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BAB IV

MOMEN INERSIA LUAS BENDA PENOPANG


(MOMEN LUAS KEDUA)
Momen laus ada dua yaitu momen luas kedua ( second moment of area ), dan
momen luas tk satu. Momen luas kedua adalah sifat suatu bentuk benda yang dapat
digunakan untuk memprediksi ketahanan suatu papan terhadap lenturan dan simpangan.
Simpangan suatu balok yang dibebani tidak hanya tergantung bebansaja, melainkan
tergantung geometri dari penampang melintang. Oleh karena itu balok dengan dengan
momen area dari momen inersia besar, seperti balok bentuk I, sering digunakan dalam
konstruksi balok yang disusun berlawanan dengan balok yang lain dalam luas yang sama.
Hal ini sama saja dengan momen polar dari momen inersia yang mempunyai karakter
kemampuan obyek tersebut untuk menahan tosi atau momen puntir (lihat Gambar 4.1).

Gambar 4.1. Konstruksi yang banyak menggunakan penopang dengan konstruksi I,


karena momen luas keduanya besar.
Second moment of area tidaklah sama dengan momen inersia , yang digunakan untuk
menghitung percepatan sudut. Banyak enginer yang merujuk pada momen luas kedua
sebagai momen inersia dan menggunakan simbol yang sama yaitu Iatau J untuk keduanya
hal ini yang membingungkan. Padahal dilihat dari unitnya berbeda momen luas kedua
mempunyai unit panjang pangkat empat, sedangkan momen inersia mempunyai unit massa
kali panjang kuadrat.
Terkadang suatu struktur penopang menerima puntiran, kopel puntir atau momen
puntiran. Puntiran tersebut menimbulkan tegangan geseran yang disebut sebagai tegangan
geser puntir. (lihat Gambar 4.1).

Gambar 4.1. Batang yang mengalami puntiran (torsion)

Besarnya tegangan yang diakibatkan oleh momen puntir/torsi pada penampang batang
dituliskan dengan formula sebagai brerikut (lihat BAB II dan III).
t = T . r / Ip
(4.1)
dimana : t = tegangan geser torsi, T = besaran momen torsi, r = Jari-jari batang terputir,
Jp = Ip = momen inersia polar penampang tergeser (momen inersia luas), dengan Ip = d
4
/32 untuk lingkaran pejal, Ip = /32(d24 - di4) untuk lingkaran berlubang. Pada
persamaan 4.1 besarnya momen inersia harus diketahui. Karena bentuknya tidak selalu
dengan penampang lingkaran momen inersia harus dihitung berdasarkan rumus dasar:
(4.2a)
Ix = momen luas kedua terhadap sumbu x, y = jarak tegak lurus terhadap sumbu x terhadap
elemen dA, dA = elemen unit luas.
4.1. Menghitung Momen Inersia
Momen luas kedua suatu penampang adalah salah satu parameter geometri yang
sangat penting dalam analisis struktur. Untuk penampang yang beraturan, seperti persegi,
lingkaran dsb, telah dibuatkan tabel, namun bagaimana cara memperolehnya yaitu berbesis
dari momen inersia luar permukaan yaitu momen inersia terhadap sumbu x (pers 4.2a).
Kalau untuk sumbu y, tinggal menukar sumbu y menjadi x.Dari formula dasar itulah kita
bisa menurunkan formula momen inersia untuk bentuk geometri apapun.
Hal tersebut di atas dapat digunakan sendirinya manakala bentuk penampangnya
simetris misal terhadap sumbu x. Apabila sulit diperoleh maka dapat dicari momen luas
kedua dari hasil kedua sumbu x- dan y-axis dan hasil dari perkaliannya adalah momen lusa
kedua, Ixy, yang dapat digunakan.
(4.2b)
Iy = momen luas kedua terhadap sumbu y, x = jarak tegak lurus dari sumbu y terhadap
elemen dA, dA = an elemental area.
Bentuk Persegi
Salah satu bentuk balok penopang bangunan atau beban berpenampang persegi empat
berukuran
, b lebar, h tinggi. Sumbu x sebagai pusat puntiran terletak pada sumbu
netral atau garis berat (tengah-tengah) . Berdasarkan formula dasar
, maka kita
harus meninjau sebuah elemen kecil
. Elemen ini mempunyai ukuran
dan
.
Sehingga bisa kita tuliskan luas elemen
. Jika kita kumpulkan semua elemen
yang mempunyai nilai yang sama dengan b tetap dan variabelnya adalah y

maka elemen

, kini menjadi

, sehingga (pers.4.2)

b bernilai konstan untuk setiap nilai , kita keluarkan saja b dari kurungan cacing tersebut,
Sekarang, tinggal menentukan batas atas dan batas bawah dari dy. Berdasarkan gambar di
atas, maka batas bawahnya adalah - h/2 dan batas atas adalah h/2. Sehingga

Bagaimana Dengan Momen Inersia Terhadap Bukan Sumbu Netral?

Misalnya, pada gambar di atas, kita mau menentukan tapi sumbu x-x tidak pada garis
berat, melainkan seperti pada gambar di bawah. Dengan cara yang sama dengan menggati
batas integrasi dari 0 h, maka diperoleh:

Coba kita geser lebih jauh lagi ke atas. Lihat gambar di bawah.

Bila batas bawah = , dan batas atas =


terhadap sumbu x = 0, maka, dapat
digunakan formula yang sudah diketahui yaitu bh3 /12 atau bh3 /3, dengan cara:
1. Gunakan bentuk benda dari segitiga atau segi empat yang sudah diketahui
2. jumlahkan bentuk bangunan tersebut dengan prinsip penjumlah momen luas dari
persamaan momen yang terintegrasi.
Dari contoh di atas tidak lain adalah luas persegi, sementara y o + h/2 adalah jarak titik
berat ke sumbu momen inersia!.dari luas persegi empat yang berpusat pada garis atau
sumbu x di tengah-tengah yaitu + h/2 dengan h/2.

Secara umum bisa dituliskan:

dimana, adalah momen inersia terhadap sumbu x tertentu,


adalah momen inersia
terhadap sumbu netral (garis berat), adalah luas bangun/penampang, adalah jarak dari
titik berat ke sumbu momen inersia yang dicari.
Dalam beberapa buku penggunaan Ix dan Ixx sama tergantung pengguna. Ada yang
menggunakan dengan notasi sumbu x-axis digunakan Ix, kadang kala diambil penggal
sumbu x-x' sehingga digunakan Ixx, demikian juga Iy dan Iyy.
4.2. Produk moment luas (area)
Produk momen luas antara sumbu x dan y adalah Ixy didefinisikan:

dA = an elemental area, x = the perpendicular distance to the element dA from the axis y, y
= the perpendicular distance to the element dA from the axis x
Produk momen area sangat signifikan untuk mencari stress pembengkokan pada
penampang melintang asymmetric, yang dapat memberikan nilai negatif dan positif.Sistem
koordinat yang menghasilkan momen area nol sebagai rujukan dan sumbu utama, dengan
pendekatan maximum dan minimum. Pusat perlakuan lenturan dari sumbu utama dan
simetris dengan satuan (mm4, in4 dsb.)

Teorima axis (sumbu) sejajar.


The parallel axis theorem can be used to determine the moment of an object about any axis,
given the moment of inertia (second moment of area) of the object about the parallel axis
through the object's center of mass (or centroid) and the perpendicular distance between the
axes.

Ix = the second moment of area with respect to the x-axis


IxCG = the second moment of area with respect to an axis parallel to x and passing
through the centroid of the shape (coincides with the neutral axis)
A = area of the shape
d = the distance between the x-axis and the centroidal axis

Axis rotation
The following formulae can be used to calculate moments of the section in a co-ordinate
system rotated relative to the original co-ordinate system:

= the angle of rotation(anticlockwise sense):


x * = xcos + ysin
y * = xsin + ycos
Ix, Iy and Ixy = the second moments and the product moment of area in the original
coordinate system
Ix*, Iy* and Ixy* = the second moments and the product moment of area in the rotated
coordinate system.

The value of the angle , which will give a product moment of zero, is equal to:

This angle is the angle between the axes of the original coordinate system and the principal
axes of the cross section.

Stress in a beam
The general form of the classic bending formula for a beam in co-ordinate system having
origin located at the neutral axis of the beam is (Pilkey 2002, p. 17):

is the normal stress in the beam due to bending


x = the perpendicular distance to the centroidal y-axis
y = the perpendicular distance to the centroidal x-axis
My = the bending moment about the y-axis
Mx = the bending moment about the x-axis
Ix = the second moment of area about x-axis
Iy = the second moment of area about y-axis
Ixy = the product moment of area

If the coordinate system is chosen to give a product moment of area equal to zero, the
formula simplifies to:

If additionally the beam is only subjected to bending about one axis, the formula simplifies
further:

Circular cross and Hollow cylindrical cross section

D = diameter, r = radius. DO = outside diameter, DI = inside diameter, rO = outside radius, rI


= inside radius
This equation is useful in calculating the required strength of masts. Taking the area
moment of inertia calculated from the previous formula, and entering it into Euler's formula
gives the maximum force that a mast can theoretically withstand.

E is [Young's modulus|Young (elastic) modulus of material], I is the second moment of area


of examined object,l is the length of panel

Composite cross section


When it is easier to compute the moment for an item as a combination of pieces, the second
moment of area is calculated by applying the parallel axis theorem to each piece and adding
the terms:

y = distance from x-axis, x = distance from y-axis, A = surface area of part, Ilocal is the
second moment of area for that part of the composite, in the appropriate direction (i.e. Ix or
Iy respectively).

"I-beam" cross section

I-beam

I-beam diagram, moment by subtraction

b = width (x-dimension), h = height (y-dimension), tw = width of central webbing, h1 =


inside distance between flanges (usually referred to as hw, the height of the web)
The I-beam can be analyzed as either three pieces added together or as a large piece
with two pieces removed from it. Either of these methods will require use of the formula
for composite cross section. This section only covers doubly symmetric I-beams, meaning
the shape has two planes of symmetry. This formula uses the method of a block with two
pieces removed. (While this may not be the easiest way to do this calculation, it is
instructive in demonstrating how to subtract moments). Since the I-beam is symmetrical
with respect to the y-axis the Ix has no component for the centroid of the blocks removed
being offset above or below the x axis.

When computing Iy it is necessary to allow for the fact that the pieces being removed are
offset from the Y axis, this results in the Ax2 term.

A = Area contained within the middle of one of the 'C' shapes of created by two flanges and
the webbing on one side of the cross section =

, x = distance of the centroid of the

area contained in the 'C' shape from the y-axis of the beam =
Doing the same calculation by combining three pieces, the center webbing plus identical
contributions for the top and bottom piece:

I-beam diagram, moment by addition


Since the centroids of all three pieces are on the y-axis Iy can be computed just by adding
the moments together.

However, this time the law for composition with offsets must be used for Ix because the
centroids of the top and bottom are offset from the centroid of the whole I-beam.

A = Area of the top or bottom piece=


y = offset of the centroid of the top or bottom piece from the centroid of the whole
I-beam=

Any cross section defined as polygon


The second moments of area for any cross section defined as a simple polygon on XY
plane can be computed in a generic way by summing contributions from each segment of a
polygon.
For each segment defined by two consecutive points of the polygon, consider a triangle
with two corners at these points and third corner at the origin of the coordinates. Integration
by the area of that triangle and summing by the polygon segments yields:

ai = xiyi + 1 xi + 1yi is twice the (signed) area of the elementary triangle,


index i passes over all n points in the polygon, which is considered closed, i.e. point
n+1 is point 1

These formulae imply that points defining the polygon are ordered in anticlockwise
manner; for clockwisely defined polygons it will give negative values. See polygon area for
calculating area and centroid of the section using similar formulae.
The following is list of area moments of inertia. The area moment of inertia or second
moment of area has a unit of dimension length4, and should not be confused with the mass
moment of inertia. Each is with respect to a horizontal axis through the centroid of the
given shape, unless otherwise specified.
Description

Figure

Area moment of inertia

Comment

a filled circular
area of radius r

Reference

[1]

For thin tubes, this is


approximately equal
an annulus of inner
radius r1 and outer
radius r2

to:

or times
the cube of the
average radius times
the thickness.

a filled circular
sector of angle in
radians and radius
r with respect to
an axis through the
centroid of the
sector and the
centre of the circle
a filled semicircle
with radius r with
respect to a
horizontal line
passing through
the centroid of the
area

[2]

a filled semicircle
as above but with
respect to an axis
collinear with the
base

This is a consequence
of the parallel axis
theorem and the fact
that the distance [2]
between these two

axes is

a filled semicircle
as above but with
respect to a
vertical axis
through the
centroid

[2]

a filled quarter
circle with radius r
entirely in the 1st
quadrant of the
Cartesian
coordinate system

[3]

a filled quarter
circle as above but
with respect to a
horizontal or
vertical axis
through the
centroid

This is a consequence
of the parallel axis
theorem and the fact
that the distance [3]
between these two

axes is

a filled ellipse
whose radius
along the x-axis is
a and whose radius
along the y-axis is
b

a filled rectangular
area with a base
width of b and
height h

a filled rectangular
area as above but
with respect to an
axis collinear with
the base

a filled triangular
area with a base
width of b and
height h with
respect to an axis
through the
centroid

[4]

This is a trivial result


from the parallel axis
theorem

[4]

[5]

a filled triangular
area as above but
with respect to an
axis collinear with
the base

This is a consequence
of the parallel axis
theorem

a filled regular
hexagon with a
side length of a

The result is valid for


both a horizontal and
a vertical axis
through the centroid.

[5]

The following is a list of moments of inertia. Mass moments of inertia have units of
dimension mass length2. It is the rotational analogue to mass. It should not be confused
with the second moment of area (area moment of inertia), which is used in bending
calculations. The following moments of inertia assume constant density throughout the
object.
NOTE: The axis of rotation is taken to be through the center of mass, unless otherwise
specified.
Description

Figure

Moment(s) of inertia

Comment
This expression assumes the shell thickness
is negligible. It is a special case of the next
object for r1=r2.

Thin cylindrical
shell with open ends,
of radius r and mass
m

Also, a point mass (m) at the end of a rod of


length r has this same moment of inertia.

Thick-walled
cylindrical tube with
open ends, of inner
radius r1, outer
radius r2, length h
and mass m

[1]

With a density of and the same geometry


or when defining the normalized thickness
tn = t/r and letting r = r2,
then

Solid cylinder of
radius r, height h and
mass m

This is a special case of the previous object


for r1=0.

Thin, solid disk of


radius r and mass m

This is a special case of the previous object


for h=0.

Thin circular hoop of


radius r and mass m

This is a special case of a torus for b=0.


(See below.)

Solid sphere of
radius r and mass m

A sphere can be taken to be made up of a


stack of infinitesimal thin, solid discs,
where the radius differs from 0 to r.

Hollow sphere of
radius r and mass m

Similar to the solid sphere, only this


time considering a stack of infinitesimal
thin, circular hoops.

Oblate Spheroid of
major a, minor b and
mass m

Right circular cone


with radius r, height
h and mass m

Solid cuboid of
height h, width w,
and depth d, and
mass m

For a similarly oriented cube with

sides of length s,

Thin rectangular
plane of height h and
of width w and mass
m

Thin rectangular
plane of height h and
of width w and mass
m
(Axis of rotation at
the end of the plate)

Rod of length L and


mass m

This expression assumes that the rod is


an infinitely thin (but rigid) wire. This
is a special case of the previous object
for w=L and h=d=0.

Rod of length L and


mass m
(Axis of rotation at
the end of the rod)

This expression assumes that the rod


is an infinitely thin (but rigid) wire.

About a diameter:
Torus of tube radius
a, cross-sectional
radius b and mass m.

About the vertical axis:

Plane polygon with


vertices

, ...,
and
mass m uniformly
distributed on its
interior, rotating
about an axis
perpendicular to the
plane and passing
through the origin.