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ZOOLOGY 100 NOTES (4).

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

Osteology – study of structure, function and composition of bones


Chondrology – study of structure, function and composition of cartilages
Syndesmology – study of structure, functions, and compositions of joints.

Function Of Bones
 Support
 Protection
 Movement
 Mineral storage
 Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis
 Leverage for locomotion
 Transduction of sounds

Gross Anatomy of Bones


I. Compact Bones
 Long Bones
• Diaphysis
-tubular part
• Epiphyses
-bone ends
• Epiphyseal Plate
• Blood Vessel
-with nutrient arteries and veins
• Medullary cavity
-marrow cavity of bones
• Membrane
• Periosteum
-covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses
• Endosteum
- innermost covering of bones
Chemical Composition of Bones
1. Organic components
 Collagen fibers
2. Inorganic components
 calcium phosphate
 calcium carbonate
 Hydroxypatite ions

Microscopic anatomy of bones

The haversian system

Bone Development
OSSIFICATION – process of bone development
1. Intramembranous ossification
- direct bone development of membrane bones
2.Endochondral ossification
- development of bones preceeded by cartilages

Classification of Bones
1. Long Bones
Ex. femur, humerus
2. Short Bones
Ex. trapezoid
3. Flat Bones
Ex. Sternum, ribs
4. Irregular Bones
Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae
II. Cartilage
- specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the lines of stress in long,
parallel arrays firm and flexible
chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix
-CHONDRIFICATION – chondroblast- chondrocytes
TYPES OF CARTILAGES
BASIS HYALINE ELASTIC FIBRO-CARTILAGE
1.Matrix Fine collagenous Collagenous,elastic Dense collagenous
fibers fibers
2. Function Cover and protect Flexible strength Withstand tension &
bones,support compression
3. Location Joints, trachea,costal ribs Ears,nose, Vertebral discs,pubic
larynx,audi-tory canal sysmphysis

THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE


 The cartilages replaced by bones
 Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human skull

IV. ENAMEL
 Developed from ameloblasts
 Teeth – important for digestion
V. BONE REMODELING

PARATHORMONE AND CALCITONIN


 The hormones that influence or regulates the withdrawal of calcium to maintain
calcification
 OSTEOBLAST – developing bone
cells
 OSTEOCLAST – bone destructing
cells
 OSTEOCYTES – bone-building cells

VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BONES


1. TENDON
2. LIGAMENTS
3. CARTILAGES

Frog’s skeleton
 AXIAL SKELETON
I. SKULL
*Fronto-parietals – 1
*Sphenethmoid -1
*Vomer -1
* Squamosal -2
*Quadrotojugals – 2
*Exoccipitals -2
* Prootics -2 III. Hyoid - 1
* Nasals -2  APPENDICULAR SKELETON
*Maxillae -2 I. PECTORAL GIRDLE
*Premaxilae -1 * Suprascapula - 2
* Parasphenoid -1 * Scapula -2
* Pterygoid -2 * Coracoid -2
* Palatine -2 * Clavicle -2
Lower Jaw * Epicoracoid - 2
*Mento-Meckelian - 1 II. PELVIC GIRDLE
*Dentary -2 * Ilia –2
*Angulo-splential -2 * Ishium -1
* Pubis -1
II.VERTEBRAL COLUMN  FORELIMB
10 VERTEBRAE * Humerus - 2
• Cervical (atlas) - 1 * Radio-ulna - 2
• typical vertebrae - 7 * Carpals - 3(2)
• Sacral -1 - Radiale -2
• Urostyle – 1 - Centrale – 2
- Ulnare -2 * Tarsals - 2(2)
* Ordinary Carpals - 2 - Tibiale(astragalus)-2
* Metacarpals - 4 (2) - Fibulare(calcaneum) -2
* Phalanges - 11(2) * Ordinary tarsals - 2
Ratio: 2:3:3:3 (2) * Metatarsals - 5(2)
 HINDLIMB *Calcar -2
* Femur -2 *Phalanges - 14(2)
* Tibio-fibula - 2 Ratio: 1:2:3:4:3 (2)

The Human Skeleton


 The human skeleton
➢ 206 regular named
bones
 The axial skeleton
➢ Along the body’s
axis
➢ 80 bones
➢ Skull, hyoid,
auditory ossicles,
sternum, ribs,
vertebral column
 The appendicular skeleton
➢ “Hangs on” to axial
skeleton
➢ 126 bones
➢ Upper and lower
limbs, pectoral
girdle, pelvic girdle

The 14 Facial Bones


Vomer (1) Nasal Mandible (1) Zygomatic
Conchae Maxilla Palatine Lacrimal
Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!
Organization of the skeleton
 AXIAL • Cervical(7)
1. Skull • Thoracic(12)
a. Cranial • Lumbar(5)
• Occipital(1) • Sacrum(1)
• Parietal(2) • Coccyx(1)
• Frontal (1) 4. Thoracic cage
• Temporal(2) • Ribs(12 pairs)
• Ethmoid(1) • Sternum(1)
• Sphenoid(1)  APPENDICULAR
Old People From Transylvania Eat Spiders 1. Pectoral Girdle
• Clavicle(2)
b. facial • Scapula(2)
• Vomer(1) 2. Upper Limbs
• Conchae(2) • Humerus(2)
• Nasal(2) • Radius(2)
• Maxillary(2) • Ulna(2)
• Mandible(1) • Hand
• Palatine(2) carpal(16)
• Zygomatic(2) meta carpal(10)
• Lacrimal(2) phalanges(28)
Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh! 3. Pelvic Girdle
• Coxal bone(2)
c. middle ear 4. Lower Limbs
• Auditory ossicles • Femur(2)
• Malleus(2) • Tibia(2)
• Incus(2) • Fibula(2)
• stapes(2) • Foot
2. Hyoid(2) tarsal(14)
3. Vertebral column meta tarsal(10)
phalanges(28)

HOMOLOGY OF APPENDICULAR BONES


 FORELIMB 3. Ulna
1. Humerus 4. Carpals
2. Radius 5. Metacarpals
6. Phallanges 3. Fibula
 HINDLIMB 4. Tarsals
1. Femur 5. Metatarsals
2. Tibia 6. Phallanges

HOMOLOGY OF GIRDLES
PECTORAL GIRDLE  PELVIC GIRDLE
1. Scapula 1. Ilia
* coracoid process 2. Ischia
2. Clavicle 3. Pubis

Frog versus Human skeleton


BASIS FROG MAN
I. SKULL Platybasic Anapsid
A. Fronto-parietals Fused Separate
B. Sphenethmoid Fused Separate
C. Occipital 2 exoccipital 1 occipital
D. Premaxillae Present absent
E. Dentition Heterodont Heterodont
e.1 shape & size Pleurodont Thecodont
e.2 attachment 1V:1M:2P (2) 2I:1C:2P:3M (2)
e.3 dental formula 2I:1C:2P:3M (2)
II. Hyoid Cartilaginous Bony
III. Vertebral Column 10 vertebrae 26 vertebrae
1 atlas 7 cervical
7 typical vertebrae 12 thoracic
1 sacral 5 lumbar
1 urostyle 1 sacral
1 coccyx
IV. Ribs None (transverse processes) 12 pairs of ribs
(7 true, 3 false, 2 floating)

Appendicular Skeleton
BASIS FROG MAN
PECTORAL GIRDLE *Suprascapula -2 * Scapula - 2
* Scapula -2 With coracoid process
* Coracoid -2 *clavicle - 2
* Clavicle -2
* Epicoracoid -2
FORELIMB * Humerus - 2 * Humerus -2
* Radio-ulna - 2 * Radius -2
* Carpals - 3(2) * Ulna -2
- Radiale -2 * Carpals - 3(2)
- Centrale – 2 Proximal – SLTP
- Ulnare -2 Distal - TTCH
* Ordinary Carpals - 2
* Metacarpals - 4 (2) * Metacarpals - 5 (2)
* Phalanges - 11(2) * Phalanges - 14(2)
Ratio: 2:3:3:3 (2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3:3 (2)
PELVIC GIRDLE * Ilia –2 * Ilia -2
* Ishium -1 * Ischia -2
* Pubis -1 * Pubis -2
HINDLIMB * Femur -2 Femur -2
* Tibio-fibula - 2 * Tibia -2
* Tarsals - 2(2) * Fibula -2
-Tibiale(astragalus)-2 * Patella -2
- Fibulare(calcaneum) -2 * Tarsals - 7(2)
* Ordinary tarsals - 2 Proximal - CTN
* Metatarsals - 5(2) Distal - 3 C 1C
*Calcar -2 * Metatarsals - 5(2)
*Phalanges - 14(2) *Phalanges - 14(2)
Ratio: 1:2:3:4:3 (2) Ratio: 2:3:3:3:3 (2)

The Articular System


Joints/articulation
-places where the rigid elements of the
skeleton meet.
TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION:
1. Synarthroses
-fixed or immovable joints
2. Amphiarthroses
-slightly movable joints
3. Diarthroses
-freely movable joints

TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE:


1. FIBROUS JOINTS
a. Structures -minimal connective tissue
b. Syndesmoses -connected by ligaments
c. Gamphoses -peg-in-socket joint
2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
a. Synchondrosis -hyaline cartilage
b.Symphyses -fibrocartilage
3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS
-most movable joints of the body
-diarthoroses
Features of Synovial joints
1. Articular cartilage
2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity
3. Articular Capsule
2 LAYERS:
a. fibrous capsule-strengthens joint so that bones are not pulled apart
b. synovial membrane-cover enternal joint surfaces
4. Synovial fluid-a filtrate of blood which contains glycoproteins
5. Reinforcing ligaments
-thickened parts of fibrous capsule itself
a. Extracapsular ligament
b. Intracapsular ligament
6. Nerves and Blood vessels

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

Types of Synovial joints


1. Plane joints
-nonaxial joint
2. Hinge joints
-uniaxial joint(flexible)
3. Pivot joints
- rotatory, uniaxial joint
4. Condyloid joints
- biaxial joint
5. Ball and Socket joints
-multiaxial joint

Types of angular movements of synovial joints


1. ABDUCTION
2. ADDUCTION
3. FLEXION
4. EXTENSION
5. ELEVATION
6. DEPRESSION
7. PROTRACTION
8. RETRACTION
9. INVERSION
10. DORSIFLEXION
11. EVERSION
12. PLANTARFLEXION
13. SUPINATION
14. PRONATION

TYPES OF GAIT
 PLANTIGRADE
- EX. Man, primates, bear
 DIGITIGRADE
- ex. Cats, dogs
 UNGULIGRADE
- Ex. Horses, cows, carabao, pigs, goats

LOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESS VERTEBRATES


1. SERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATION – movement forming irregular loops
2. CONCERTIVE OR RECTILINEAR
- move from place to place by gliding using the cervical ribs
3. SIDESWINDING
- occupy territory or sandy dessert
- rattlesnakes
Examples

Phases of Healing of Fractures


 Hematoma Formation
 Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation
 Body Callus Formation
 Bone Remodeling

FRACTURE HEALING
Clinical Problems: Spina Bifida
 Spina bifida is a congenital defect
 failure of the vertebral laminae to unite
 nervous tissue is unprotected
 possible paralysis and other complications

Curves of the Vertebral Column


 There are four typical regions of curvature in the vertebral column
 cervical curve
 thoracic curve
 lumbar curve
 sacral or pelvic curve

Clinical Problems: Abnormal Curvature


 Abnormal curves of the spine
 scoliosis (lateral bending of the column)
 kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve)
 lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve)
Clinical Problems

KYPHOSIS

Scoliosis
LORDOSIS

OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis
 Decreased bone mass resulting in porous bones
 Those at risk
 White, thin, menopausal females
 Athletes who are not menstruating due to decreased body
fat & decreased estrogen levels
 People allergic to milk or with eating disorders whose
intake of calcium is too low
 Smoking, drinking, & family history increase risk
 Prevention or decrease in severity
 Adequate diet, weight-bearing exercise, & estrogen replacement therapy (for
menopausal women)
 Behavior when young may be most important factor

OSTEOMALACIA
BURSITIS

OSTEOMYELITIS

ARTHRITIS