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Characteristics of Young Learners

1. Based on Scott and Ytreberg (1990)
5-7 Years Old
They can:
o talk about what they are doing
o talk about what they have done or heard
o plan activities
o argue for something and tell you why they think what they think
o use logical reasoning
o use their vivid imagination
o use a wide range of intonation patterns in their mother tongue
o understand direct human interaction
They know that the world is governed by rules
They understand situations more quickly than they understand the language
They use skills long before they aware of it
Their own understanding some through hands and eyes and ears. Their
physical world is dominant at all times.
Young children love to play, and learn best when they are enjoying themselves
Young learners have very short attention and concentration span
8-10 Years Old
They ask questions all the time
They rely on the spoken word as well as the physical world to convey meaning
They are able to work with others and learn from others
2. Based on Halliwell (1992)
Children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily

understanding the individual words

Children have great skill in using limited language creatively
Children frequently learn indirectly rather than directly
Children take great pleasure in finding and creating fun in what they do
Children have a ready imagination
Children take great delight in interacting and talking

3. Based on Piaget (1970)

Children are active learner and thinker
4. Based on Vygotsky (1962)
Children learn through social interaction.
5. Based on Bruner (1983)
Children learn effectively through scaffolding by adults.
6. Based on M. Slatterly and J. Wilis (English for Primary Teachers)
Under 7 Years Old
They acquire through hearing and experiencing lots of English, in much the
same way they acquire L1

They learn things through playing; they are not consciously trying to learn
new words or phrases for them its incidental
They love playing with language sounds, imitating, and making funny noises
They are not able to organize their learning
They are not able to read or write in L1; important to recycle language through
talk and play
Their grammar will develop gradually on its own when exposed to lots of
English in context
7-12 Years Old
They are learning to read and write in L1
They are developing as thinkers
They understand the difference between the real and the imaginary
They can plan and organize how best to carry out an activity
They can work with others and learn from others
They can be reliable and take responsibility for class activities and routines
7. Based on Samuel Lefever, Iceland University of Education Reykjavik
Young learners at the transition level (ages 58) generally have the following
They are:
keen and enthusiastic
curious and inquisitive
outdoor instruction and active learning
imaginative and creative
active and like to move around
interested in exploration
learn by doing/hands-on experience
holistic, natural learners searching for meaningful messages.
8. Based on Pinter (2006)
Young children are sensitive to the sounds and the rhythm of new languages
and they enjoy copying new sounds and patterns of intonation
Younger learners are usually less anxious and less inhibited than older learners

9. Based on Fachrurrazy, M.A., Ph.D. (Teaching English as a Foreign Language

for Teachers in Indonesia)
6-13 Years Old
They have a first language and they can read and write already
They like activities/movements
They have short time concentration
They like asking
They have some world of knowledge (they are not blank-state, and possibly,
unconsciously, they have mastered some English words, for example radio,
television, yes-no, and apple)
They can work in groups
They are naturally ready to learn a foreign language

B. Characteristics of Good Teacher

1. Being a good communicator
He should be comfortable explaining things and enjoy doing the same.
2. Having a good emotional management
At times, a teacher might feel like yelling or shouting at students, but a good
teacher is one who knows how to keep the temper in check and act calmly in
such situations.
3. Having a good sense of humor
4. Being able to be wise in the utilization of time.
A good teacher must have good time management skills and always value the
importance of time.
5. Adopting a fair attitude
He should be fair to his profession and assess students on their performance,
instead of personal rapports and likings.
6. Being dedicated towards his work.
7. Being meticulous and having an eye for detail.
Well thought-out plans and programs for teaching will assist the productivity
of a teacher.
8. Being a good leader and a good friend.
He should also be a disciplinarian and the students must look up to him.
However, this should not stop him from acting like an ally under certain
C. Teaching Technique
From Gogo Loves English
1. Listen and look
2. Listen and say
3. Listen and number


Listen and answer

Listen and sing
Listen, point, and say
Listen and chant

From Cameron, L. 2001. Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.
1. Listen and identify
The teacher says the name of an animal
The teacher gives short description of an animal
2. Bingo
3. Listen and take away
4. Find the odd one out
5. Liaten and put (in a place, a map, a drawing of a cage, a house, and a field)
6. Listen and choose (e.g. I chose a dog)
7. Listen and sort (e.g. animals, wild animals, food, dreinks, etc)
8. Guess

From Scott and Ytreberg, 1990. Teaching English to Children. London: Longman.
1. Listen and do
a. Teacher gives instructions
b. After listening to the teacher, students have moving activity
c. Put up your hand (when you hear the sound I in sit)
d. Miming stories or activities
e. Drawing
2. Listening for information
a. Listen and repeat
b. Listening to stories

D. Instructional Media
E. Games
1. Natural Disaster:
teacher describes the type of natural disaster
Teacher give example of the movement for each disaster
( flood, fire, earthquake, alien invasion)
Teacher asks all the students to do just like the teacher
The last 2 students do the final game.
2. Whispering
The teacher divides the class into two groups.
The teacher asks the students to make two lines in front of the board.

The teacher gives a board marker to the students who are at the last row.
The teacher whispers a word to the students who are at the last row.
Then the students whisper the word to friends in front of them and so on,
till the students at the first row who bring the board marker can write it on
the white board.
After that the student who has written the word on the white board should
go at the last row and give her/his turn to a friend behind her/him.
The teacher decides which group is the faster and the correct one. Then give
a score to the group based on the speed and correctness. The winner is the
group which gets the highest score.
3. Whats That?
In this game, the teacher divides the class into 6 groups consists of 5
Each group should have a name of an animal having sound.
The teacher gives a clue in every opening the part of the whole picture.
Each group should compete to guess it. When they want to answer, they
should shout the sound of the animal, which is the name of their group.
4. Simon Says
The teacher asks the students to touch their part of body mentioned by
When the teacher says a part of body, he/she touches his/her part of body
which is different with the word he/she mentions. For example, the teacher
touches his/her head and at the same time, he/she says Simon saystouch
your nose.


Short stories
Lesson plan