls with ADHD
between 4 and 6 years old and 52 comparison children without
ADHD. About 75% of the children in each group were male and
almost 90% were Caucasian. All the participants with ADHD had
been diagnosed with ADHD, Combined Type. Thus, they had the
inattentive and the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms as opposed
to the inattentive symptoms only. Although many children were
being treated with medication at the time of the study, care was
taken to be sure that children were medication-free when
actually tested.
All children viewed a 23 minute videotape that consisted of 13
separate segments of Sesame Street. Four segments that were
embedded in this larger group of segments were the actual
target stimuli for the study. All of the target segments had
conventional story structures and were narrative in nature. In
other words, they were typical of Sesame Street stories.
Children were assigned at random to one of two viewing
conditions. Half of the children in each group viewed the
segments with attractive toys present and available to play with;
the other children viewed the tape without any toys around to
serve as potential distractors.

Each child was videotaped while watching the Sesame Street


stories. This tape was used to identify the amount of time that
participants were actually focusing their attention on the screen
where the tape was playing. Thus, an accurate record of the
visual attention of each participant was available. Each child
watched the videotape individually, so that other children were
not present as another possible source of distraction
Children were told that they would be watching a tv program and
that afterwards, they would be asked some questions about what
they had watched. In the condition where toys were present, it
was simply mentioned that they could play with the toys if they
wanted to. Thus, they were neither specifically encouraged to
play with the toys or discouraged from doing so.
After the tape was over, the experimenter returned to ask each
child questions about the stories they had watched. Questions
were asked about the 4 targeted stories in the order that these
stories had appeared on the tape. Pictures of the characters from
each story were presented to the child, and the names of each
character was provided to try to help cue their recall of what they
had watched.
Two types of questions were asked: factual questions (e.g. What
does the man do with the fish he catches?") and causal relation
questions (e.g. Why does the man kiss the fish?") The former
questions thus test for children's recall of specific events that
occurred in each story. The causal relation questions, in contrast,
required the child to draw upon several different elements in the
story and to recall the relationship between these elements.
Between 12 and 15 questions were asked for each story, and
these were divided equally between the factual and causal
relation type questions.
* RESULTS
The first question the authors examined is how children in the
two groups compared in terms of how attentive they were to
actually watching the videotape and whether this varied
according to whether toys were present. Overall, as might be

expected, children without ADHD were more attentive (i.e.


actually spent more time looking at the screen) than children
without ADHD. In the no-toy condition, the % of time children in
these groups were observed to be "observing the screen" were
90.4% and 80.3% respectively.
For both groups, the presence of toys substantially reduced their
level of attention. The % of time attending dropped to 30% on
average for children without ADHD, and all the way to 7% for
children with ADHD. In other words, even though the toys were a
substantial distracter for both groups of children, the adverse
impact on attending to what they needed to was even greater in
children with ADHD. Thus, this is experimental evidence of the
far greater distractibility in children with ADHD, which, after all, is
one of the core symptoms of inattention.
Here is something even more interesting. Even though children
without ADHD reduced their attending behavior when toys were
present from 90% to 30%, the proportion of questions that they
answered correctly DID NOT CHANGE. This strongly suggests that
these children were "strategic viewers" who could systematically
divide their attention between the tv stories and the toy play
such that their ability to recall and comprehend the stories did
not suffer.
For children with ADHD, however, the findings were quite
different. When toys were not present, children with ADHD were
about as accurate as comparison children in their responses to
factual questions. Thus, in the absence of distraction, they
answered factual items every bit as well. In the toy-present
condition, however, their performance was adversely affected
such that they now did much worse than comparison children. In
this condition, in fact, they answered correctly to about 50%
fewer questions.
What is important here is that even though the comparison
children also "paid less attention" to the stories when toys were
present, they were still somehow able to divide their attention
between toys and the stories such that their recall was not hurt.
Children with ADHD, however, apparently could not do that.

Thus, not only did they attend less when distractors were
present, but they were unable to divide their attention in such a
way that their level of performance was preserved.
Results for the causal relation questions were somewhat
different. Here, the children with ADHD did worse than the
comparison children regardless of whether toys were present as
a distracter. Thus, even when their visual attention to the
program was high, children with ADHD still did not do as well in
responding to questions that required an understanding of how
the different elements in a story fit together.
It would be quite interesting to know whether similar results
would have been obtained for the comprehension items even if
the children with ADHD had been receiving their medication
when testing occurred.
* IMPLICATIONS
The results of this interesting study have potentially important
implications for educating children with ADHD.
First, as has been demonstrated in the past, the presence of
distracting stimuli appear to have a significantly greater adverse
impact on the performance of children with ADHD than of other
children. Not only is a child with ADHD less likely to pay attention
to what he or she is supposed to when an attractive alternative
stimulus is present, but he or she is also apparently less able to
effectively allocate attention to competing activities in ways that
help maintain a good level of performance.
These data support the benefits of arranging the environment for
many children with ADHD in such a way that potential
distractions are minimized. In a classroom setting, of course, this
is not always easy to do, particularly without isolating a child in a
way that can be stigmatizing. At home, however, when it comes
to getting homework done, this type of intervention may be
easier to accomplish. Please note, however, that although
reducing distractions may be helpful for many children with
ADHD, there will always be exceptions. Thus, evaluating whether

such environmental modifications are helpful for a particular


child always needs to be carefully evaluated.
The comprehension results seem especially important. These
data indicate that comprehension may be an area of particular
difficulty for children with ADHD, and that such difficulty may be
evident as early as the preschool years. This result is consistent
with another study of reading comprehension in children with
ADHD that was reviewed in an earlier issue of ADHD RESEARCH
UPDATE. (See http://www.helpforadd.com/reading.htm)
Careful assessment of the comprehension abilities of a child with
ADHD, even for a child whose basic reading skills or ability to
recall factual information about stories appears adequate, may
thus be quite useful in identifying necessary targets for
intervention. This, however, is rarely done.
When difficulties in this area is identified, specific training to help
a child with ADHD understand cause-and-effect relations, both in
stories and in real-life social situations, may be quite helpful. This
may be best done by a reading specialist who is aware of specific
techniques and strategies to assist children in their
comprehension skills. Such training may have benefits not only
for academic performance, but for a child's social relationships as
well.

A note from Dr. Rabiner:


I hope the above information was of interest to you and
potentially helpful. Staying informed about the latest research
findings on ADD/ADHD will enable you to make better informed
decisions about the best ways to promote your child's healthy
development. That is my objective in publishing a monthly
newsletter, ADHD RESEARCH UPDATE, and I invite you to become
a regular subscriber. If you work with children who have ADHD in
a professional capacity, I also think you will find that ADHD
RESEARCH UPDATE is a convenient way to stay on top of
important new research information.
Best wishes,

David Rabiner, PhD


Licensed Psychologist

http://adhd.kids.tripod.com/rabinerpre.html:dr