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Document Title:

Training on GET-Instrumentation

November
2014

INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

Code: PI

Introduction:Instrumentation is the science of automated measurement and control. Applications of this


science abound in modern research, industry, and everyday living. From automobile engine
control systems to home thermostats to aircraft autopilots to the manufacture of
pharmaceutical drugs, automation surrounds us.

Why do we need Process Instrumentation?


Effective process control is required to maintain safe operations, quality products, and
business viability.
Safety:
The primary purpose of a Process Control system is safety: personnel safety, environmental
safety and equipment safety. The safety of plant personnel and the community is the
highest priority in any operation.
Quality:
In addition to safety, process control systems are central to maintaining product quality. In
blending and batching operations, control systems maintain the proper ratio of ingredients
to deliver a consistent product. They tightly regulate temperatures to deliver consistent
solids in cooking systems. Without this type of control, products would vary and undermine
quality.
Profit:
When safety and quality concerns are met, process control objectives can be focused on
profit. All processes experience variations and product quality demands that we operate
within constraints. A batch system may require +- 0.5% tolerance on each ingredient
addition to maintain quality. A cook system may require +- 0.5 degrees on the exit
temperature to maintain quality. Profits will be maximized the closer the process is
operated to these constraints. The real challenge in process control is to do so safely
without compromising product quality.

Document Title:

Training on GET-Instrumentation

November
2014

INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

Code: PI

Process:A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources to transform inputs into
outputs.
Process involves Different type of Physical Parameters to be measured and controlled in the
Process Industries:Pressure
Flow
Level
Temperature
Vibration.Etc

Instrumentation:It is a collection of Instruments and their application for the purpose of


Measurement,
Observation,
Control, of different physical parameters.

Measurement:SENSORS: A device that directly senses the process variable and translates that sensed
quantity into an analog representation (electrical voltage, current, resistance;
mechanical force, motion, etc.). Examples: thermocouple, Thermistor, bourdon tube,
microphone, potentiometer, electrochemical cell, accelerometer.
TRANSDUCERS: A device that converts one standardized instrumentation signal into another
standardized instrumentation signal, and/or performs some sort of processing on
that signal.
TRANSMITTERS: A device that translates the signal produced by a primary sensing element
(PSE) into a standardized instrumentation signal such as 3-15 PSI air pressure, 4-20
mA DC electric current, Field bus digital signal packet, etc., which may then be
conveyed to an indicating device, a controlling device, or both.

Document Title:

Training on GET-Instrumentation

November
2014

INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

Code: PI

Recording & Monitoring:Monitoring & Recording of different process & physical parameters of the industry is done
through Central control room, where we use HMIs, SCADA, and Recorders for this purpose.
Also we have an advantage of controlling the same process and physical parameters
through these Monitors
HMI & SCADA:A humanmachine interface (HMI) is the input-output device through which the human
operator controls the process, and which presents process data to a human operator.
HMI (Human Machine interface) is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and
software programs, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such
as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a
particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides.
Examples:HMI, SCADA, RECORDERS, DATA ACCQUISITION, INDICATORS, DISPLAYS, DATA LOGGERS.

Control:Controller:
A device that receives a process variable (PV) signal from a primary sensing element
(PSE) or transmitter, compares that signal to the desired value for that process variable (called the
Set point), and calculates an appropriate output signal value to be sent to a final control element
(FCE) such as an electric motor or control valve.

Final Control Element (FCE):A device that receives the signal from a controller to directly influence the process.
Examples: variable-speed electric motor, control valve, electric heater.