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The purpose of this glossary is to facilitate a common language within the United States Army Air Defense Artillery School (USAADASCH), and the air defense community.
This glossary is not an official DoD publication; it is limited to terminology that relates to the air defense
community. A number of computer, software, and engineering terms are included, especially those applicable to USAADASCH. Many entries are taken from the JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and
Associated Terms, As Amended through 1 September 2000. A number of outdated or seldomused
terms are also included for historical relevance, though obsolete terms are denoted.
World Wide Web
The USAADASCH ADA Glossary can be found on the USAADASCH Digital Training Access (DTAC)
home page at
All entries are listed in alphabetical order, including acronyms (which are cross-referenced with their corresponding definition). General terms are defined in a USAADASCH context where appropriate.
Corrections/Additions should be sent to Directorate of Training and Doctrine (DOTD), ATTN: Warfighter Division, Fort Bliss, Texas. Phone: Comm (915) 568-5722, DSN 978-5722, FAX 568-0450 or Include the reference source for the term definition.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

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Army Airspace Command and Control


Advanced Image Intensification






analog-to-digital; arm/disarm




Air Defense/Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence

Air/Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS) (FM 44-94 (FM 3-01.94)) The AMDWS is the primary
tool for monitoring and managing AMD operations. It receives air situational awareness from the
ADSI, and ground situation and intelligence information from the maneuver control system (MCS), all
source analysis system remote workstation (ASAS RWS) and other sources. The AMDWS maintains a
comprehensive database of the tactical situation and also provides mission-planning capabilities to
overlay sensor coverage, weapons coverage, airspace control measures, threat locations, and planned
unit positions.

Avenue of Approach; antiaircraft; assembly area; active Army


antiaircraft artillery; Air Avenue of Approach


Army Acquisition Corps


Army air defense; active air defense


Area Air Defense Commander; Army Air Defense Command, Army Air Defense Commander


Army Air Defense Control and Coordination System


Army Air Defense Command


Army Air Defense Command Post


air-to-air guided missile


advanced attack helicopter


additional authorizations list; ATM adaptation layer


advanced airdrop for land combat


air-to-air missile


Army Air and Missile Defense Command

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Army after next


area air picture


Advanced Antenna Prototype Subsystem


after action review (See AR 350-50-3)


air assault task force


Air Assault Task Force Commander


Army aviation


American, British, Canadian, and Australian


Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center


Army Battle Command System


Army battle damage repair


ALSP Broadcast Emulator


Array Beam Forming Network


Aviation Battle Lab


anti-ballistic missile; air-breathing missile


Air Battle Management Operations Center



Abort (JP 1-02) 1. To terminate a mission for any reason other than enemy action. It may occur at any
point after the beginning of the mission and prior to its completion. 2. To discontinue aircraft takeoff
or missile launch.
Above ground level (AGL) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The altitude of an aircraft as measured between the terrain (excluding vegetation and man-made structures) and the aircraft. The altitude is usually not the same as measured from sea level. See also coordinating altitude. See FMs 1-111, 17-95,
90-4, and 100-103.

air-breathing threat; air breathing target

AC (ac)

active component; Assistant Commandant; alternating current


Airspace Control Authority; airspace coordination area; Airlift Clearance Authority


Army Combined Arms Training System


Airspace Control Center; Air Combat Command

Accidental launch (USSPACECOM) An unintended launch which occurs without deliberate national
design as a direct result of a random event, such as mechanical failure, a simple human error, or an unauthorized action by a subordinate.

Army Command and Control System


aviation combat element; airborne command element (USAF, JFACC); analysis and control element; ARM countermeasures evaluator




acknowledge; acknowledged; acknowledgement

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


allowable cabin loads


airspace control measure; ALSP common module


airspace control order (JFACC term)


Army common operating environment


Atlantic Command


air control point; allied communications publication; airspace control plan

ACQ (acq)

acquire; acquisition

Acquire (JP 1-02) 1. When applied to acquisition radars, the process of detecting the presence and
location of a target in sufficient detail to permit identification. 2. When applied to tracking radars, the
process of positioning a radar beam so that a target is in that beam to permit the effective employment
of weapons. See also target acquisition.
Acquisition (ACQ) (sensor) (BMDO Glossary) The result of processing sensor measurements to produce object reports of interest to the system.
Acquisition Field Of View (AFOV)(BMDO Glossary) The instantaneous volume viewed by the interceptors sensor during the process of searching its assigned volume.
Acquisition radar (BMDO Glossary) A radar that searches a spatial volume and identifies potential
targets from the background and non-hostile objects.
Acquisition tracking and pointing (ATP) (BMDO Glossary) The process of acquiring within a given
field of view a target (or targets) and maintaining a precision track of the same while enabling the
pointing of a sensor or weapon at the target so that it may be destroyed.

ammunition condition report; armored cavalry regiment

Active (BMDO Glossary) In surveillance, an adjective applied to actions or equipment, which emit
energy capable of being detected, e.g., radar in and active sensor.
Active Air Defense (AAD) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Direct defensive action taken to nullify
or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. It includes such measures as the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, weapons not used primarily in an air defense role, and electronic warfare. See also air
defense. (Army) Direct defensive action taken to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles. See
FMs 44-63 (FM 3-01.64) and 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Active Defense (AD) (JP 1-02) Operations that protect selected assets and forces from attack by destroying TM airborne launch platforms and/or TMs in flight. Active defense also includes those actions that mitigate the effectiveness of targeting and delivery systems through EW against remote or
onboard guidance systems. (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Applies to operations initiated to
protect assets against a tactical missile attack by destroying theater missile TM airborne launch platforms or destroying TMs in flight. Active defense includes multi-tiered defense in depth via multiple
engagements using air, land, and sea theater missile defense systems. It also includes using electronic
warfare to disrupt enemy remote or onboard guidance systems. See FMs 44-100 (FM 3-01), and JP 301.5.
Active homing guidance (JP 1-02) A system of homing guidance wherein both the source for illuminating the target, and the receiver for detecting the energy reflected from the target as the result of illuminating the target, are carried within the missile. See also guidance.
Active missile defense (AMD) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Active missile defense applies to operations
initiated to protect against a TM attack by destroying TM airborne launch platforms and/or destroying

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

TMs in flight. Active missile defense includes a multi-layered defense in depth via multiple engagements using air, land, and sea assets. It also includes active electronic warfare to disrupt remote or onboard guidance systems.
Active Sensor (BMDO Glossary) A sensor that illuminates a target, producing return secondary radiation, which is then detected to track and/or identifies the target. An example is radar.

Advanced Communication Technology Satellite


antenna control unit


Army Common User System


Area Common User Network


antenna cable vehicle


Air Defense; armored division; active duty; aerospace defense


Air Defense Artillery; air defense area


air defense action area


Air Defense Artillery Controller


Air Defense Artillery Director


Assistant Division Air Defense Officer


Air Defense Artillery Fire Control Officer


Army-wide Device Automated Management

ADAM CELL Air Defense Artillery Airspace Management Cell


Air Defense Artillery Operations Detachment


Air Defense Artillery Operations Office(R)


air defense area


air defense annual service practice


Air Defense Tactical Operations Center (USA Brigade); Army Defense Artillery Tactical
Operations Center


Air Defense Antitank System


Air Defense Battle Lab Support Element


air defense control; air defense coordination; Air Defense Command; Aerospace Command


Air Defense Combined Arms Tactical Trainer


Air Defense Control Center; air defense close combat


Air Defense Command and Control Systems


Air Defense Command, Control, and Coordination System


air defense combat modeling simulations


air defense control net


Air Defense Communications Office(R)

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Air Defense Coordinator


Air Defense Command Post


air defense communication platform


Air Defense Coordination Section


air defense district; air defense division


Air Defense Direction Center


Air Defense Electro Optical System


Army Data Distribution System = EPLRS + JTIDS; Army Data Dictionary System


Army data distribution system interface/improved


Army Data Distribution System Tactical Trainer


air defense emergency


air defense early warning


asset defense file


air defense initiative; air defense interface


air defense identification zone


automatic data link


Air Defense Liaison Officer


abbreviated decision-making process


Air Defense Missile System (USMC term)


Air Defense Officer; Army Digitization Office


air defense operations area


Air Defense Operations Center


Air Defense Operations Control Center


Advanced Digital Optical Control System


air defense operations liaison team


automatic data processor; air defense plan


automatic data processing equipment


automatic data reentry


ARC/Army Digitized Raster Graphics


Automatic Data Reentry System


Air Defense Sector; Air Defense Section; air defense suppression; Advanced Distribution
Simulation/Azimuth Determining System


air-directed surface-to-air missile


Air Defense Support Command


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


air defense system integrator


air defense suppression missile


Atmospheric Density Specification Satellite


air defense table; active duty for training


Air Defense Tactical Operations Center


Air Defense Tactical Operations Section

Advance party See AR 310-25, and also FM 55-30 (FM 4-01.30).

Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) (Weapon Systems 1999) Provides the
multi-service (Army and Marine Corps) automated Fire Support Command, Control, and Communications portion of the Army Battle Command System (ABCS). Enables the maneuver commander to
plan and execute attacks on the right target, at the right time, with the right weapons system, and the
right ammunition.

air defense warning


air defense exercise


antenna equipment; antenna element; automatic emplacement

Aegis (JP 1-02) A totally integrated shipboard weapon system that combines computers, radars, and
missiles to provide a defense umbrella for surface shipping. The system is capable of automatically detecting, tracking, and destroying airborne, sea-borne, and land-launched weapons.
Aerial platform

See air platform

Aerial Port Of Debarkation (APOD) See FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1) See also FM 55-12.
Aerial Port Of Embarkation (APOE) See FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1) See also FM 55-12.
Aerial targets for training (FM 3-01.11) Normally, all ADA live-fire training is conducted using
high performance unmanned aerial targets. These targets must be capable of simulating combat aircraft
characteristics and will require the ADA weapon system to use its maximum capability. Numerous
types of aerial targets, operated by troop units or furnished and operated by contract personnel, are
available for ADA service practice. Three categories of aerial targets are described in the following tables. They are drone targets, towed targets, and ballistic and troop operated targets. See FM 3-01.11
for more information.
Aerodynamic missile (JP 1-02) A missile which uses aerodynamic forces to maintain its flight path.
See also ballistic missile; guided missile.
Aerospace Defense (AD) (JP 1-02) 1. All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking
enemy aircraft, and missiles and also negate hostile space systems. 2. An inclusive term encompassing
air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense. See also air defense. See FM 44-100 (FM 301).
Aerostats (BMDO Glossary) Ship- or ground-moored balloon supporting a radar antenna.

azimuth error site


antenna equipment unit


airborne early warning


Air Force

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Advanced Field Artillery System


Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System; Army Field Artillery Target Direction


air force base


Air Force Global Weather Central


assumed friend


acquisition field of view


Assault Fire Platoon


Air Force Special Operations Command


Assault Fire Unit


automatic gain control

Air Force Global Command And Control System (USAF term); Army Global Command
And Control System (USA term)

Air-to-Ground Engagement System

Agility (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy and is a
prerequisite to seizing and holding the initiative. Agility is a mental as well as a physical quality. See
FM 100-5.

above ground level


air-to-ground missile


Maverick air-to-surface missile


See short-range attack missile.


Active Guard Reserve


Armored Gun System


aerial gunnery target


Advanced Gunnery Training System


Automated Historical Archives System


air interdiction; airborne intercept


anti-intercontinental ballistic missile


air intercept missile


Advanced Integrated Man-portable System


Army Interoperability Network


air intelligence preparation of the battlespace


Automated Information System

Air and Missile Defense (AMD) (USAADASCH) As normally used, the term is synonymous with
theater air and missile defense (see entry). However, the term can also be used in a broader context to
apply to any integrated joint force operations conducted to destroy air and missile threats in flight or

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

prior to launch regardless of whether the operations occur in an established theater. The term can also
be used in a narrower context to apply to ADA operations (or active defense operations) conducted to
destroy air and missile threats in flight.
Air and Missile Defense Coordinator (AMDCOORD) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) The AMDCOORD
is responsible for planning air and missile defense operations to support the force commander's concept of the operation. The AMDCOORD is an integral member of the maneuver commander's staff
planning team. The AMDCOORD, with input from the G2, assesses the air and missile threat and the
commander's intent in order to develop TMD, OCA, and DCA priorities. The AMDCOORD assists
the fire support coordinator in integrating OCA and TMD attack operations priorities into the force's
targeting process. The AMDCOORD recommends active, passive, and other combined arms air and
missile defense measures in the air defense estimate. After staff coordination and approval of the air
defense estimate, the AMDCOORD develops the air defense annex to the operation plan. The
AMDCOORD also coordinates with ADA elements at higher and lower echelons, as well as with adjacent units. Coordination ensures vertical and horizontal integration of ADA coverage throughout the
battlefield. For example, the corps AMDCOORD integrates corps ADA with theater, division, and adjacent corps ADA forces. In force-projection operations, this will include integration with joint or multinational counterair and theater missile defense participants. The division AMDCOORD ensures the
air defense plan interfaces with the corps and adjacent division air defense plans.
Air and Missile Defense Master Plan (AMDMP) ( The AMDMP is
the Air Defense Artillery branch modernization plan to execute the air and missile defense mission on
the battlefields of the next century. It provides a common azimuth to focus air and missile defense
modernization for the needs of Army XXI through Army After Next. It also assures unity of purpose
and a consistent Air Defense Artillery community approach to future modernization actions.
Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System (AMDPCS) (FM 3-01.11) The AMDPCS is
a mission essential system that provides ADA commanders, staffs and crews with automated capabilities to enhance the execution of air and missile defense operations. The AMDPCS is composed of a set
of modular, reconfigureable, and standardized automated data processing equipment, based on common hardware and software (CHS) developed for the Army Battle Command System (ABCS). The
AMDPCS components will be designed for use with variants of the army standard integrated command post system (SICPS) appropriate to the mission and mobility requirements of the supported unit.
The reconfigureable nature of the AMDPCS provides an inherent "jump TOC" capability to support
limited AMDPCS operations. A portion of the AMDPCS is deployed into a theater or new area of operations to provide a capability to perform critical command, control, communications and intelligence
(C3I) functions until the entire AMDPCS is deployed. Appropriate configurations of the AMDPCS
will be fielded at all echelons of command and control. The AMDPCS integrates all air and missile defense sensors, weapons and C3I capabilities into a cohesive, synergistic system capable of minimizing
fratricide, protecting the force and defeating or neutralizing the air and missile threat. It provides the
automated interface for AMD elements at theater and below with the Army Battle Command System
(ABCS) and the Army Global Command and Control System (AGCCS), allowing unit commanders
and staffs to plan, coordinate and control the AMD fight. The AMDPCS will also be capable of joint
service information exchange and interfacing with appropriate allied C3I systems.
Air and Missile Defense Task Force (AMDTF) See air and missile defense; task force.
Air attack (JP 1-02) 1. Coordinated -- A combination of two or more types of air attack (dive, glide,
low-level) in one strike, using one or more types of aircraft.
Air Avenue of Approach (AAA) (JP 1-02) See Avenue of Approach
Air Battle Management (FM 44-71 (FM 3-01.7)) A fundamental task or air defense command and
control and airspace management which encompasses the principles for the control and coordination

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

of both tactical air and ground-based air defense resources. Air battle management is exercised
through positive and procedural methods.
Air Battle Management Operations Center (ABMOC) airborne (abn) (JP 1-02) 1. In relation to
personnel, troops especially trained in effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation. 2. In
relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne
troops during or after an assault debarkation. It also designates aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by
air until it is attached to the ground.
Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1))
A United States Air Force aircraft equipped with communications, data link, and display equipment; it
may be employed as an airborne command post or a communications and intelligence relay facility.
See FMs 7-30, 71-100, and JP 3-18.1.
Airborne Early Warning (AEW) (JP 1-02) The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or
other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units.
Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) (JP 1-02) Air surveillance and control provided
by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems.
Air-breathing (BMDO Glossary) A flying vehicle that uses the oxygen in the atmosphere as the oxidizer in its propulsion system. Examples are jet aircraft and cruise missiles. This category does not include ballistic missiles.
Air-Breathing Missile (ABM) (JP 1-02) A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. To be contrasted with the rocket missile, which carries its
own oxidizer and can operate beyond the atmosphere.
Air Breathing Threat (ABT) (FM 3-10.87) The air breathing threat includes fixed-wing (FW) and
rotary wing (RW) aircraft, tactical air-to-surface missiles (TASM), and unmanned aerial vehicles
Air Control Point (ACP) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) An easily identifiable point on the terrain or an electronic navigational aid used to provide necessary control during air movement. ACPs
are generally designated at each point where the flight route or air corridor makes a definite change
and at any point deemed necessary for timing or control of the operation. (See also air corridor, communications checkpoint (CCP), and minimum-risk route (MRR).) See FMs 1-111, 71-100-3, and 100103.
Air Corridor (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A restricted air route of travel specified for use by
friendly aircraft and established to prevent friendly aircraft from being fired upon by friendly forces.
(Army) Used to deconflict artillery fire positions with aviation traffic, including unmanned aerial
vehicles. (See also air control point (ACP).) See FM 1-111, 71-100-3, and 100-103.
Air Defense (AD) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earths envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. (See also active air defense; aerospace defense; air defense suppression, and
passive air defense.) See FMs 44-63 (FM 3-01.64) and 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Air Defense Action Area (ADAA) (JP 1-02) An area and the airspace above it within which friendly
aircraft or surface-to-air weapons are normally given precedence in operations except under specified
conditions. See also air defense operations area.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Air defense area (JP 1-02) 1. OverseasA specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be
planned and provided. 2. United States Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne vehicles is required in the interest of national
security during an air defense emergency.
Air Defense Artillery (ADA) (JP 1-02) Weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets
from the ground.
Air Defense Artillery Controller (ADAC) (AR 310-25) An air defense artillery officer located at the
sector control center who provides information to the Army air defense commander concerning activities at the sector control center.
Air Defense Artillery defended area (AR 310-25) An air defense restricted area which is denied to
friendly aircraft except under certain specified conditions. See also air defense artillery prohibited
area; Air Defense Artillery restricted area; Air Defense restricted area.
Air Defense Artillery Employment Guidelines (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Planning and positioning
ADA resources involves applying six employment guidelines. The guidelines are mutual support,
overlapping fires, balanced fires, weighted coverage, early engagement, and defense in depth.

Mutual support is achieved by positioning weapons so that the fires of one weapon can engage
targets within the dead zone of the adjacent weapon system. For gun systems, this dead zone is
usually small. For missile systems, the dead zone can be large and the need for mutual support is
great. Mutual support can also be used to cover non-operational units or units at lower states of

Overlapping fires are achieved by positioning weapons so their engagement envelopes overlap.
Because of the many altitudes from which the enemy can attack or conduct RSTA operations, the
defense planner must apply mutual support or overlapping fires vertically and horizontally.

Balanced fires are achieved by positioning weapons to deliver an equal volume of fire in all
directions. This may be necessary when air defense is used in an area where the terrain does not canalize the enemy, or when the air avenue of approach is not predictable.

Weighted coverage is achieved by combining and concentrating fires toward the most likely
threat air avenues of approach or direction of attack. Based on the tactical situation, a commander
may risk leaving one direction of attack unprotected or lightly protected to weight coverage toward
another direction.

Early engagement is achieved by positioning sensors and weapons so they can engage the threat
before ordnance release or target acquisition. Ideally, ADA should engage and destroy the enemy
before it can fire on or acquire the defended asset or force.

Defense in depth is achieved by positioning sensors and weapons so the air threat will come under an increasing volume of fire as it approaches the protected asset or force. Defense in depth lowers the probability that the enemy will reach the defended asset or force.

Air Defense Artillery Employment Principles (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Commanders apply four
principles when planning active air and missile defense operations. These principles are mass, mix,
mobility, and integration.


Mass is the concentration of air and missile defense combat power. It is achieved by assigning
enough firepower to successfully defend the force or the asset against air and missile attack or surveillance. To mass air and missile defense combat power, commanders may have to accept risks in
other areas of the battlefield.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Mix is the employment of a combination of weapon and sensor systems to protect the force and
assets from the threat. Mix offsets the limitations of one system with the capabilities of another and
complicates the situation for the attacker. All joint and multinational arms resources are considered
when applying this principle. Proper mix causes the enemy to adjust their tactics. Enemy tactics designed to defeat one system may make the enemy vulnerable to another friendly system.

Mobility is the capability to move from place to place while retaining the ability to perform the air
defense mission. The mobility of air and missile defense resources must be equivalent to the mobility of the supported force. First priority for mobility should be planning moves that support accomplishment of the mission. Tactical situations may dictate additional moves to enhance survivability.
Strategic mobility is essential to support force-projection operations.

Integration is the close coordination of effort and unity of action, which maximizes operational
effectiveness. It is applicable, regardless of command relationships established. Active air and missile defense operations must be integrated into the supported commander's concept of the operation. The AD plan describes vertical and horizontal integration of air defense systems across the
width and depth of the battlefield and includes integration with joint and multinational forces.

Air Defense Artillery Fire Control Officer (ADAFCO) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) A liaison between
AADC DCA operations and land-based ADA systems for engagement operations. The ADAFCO
works with either the regional air defense commander (RADC) or sector air defense commander
(SADC). He provides a single Army point of contact between land-based AMD for fire direction centers and the controlling authority. The ADAFCO operates a console and, as required, assigns hostile
targets to the tactical director at the FDC. It is a highly efficient arrangement for air defense operations
because the ADAFCO normally is a Patriot officer and is more tactically proficient at controlling landbased air defense fires.
Air Defense Artillery Fire Unit (FU) (AR 310-25) The smallest group of personnel and equipment of
a particular air defense weapon system capable of conducting a complete engagement from detection
to destruction.
Air Defense Artillery methods of control (MOC) (AR 310-25) Procedures by which the fires of air
defense weapon systems are supervised in a particular defense. Theater rules or unit standing operating
procedures may specify or imply use of either the centralized or decentralized method of control, or
circumstances may force autonomous operations.
Air Defense Artillery prohibited area (AR 310-25) An airspace, which is denied to friendly aircraft
under all conditions. See also Air Defense Artillery defended area; Air Defense Artillery restricted
area; Air Defense restricted area.
Air Defense Artillery restricted area (AR 310-25) An airspace in which there are special restrictive
measures employed to minimize interference between friendly forces. See also Air Defense Artillery
defended area; Air Defense Artillery prohibited area.
Air Defense Artillery special control instructions (AR 310-25) Control instructions pertaining to
specific engagements by radar-directed air defense artillery weapons. Special control instructions include hold fire, cease-fire, and cease engagement.
Air Defense battle zone (JP 1-02) A volume of airspace surrounding an air defense fire unit or defended area, extending to a specified altitude and range, in which the fire unit commander will engage
and destroy targets not identified as friendly under criteria established by higher headquarters.
Air defense conditions of readiness (AR 310-25) The means by specified authorities to maintain the
air defenses at a state of preparedness compatible with the real or apparent imminence of attack. The
terms air defense readiness condition and defense readiness postures are frequently used in relation to

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

conditions of readiness. In response to each condition of readiness, the Army air defense commander
prescribes a required state of alert for each air defense artillery unit under his command.
Air Defense Control Center (ADCC) (JP 1-02) The principal information, communications, and operations center, from which all aircraft, antiaircraft operations, air defense artillery, guided missiles,
and air warning functions of a specific area of air defense responsibility are supervised and coordinated. Also called air defense operations center. See also combat information center.
Air Defense Coordinator (ADCOORD) See Air and Missile Defense Coordinator (AMDCOORD)
Air Defense direction center (JP 1-02) An installation having the capability of performing air surveillance, interception, control, and direction of allocated air defense weapons within an assigned sector of
responsibility. It may also have an identification capability.
Air Defense division (JP 1-02) A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense sector.
Air Defense early warning (JP 1-02) See early warning.
Air Defense Emergency (ADE) (JP 1-02) An emergency condition, declared by the Commander in
Chief, North American Air Defense Command, that exists when attack upon the continental United
States, Alaska, Canada, or United States installations; in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is
considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.
Air Defense ground environment (JP 1-02) The network of ground radar sites and command and
control centers within a specific theater of operations, which are used for the tactical control of air defense operations.
Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) (JP 1-02) Airspace of defined dimensions within which the
ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. See also air defense operations area.
Air Defense Liaison Officer (ADLNO) (FM 44-94 (FM 3-01.94)) The AAMDC deploys liaison officers (LNOs) to critical theater and ARFOR C2 nodes. The LNOs provide the essential coordination
needed to prosecute the TAMD fight efficiently. They keep TAMD commanders and staffs apprised of
the status of TAMD operations and recommend appropriate courses of action relative to air and missile events. They also serve as subject matter experts on the capabilities of the AAMDC and its subordinate ADA forces.
Air Defense Operations Area (ADOA) (JP 1-02) An area and the airspace above it within which procedures are established to minimize mutual interference between air defense and other operations. It
may include designation of one or more of the following: air defense action area, air defense area; air
defense identification zone, and/or firepower umbrella. See also air defense action area, air defense
identification zone, firepower umbrella, positive identification and radar advisory zone.
Air Defense Operations Center (ADOC) (JP 1-02) See air defense control center.
Air defense operations liaison team (ADOLT) See Liaison Team
Air defense operations team (JP 1-02) A team of United States Air Force ground environment personnel assigned to certain air defense control and warning units/elements.
Air defense readiness (JP 1-02) An operational status requiring air defense forces to maintain higher
than ordinary preparedness for a short period of time.
Airs defense region (JP 1-02) A geographical subdivision of an air defense area.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Air defense restricted area (AR 310-25) An airspace, in which, there are special restrictive measures
employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces. See also Air defense artillery
defended area; Air defense artillery prohibited area.
Air Defense sector (JP 1-02) A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense
Air defense suppression (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air operations, actions taken to degrade fixed and mobile surface-based components of enemy air defense systems so that offensive air
forces may effectively attack a target. See FMs 1-111, 6-20 series, and 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Air defense tactical operations center (ADTOC) See tactical operations center
Air defense tactical operations section (ADTOS) See tactical operations center
Air Defense Warning (ADW) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) In air defense, air defense warnings (ADW)
represent the commanders evaluation of the probability of air and/or missile attack within the AO.
ADW are routinely issued by area, region, or sector AD commanders. Any commander can issue
them. In no case can a commander lower ADW issued by the AD area, region, or sector commander.
The issuance of an ADW is not tied to any other warning procedure or alert status. Therefore, a commander may issue an ADW irrespective of DEFCON or WAD. ADA commanders do not change the
readiness posture of their units by changing the ADW, but instead raise or lower the WAD or SOR
and SOE. See air defense warning (ADW) conditions.
Air Defense Warning (ADW) conditions (JP 1-02) A degree of air raids probability according to the
following code. The term air defense division/sector referred to herein may include forces and units
afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable. Air defense warning yellow attack by hostile
aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward
an air defense division/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route
toward or are within an air defense division/sector. Air defense warning red attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are
within an air defense division/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense division/sector
with high probability of entering the division/sector. Air defense warning white attack by hostile
aircraft and/or missiles is probable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or
red. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic.
Air Defense Warning -Local (LADW) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1))
Dynamite Aircraft are inbound or attacking now, Response is immediate.
Lookout Aircraft are in the area of interest but are not threatening or are inbound but there is time
to react.
Snowman No aircraft pose a threat at this time.
See FM 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Air defense weapons control status (AR 310-25) The degree of fire control imposed upon Army
units having an air defense mission in the combat zone. Weapons control status terms normally used
are as follows; weapons free, weapons tight, and weapons hold.
Air-launched ballistic missile (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile launched from an airborne vehicle.
Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) (Dictionary, Army, Navy, Air Force) Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is at approximately constant velocity.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Air Liaison Officer (ALO) (JP 1-02) An officer (aviator/pilot) attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air operation matters. (Army) (FM 101-5-1
(FM 6-99.1)) The senior Air Force officer at each tactical air control party who provides advice on
the capabilities, limitations, and employment of fixed wing aircraft and coordinates close air support
element. (See also tactical air control party (TACP).) See FMs 6-20 and 101-5.
Air Operations Center (AOC) (JP 1-02) The principal air operations installation from which aircraft
and air warning functions of combat air operations are directed, controlled, and executed. It is the senior agency of the Air Force Component Commander from which command and control of air operations are coordinated with other components and services.
Air platform (AR 310-25) Any weight carrying vehicle capable of navigating under its own power
above the earths surface.
Air route (JP 1-02) The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for
the application of flight rules.
Airspace control (JP 1-02) See airspace control in the combat zone.
Airspace Control Authority (ACA) (JP 1-02) The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. (Army) (FM 1015-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The joint force air component commander has responsibility for all airspace operations above the coordinating altitude and forward of the joint force land component commanders
forward boundary, if so designated. See FMs 100-15 and 100-103.
Airspace Control Center (ACC) (JP 1-02) The airspace control authoritys primary airspace control
facility, including assigned Service component, host nation, and/or allied personnel and equipment.
Airspace control in the combat zone (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A process, used to increase
combat effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control is
provided in order to prevent fratricide, enhance air defense operations, and permit greater flexibility of
operations. Airspace control does not infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove, or deny combat operations. (See also airspace control authority (ACA), airspace control order
(ACO), and airspace coordination area (ACA).) See FM 100-103.
Airspace Control Measures (ACM) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Rules, mechanisms, and directions
governed by joint doctrine and defined by the airspace control plan which control the use of airspace
of specified dimensions. (See also high-density airspace control zone (HIDACZ), low-level transit
route (LLTR), minimum-risk route (MRR), and standard use Army aircraft flight route (SAAFR).) See
Fm 100-103.
Airspace control order (ACO) (JP 1-02) An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace control measures. It is published either as part of
the air tasking order or as a separate document. (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1))It includes temporary airspace control measures and designates which organization is controlling authority for each.
See FMs 100-15 and 100-103.
Airspace Control Plan (ACP) (JP 1-02) The document approved by the joint force commander that
provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force
area of responsibility/joint operations area.
Airspace Coordination Area (ACA) (JP 1-02) A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area,
established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from
friendly surface fires. The airspace coordination area may be formal or informal. (Army) (FM 101-5-1
(FM 6-99.1)) In fire support operations, a restrictive fire support coordination measure that establishes a three-dimensional block of airspace in the battle area in which friendly aircraft are reasonably

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

safe from friendly fires. Aircraft and indirect fire are separated by time, space, or altitude. The purpose
of the ACA is to allow the simultaneous attack of targets near each other by multiple fire support
means, one of which normally air. (See also Army airspace command and control (A2C2)).) See FMs
100-103 and JP 3-56.
Airspace management (JP 1-02) The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace
of defined dimensions.
Air-to-air guided missile (AAGM) (JP 1-02) An air-launched guided missile for use against air targets. See also guided missile.
Air-to-ground missile (AGM) See air-to-surface guided missile
Air-to-surface guided missile (ASGM) (JP 1-02) An air-launched guided missile for use against surface targets. See also guided missile.
Air-to-surface missile (ASM) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Air-to-surface missiles (ASM) are airlaunched, precision-guided munitions designed to strike ground targets. They are ideal against targets,
such as bridges, that are difficult to destroy with "dumb" bombs. They are similar to air-launched CM,
but are smaller, have shorter ranges, lack the wings and aerodynamic lift associated with CM flights,
and are launched by tactical fighter-bomber aircraft. Most threat ASM are of Soviet or Russian origin
and employ radio command, laser, anti-radiation homing, or electronic-optical guidance systems.
Air Tasking Order (ATO) (JP 1-02) A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies those projected sorties/capabilities/forces to targets and
specific missions. Normally provides specific instructions to include call signs, targets, controlling
agencies, etc., as well as general instructions.



Army Knowledge Network

ALARM (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Directive/information indicating the termination of EMCON.

air-land battlefield environment


air-land battlefield management


advanced land combat


Airlift Coordination Center (JFACC term)


airlift control element


air-launched cruise missile


attack and launch early reporting to theater

Alert (JP 1-02) 1. Readiness for action, defense or protection. 2. A warning signal of a real or threatened danger, such as an air attack. 3. The period of time during which troops stand by in response to
an alarm. 4. To forewarn; to prepare for action. See also airborne alert. 5. A warning received by a unit
or a headquarters, which forewarns of an impending operational mission. See also air defense warning
conditions; ground alert; and warning order.

Air Liaison Officer


air line(s) of communications




advanced low-radar cross section


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary




amplitude modulation


Army Materiel Command


Aviation and Missile Command


air and missile defense; active missile defense


Army Missile Defense Command

AMDCOORD Air and Missile Defense Coordinator (USAADASCH)


Air and Missile Defense Master Plan


Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System


air and missile defense task force


Air/Missile Defense Workstation


airspace management element


antenna mast group


airspace management liaison section


antimissile missile




amplifying; amplifier


Advanced Medium Range Air-To-Air Missile


Avenger maintenance trainer


active maintenance training simulator


automated net control device


Army National Guard

ANGELS (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Height of friendly aircraft in thousands of feet.

Army National Missile Defense

Antenna Equipment Unit (AEU) (FM 3-01.11) The THAAD AEU consists of an X-band, phased
array antenna and an electronics package. The AE transmits radio frequency (RF) energy to support
search, track, and interceptor uplink/downlink. The AE includes the capability to transmit multiple RF
beams sequentially and receive beams simultaneously. The AEU has both front and rear leveling
jacks. The M1088 Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) or a commercial semi-tractor moves
the AEU. The AEU performs fence, volume, and cued search and serves as the communications link to
in-flight missiles. The antenna can be positioned from zero to eighty degrees in elevation.
Antenna Mast Group (AMG) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The AMG provides antenna/amplifier systems
for use with the UHF communications equipment located in the ECS, ICC, or CRG shelter that the
AMG is supporting. The AMG is employed to overcome terrain obstacles and to increase the range of
transmission and reception of UHF data and voice communications.
Antiballistic Missile (ABM) (BMDO Glossary) The term used for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD)
weapons developed to negate the ballistic missile threat in the late 60s and early 70s.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Antiballistic missile system (BMDO Glossary) A system designed to counter strategic missiles or
their elements in-flight.
Anti-radiation missile (ARM) (JP 1-02) A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. See
also guided missile.
Antitactical missile (ATM) See MIM-104C

area of operations; action officer


analysis of alternatives; angle of attack


air order of battle


air operations center; area of concentration; augmentee observer controller


area of interest; additional operational issue


area of responsibility


Azimuth Orientation System


augmentee observer trainer


armor-piercing; ammunition point; antipersonnel


armored personnel carrier


armor-piercing discarding sabot


armor-piercing discarding sabot-tracer


Army point of contact


aerial port of debarkation


aerial-port of embarkation

Apogee (JP 1-02) The point at which a missile trajectory or satellites orbit is farthest from the center
of the gravitational field of the controlling body or bodies.

ADA programming support environment (Signal Corps)


auxiliary power unit


Army regulation; armor


All Radiation Anti-Missile System


Army Brigade Center


Allied Forces, Central Europe

Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) (JP 1 02) Within a unified command, subordinate unified
command, or joint task force, the commander will assign overall responsibility for air defense to a single commander. Normally, this will be the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Representation from the other components involved will be provided, as
appropriate, to the area air defense commanders headquarters. See JP 3-12.1
Area Common User System (ACUS) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) The ACUS is the in-theater, tactical
communications equivalent to civilian phone service. The ACUS is installed and operated by the
Army signal brigades at the EAC and corps levels and organic signal battalions in the divisions environment. The ACUS utilizes the MSE communications family of equipment that consists of a variety

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

of multi-channel radio and switching systems to form a communications network to provide bulkencrypted (secure), voice and data, and tactical packet network switching.
Area Common User Network (ACUSN) (FM 3-01.11) Doctrinally, Theater Army, EAC, and corps
signal brigade resources provide MSE and Tri-tactical (Tri-Tac) communications support as required
by the theater commander. This support consists of voice and data over MSE packet networks, and
Tri-Tac network services. These communications resources collectively make up the Tri-Tac communication systems at the EAC level, and the ACUS at corps level and below, to include the division levels. The ACUS and or Tri-Tac networks may provide secure EO voice and secure FO voice and fax
data connectivity to the THAAD battery depending on the batterys location.
Area of influence (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A geographical area wherein a commander is
directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the
commanders command or control. (Army) It includes both organic and supporting combat power,
to include joint, multinational, or interagency assets.
Area of interest (AOI) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) That area of concern to the commander,
including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces which
could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission. (Army) A geographical area from which information and intelligence are required to execute successful tactical operations and to plan for future
operations. It includes any threat forces or characteristics of the battlefield environment that will significantly influence accomplishment of the commands mission. (See also area of operations (AO) and
battlespace.) See FMs 34-130, 71-100, and 100-15.
Area of operations (AO) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An operational area defined by the joint
force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire
operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders
to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. (Army) A geographical area, including the
airspace above, usually defined by lateral, forward, and rear boundaries assigned to a commander, by a
higher commander, in which he has responsibility and authority to conduct military operations. (See
also area of interest (AOI) and battlespace.) See FMs 34-130, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, 100-20, and JP

Army Forces


antiradiation missile

Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) Performs critical
theater level air and missile defense planning integration, coordination, and execution functions for the
ARFOR commander and JFLCC. The AAMDC integrates the four operational elements of TMD: active defense, attack operations, passive defense, and C4I to protect contingency, forward deployed, and
reinforcing forces as well as designated theater strategic assets. The AAMDC prepares the air and missile defense annex for the ARFOR operations order (OPORD). The AAMDC commands the echelons
above corps (EAC) ADA brigades and other assigned forces.
Army Air and Missile Defense Coordinator (AMDCOORD) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01)) The
AMDCOORD is an integral member of ARFOR staff planning teams. The senior ADA commander at
each level in the ARFOR organization normally performs AMDCOORD functions. The
AMDCOORD recommends active defense priorities consistent with the factors of METT-TC. The
AMDCOORD develops these priorities based on CVRT factors of each asset. The AMDCOORD recommends ADA and other combined arms active defense measures in the active defense estimates. After staff coordination and approval of active defense estimates, the AMDCOORD develops the active
defense portion of the air and missile defense annex to the ARFOR OPLAN. The AMDCOORD also

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

assists in integrating TMD priorities into the forces targeting process. The AAMDC Commander is
the TAAMDCOORD and the AMDCOORD to the ARFOR Commander.
Army Air Defense Command (AADC) (AR 310-25) 1. Command composed of a headquarters battery and two or more brigades of air defense artillery. 2. A command established by the US Army to
command all Army air defense forces allocated to the air defense of the United States. 3. A major subordinate command of the US theater army, collateral with army groups and established by existing operational requirements.
Army Air Defense Command Post (AADCP) (JP 1-02) The tactical headquarters of an Army air defense commander.
Army Airspace Command And Control (A2C2) (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The Armys
application of airspace control to coordinate airspace users for concurrent employment in the accomplishment of assigned missions. (See also airspace control order (ACO).) See FM 100-103.
Army Battle Command System (ABCS) (Weapon Systems 1999) The Armys component to the
GCCS and, as such, provides the mechanism to receive and transmit information among the joint
forces. The ABCS consists of subsystems for the Battlefield Functional Area (BFA) each of which
supports, provides information to other systems, and provides situational awareness of the battlefield.
By integrating the ABCS components through the Joint Common Data Base (JCDB), the Common
Tactical Picture can be viewed at any workstation, to the operators specific requirements.
Army Brigade Center (ARBC) (BMDO Glossary) The Army center between the ARSPOC and the
ARROC with C2 responsibilities for BMD.
Army Data Distribution System (ADDS) (EPLRS/NTDRS) (Weapon Systems 1999) Provide automated, secure, near-real-time radio communications systems to tactical commanders and their staffs;
provide data distribution capability between computers as well as position, location and navigation reporting of their combat elements from platoon to brigade. Utilizes the enhanced position location
reporting system (EPLRS) and near-term digital radio system (NTDRS).
Army Data Distribution System (ADDS) (JTIDS/MIDS) (Weapon Systems 1999) The Link-16
[Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS/Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) which will create the Army communications backbone from platoon to brigade for Force
XXI. The Link 16 program supports the Armys Theater Air and Missile Defense Engagement Operations by providing an interoperable joint and allied Link 16 tactical digital data link with air, ground,
surface, and subsurface platforms.
Army Forces (ARFOR) (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The Army forces headquarters and or
forces provided by the Army service component to the joint force commander for the conduct of joint
operations. (See also land component commander (LCC) and joint force land component commander
(JFLACC).) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and JP 3-0.
Army Space Command (ARSPACE) (USARSPACE Website;
Army Space Command, the Army Component to US Space Command, commands and controls Army
space forces in order to provide existing and emerging space capabilities that enable the NCA, U.S.
forces and our allies to deliver decisive combat power. USARSPACE is a major subordinate command
of US Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC). USASMDC is a Major Command
operating under the direction of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).
Army Space Operations Center (ARSPOC) (BMDO Glossary) The Army Space Command Center
responsible for logistically/administratively controlling assigned SDS elements and which shall also
include the capability to assure the BMD mission should the USCINCSPACE CCC be lost.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) (AR 350-50-3) Made up of the Battlefield
Functional Area (BFA) systems: Fire support, Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data Systems
(AFATDS), Intelligence, All Source Analysis System (ASAS), Logistics, Combat Service Support
Command and Control Systems (CSSCS), Forward Area Air Defense for Command and Control,
Communications (FAADC3I), and Combined Arms - Maneuver Control System (MCS). Once fully
fielded, ATCCS will provide corps, division, brigade and maneuver battalion with fully automated C2.
Army Tactical Data Link 1 (ATDL) (JP 1-02) See tactical digital information link.
Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) (AR 310-25) A Department of the Army publication providing guidance for training and evaluating units. It provides a list of tasks, ranked according to criticality, which must be accomplished by each element of the unit in order for it to accomplish
its table(s) of organization and equipment mission. In addition to the tasks, it lists corresponding training objectives, references, conditions for testing and standards which must be attained.

Army National Guard


Army regional operations center


Army Space Command


Army space operations center


Army Training and Evaluation Program


aircraft recognition training-visual (slide kit)




alignment reference unit (PAC-3); attitude reference unit


Automated System Approach to Training; anti-satellite


Automated Standard Army Training System


air-to-surface ballistic missile


Army Service Component Commander; Army Service Component Command


anti-ship cruise missile


air-to-surface guided missile


azimuth speed indicator; additional skills identifier


Adaptable Surface Interface Terminal


authorized stockage list (USA term); above sea level




air-to-surface missile; aim smart munitions; anti-ship missile


Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Huntsville, AL


air support operations center


ammunition supply point; annual service practice; Army strategic plan


ammunition supply rate




USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Assured kill (BMDO Glossary) This option requires defense segments to employ tactics, which produce the highest probability of kill consistent with the available number of defensive resources (interceptors).





annual training


Army Tactical Missile System


anti-tactical ballistic missile


air traffic control; asset threat category


Army Tactical Command and Control System


Army tactical data link; Army Training Digital Library


automatic test equipment


antitank gun; antenna test group


antitank guided missile


Army Training Literature Program


anti-tactical missile; air tasking message; asynchronous transfer mode


Army theater missile defense


air tasking order


acquisition tracking and pointing; allied tactical publication


advanced tactical power unit

Attack and Launch Early Reporting To Theater (ALERT) (BMDO Glossary) An upgrade to
ground station mission processing which exploits inherent satellite capability to provide theater missile
warning and cueing.
Attack operations (JP 3-01.5) Offensive actions intended to destroy and disrupt enemy theater missile
(TM) capabilities before, during, and after launch. The objective of attack operations is to prevent the
launch of TMs by attacking each element of the overall system, including such actions as destroying
launch platforms, RSTA platforms, C nodes, and missile stocks and infrastructure.
Augmentation (AR 310-25) The reinforcement of unified or specified commands through the deployment or redeployment of forces assigned to other commands.
Augmentee Observer Controller/Trainer (AOC/AOT) (AR 350-50-3) A non-certified OC (NCO or
Officer) tasked to augment BCTP during an exercise to provide expertise not available or to temporarily fill a personnel vacancy within BCTP to ensure comprehensive coverage of the exercise by all BOS
and SMEs.


Automatic emplacement (AE) (FM 3-01.87) A Patriot system capability which utilizes the Precision
Lightweight Global Positioning Receiver (PLGR), North Finding System (NFS), and GPS-North Reference System Input/Output (GNIO) interface. Together these units automatically perform the operator
alignment functions that generate location, azimuth roll and crossroll for the system.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Autonomous operation (JP 1-02) In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has
lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for
control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.





armored vehicle crewman

Avenger (Weapon Systems 1999) Lightweight, highly mobile, and transportable surface-to-air missile/gun weapon system mounted on a HMMWV. Fills the line of sight-rear (LOS-R) portion of the
Avenues of approach (AA) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An air or ground route of an attacking
force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. (See also intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, 34-130, 44-100 (FM 3-01), 71-123, and 100-5.





automatic video tracker; Avenger Video Tracker


automatic weapon; air warning


Airborne Warning And Control System


Advanced Warfighting Experiment



Azimuth (AZ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities
increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They
may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used.
(Army) The horizontal angle, measured clockwise by degrees or mils between a reference direction
and the line to an observed or designated point. There are three base (reference) directions or azimuths: true, grid, and magnetic azimuth. (See also grid azimuth, magnetic azimuth, and true azimuth.)
See FM 21-26.
Azimuth angle (JP 1-02) An angle measured clockwise in the horizontal plane between a reference
direction and any other line.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Brigade-and-Below Command and Control System (Army term)


Battlefield Command And Control


Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence

Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence


Back azimuth (AR 310-25) A reciprocal bearing. The reverse or backward, direction of an azimuth;
that is, the azimuth plus or minus 180 degrees.

battlefield air interdiction

Balanced fires See employment guidelines.

Ballistic Aerial Target System (BATS) (DA Pam 350-38) BATS is a low-cost target for short-range
Air Defense systems. It may be flown at low and medium altitudes and at speeds from 275 to 550
knots (140 to 285 meters per second). It is troop operated and may be maintained with minimum training. It is highly mobile and provides a reliable standby target for short-range Air Defense systems such
as Avenger, BSFV, and Stinger-MANPADS. BATS is not suitable for gun systems nor air-to-air
Stinger engagements.
Ballistic missile (BM) (JP 1-02) Any missile, which does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated.
Ballistic missile defense (BMD) (AR 310-25) All measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of an attack by ballistic missiles after they are launched. See also active ballistic missile defense; passive ballistic missile defense.
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) (BMDO Glossary) An agency of the Department of
Defense whose mission is to manage and direct the conduct of a research program examining the feasibility of eliminating the threat posed by ballistic missiles of all ranges and of increasing the contribution of defensive systems to United States and Allied security. BMDO is the successor to Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). Chartered through DOD Directive 5134.9, June 1994.
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) (JP 1-02) An electronic system for providing
detection and early warning of attack by enemy inter-continental ballistic missiles.
Ballistics (JP 1-02) The science or art that deals with the motion, behavior, appearance, or modification of missiles or other vehicles acted upon by propellants, wind, gravity, temperature, or any other
modifying substance, condition, or force.
Ballistic trajectory (JP 1-02) The trajectory traced after the propulsive force is terminated and the
body is acted upon only by gravity and aerodynamic drag.

battalion aid station; battlefield automation system

Base Defense Zone (BDZ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An air defense zone established around
an air base and limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base. Base defense zones have specific entry, exit, and identification, friend or foe procedures established. (See also air defense and base defense.) See FMs 44-100 and 100-15.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Basic load (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within,
and which can be moved by, a unit or formation. It is expressed according to the wartime organization
of the unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels. (Army) The quantity of supplies
and ammunition stored and carried under an organizations control that is determined by a higher
headquarters on the basis of the mission and analysis of the threat. See FMs 6-20, 7-7, 7-20, 71-123,
and 100-10.

battalion tactical initialization


Ballistic Aerial Target System

Battalion maintenance equipment (BMC) (FM 3-01.11) Semitrailer mounted shop van that contains
the tools, test and handling equipment necessary to maintain the Patriot system. The HHB MC has
been configured to function as a small repair parts transporter (SRPT).
Battalion tactical initialization (BATI) (FM 3-01.87) Provides the ICC weapons control computer
(WCC) with data parameters necessary for C2 of battalion engagement operations. These parameters
include (FIDOC) identification, assets and defended volumes, and patriot battery search sectors.
Battalion tactical operations center (BTOC/BNTOC) See tactical operations centers.
Battery (JP 1-02) 1. Tactical and administrative artillery unit or subunit corresponding to a company
or similar unit in other branches of the Army. 2. All guns, torpedo tubes, searchlights, or missile
launchers of the same size or caliber or used for the same purpose, either installed in one ship or otherwise operating as an entity.
Battery replaceable unit (BRU) See Line replaceable unit (LRU)
Battery maintenance group (BMG) (FM 3-01.11) Semi-trailer mounted shop van that contains the
tools, test and handling equipment necessary to maintain the Patriot system.
Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) (AR 350-50-3) The capstone of the Army CTC program designed to provide tough, realistic, stressful, and high quality command and battle staff training
for brigade, division, and corps commanders, their staffs, and major subordinate commanders. Serves
as a source of data and lessons learned for the DTLOMS.
Battle damage assessment (BDA) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from the application of military force, either lethal or non-lethal, against a
predetermined objective. Battle damage assessment can be applied to the employment of all types of
weapon systems (air, ground, naval, and special forces weapon systems) throughout the range of military operations. It is primarily an intelligence responsibility with required inputs and coordination
from the operators. It is composed of physical damage assessment, functional damage assessment, and
target system assessment. See FMs 6-20-10, 34-1, 34-130, 71-100, and 100-15.
Battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Any expedient action that
returns a damaged item or assembly to a mission-capable or limited mission-capable condition. Repairs are often temporary. (See also cannibalize.) See FMs 63-2 and 100-9.
Battle damage repair (BDR) (JP 1-02) Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly
in a battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary service.
Battle drill (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Standardized actions made in response to common battlefield
occurrences. They are designed for rapid reaction situations. See FMs 7-1, 7-8, 7-10, 7-15, and 17-98.
Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (BM/C4I)
(FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) The BM/C4I system links passive defense, active defense, and attack
operations to provide timely assessment of threat, to include IPB; rapid dissemination of tactical warning; and post-strike assessment to the appropriate TMD element. For each operational element, the

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

BM/C4I system must provide rapid communications among intelligence assets, and fusion and decision-making facilities, warning systems, and weapons systems, to include a capability for rapid coordination with supporting combatant commanders.
Battlefield air interdiction (FM 3-01.11 (FM 44-100-2)) Air interdiction attacks against targets,
which are in a position to have a near-term effect on friendly land forces.
Battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An Army liaison
provided by the Army component commander to the Air Operations Center (AOC) and/or to the component designated by the joint force commander to plan, coordinate, and de-conflict air operations.
The battlefield coordination detachment processes Army requests for tactical air support, monitors and
interprets the land battle situation for the AOC, and provides the necessary interface for exchange of
current intelligence and operational data. See FMs 71-100, 100-13, and 100-15.
Battlefield Coordination Element (BCE)
ment (BCD).

OBSOLETE. Refer to Battlefield coordination detach-

Battlefield operating system (BOS) (AR 350-50-3) The major functions occurring on the battlefield
and performed by the force to successfully execute operations. The seven systems are intelligence,
maneuver, fire support, mobility/survivability, air defense, combat service support, and command and
Battlespace (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The environment, factors, and conditions which must
be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes the air, land, sea, space, and the included enemy and friendly forces, facilities, weather, terrain,
the electromagnetic spectrum, and the information environment within the operational areas and areas
of interest. See also electromagnetic spectrum; information environment; joint intelligence preparation
of the battlespace. (Army) The conceptual physical volume in which the commander seeks to
dominate the enemy. It expands and contracts in relation to the commanders ability to acquire and
engage the enemy, or can change as the commanders vision of the battlefield changes. It encompasses
three dimensions and is influenced by the operational dimensions of time, tempo, depth, and synchronization. It is not assigned by a higher commander nor is it constrained by assigned boundaries. (See
also battlefield framework.) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.

battery commander


battalion command and control


Battle Command Battle Laboratory, (USA, Ft. Leavenworth, KS)


battery control central


battlefield coordination detachment


battlefield coordination element; Bradley control electronics


Battlefield Combat Identification System (USA term)


battery command post (HAWK)


battery computing system


battery coolant unit


Battle Command Training Program (USA, Ft. Leavenworth, KS) (See Battle Command
Training Program)


battle damage assessment


battlefield damage assessment and repair


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary




bearing-distance-heading indicator


battlefield damage report


battery display unit


base defense zone

Beam width (JP 1-02) The angle between the directions, on either side of the axis, at which the intensity of the radio frequency field drops to one-half the value it has on the axis.
Bearing-distance-heading indicator (BDHI) See North Finding System
Beyond Visual Range Engagement (BVRE) (USAADASCH) The engagement of hostile aircraft by
a SHORAD weapon system before the gunner or team chief can visually identify a target. Beyond visual range engagements are permitted when:

The HTUs track is identified as hostile by an agency authorized identification authority IAW the
Area Air Defense Plan (AADP) and Airspace Control Plan (ACP) and will comply with criteria for
JDN track maintenance and continuity to ensure positive track identity IAW AADP and ACP.

Theater ROE authorizes engagement of hostile targets by SHORAD systems beyond visual range.

Correlation between JDN identified hostile tracks and the SHORAD systems acquired track can
be positively correlated.

Friendly or unknown aircraft are not in the vicinity of the hostile aircraft.

The Stinger missile has direct, line-of-sight to the aircraft.


battlefield functional area


Bradley fighting vehicle


battlefield information control center


ballistic intercept missile

BIRD (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Friendly surface-to-air missile (SAM).

BIRD(S) AFFIRM (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) S/A informative indicating unit is able and prepared to
engage a specified target with SAMs (presumes target is within or will enter the SAM engagement envelope).
BIRD(S) AWAY (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Friendly SAM has been fired at designated target.
BIRD(S) NEGAT (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) S/A informative indicating unit is unable to engage a
specified target with SAMs. Opposite of Bird(s) Affirm.

built-in test


built-in test equipment


basic load

BLIND (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) No visual contact with friendly aircraft/ground position. Opposite

beyond line-of-sight


ballistic missile; battlefield management; battle management


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


battery maintenance center; battle management center; battalion maintenance center


ballistic missile defense


Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; ballistic missile defense operations


battalion maintenance equipment


Ballistic Missile Early Warning System


battery maintenance group


battalion maintenance officer


battalion motor maintenance officer




battalion headquarters


battalion system coordination center


battalion tactical operations center


battalion operations center (AD)

Boost phase (JP 1-02) That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the
booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; reentry phase; terminal phase.

battlefield operating system


battle position

Boundary (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A line which delineates surface areas for the purpose of
facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations or areas.
(Army) 1. A control measure used to define the right, left, rear, and forward limits of an area of
operations. 2. A control measure normally drawn along identifiable terrain features and used to delineate areas of tactical responsibility between adjacent units and between higher headquarters to the rear
of subordinate units. Within their boundaries, units may maneuver within the overall plan without
close coordination with neighboring units unless otherwise restricted. Direct fire may be placed across
boundaries on clearly identified enemy targets without prior coordination, provided friendly forces are
not endangered. Indirect fire also may be used after prior coordination. (See also airhead, airspace coordination area (ACA), area of operations (AO), and bridgehead.)
Bounding overwatch (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) A movement technique used when
contact with enemy forces is expected. The unit moves by bounds. One element is always halted in
position to overwatch another element while it moves. The overwatching element is positioned to support the moving unit by fire or fire and movement. (See also movement technique and overwatch.) See
FMs 7-8, 7-20, and 71-123.
Bradley Control Electronics (FM 3-01.11) The Bradley control electronics (BCE) is the main computer that monitors and controls all Stinger-related system functions. The primary function of the BCE
is to interface between the Linebacker systems and the operator. Through this interface, the operator
provides input to the BCE that controls the Stinger system. The BCE also monitors input from the system, including built-in-test (BIT) status. If a system failure is detected, the BCE will cause the system
fault indictor on the SCB to illuminate and display an error message on the control display terminal


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Bradley fire support team (BFIST) vehicle (Weapon Systems 1999) Integrated Bradley-based fire
support platform that enables company fire support teams and battalion/brigade fire support officers to
plan, coordinate, execute, and direct timely, accurate, indirect fires.
Bradley Linebacker (Weapon Systems 1999) M6 Bradley Linebacker is a BFVS A2 ODS, modified
by replacing the TOW launcher with a four-missile Stinger launcher. Provides the crew with the capability of conducting ground-to-air engagement while remaining under armor protection. Also incorporates the FAADC2 software on a handheld terminal unit (HTU). Integrates GPS and FAADC2 to provide automated Slew-to-Cue function.
Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV) (FM 3-01.11) The Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle
(BSFV) consists of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle transporting a Stinger MANPADS team. The primary
role of the BSFV is to protect forward area maneuver combat forces, combat support elements, and
other critical assets from attack by hostile RW and FW aerial platforms operating at low altitudes. The
BSFV can deliver effective fire against ground targets such as lightly armored vehicles and tanks using the Bradley Fighting Vehicle turret weapons.
Broke Lock (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Loss of radar/IR lock-on (advisory).



battery replaceable unit. See LRU


battery/brigade/battalion support area


battalion system coordination center


battlefield situation display


battalion supply and equipment


Bradley Stinger fighting vehicle


Bradley Stinger fighting vehicle-enhanced (Linebacker)


beam steering group; beam steering generator


beam steering processor


Battalion Training Management System


Battalion Tactical Operations Center




British Thermal Unit

Built in test equipment (BITE) (AR 310-25) Any device permanently mounted in the prime equipment and used for the express purpose of testing the prime equipment, either independently or in association with external test equipment.
Burn-through range (BMDO Glossary) The distance at which a specific radar can discern targets
through the external interference being received.

beyond visual range


beyond visual range engagement


beyond visual range identification


brigade warfighter exercise


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Command And Control

Command, Control, and Intelligence

command and control vehicle (USA term)

Command and Control Warfare

Command, Control, and Communications


Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence

Command, Control, Communications, and Computers


Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence


C4, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance




close range-unmanned aerial vehicle


combined arms; coordinating altitude; course acquisition


combined arms Army


combined arms and support


Combat Arms Command (USA, Ft Leavenworth, KS)


computer aided design; continental air defense


common air defense communications interface


Counter-Air Directed Energy Weapon System


combined arms for air defense


combined arms initiative; computer-aided instruction




critical asset list


combined arms live fire exercise


camouflage (cam) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy. (See
also concealment, cover, deception, and surveillance.) See FM 90-2.
cannibalize (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1) To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in order
to install them on another item of equipment. (Army) The authorized removal of parts or components from economically unrepairable or disposable items or assemblies and making them available
for reuse. (See also battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR).) See FMs 63-2, 63-2-1, 63-6, 63-20,
63-21, and 71-123.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


counterair operations


combat air patrol; crisis action planning

Captive flight trainer (CFT)

(FM 3-01.11) The Stinger Captive Flight Trainer is a Stinger missile guidance assembly in a
launch tube. The CFT provides operator training in target acquisition, tracking, engagement, loading and unloading at the service school and sustainment training on these tasks in the unit.

(DA Pam 350-38) Avenger captive flight trainer (CFT). The CFT is a missile simulator used
to train operator tracking and engagement skills. The CFT is used in conjunction with RCMATs to
train engagement procedures with live targets. The CFT consists of a Stinger-RMP missile guidance assembly, a ballasted launch tube and a container. The seeker and audio interface is the same
as for the tactical missile, with electrical power and coolant provided by normal launcher sources.


counter-arm (anti-radiation missile)(Patriot)


close air support


Combined Arms Training Strategy


Corps Battle System


computer based training




cluster bomb unit


circuit card assembly


commanders critical information requirements




concept definition; contingency deployment; combat development


classification, discrimination, identification




compact digital switch


control display terminal; computer display terminal


computer display unit


communication enhancement (Patriot); communication-electronics; command element;

common environment

Cease (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) In air defense, break the ENGAGEMENT on the target specified.
Missiles in flight will continue to intercept.
Cease engagement (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct units to stop the firing sequence against a designated target. Guided missiles already in flight will
continue to intercept. (See also engage and hold fire.) See FM 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Cease fire (CEASF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A command given to air defense artillery
units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles already in flight
will be permitted to continue to intercept. (Army) A command given to any unit or individual firing any weapon to stop engaging the target. (See also call for fire, fire command, and fire mission.)
See FMs 6-20, 7-8, 7-90, 17-12, 23-1, and 44-100 (FM 3-01).

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


cease fire


U.S. Army Communications Electronics Command, Ft. Monmouth, NJ

Celestial guidance (JP 1-02) The guidance of a missile or other vehicle by reference to celestial bodies. See also guidance.

United States Central Command

Centralized control (JP 1-02) In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct
target assignments to fire units. See also decentralized control. See also, modes of control.

communications electronics operating instructions


circular error probable


communications electronics security officer


cooling equipment unit


constant false alarm rate


Combined Forces Command, Korea


conventional forces Europe; contractor furnished equipment


coordinated fire line


confirm; confirmed


captive flight trainer


combined field exercise





Cherubs (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Height of a friendly aircraft in hundreds of feet.
Chicks (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Friendly aircraft.

common hardware and software


combat information center


critical item list


communications interface panel

Circular error probable (CEP) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1) An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius
of a circle within which half of a missiles projectiles are expected to fall. (Army) Error in location
of a system or vehicle based on the on-board navigational system and the distance from the last survey
control point. See FMs 6-50 series, 7-90, 17-12, and 23-1.

control indicator unit; communication interface unit


confirmed kill


crypto key weekly




USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Classification, Discrimination, and Identification (CDI) (PAC 3 SMMP) See Patriot Advanced
Capability Configuration 2
Classify (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) The capability to declare a target a ballistic missile (BM) or air
breathing object. As technology enables accurate target classification as manned or unmanned, future
doctrine and established ROE should allow for the authority to engage on classification as an unmanned platform.

cooling liquid electronic tube (Patriot)


contract line item number


contractor logistics support

Clutter (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1) Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on
radar scope; as contrast has entered scope clutter. (See also air defense) See FM 44-100.

cruise missile; crewmember


countermeasure; centimeter




cruise missile defense


computer-managed instruction system


command plan


configuration management plan


combat maneuver training center. See Combat Training Center


clutter map update program




coaxial (machine gun)


combatant command (command authority)


Corps of Engineers; Common Operating Environment


components of end item


correlation of forcesair


conduct-of-fire trainer

Collective training (AR 350-70) Training, either in institutions or units, that prepares cohesive teams
and units to accomplish their missions in the full continuum of military operations.
Collocation (JP 1-02) The physical placement of two or more detachments, units, organizations, or
facilities at a specifically defined location.
Combat air patrol (CAP) (JP 1-02) An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, over the force
protected, over the critical area of a combat zone, or over an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their target.
Combat drill (AR 350-70) A collective task done at platoon level and below that is critical to the
units success in combat.
Combat information center (CIC) (JP 1-02) The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to
collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer,

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Certain control, assistance, and coordination functions may be delegated by command to the combat information center. See also air defense control
Combat maneuver training center (CMTC) See Combat Training Center
Combat Training Center (CTC) (AR 350-50-3) An Army program established to provide realistic
service and combined arms training in accordance with Army doctrine. It provides training unit opportunities to increase collective proficiency on the most realistic battlefield available during peacetime.
The four components of the CTC program are the National Training Center (NTC), the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), and BCTP. BCTP is
the capstone of the CTC program.
The four U. S. Army Combat Training Centers are:

The Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) at Fort Leavenworth, KS provides training for
ARFOR/JFLCC, Corps, Divisions and Brigade Commanders and their staffs.

The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, CA provides training for brigade and battalion task forces. NTC is oriented towards heavy units.

The Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, LA provides training for brigade and
battalion task forces. JRTC is oriented towards light units.

The Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) at Hohenfels, Germany provides training for
battalion task forces (both heavy and light).

Combined arms (CA) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1) The synchronized or simultaneous application of
several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, engineers, air defense, aviation, to achieve an effect on
the enemy that is greater than if each arm was used against the enemy in sequence. (See also combat
multiplier and task force (TF).) See FMs 71-100, 71-123, and 100-5.
Combined arms for air defense (CAFAD) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Participants on the battlefield
must be capable of firing in self-defense at enemy attack or surveillance aircraft. Small arms and crewserved weapons fire against rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, UAVs, and cruise missiles thus providing
a significant terminal defense. Individual and crew-served weapons can mass their fires against air
threats. The massed use of guns in local air defense causes enemy air to increase their standoff range
for surveillance and weapons delivery and increase altitude in transiting to and from targets. These reactions make enemy air more vulnerable to ADA. CAFAD training and tactical SOPs enable units to
effectively prepare for self-defense against air attack.
Combined arms integration (AR 350-70) The process of ensuring that lower level's training strategies support the next higher level's training strategies (i.e. battalion supports brigade) and maneuver
training strategies are supported by other unit strategies.
Combined arms live fire exercise (AR 350-70) High-cost, resource-intensive exercises in which
player units move or maneuver and employ organic and supporting weapons systems using full service
ammunition with attendant integration of all combat, CS, and CSS functions.
Combined arms training (AR 350-70) Training which focuses on the integration of combat, combat
support, and combat service support elements to produce units capable of mission accomplishment on
the battlefield.
Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS) (AR 350-70) The Combined Arms Training Strategy
(CATS) is the Army's overarching strategy for the current and future training of the force. These training strategies --


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Describe how the Army will train the total force to standard.
Consist of unit, individual, and self-development training strategies.
Identifies, quantifies, and justifies the training resources required to execute the training.
Combined field exercise (CFX) See combined; field exercise
Combined training exercise (CFX) See combined; training exercise
Comm/comm. communication

Command and control (C ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of
the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel,
equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. (See
also battle command, command, commander, and command post (CP).) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 71-100,
71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.
Command and control warfare (C2W) (JP 1-02/ FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The integrated use of
operations security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare (EW), and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities. While protecting friendly
command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare is an application of information warfare in military operations and is a subset of information warfare. Command
and control warfare applies across the range of military operations and all levels of conflict. C2W is
both offensive and defensive: a. C2-attack. Prevent effective C2 of adversary forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading, or destroying the adversary C2 system. b. C2-protect. Maintain
effective command and control of own forces by turning to friendly advantage or negating adversary
efforts to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system. (See also information warfare (IW).) See FMs 34-1, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and JP 3-13.1.

Command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C I) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1))
Integrated system doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, facilities, communication computers,
and supporting intelligence assets. It includes missile warning and cueing of defense systems by missile warning sensors and ground stations. C4I provides command authorities at all levels with timely
and accurate data systems to plan, monitor, direct, control, and report operations. (Army) The
means for the commander to communicate his intent, command and control his forces, and disseminate
pertinent information throughout his area of operations.
Command, control, communications, computers systems (C4) (JP 1-02) Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commanders exercise of command and control across the range of military operations. See also command and control; tactical command, control, communications, and computer system(s).
Command guidance (JP 1-02) A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted to the missile from
an outside source causes the missile to traverse a directed flight path. (See also guidance.)
Command post (CP) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A units or subunits headquarters where the
commander and the staff perform their activities. In combat, a unit or subunits headquarters is often
divided into echelons; the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or from which
such commander operates is called a command post. (Army) The principle facility employed by
the commander to control combat operations. (The commander is only present at the command post to
receive information or briefings. He controls the battle from a forward position called the command

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

group.) A CP consists of those coordinating and special staff activities and representatives from supporting Army elements and other services that may be necessary to carry out operations. Corps and division headquarters are particularly adaptable to organization by echelon into a tactical CP, a main CP,
and a rear CP. (See also alternate command post (CTCP), command group, main command post, rear
command post, tactical command post (TAC CP), and tactical operations center (TOC).) See FMs 1111, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 101-5.
Command post exercise (CPX) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An exercise in which the forces
are simulated, involving the commander, his staff, and communications within and between headquarters. (See also exercise.) See FMs 100-5 and 101-5.
Commanders tactical terminal (CTT) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01)) Provides the joint warfighter with
seamless, near real-time tactical intelligence and targeting information; it provides the critical data
links to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defense activities, fire support, and aviation nodes
across all services. The CTT is capable of accessing information transmitted over the Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence Exchange Service (TRIXS); TIBS, using both UHF Single Channel Tactical
Satellite (SCTACSAT) and LOS; Tactical Data Information Exchange System-B (TADIXS-B); and
Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Applications (TRAP/TDDS). The Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS) will subsume all the above radio networks, as well as several others.


Common operational picture (COP) (JTAMDO Battle Management Concept for Joint Theater Air and
Missile Defense Operations, 14 March 1998) The force disposition and planning/amplifying data
from each consistent tactical picture (CTP) is combined with any additional information produced by
the CINC (e.g., commanders intent, battle plans, projection overlays, etc.) at the CINC-designated
COP correlation site to form the common operational picture. This provides the CINC with a complete
description of his AOR that can be accessed by appropriate GCCS users worldwide.
Communication patch panel (CPP) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Provides voice communications via UHF
and VHF radios.
Communication relay (CR) (FM 3-01.11) A CR (group) consists of a single LCS and SSG. It provides both data relay and voice relay whenever point to point communications capabilities are exceeded because of distance or terrain masking. A CR may be used to provide communications relay
TOC and Launchers. In exercising control of any remote THAAD element via a CR, communications between the TOC and the CR are usually via JTIDS. Communications between the CR and
launchers is by fiber optic cable.
TOC and SSI. In exercising control of remote radar via a CR, communications links between the
TOC, CR, and SSI are usually via JTIDS.
THAAD TOCs. The communications link between two or more THAAD TOCs using CRs is usually via JTIDS.
TOC and external agencies or nets. The communications link between a TOC and CR is usually
JTIDS with the link between the CR and external agencies/nets as required. A TOC may communicate directly with external agencies without using a CR.
Communications Relay Group (CRG) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The main function of the CRG is to extend the range of the secure multirouted battalion UHF DDL network by functioning as a link node relay station between each firing battery ECS and the ICC, between other battalion ICCs, and between
the ICC and higher echelon.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


communications zone

Compact Digital Switch (CDS) (FM 3-01.11) The Compact Digital Switch (CDS [ON-422 handles
over 708 individual circuits. This device routes telephone and data throughout the battery and the external ACUS network. It includes a multi-station intercom system with selective answering capability,
audible/visual alerts, and conference calling (intercom, radio, and telephone) capability. The two associated pieces of COMSEC equipment are the speech security equipment and the trunk encryption devices that provide bulk encryption for ACUS purposes. The software used to initialize the CDS is contained in a laptop computer. The software version of the CDS must also be compatible with the software version used by the MSE system. Pre-affiliation lists (routing tables) and individual phone lists
must also stay current to ensure maximum interoperability.
Compass rose (JP 1-02) A graduated circle, usually marked in degrees, indicating directions and
printed or inscribed on an appropriate medium.


Composite defense (AR 310-25) In air defense artillery, a defense that employs two or more types of
fire units which are integrated into a single defense.
Computer-aided instruction (CAI) (AR 350-70) A type of IMI. Computer-aided instruction (CAI),
also referred to as "computer-assisted instruction," involves use of computers to aid in the delivery of
instruction. CAI exploits computer technology to provide for the storage and retrieval of information
for both the instructor and student. CAI usually refers to the use of computers to support instructor-led
classroom instruction. Using computers as a presentation media for slides, audio, or motion pictures
which support large or small group instruction is an example of CAI.
Computer-managed instruction (CMI) (AR 350-70) A type of IMI. CMI involves the use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functions of CMI can include a management
administration system designed to track student performance over time, provide information concerning performance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule training, and provide
support for other training management functions. CMI functions may be used with CBT,CBI, CAI, or
IMI based on need.

communications security


control; controlled

CONEX (AR 310-25) Code name for Container Express which identifies the operation of cargo transporters in a worldwide service under the control of the Joint CONEX Control Agency.




Consistent tactical picture (CTP) (JTAMDO Battle Management Concept for Joint Theater Air and
Missile Defense Operations, 14 March 1998) A computer-generated display of the current tactical
situation in near real time that is consistent among users. Consistency is achieved because the information used in the development of the CTP is shared among users over a standard transmission mechanism (Link-16/TADIL J), with standardized message sets (J-series messages), utilizing standardized
data elements derived from the DOD Core Data Model. Shared data is then displayed using the standardized military symbology from MIL-STD 2525A.
Contact team (AR 310-25) An element of a command organization or unit designated to visit another
organization for the purpose of providing service or intelligence; for example, detachment from a
maintenance company sent forward to deliver supplies and/or make repairs on ordnance materiel of
units needing assistance.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary



Control and reporting center (CRC) (JP 1-02) A mobile command, control, and communications
radar element of the US Air Force theater air control system subordinate to the air operations center.
The control and reporting center possesses four Modular Control Equipment operations modules and
integrates a comprehensive air picture via multiple data links from air-, sea-, and land-based sensors as
well as from its surveillance and control radars. It performs decentralized command and control of
joint operations by conducting threat warning, battle management, theater defense missile defense,
weapons control, combat identification, and strategic communications.
Control and reporting post (CRP) (JP 1-02) An element of the US Air Force tactical air control system, subordinate to the control and reporting center, which provides radar control and surveillance
within its area of responsibility.
Control display terminal (CDT) (FM 3-01.11) The Control Display Terminal (CDT) is a hand-held
terminal mounted between the commander and gunner positions. It has an 80-character black-light liquid crystal display (LCD) and a function keypad for data input. The CDT displays essential operational information and allows the gunner or commander direct interface with the BCE.
Control measures (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Directives given graphically or orally by a commander
to subordinate commands to assign responsibilities, coordinate fires and maneuver, and control combat
operations. Each control measure can be portrayed graphically. In general, all control measures should
be easily identifiable on the ground. Examples of control measures include boundaries, objectives, coordinating points, contact point, and direction of attack. See FMs 5-100, 6-20, 7-90, 71-100, 100-15,
100-103-1, 100-103-2, and 101-5.
Control unit group (CUG) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Interfaces with ECS via RWCIU, generates beam
steering data, all timing triggers for radar transmitter group and signal processor group, and interfaces
IFF data with other elements of system.

Continental United States



Cooling equipment unit (CEU) (FM 3-01.11) Provides liquid cooling required for the THAAD AEU.
It is equipped with a power distribution unit (PDU) which distributes the prime input power from the
prime power unit (PPU) to the rest of the radar components.

coordinate; coordinated; coordinating; coordination

Coordination team A term synonymous with liaison team (See liaison team)

common operational picture

Corps SAM (BMDO Glossary) OBSLOETE. See Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS)


Correlation (BMDO Glossary) 1. The process of relating observations or tracks from one set of data
to observations or tracks from another set of data, i.e., collecting data from different frames or sensors
that presumably relate to the same target. 2. In air defense, the determination that an aircraft appearing
on a radarscope, on a plotting board, or visual is the same as that on which information is being received from another source.

Corps Support Command


commercial off-the-shelf; Computer Operated Training System


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Counterair (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A US Air Force term for air operations conducted to
maintain a desired degree of air superiority by the destruction or neutralization of enemy forces. Both
air offensive and air defensive actions are involved. The former range throughout enemy territory and
are generally conducted at the initiative of the friendly forces. The latter are conducted near or over
friendly territory and are generally reactive to the initiative of the enemy air forces. (See also defensive counterair (DCA) and offensive counter air (OCA).) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 1-116, 44-100 (FM
3-01), 71-100, 90-4, 100-5, 100-15, and 100-13.
Counterair operations (CAO)See counterair.
Counterattack (JP 1-02) Attack by part or all of a defending force against an enemy attacking force,
for such specific purposes as regaining ground lost or cutting off or destroying enemy advance units,
and with the general objective of denying to the enemy the attainment of his purpose in attacking. In
sustained defensive operations, it is undertaken to restore the battle position and is directed at limited
Counter-countermeasures (CCM) (BMDO Glossary) Measures taken by the defense to defeat offensive countermeasures.
Countermeasures (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare. (Army) Action taken to counter danger,
threat, or hazards. (See also risk management.)
Course (JP 1-02) The intended direction of movement in the horizontal plane.
Coverage (JP 1-02) 1.The ground area represented on imagery, photomaps, mosaics, maps, and other
geographical presentation systems. (DOD) 2.Cover or protection, as the coverage of troops by supporting fire. 3. The extent to which intelligence information is available in respect to any specified area of
interest. 4. The summation of the geographical areas and volumes of aerospace under surveillance. See
also comparative cover.

command post; checkpoint; correlation processor


collective protection equipment


communication patch panel


central processing unit


command post exercise


communication relay


control and reporting center


control and reporting element

Crew Drill

See "Drill."


communications relay group (Patriot)


communication routing list; communications request list

Crossroll (FM 3-01.87) The measurement of the level of an end item (radar/launcher), front to rear,
usually taken in mils.
Crosswalk (AR 350-50-3) BCTP method of reviewing orders, OPLANs, and operations to determine
strengths, disconnects, concerns, and doctrinal errors. The training unit and Senior Observer (SRO) re-


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

ceive this SOP guided review in written form. The SRO also receives a "Crosswalk Brief" reviewing
the entire operation, strengths, disconnects, and concerns by BOS/SME prior to STARTEX.

control and reporting post; control and reporting point (JFACC term)


cathode ray tube; combat readiness training

Cruise missile (CM) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Guided missile, the major portion of whose
flight path to its target is conducted at approximately constant velocity; depends on the dynamic reaction of air for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag.
Crypto Key Weekly (CKW) (FM 3-01.87) Two types of cryptographic keys are used by the PLGR.
They are group unique key (GUK) and cryptographic key weekly (CKW). The GUK is normally good
for a year, while the CKW is good for 7 days. The Army is currently issued the GUK codes yearly.

combat support; combat service


Corps support battalion


conflict SIF


combat service support


common table of allowances


conventionally-armed TBM


Combat Training Center (USA, Ft. Leavenworth, KS) See Combat Training Center


combat trains command post


Commanders Tactical Terminal (US Army); common task training


Commanders Tactical Terminal Hybrid Receiver (USA term)


communications terminal unit


Chaparral television trainer


combined training exercise

Cued Operation (BMDO Glossary) The directing of one sensor based upon the data received from
another sensor.
Cueing (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Provides specific and timely position data with tentative identification
of aircraft within a designated range of a fire unit.

control unit group


combat vehicle crewman


criticality, vulnerability, recuperability and threat


continuous-wave; chemical warfare


Continuous-Wave Acquisition Radar (Hawk)

Cyclops (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Any UAV.


combat zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


denial and destruction (not an authorized acronym)


display and control




departure airfield control group


Divert and Attitude Control System


Digital Azimuth Control Unit


division artillery group


defended asset list


Display Aided Maintenance (short for Display Aided Maintenance and Control System


division ammunition officer; division artillery officer


distant aiming point

Data link (JP 1-02) The means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting
and receiving data. See also tactical digital information link.
Data link terminal (DLT) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Sends/receives LS data via VHF radio and fiber optic
Data link terminal module (DLTM) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Contains the following equipment modules: radio, processor, slave bus unit, and master bus unit.



defensive counterair


digital command guidance electronics


data coordination net




Director of Combat Operations (JFACC term)


digital data link


defense data network


directed energy

Dead space (JP 1-02) 1. An area within the maximum range of a weapon, radar, or observer, which
cannot be covered by fire or observation from a particular position because of intervening obstacles,
the nature of the ground, or the characteristics of the trajectory, or the limitations of the pointing capabilities of the weapon. 2. An area or zone which is within range of a radio transmitter, but in which a


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

signal is not received. 3. The volume of space above and around a gun or guided missile system into
which it cannot fire because of mechanical or electronic limitations.
De-arming (JP 1-02) An operation in which a weapon is changed from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. (Also called safing.) See also arm or de-arm.
Decentralized control (JP 1-02) In air defense, the normal mode whereby a higher echelon monitors
unit actions, making direct target assignments to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution or to prevent engagement of friendly aircraft. See also centralized control; modes of control.

decontaminate; decontamination


defend; defended; defense; defensive


defense readiness condition

Defended Asset List (DAL) (BMDO Glossary) A ranked listing of facilities, forces, and national political items that require protection from attack or hostile surveillance. The list is compiled from Federal departments and agencies, Unified and Specified Commands, and the Armed Services to ensure
National Security Emergency Preparedness functions.
Defense in depth (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The siting of mutually supporting defense positions designed to absorb and progressively weaken attack, prevent initial observations of the whole
position by the enemy, and to allow the commander to maneuver his reserve.
Defense readiness conditions (DEFCON) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A uniform system of
progressive alert postures for use between the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and commanders
of unified and specified commands and for use by the Services. Defense readiness conditions are
graduated to match situations of varying military severity (status of alert). Defense readiness conditions are identified by the short title DEFCON (5), (4), (3), (2), and (1), as appropriate. See FM 100-5.
Defense Support Program (DSP) (FM 44-100) The DSP was initiated as a space-based strategic surveillance system to detect the launch of ICBM and SLBM. Its utility has expanded to support theater
missile defense operations. DSP satellites are located in geosynchronous orbits to provide continuous
coverage over the eastern and western hemispheres. DSP satellites can detect the launch of ICBM,
SLBM, SRBM, satellite booster rockets, and certain other rockets. USSPACECOM exercises authority
over DSP through the Air Force Space Command that operates and controls the satellites. Data is centrally processed and transmitted to users. The principal users are the National Command Authority,
United States Space Command, Strategic Command, North American Aerospace Defense Command
(NORAD), and unified and specified CINCs.
Defensive counterair (DCA) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All defensive measures designed to
detect, identify, intercept, and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to attack or penetrate the
friendly air environment. Also called DCA. See also counterair; defensive counterair. (Army) Operations conducted to protect against attack from enemy systems that operate in the atmosphere (for
example: a system used to destroy enemy aircraft attacking friendly surface forces.).
Defensive counterair operations (FM 44-71 (FM 3-01.7) The protection of assets from air attacks
through both direct defense and destruction of the enemys air attack capacity in the air.
Defensive counterspace (DCS) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) Operations conducted to defend
against attacks by systems operating in space.

defense readiness posture




draft equipment publication


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary




deployment exercise

Deployment exercise (DEPEX) (AR 350-50-3) An exercise which provides training for soldiers,
units, and support agencies in the tasks and procedures for deploying home stations or installations to
potential areas of hostilities.
Deputy Area Air Defense Commander (DAADC) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Based on the factors of
METT-TC the joint force commander (JFC) and area air defense commander (AADC) will determine
whether a deputy area air defense commander (DAADC) should be designated. Normally, the commander of the Army air and missile defense command (AAMDC) assumes the role of the DAADC because the AAMDC has the necessary personnel and equipment to support the DAADC mission. This
designation formalizes the relationship between the land-based AD assets dedicated to theater level
missions and the AADC and also ensures fully integrated and synchronized counterair and TMD operations.

destroy; destination


detach; detached; detachment

Detection (JP 1-02) 1. In tactical operations, the perception of an object of possible military interest,
but unconfirmed by recognition. 2. In surveillance, the determination and transmission by a surveillance system that an event has occurred. 3. In arms control, the first step in the process of ascertaining
the occurrence of a violation of an arms-control agreement.

development; developer; deviation


directed early warning; directed-energy weapon

Digital azimuth control unit (DACU) (FM 3-01.87) Digital Azimuth Control Unit - Connects the
CUG to environmental receiver subsystems and changes automatic position data received from ECS to
clockwise and counterclockwise commands; receives status information from other subsystems.
Digital command guidance electronics (DCGE) (TM 9-2350-284-10-2) Provides for the launch and
flight control of the TOW/TOW 2 missile fired from a BFV.
Digitization (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. The near-real-time transfer of battlefield information between diverse fighting elements to permit a shared awareness of the tactical situation. 2. Leveraging
information-age technologies to enhance the art of command and facilitate the science of control. (See
also command and control warfare (C2W) and information warfare (IW).) See FMs 71-100 and 10015.
Dihedral (Websters II) 2.The upward or downward inclination of an aircraft wing from true horizontal.
Direct support (DS) See support relationships.
Directed early warning (DEW) (FM 44-64) Directed early warning is designed to alert a non-ADAsupported unit, units, or an area of the battlefield of an immediate or possible threat. It is passed over
the supported unit command net or a net designated by the maneuver unit commander as flash precedence traffic. Directed early warning defines the LADW and states whether the aerial platform is
friendly or unknown, a cardinal direction, and, if known, the most likely affected asset(s) within the
supported force.
Directed-energy (DE) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An umbrella term covering technologies
that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or subatomic particles.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

(Army) Lasers, high-energy microwave, and particle beams are all examples. (See also directedenergy warfare (DEW).)
Directed energy warfare (DEW) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Military action involving the
use of directed-energy weapons, devices, and countermeasures to either cause direct damage or destruction of enemy equipment, facilities, and personnel, or to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent
hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum through damage, destruction, and disruption. It also includes actions taken to protect friendly equipment, facilities, and personnel and retain friendly use of
the electromagnetic spectrum. (Army) Directed-energy weapons are used like direct fire weapons.
(See also directed energy (DE) and direct fire.) See FM 71-123.
Directed energy weapon (JP 1-02) A system using directed energy primarily as a direct means to
damage or destroys enemy equipment, facilities, and personnel. See directed energy; directed-energy
Direction finding (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A procedure for obtaining bearings of radio frequency emitters by using a highly directional antenna and a display unit on an intercept receiver or ancillary equipment.
Direction of fire (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The direction on which a cannon, rocket, gun, or missile
is laid. It represents the direction to the most significant threat in the target area. See FMs 6-20, 7-90,
7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

division support command

Display aided maintenance (DAM) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The DAMCS controls the operator interfaces, overall maintenance control and sequencing, maintenance procedure loading and processing,
and mass storage unit (MSU) input and output capability.
Display and control group (D&C) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Provides for operator monitoring and control of equipment status and operation at two manstations.

distribution; distribute

Distributive interactive simulation (DIS)


division air defense


division artillery (USA term)


data link


data link reference point


data link terminal


data link terminal module


data link upgrade; data link unit


digital nonsecure voice terminal

See High Level Architecture (HLA)

Doctrine (JP 1-02) Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide
their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.
See FM 100-5.
Doctrine and Tactics Training (DTT) (AR 350-70) Training conducted on equipment, interoperability, and management of new or cascaded equipment, considering comparison of new to older
equipment, and associated threats.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Doppler radar (JP 1-02) A radar system that differentiates between fixed and moving targets by
detecting the apparent change in frequency of the reflected wave due to motion of target or the
decision point
Drill (AR 350-70) A disciplined, repetitious exercise to teach and perfect a skill or procedure (action),
i.e., a collective task or task step. Drills are published in MTPs and drill books. There are two types:
Battle drill A critical collective action (or task) performed by a platoon or smaller element
without the application of a deliberate decision making process, initiated on cue, accomplished
with minimal leader orders, and performed to standard throughout like units in the Army. The action is vital to success in combat or critical to preserving life. It usually involves fire or maneuver.
The drill is initiated on a cue, such as an enemy action or a leaders brief order, and is a trained response to the given stimulus.
Crew Drill A critical collective action (or task) performed by a crew of a weapon or piece of

equipment to use the weapon or equipment successfully in combat or to preserve life, initiated on
cue, accomplished with minimal leader orders, and performed to standard throughout like units in
the Army. This action is a trained response to a given stimulus, such as an enemy action, a leaders
brief order, or the status of the weapon or equipment.
Drone (JP 1-02) A land, sea, or air vehicle that is remotely or automatically controlled. See also remotely piloted vehicle; unmanned aerial vehicle.
Drop(ing) (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) 1. Directive/informative to stop monitoring a specified emitter/target and resume search responsibilities. 2. Remove the emitter/target from tactical picture/track
Drop track (JP 1-02) In air intercept, the unit having reporting responsibility for a particular track is
dropping that track and will no longer report it. Other units holding an interest in that track may continue to report it.

direct support


division support area


division support battery


decision support matrix


digital signal processor; direct support platoon


direct support system


direct support unit


digital subscriber voice terminal


date-time group


doctrine and tactics impact package


Doctrine, Training, Leadership, Organization, Material, and Soldiers (USA BCBL term)


division tactical operations center


data terminal set

Dud (JP 1-02) Explosive munitions that has not been armed as intended or which has failed to explode
after being armed.

demonstration validation

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary




dual vision viewing device


direct exchange


drop zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


designation for Hawkeye aircraft


endo-exoatmospheric interceptor


Enhanced Area Air Defense


echelons above corps (USA term)

Early engagement See employment guidelines.

Early warning (EW) (JP 1-02) Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or
weapon carriers. (See also air defense.) See FMs 5-100 and 90-2.

electronic control amplifier


electronic counter-countermeasures

ECCM ASSIST (FM 3-01.87) Electronic counter-counter measures assist S/I (console button used to
turn on a function (the ECCM functions of the radar)) that has been allowed during initialization.


echelon (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward echelon, rear
echelon. 2. Separate level of command. As compared to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon; a
battalion is a lower echelon. 3. A fraction of a command in the direction of depth to which a principle
combat mission is assigned, i.e., attack echelon, support echelon, reserve echelon. 4. A formation in
which its subdivisions are placed one behind another, with a lateral and even spacing to the same side.
(See also airborne operations, command post (CP), and formation.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 730, 10-1, 17-95, 71-123, 100-5, 100-10, and 100-15.
Echelon above corps (EAC) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Army headquarters and organizations that
provide the interface between the theater commander (joint or multinational) and the corps for operational matters. See FM 100-5.

electronic countermeasures


entry control point


Engagement Control Station (Patriot)


environmental control unit; equipment coolant unit


embedded data recorder (Patriot)


emergency deployment readiness exercises


evaluation decision, and weapon assignment (Patriot)


essential elements of friendly information


essential elements of information


electronic equipment unit


engage hold


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


end item


electronic information delivery system


equipment improvement recommendation


external interface unit


exoatmospheric kill vehicle



Electric power plant (EPP) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Consists of two 150 kW generator sets, a power
distribution unit (PDU), cables and accessories mounted on a 5-ton 6x6 M942 truck.
Electric power unit (EPU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Consists of two gas turbine generators with an internal fuel system which is contained within the pallet frame, seated on a 3-1/2 ton M353 modified
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Any electromagnetic disturbance that disrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effectiveness of electronics/electrical
equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally,
as a result of spurious emissions and responses, inter-modulation products, and the like. (See also
jamming.) See FM 34-1.
Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The electromagnetic radiation
from a nuclear explosion caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons scattered in the material of the nuclear device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may
couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. (Army)
The high-energy, short-duration pulse (similar in some respects to a bolt of lightning) generated by a
nuclear or non-nuclear detonation. It can induce a current in any electrical conductor and can temporarily disrupt or overload and damage components of improperly protected or unprotected electronic
equipment. See FM 3-3-1.
Electronic countermeasures (ECM) (FM 44-71 (FM 3-01.7)) That division of electronic warfare
involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemys effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) (FM 44-71 (FM 3-01.7)) That division of electronic
warfare involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite the enemys use of electronic warfare.
Electronic counter-countermeasures assist (ECCM ASSIST) (FM 3-01.87) Electronic countercountermeasures assist S/I (console button used to turn on a function (the ECCM functions of the radar) that has been allowed during initialization.
Electronic equipment unit (EEU) (FM 3-01.11) The electronics equipment unit (EEU) is an environmentally controlled shelter housing the electronic equipment used to generate the timing and control signals required for radar operation and signal processing. The EEU consists primarily of the receiver, recorders, and signal processor and data processing equipment of the radar.
Electronic protection (JP 1-02) See electronic warfare.
Electronic warfare (EW) (JP 1-02) Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. The three major divisions within electronic warfare are electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support.
Electronic warfare support (ES) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) That division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for,

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

intercept, identify, and locate sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy
for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. Thus, electronic warfare support provides information
required for immediate decisions involving electronic warfare operations and other tactical actions
such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. Electronic warfare support data can be used to produce signals intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence (COMINT), and electronics intelligence (ELINT). (See also electronic warfare (EW).) See FMs 34-1 and 34-40.
Element (AR 310-25) 1. Staff or operational organizations (offices, directorates, divisions, branches,
etc.) which form the principle structure of, and are immediately subordinate to the next larger organization. 2. A portion of an airborne or air-land unit described by its method of entry into the combat
area, such as parachute element, airplane element, seaborne element, or overland element.

Enhanced Launcher Electronics System (Patriot)


emergency message action center


emergency message authentication system

Embedded trainer (ET) (FM 3-01.11)

Patriot embedded trainers (PET) (FM 3-01.11) Patriot Embedded Trainers (ET) are troop proficiency trainers (TPT) with software programs that are built into the tactical system and provide
training in simulated AD battle scenarios. Tactical Directors (TD), Tactical Control Officers
(TCO), Tactical Director Assistants (TDA), and Tactical Control Assistants (TCA) receive sustainment training and collective training in detection, acquisition, identification, and engagement in
ECM environments.
Embedded training (AR 350-70) Training that is provided by capabilities designed to be built into or
added onto operational systems to enhance and maintain the skill proficiency necessary to operate and
maintain that equipment end item.

Emergency Message Authentication System; emission control measures


emission control




electromagnetic interference

Emission control (EMCON) (JP 1-02) The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic,
or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. minimize mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. execute
a military deception plan. See also electronic warfare; state of emissions.

electronic missile maintenance officer


electromagnetic pulse


emplacement; employ

Emplacement (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A prepared position for one or more weapons or
pieces of equipment, for protection against hostile fire or bombardment, and from which they can execute their tasks. 2. The act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may be fired. (See also
defend.) See FMs 5-103, 6-20 series, 7-7, 7-8, 7-90, and 71-123.
Employment (JP 1-02) The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. See also employment planning.
Employment guidelines See air defense artillery employment guidelines.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Employment principles See air defense artillery employment principles.



engage inbound


end of exercise

End item (EI) (BMDO Glossary) The final production product when assembled, or completed, and
ready for issue/deployment.
Endoatmospheric (BMDO Glossary) Within the earths atmosphere; generally considered to be altitudes below 100km. An endoatmospheric interceptor reaches its target within the atmosphere.
Endo-Exoatmospheric Interceptor (E2I) (BMDO Glossary) A ground-based interceptor capable of
engaging RVs either endoatmospheric or exoatmospheric.


Engage (JP 1-02) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon
systems to fire on a designated target. (See also cease fire.)
Engage Hold (EHOLD) (FM 3-01.87) See fire control orders.
Engagement (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the
missiles subsequent travel to intercept. (Army) A small tactical conflict, usually between opposing
forces. (See also battle and campaign.) See FMs 1-112, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-30, 44-100 (FM 3-01), 71123, 100-5, and 100-15.
Engagement control (JP 1-02) In air defense, that degree of control exercised over the operational
functions of an air defense unit that are related to detection, identification, engagement, and destruction of hostile targets.
Engagement control station (ECS) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The ECS functions as the operational control central for the Patriot FP, performing the basic ADA tasks either under direct coordination and
control of the ICC or independently.
Engagement operations (EO) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) EO includes those functions required to execute the air, missile, and counter-surveillance battles. The air surveillance function establishes a correlated air picture with target types and identification. The mission control function processes commands
from higher echelon units, evaluates the threat, optimizes engagement performance, monitors the outcome of engagements, and manages the employment of sensors and decoys. The attack operations
support function determines the location of enemy air and missile launch sites and provides it to attack
systems. The data distribution function distributes the air picture and track data.
Engagement zone (EZ) See weapon engagement zone
Enhanced Area Air Defense (EAAD) (DCD Website) The EAAD system is a conceptual requirement
that addresses the negation of multiple threats employed in near-simultaneous and saturation attacks. It
will initially focus on the unguided rocket, mortar and artillery projectile, and reconnaissance UAV
threats. It has the potential to deal with the other threat targets (cruise missiles, helicopters, and fixedwing aircraft). The EAAD system could emerge as a directed-energy weapon (laser or high-power microwave), a hypervelocity kinetic-energy weapon, or both. Conceptually, the netted and distributed
non-dedicated BMC4I and remoted effectors (i.e., weapons) provide the requisite force protection with
precision and reliability. A USAADASCH-led integrated concept team is developing the requirement
and reviewing the technology alternatives and their implications. The EAAD system is projected for
fielding about FY15.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) A secure, jamresistant data communications system utilized by SHORAD to provide data distribution at corps and
lower echelons. EPLRS is also utilized with Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2)
system by non-air and, missile defense OPFACs to pass situational awareness information on the battlefield.
Enhanced weapons control computer (EWCC) OBSOLETE. See weapons control computer

engagement status

Environmental control unit (ECU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Monitors and controls air conditioning,
CBR protection equipment, and lighting within the shelter.

engagement orders; engagement operations


enemy order of battle


emergency operations center


explosive ordnance disposal


Enhanced Position Location Reporting System


electric power plant (Patriot)


electric power unit (Patriot)




OBSOLETE. Extended Range Interceptor. Now referred to as PAC-3 (Patriot).


essential repair part stockage list


empty round trainer


escort screening jammer


enhanced standalone display unit


electronic surveillance measures; electronic (warfare) support measures


embedded trainer


embedded troop proficiency trainer




evaluation; evaluate


early warning; electronic warfare


early warning broadcast net


OBSOLETE. Enhanced Weapons Control Computer (Patriot). See Weapons Control



early warning system operator

Exercise (BMDO Glossary) A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning,
preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a
combined, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on participating organizations.
Exoatmospheric (BMDO Glossary) Outside the Earths atmosphere, generally considered being altitudes above 100km.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Exocet (Janes all the Worlds Aircraft) French-built air-to-surface missile (anti-ship)
Expanded weapons control computer (EWCC) OBSOLETE. See weapons control computer
Explosive ordnance disposal trainers (FM 3-01.11) The purpose of this device is to train Explosive
Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel to recognize inherent hazards associated with the components of
the missile and practice EOD handling procedures. There are two (2) separate EOD trainers. They are
the Practical Explosive Ordnance Disposal System Trainer (PEST) and the Classroom Explosive Ordnance Disposal System Trainer (CEST). The PEST is a full-scale inert model of the production
THAAD missile and canister. The CEST is a half-scale inert model of the production THAAD missile
and canister that has a cutaway of the areas containing explosive, hazardous and classified components.


Extended range interceptor (ERINT) OBSOLETE. Extended Range Interceptor. Now referred to as

engagement zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Forward Area Air Defense Command, Control, Communication


Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below


fiber optic

friendly track identity



field artillery


forward alighting area, forward assembly area


Forward Area Air Defense


Forward Area Air Defense Engagement Zone


Forward Area Alerting Radar


forward air controller

Family of Scatterable Mines (FASCAM) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A grouping of munitions that
dispense scatterable mines (scatmines) by artillery, helicopter, fixed wing, or ground launchers. There
are antipersonnel and antitank mines. All US scatmines self-destruct at preset times. The self-destruct
times depend on the type of munition. (See also minefield and scatterable mines.) See FMs 5-71-100,
6-series, and 20-32.

forward area refueling equipment


forward arming and refueling point


family of artillery scattered mines


forward area support team

Fault (AR 310-25) A physical condition that causes a device, a component, or an element, to fail to
perform in a required manner.
Fault isolation (FI) (AR 310-25) The act of locating a fault within the unit under test.

firing battery


fire control


fire coordination officer; fire control officer


fire control section




fire coordination exercise


fire direction center; fire distribution center


fiber-distributed data interface


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


fire direction finding


fire direction officer


fire distribution section; fire direction section


forward edge of the battle area


fighter engagement zone


fire function test


field handling trainer


fault isolation

Fiber-optic cable (FOC) (FM 3-01.11) Fiber optic communications consist of modulator-demodulator
equipment connected by cables with four fiber optic strands that are tied together to form cables capable of carrying data and voice. These cables are in one-kilometer increments. For the fiber optic cables
a maximum distance of two kilometers may be used. The BMC3I, radar, LCS, and launcher sections
all use the same cable type. At the BMC3I, radar and LCSs, the fiber optic cables are used to interconnect the TOS and LCS in any configuration. These local area network (LAN) configurations are referred to as the fiber optic data distribution interface (FDDI) system.

firing doctrine

Field handling trainer (FHT) (FM 3-01.11) The Stinger Field Handling Trainer (FHT) is used at the
unit level and service schools. The Stinger gunner uses the FHT to practice manual skills of weapon
handling, operations, sighting and ranging. The FHT can be used to visually track live aircraft or remotely piloted vehicle target system (RPVTS). It allows the gunner to practice mating and removal of
the gripstock, and insertion and removal of the battery coolant unit (BCU). The FHT is the same size,
weight, and appearance as the Stinger weapon round. Audio indications of target acquisition and IFF
responses are not a feature of the FHT.
Field of View (FOV) (BMDO Glossary) The angular measure of the volume of space within which
the system can respond to the presence of a target.
Field Training Exercise (FTX) (AR 350-70) Conducted under simulated combat conditions in the
field. FTXs fully integrate the total force in a realistic combat environment. They involve combat
arms, CS, and CSS units. FTXs encompass such training as battle drills, crew drills, and STXs to reinforce soldier and collective training integration. They are used to train the commander, staff, subordinate units, and slice elements. (FM 25-101) See "Exercise."
Field trains (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The combat service support portion of a unit at company, battalion, and brigade level that is positioned in the brigade support area with the forward support battalion and other support elements pushed forward from the division main support battalion. At company
level, supply and mess teams normally will be located in the battalion field trains. A battalions field
train may include mess teams and the portion of the supply section of the support platoon, a maintenance element, and ammunition and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) elements not forward in the
combat trains. (See also combat trains and unit trains.) See FM 7-30, 7-123, 63-2, and 63-20.
Fighter engagement zone (FEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement zone.
FIM-92A (JP 1-02) See Stinger.
Fire control (JP 1-02) The control of all operations in connection with the application of fire on a target.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Fire control equipment (AR 310-25) Equipment required and used to directly aim guns or controlled
missiles at a particular target. Fire control equipment includes all instruments used in calculating and
adjusting the proper elevation and deflection of guns or missiles in flight. Included are such items as
radars, telescopes, range finders, predictors, directors, other computers, power plants, and communication control systems connecting these elements.
Fire control orders (FCO) (JP 1-02) Commands which are used to control engagements on a case-bycase basis, regardless of the prevailing weapon control status. Higher control echelons when monitoring the decentralized operations of subordinate units most often use these commands. Fire control orders can be transmitted electronically or verbally; however not all of the fire control orders shown below can or will be used by every type of ADA unit. The following are examples of fire control orders:
Engage (JP 1-02) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or
weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire.
Cease Engagement (JP 1-02) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct units to stop the
firing sequence against a designated target. Guided missiles already in flight will continue to intercept. See also engage; hold fire.
Hold Fire (JP 1-02) In air defense, an emergency order to stop firing. Missiles already in flight
must be prevented from intercepting, if technically possible.
Cease Fire (JP 1-02) A command given to air defense artillery units to refrain from firing on,
but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue
to intercept.
Cover (FM 4-100 (FM 3-01)) Command used to order a fire unit to assume a posture that will
allow engagement of a target if directed. For radar-directed systems, this means achieving a radar
lock on a specified target. This order can be used for targets that are presently being engaged by
another fire unit or for targets that have yet to become a significant threat. Units that receive this
command report tracking, lock on, and ready to fire to higher echelons (does not apply to Patriot
configuration-2; applies to Patriot configuration-3).
Engage Hold (HIMAD only) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Command used to temporarily restrain a
fire unit from automatically engaging a target. If the fire unit has not fired, target tracking continues. Missiles in flight are allowed to continue to intercept.
Stop Fire (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Emergency fire control order to temporarily halt the engagement sequence due to internally unsafe fire unit conditions. It is seldom transmitted outside the fire
unit. This command can be given by anyone in the unit who detects an unsafe condition. The engagement continues after the unsafe condition has been corrected.
Fire control radar (JP 1-02) Radar used to provide target information inputs to a weapon fire control
Fires control system (JP 1-02) A group of interrelated fire control equipment and/or instruments designed for use with a weapon or group of weapons.
Fire coordination area (JP 1-02) An area with specified restraints into which fires in excess of those
restraints will not be delivered without approval of the authority establishing the restraints.
Fire coordination exercise (FCX) (FM 25-101) A medium-cost, reduced-scale exercise that can be
conducted at platoon, company team, or battalion task force level. It exercises command and control
skills through the integration of all organic weapon systems, as well as indirect and supporting fires.
Weapon densities may be reduced for participating units, and subcaliber devices substituted for service

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Fire direction center (FDC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) That element of a command post,
consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire, and translates them into appropriate fire direction. (Army) Provides
timely and effective tactical and technical fire control in support of current operations. See FMs 6-20
series and 7-90.
Fire distribution center (FDC) (TM 9-1425-600-12) (Patriot) A subelement of brigade and Bn TOC
and Battery CP where the commander exercises fire direction, fire distribution, and/or fire control.
Normally, the brigade FDC is located at group AN/TSQ-73, the Bn FDC is located in the ICC, and the
battery FDC is located in the ECS.
Fire support (FS) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The collective and coordinated integration and synchronization of the fires and effects of armed aircraft, land-based and sea based indirect fire systems, and
electronic warfare systems that directly support combat forces against ground targets to delay, disrupt,
destroy, divert, damage, and limit enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of operational and tactical objectives. (See also combined arms and fire support plan.) See FMs 6-20 series, 720, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.
Fire support area (FSA) (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A sea area in which a ship may position
or cruise while firing in support of ground forces. (See also fire support station (FSS) and naval gunfire support (NGFS).) See FM 6-series.
Fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) (FM 44-71 (FM 3-01.7)) The individual responsible for the
planning and execution of fires so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of
Fire support coordination line (FSCL) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A line established by the
appropriate land or amphibious force commander to ensure coordination of fire not under the commanders control but which may effect current tactical operations. The FSCL is used to coordinate
fires, of air, ground, or sea weapons systems using any type of ammunition against surface targets. The
FSCL should follow well-defined terrain features. The establishment of the FSCL must be coordinated
with the appropriate tactical air commander and other supporting elements. Supporting elements may
attack targets forward of the FSCL without prior coordination with the land or amphibious force
commander provided the attack will not produce adverse surface effects on or to the rear of the line.
Attacks against surface targets behind this line must be coordinated with the appropriate land or amphibious force commander. (Army) A permissive fire control measure established and adjusted by
the ground commander in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders. It is not a boundary; synchronization of operations on either side of the FSCL is the responsibility
of the establishing commander out to the limits of the land component forward boundary. It applies to
all fires of air, land, and sea weapon systems using any type of ammunition against surface targets.
Forces attacking targets beyond the FSCL must inform all affected commanders to allow necessary
coordination to avoid fratricide. (See also boundary, coordinated fire line (CFL), and fire support coordination measure.) See FMs 6-20 series, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 7-123, 100-5, 100-15, and JP 30.
Fire unit (FU) (AR 310-25) Unit whose fire in battle is under the immediate and effective control of
one leader.
Fire unit to fire unit (FUFU) (FM 3-01.87) The fire-unit-to-fire-unit capability within the Patriot system allows fire units to conduct a coordinated air battle without an ICC. In FUFU mode of operations,
fire units perform triangulation, track correlation, engagement coordination, and support. The ICC
track management software has been implemented at the fire units, so that those functions are now
available at the fire unit. The ICC site calibration process is not performed at the fire unit. The normal

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

process for fire unit saturation alleviation still applies. Track data with position, identification, engagement coordination (HOLD FIRE, CEASE FIRE) and weapons control is exchanged between fire
units. Fire units perform track correlation only when communication with the ICC has been lost. ID
conflicts are provided, requiring manual resolution. The weapons control state on each track is also
shared with all fire units. Each fire unit performs triangulation using shared data from at least two
other FUs. This provides range data on these tracks to the other units.
Firing battery (FB) (AR 310-25) 1. That part of a battery actually at the firing position when a battery
is prepared for action. It includes the pieces, personnel, and equipment necessary for its operation. 2.
Battery organized and equipped to fire field artillery weapons, as differentiated from a headquarters
and/or service battery. 3. An element of a field artillery cannon battery.
Firing Doctrine (FIDOC) (BMDO Glossary) The ratio and manner of assigning numbers of interceptors against a given number of attackers. Alternatives include: One-on One, Salvo, Shoot-Look-Shoot,
etc. The doctrine will be driven by; the priority of targets being defended and the number of interceptors available relative to the number of attackers.

fire support team


fire support team vehicle

Fixed Wing (FW) (Janes all the Worlds Aircraft) Non-movable and attached to the body of an aircraft.

force level control station


forward-looking infrared

Float (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Logistics support that provides major assembly replacement for a
piece of equipment which is repairable but will take an extraordinary amount of time to repair.

forward line of own troops




field manual; frequency modulation


Flight Mission Simulator (Patriot), Huntsville AL.


family of medium tactical vehicles


forward observer; force operations (ADA); field order; fiber optic


forward operations base


fiber-optic cable


fiber-optic cable assembly


force-on-force trainer

Footprint (BMDO Glossary) 1. An estimated area of possible reentry or the solid angle of a detector
or linear area of a detector at a certain location. 2. Geographic area in which a focused satellite
downlinks can be received.

future operations van

Force-on-force trainer (FOFT) (FM 3-01.11)

The Force on Force Trainer (FOFT) is a training device for the Linebacker. It will be used to replicate Stinger engagements in MILES FOFT exercises. It will provide simulation of missile firings,
weapon effects, signature simulation and real time target assessment. The FOFT will be used for

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

realistic training in combat training center exercises for gunners in a simulated wartime environment.
The Avenger Force-On-Force Trainer (FOFT) is an integrated laser engagement simulator used in
the MILES FOFT exercises. It provides simulation of missile firings, weapons effects, signature
simulation, and real time target assessment. The FOFT is used for realistic training in combat training center exercises for gunners in a simulated wartime environment.
Force operations (FO) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Force Operations include functions that are required
for planning, coordinating, preparing, and sustaining the total ADA mission. The situation analysis
function continuously collects and evaluates all available information on friendly and hostile forces,
including the intelligence tasks of continuous IPB and situation development. The defense planning
function develops and assesses various options and produces a preferred course of action.
Force XXI battle command brigade and below (FBCB2) (Weapon Systems 1999) A digital command-and-control system that provides battle command and situational awareness information from
brigade down to the soldier/platform level. Features the interconnecting of platforms through a communications infrastructure called the Tactical Internet to pass situation awareness data and conduct
command and control.

U.S. Forces Command


friendly origin

Forward Area Air Defense (FM 44-43 (FM 3-01.43)) Provides low-altitude air defense protection to
the force and its critical assets. FAAD contributes to force protection operations by countering threat
reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance and target acquisition (RISTA) and lethal aerial platforms.
Forward area air defense command, control and intelligence (FAADC2I) (Weapon Systems 1999)
A system which integrates air defense fire units, sensors, liaison elements, and command posts into a
synergistic system capable of defeating and denying the aerial threat. It provides the automated interface (division and below) for the air defense components to the ABCS, and allows the commanders
and staffs to communicate, plan, coordinate, and control the counter-air fight.
Forward area air defense command, control, communications, and intelligence (FAADC3I) (FM 301.11) The FAAD C3I system provides automated engagement operations (EO) and force operations (FO) capabilities at the SHORAD battalion. EO capabilities include near-real-time early warning
and target cueing information to SHORAD weapon systems, friendly aircraft identification, and airbattle management. FO capabilities include automated mission planning, automated staff planning,
and interoperability with other command systems. FAAD C3I effectively utilizes joint and combined
information by processing the air picture received from USAF E-3 (AWACS), USN E-2C (Hawkeye),
and TADIL-B sources such as Patriot.
Forward area air defense engagement zone (FAADEZ)


Forward edge of the battle area (FEBA) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The foremost limits of a
series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in which the covering
or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or
the maneuver of units. (See also main battle area (MBA).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20 series, 7-20, 7-30, 71100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
Forward line of own troops (FLOT) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A line which indicates the
most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. The
FLOT normally identifies the forward location of covering and screening forces. (Army) The
FLOT may be at, or short of the FEBA. An enemy FLOT indicates the forward most position of hos-


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

tile forces. (See also line of contact (LC).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20 series, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123,
100-5, and 100-15.
Forward looking infrared (FLIR) (JP 1-02) An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that
detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image
for day or night viewing.

family of systems (TMD); fiber optic system


field of view


fire platoon


final protective fire


final protective line


final protective weapon

Fragmentary order (FRAGO) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An abbreviated form of an operation order, usually issued on a day-to-day basis, that eliminates the need for restating information contained in a basic operation order. It may be issued in sections. (Army) A form of operation order
which contains information of immediate concern to subordinates. It is an oral, a digital, or written
message that provides brief, specific, and timely instructions without loss of clarity. It is issued after
an operational order to change or modify that order or to execute a branch or sequel to that order. See
FM 101-5.

fragmentary order



Free rocket (JP 1-02) A rocket not subject to guidance or control in flight.
Free rocket over ground (FROG) See free rocket
Friendly (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) A positively identified friendly contact.



free rocket over ground


fire support; firing section


fire support area


forward support battalion; fire support base


fire support coordination


fire support coordination line


fire support coordinator


fire support coordination measure


fire support element


frequency shift key


fire support office(r)


field standing operating procedures


FP (fire platoon) standby


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


field training exercise


fire unit (Patriot); See Air Defense Artillery fire unit


first unit equipped


fire unit to fire unit

Fuse (AR 310-25) An igniting or explosive device in the form of a cord consisting of a flexible fabric
tube and core of low or high explosive. Used in blasting and demolition work and in certain munitions.
Not to be confused with the term fuze.

fixed wing




USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


grease, automotive and artillery

Gas Particulate Filter Unit (GPFU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Removes CBR contaminants from outside
air before it enters the shelter.

guidance apportionment and targeting


ground based radar


ground-based sensor (USA term); Global Broadcast System


Global Command and Control System Army


ground controlled interception


German Hawk operations center

Geopolitical assets (FM 3-01.11) Are nonmilitary assets that US, allied, or host nation civil authorities nominate for air and missile defense protection. These assets could be political, religious, ethnic,
historical, or territorial in nature. Since protection of geopolitical assets may not directly support military operations, integration of geopolitical assets into the air and missile defense priorities list must be
done at the highest levels. Geopolitical assets may include US territories.

Guidance-Enhanced Missile (Patriot)



GEOREF (JP 1-02) A worldwide position references system that applies to any map or chart graduated in latitude and longitude regardless of projection. It is a method of expressing latitude and longitude in a form suitable for rapid reporting and plotting. (This term is derived from the words The
World Geographic Reference System.)

government furnished equipment


ground impact point


ground-launched cruise missile


ground level interference filter

Global Command And Control System (GCCS) (JP 1-02) Highly mobile, deployable command and
control system supporting forces for joint and multinational operations across the range of military operations, any time and any where in the world with compatible, interoperable, and integrated command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence systems. See also command and control;
command and control system.
Global Command And Control System - Army (GCCS-A) (Weapon Systems 1999) A C2 system
developed through implementation of the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) Common Operating Environment (COE). A user-oriented system that supports the National Command Authority,
CINCs in the theater and down through the Joint Task Force Commander.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Global Positioning System (GPS) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A satellite-based system used for accurate positioning and navigation. (See also way point.) See FM 21-26.

guided missile


guided missile canister


guided missile transporter




GPS-north reference system input/output




global protection against limited strike


gas particulate filter unit


gunner primary sight; Global Positioning System

Graceful degradation (BMDO Glossary) A condition in which a system continues to operate, providing service in a degraded mode rather than failing completely or catastrophically.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (ZULU) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Mean solar time measured at the
meridian which runs through Greenwich, England. It is used as the basis for calculating time throughout most of the world. (See also Universal Time and ZULU time.) See FM 101-5.


Ground Based Radar (GBS) (BMDO Glossary) A taskable, modular, multi-function, phased-array
radar that provides surveillance, tracking and engagement planning data in post-boost, midcourse, and
terminal flight phases within its capabilities. It also provides target discrimination, in-flight target updates (IFTUs), and target object maps (TOMs) to interceptor vehicles. See THAAD.
Ground Based Sensor (GBS) (PM: Sentinel Office, TSM: TSM-SHORAD. DA System Integrator:
DAMO-FDE) Sentinel AN/MPQ-64. The Sentinel is an active 3D sensor organic to the SHORAD
units which provide detection and tracking of fixed wing aircraft, hovering and moving rotary wing
aircraft, UAV and cruise missile out to 40 km. The Sentinel provides early warning/alerting and cueing data to air defense weapon system gunners in acquiring and engaging hostile aircraft. The Sentinel
is a trailer mounted, all weather, day and night system, equipped with Mode 3 and Mode 4 IFF.
Ground controlled interception (GCI) (JP 1-02) A technique which permits control of friendly aircraft or guided missiles for the purpose of affecting interception.
Ground impact point (GIP) See Tactical ballistic missile (TBM) predicted ground impact point
Ground level interference filter (GLIF) (FM 3-01.87) Designed to improve radar performance by
blanking the detection location of low level, slow moving clutter tracks, such as ground vehicles. This
blanking results in fewer surveillance validation actions, thereby providing more radar resource time.
Group unique key (GUK) (FM 3-01.87) Two types of cryptographic keys are used by the PLGR.
They are group unique key (GUK) and cryptographic key weekly (CKW). The GUK is normally good
for a year, while the CKW is good for 7 days. The Army is currently issued the GUK codes yearly.

general support


general support maintenance


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


general support-reinforcing


ground surveillance radar

Guidance (JP 1-02) 1. Policy, direction, decision, or instruction having the effect of an order when
promulgated by a higher echelon. 2. The entire process by which target intelligence information received by the guided missile is used to effect proper flight control to cause timely direction changes
for effective target interception. See also active homing guidance; celestial guidance; command guidance; homing guidance; inertial guidance; midcourse guidance; passive homing guidance; preset guidance; semiactive guidance; stellar guidance; terminal guidance; terrestrial reference guidance.
Guidance-enhanced missile (GEM) See MIM-104D
Guidance stations equipment (JP 1-02) The ground-based portion of the missile guidance system
necessary to provide guidance during missile flight.
Guided Missile (GM) (JP 1-02) An unmanned vehicle moving above the surface of the Earth whose
trajectory or flight path is capable of being altered by an external or internal mechanism. See also
aerodynamic missile; ballistic missile.
Guided Missile Canister (GMC) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The canister functions as a shipping container
and a launching tube for missile aiming and firing.
Guided Missile Transporter (GMT) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The GMT is a modified M985E1 cargo
truck of the HEMTT series. With the capacity of four GMs, the GMT is used to deliver and load GMs.
The modified M985E1 has an integral crane for transferring GMs from the cargo truck to the launcher.

group unique key

Gunship (Janes all the Worlds Aircraft) Generally this is the designation for a helicopter designed
for battlefield attack. Some fixed- wing aircraft are designated gunships, the AC-47, AC-119 and AC


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary





hostile track identity


high altitude long endurance unmanned aerial vehicle

Handoff (BMDO Glossary) This occurs when information on positions, velocities, and tracks are
given by one sensor or system to another and the first sensor or system continues to track the objects.
Handover (BMDO Glossary) This occurs when information is passed on to another sensor or system
in which the first does not continue to track.
Hang fire (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An undesired delay in the functioning of a firing system. (Army) An undesired delay in the functioning of the primer or initiator part of a round of
ammunition. See FMs 6-20 series, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.
Hard copy unit (HCU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Provides hardcopy of displayed data.

high-speed antiradar missile


high-speed anti-TEL missile.


high-altitude theater missile defense (US Army)

Hawk (JP 1-02) A mobile air defense artillery, surface-to-air missile system that provides non-nuclear,
low- to medium-altitude air defense coverage for ground forces. Designated as MIM-23. (Originally
an acronymHoming All The Way Killer)
HDNG (Hdg)

hardcopy unit
high explosive; higher echelon

Heading (hdg) (JP 1-02) In air intercept, a code meaning, My, or bogeys, magnetic course is
___.(hdng) (TM 9-1430-600-10-1) 000 to 359 describes track heading in degrees (relative to

high-explosive armor piercing


high-explosive antitank


high-explosive antitank-tracer


high-explosive incendiary


high-explosive incendiary-tracer


high energy laser




USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Hellfire Missile (Aircraft Armament Recognition) Helicopter-launched fire and forget missile. The
missile is also fired from fixed-wing aircraft such as the A-10A Thunderbolt II.

heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (US Army prime mover)

Hera (BMDO Glossary) An improved surrogate TBM test target.


higher echelon unit


high frequency


Hawk firing battery


Hawk input buffers


high-density airspace control zone

High (JP 1-02) An altitude between 25,000 feet and 50,000 feet.
High altitude (JP 1-02) Conventionally, an altitude above 10,000 meters (33,000 feet), See also altitude.
High-altitude missile engagement zone (HIMEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement zone.
High-density airspace control zone (HIDACZ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Airspace designated in an airspace control plan or airspace control order, in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied weapons and airspace users. A high-density airspace control zone has
defined dimensions, which usually coincide with geographical features or navigational aids. Access to
a high-density airspace control zone is normally controlled by the maneuver commander. The maneuver commander can also direct a more restrictive weapons status within the high-density airspace control zone. (See also airspace coordination area (ACA) and restricted operating zone (ROZ).) See FMs
1-111 and 100-103.
High-payoff target (HPT) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A target whose loss to the threat will
contribute to the success of the friendly course of action. See FMs 6-20 series and 34-130.
High-speed anti-radar missile (HARM) (Aircraft Armament Recognition) Missile used against
ground-to-air missile radar sites and ships.
High-speed anti-radiation missile (HARM) (Aircraft Armament Recognition) Missile used against
ground-to-air missile radar sites and ships.
High-value target (HVT) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Assets that the threat commander requires for the successful completion of a specific action. See FMs 6-20 and 34-130.

high- to medium-altitude air defense


High Mobility Advanced Rocket System


high-altitude missile engagement zone


high-powered acquisition radar


high-powered illuminator radar (Hawk)


high performance parallel interface


hit to kill vehicle


high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (USA term)


host nation


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


host nation support


hold fire

Hold fire (HOLDF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air defense, an emergency order to stop
firing. Missiles already in flight must be prevented from intercepting, if technically possible. See FM
Homing All-the Way Killer (Hawk) (BMDO Glossary) 1. Upgrades to the Hawk interceptor and radar system to provide the Marine Corps with a mobile point theater ballistic missile defense capability.
2. A mobile air defense artillery, surface-to-air missile system that provides non-nuclear, low to medium altitude air defense coverage for ground forces. Designated MIM-23.
Homing guidance (JP 1-02) A system by which a missile steers itself towards a target by means of a
self-contained mechanism which is activated by some distinguishing characteristics of the target. See
also active homing guidance; guidance; passive homing guidance; semi-active homing guidance.

hostile origin





Hostile (host) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A contact positively identified as enemy. (Army)
An individual, a group of individuals, or a nation which is antagonistic or opposes policies and actions of the United States and its allies. The actions of a hostile can be political, diplomatic, or at any
level of war. See FM 100-20.
Hostile criteria (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Description of conditions under which an aircraft or a
vehicle may be identified as hostile for engagement purposes. (See also hostile acts and rules of engagement (ROE).)
Hostile track (JP 1-02) The classification assigned to a track which, based upon established criteria, is
determined to be an enemy threat.
Host nation support (HNS) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Civil and/or military assistance rendered by nation to foreign forces within its territory during peace time, crisis or emergencies, or war
based on agreements mutually concluded between nations. (See also civil military operations (CMO).)
See FMs 100-5, 100-10, and 100-20.

high powered amplifier


high-powered illuminator (Hawk)


high powered illuminator radar (Hawk)


high payoff target


high payoff target list




high-speed data input/output


health service support




handheld terminal unit

HUMRAAM (DCD Website) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMVW)-mounted

rotatable turret with a basic load of four (4) to six (6) AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

target designation from the Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System (AMDPCS) is provided over FAAD C4I networks.

high-voltage power supply


high-value target








hertz (cycles per second)


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary



Integrated Combat Airspace Command and Control


integrated air defense


Integrated Air Defense System


Integrated Broadcast System


integrated circuit


intercontinental ballistic missile


information and coordination central; information control center


initial coordination element


integrated COMSEC; imbedded communications


integrated communications security


institutional conduct of operations trainer


indicator, control panel


intercommunication system


interface control unit


identification; interactive discrimination


identification size


identify; identification; identified

Identification (ID) (JP 1-02) 1. The process of determining the friendly or hostile character of an unknown detected contact.
Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A system using electromagnetic transmissions to which equipment carried by friendly forces automatically responds; for example, by emitting pulses, thereby distinguishing themselves from enemy forces. (Army) A device
which emits a signal positively identifying it as a friendly. (See also air defense.) See FMs 1-111, 44100 (FM 3-01), and 100-103.

integrated digital operator control station


initial delay position


interface data record


identification size


interface electronic assembly


Interactive Electronic Technical Manual


intelligence and electronic warfare


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


identification, friend or foe


IFF off


IFF on


IFF passive identification


in-flight target update


improved Hawk


improved high-frequency radio


integrated logistics support


intermediate maintenance

Impact Prediction Point (IPP) (BMDO Glossary) Prediction of the point on the earths surface where
a specific RV will impact usually specified in terms of the circular error probable. The estimate includes the perturbing effects of the atmosphere and resultant uncertainties.
Improved high-frequency radio (IHFR) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) The AN/GRC-193, AN/GRC213, and AN/PRC-104 AM Improved High Frequency Radios (IHFRs) provides long-range CNR connectivity between operational elements at all echelons of the Army. IHFRs are primarily used as backup communications, in the event the ACUS or organizational unique communications network fails.
IHFRs are capable of transmitting and receiving voice and data and must be externally secured
through the use of the KY-99 MINTERM COMSEC device.
Improved moving target simulator (IMTS) (FM 3-01.11) The Improved Moving Target Simulator
(IMTS), AN/FSQ-187, is a computer-driven indoor training facility. The IMTS projects battlefield
background scenes and moving aircraft targets on a 360, 40-foot diameter hemispherical dome screen
to create a realistic battlefield environment.
Improved TOW vehicle (ITV)



intermediate maintenance technician



Inertial guidance (JP 1-02) A guidance system designed to project a missile over a predetermined
path, wherein the path of the missile is adjusted after launching by devices wholly within the missile
and independent of outside information. The system measures and converts accelerations experienced
to distance traveled in a certain direction. See also guidance.
Inertial navigation system (INS) (JP 1-02) A self-contained navigation system using inertial detectors, which automatically provides vehicle position, heading, and velocity.
In-flight phase (JP 1-02) The flight of a missile or space vehicle from launch to detonation or impact.
In-Flight Target Update (IFTU) (BMDO Glossary) A report to in-flight weapons. The IFTU provides updated, predict-ahead target position, time, and velocity for use within the interceptors control
suite to make mid-course corrections to intercept the target.


Information and coordination central (ICC) (TM 9-1424-600-12) An element of the battalion FDC
which commands and controls the battalion firing units and coordinates their activities with those of
adjacent battalions and higher echelons.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Infrared radiation (IR) (JP 1-02) Radiation emitted or reflected in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Initial point (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. The first point at which a moving target is located
on a plotting board.
Institutional conduct of fire trainer (ICOFT) (FM 3-01.11)
The BSFV Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer (ICOFT) is used strictly in the institutional training
environment. The system has four crew stations controlled by a single computer system, and allows
training of BSFV gunners and commanders. The ICOFT provides computer-generated scenarios of
realistic battlefield video, with sound for simulated target engagements using the BSFV capabilities. The computer also provides communication with the gunner during scenarios.
The Avenger Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer (ICOFT) is a computer-based device that generates digitized battlefield scenarios on video display terminals for the Avenger weapons system. The
ICOFT provides full training of all target engagement tasks. Each ICOFT consists of one instructor
station and six student stations. The ICOFT is primarily used to train IET enlisted students in their
combat mission of target engagement; however, RC and OBC personnel are also trained using the
The FAADS C3I Institutional Conduct of Operations Trainer (ICOT) is a scheduled future
computer-based training device. It will simulate all software operations of the C3I nodes (A2C2
BTOC, battery CP, Sensor C2 nodes) such as air tracks, symbology, range and bearing data,
weapon control orders, statuss, ADW, fault simulation, BIT operations and continuous operations.
Each ICOT will consist of six student stations and one instructor station. The ICOT will be used for
realistic training for all C3I operators and ADA officers. This device will train initial entry and transition personnel at the institution.
The purpose of the ICOFT is to train THAAD personnel in the operation of system integration,
hardware and software. The ICOFT will consist of three nodes, BMC3I, Radar, and Launcher. The
ICOFT Control Console will control the nodes. This training device will provide realistic institutional training for BM/C4I, Radar, and Launcher operators/crewman, and commanders and staff.
The device will simulate system hardware interfaces and provides institutional training of operational functions. It will be used to train operator/maintainers on the hardware and software of the
three systems segments independently, simultaneously, or collectively as an integrated system.
Each of the three nodes will run tactical software (embedded training, Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM), and help aids) and replicate tactical system operations. The ICOFT nodes
can be configured in all THAAD system configurations so skills learned on the ICOFT will be directly transferable to the actual system. The ICOFT also includes Part Task Trainers (PTT) to teach
initial switch settings and operator/maintainer removal and replacement functions.
Institutional maintenance trainer (IMT) (FM 3-01.11)
The Sentinel Institutional Maintenance Trainer (SIMT) is a 3D trainer used for maintenance
training. It is an institutional trainer consisting of an instructor console and four student stations.
The instructor console will be able to initialize, control and monitor any combination of training
stations. The SIMT is capable of training at least 100 different maintenance tasks.
The THAAD IMT will provide performance oriented maintenance/repair training. This device is
designed to train critical tasks associated with diagnosis and fault isolation of the THAAD weapon
system. This feature is required in order to assess the repairers performance. The IMT must replicate the tactical system in 3-D fidelity to train all critical tasks selected by the proponent school for

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

the device, identified to maintain the THAAD system. This device provides realistic training without, the need for large quantities of costly tactical equipment. Skills learned on this devise must be
directly transferable to the tactical equipment. The IMT consists of BM/C3I, radar and launcher
PTT, 3-D mock-ups of the radar Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU), and instructor stations that are interchangeable between the PTT and CEU. The IMT emulates the THAAD system by responding in
the same manner and having the same performance fidelity as the objective system.


Integrated Combat Airspace Command and Control (ICAC2) (FM 101-5-1) A system capable of
linking and coordinating the airspace use and restrictions of all Services and a host nation, which may
include aircraft, air defense, rocket artillery, unmanned aerial vehicles, and other trajectory weapon
systems, in order to maximize the accommodation of mission requirements. (See also Army airspace
command and control (A2C2).) See FM 100-103-1.
Integrated defense (AR 310-25) Air defense in which two or more vital areas are defended with a
single overall defense.
Integrated logistics support (ILS) (BMDO Glossary) 1. A disciplined, unified, and iterative approach to the management and technical activities necessary to integrate support considerations into
system and equipment design; develop support requirements that are related consistently to readiness
objectives, to design, and to each other; acquire the required support; and provide the required support
during the operational phase at minimum cost. 2. A composite of all the support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. It is an integral part of
all other aspects of system acquisition and operation.
Integration (JP 1-02) See employment principles.
Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A systematic approach to analyzing the enemy, weather, and terrain in a specific geographic area. It integrates enemy
doctrine with weather and terrain as they relate to the mission and the specific battlefield environment.
This is done to determine and evaluate enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action. See FMs 34-130 and 101-5.
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) (JP 1-02) An analytical methodology employed to
reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, environment, all terrain for all types of operations. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace builds an extensive database for each potential area in which a
unit may be required to operate. The database is then analyzed in detail to determine the impact of the
enemy, environment, and terrain on operations and presents it in graphic form. Intelligence preparation
of the batlespace is a continuing process.
Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) (AR 350-70) A technical manual delivered electronically. IETM possesses the following characteristics: it can be presented either on a desktop or a
portable device; the elements of data constituting the IETM are so interrelated that a users access to
the information is achievable by a variety of paths; and it provides procedural guidance, navigational
directions, and other technical information required by the user.
Interceptor Track Range (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum range at which a sensor can perform the interceptor track function on a single interceptor in a normal (non0man-made) environment.
Intercept point (IP) (JP 1-02) The point to which an airborne vehicle is vectored or guided to complete an interception.
Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile with a range capability from
about 3,000 to 8,000 nautical miles.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Intermediate maintenance (IM) (field) (JP 1-02) That maintenance which is the responsibility of and
performed by designated maintenance activities for direct support of using organizations. Its phases
normally consist of: a. calibration, repair, or replacement of damaged or unserviceable parts components, or assemblies; b. the emergency manufacture of non-available parts; and c. providing technical
assistance to using organizations.
Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile with a range capability
from about 1,500 to 3,000 nautical miles.
Interoperability (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the services so exchanged to operate effectively together. (DOD) 2. The condition achieved among communicationselectronics systems or items of communications-electronics equipment when information or services
can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. The degree of interoperability should be defined when referring to specific cases. See FMs 100-5 and 100-6.
Interrogate (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Interrogate the designated contact of the IFF mode indicated.



input/output control terminal


input/output control unit


instructor operator station


integral operator trainer


intercept point or indicate position


improved pulse acquisition radar (Hawk)


intelligence preparation of the battlespace


impact point out of coverage


impact prediction point


infrared; intelligence requirement


intermediate-range ballistic missile


infrared counter-measures


intelligence radar reporting


international standardization agreement


integrated system check


integrated services digital network


initial search lower bound


international standards organization


intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance


integrated sight unit


integrated troop proficiency trainer


improved TOW vehicle


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary



intravehicular remote control unit

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


joint air attack team


joint air defense operations

Jammer (BMDO Glossary) Radio transmitters accompanying attacking RVs and tuned to broadcast at
the same frequency as a defensive radar. The broadcasts add noise to the signals reflected from the
RVs and received by the radar. Susceptibility to jamming generally decreases with increasing radar
frequency, with decreasing altitude, and with increasing radar power.
Jamming (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of
electromagnetic energy to prevent or degrade the receipt of information by a receiver. It includes
communications and non-communications jamming. (See also barrage jamming, command and control
warfare (C2W), electromagnetic interference (EMI), electronic attack (EA), electronic warfare (EW),
imitative electronic deception (IED), intrusion, and meaconing.) See FMs 34-1, 34-40, and 100-6.

joint area of operation


joint air operations center (JFACC term)


joint data net


joint engagement zone


Joint Force Air Component Commander


Joint Force Commander


Joint Force Land Component Commander


Joint Force Maritime Component Commander


Joint Force Special Operations Component Commander


Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command and Control Systems


joint integrated prioritized target list (JFACC)


joint operations area

Joint Engagement Zone (JEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement zone.
Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The joint
force air component commander derives authority from the joint force commander who has the authority to exercise operational control, assign missions, direct coordination among subordinate commanders, redirect and organize forces to ensure unity of effort in the accomplishment of the overall mission.
The joint force commander will normally designate a joint force air component commander. The joint
force air component commanders responsibilities will be assigned by the joint force commanders responsibilities will be assigned by the joint force commander (normally these would include, but not be
limited to, planning, coordination, allocation, and tasking based on the joint force commanders apportionment decision). Using the joint force commanders guidance and authority, and in coordination
with other Service component commanders and other assigned or supporting commanders, the joint
force air component commander will recommend to the joint force commander apportionment of air

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

sorties to various missions or geographic areas. (See also joint force commander (JFC).) See FMs 71100 and 100-15.
Joint Force Commander (JFC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A general term applied to a combatant commander, subunified commander, or joint task force commander authorized to exercise combatant command (command authority) or operational control over a joint force. See FMs 71-100, 10015, 100-20, and JP 0-2.
Joint Force Land Component Commander (JFLCC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the
establishing commander for making recommendations on the proper employment of land forces, planning and coordinating land operations, or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. The joint force land component commander is given authority necessary to accomplish missions and tasks assigned by the commander with the preponderance of land forces and the requisite
command and control capabilities. (See also land component commander (LCC).) See FMs 100-5,
100-15, 100-20, and 100-30.
Joint Force Maritime Component Commander (JFMCC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The
commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible
to the establishing commander for making recommendations on the proper employment of maritime
forces and assets, planning and coordinating maritime operations, or accomplishing such operational
missions as may be assigned. The joint force maritime component commander is given the authority
necessary to accomplish missions and tasks assigned by the establishing commander. The joint force
maritime component commander will normally be the commander with the preponderance of maritime
forces and the requisite command and control capabilities.
Joint integrated prioritized target list (JIPTL) (JP 1-02) A prioritized list of targets and associated
data approved by a joint force commander, and maintained by a joint task force. Targets and priorities
are derived from the recommendations of components in conjunction with their proposed operations
supporting the joint force commanders objectives and guidance.
Joint Interface Control Officer (JICO) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) ARFOR or JFLCC coordination
with the joint interface control officer (JICO) is essential to the successful integration of ADA forces
into theater CA and TMD. The JICO is responsible for managing the multi-data link network from the
AOC. The JICO works for the AADC and does the following:

Establishes the multi-data link network.

Ensures units comply with direction in the theater data link tasking documents, including the operations task link (OPTASKLINK) and tactical operations data (TACOPDAT).

Monitors TADIL and interface unit (IU) status.

Resolves joint connectivity and interoperability issues.

The JICO cell supports continuous operations. Each service normally contributes personnel or expertise to the JICO cell to plan and execute joint operations. The AAMDC normally would provide the
ARFOR or JFLCC expertise to the JICO cell to ensure integration of ARFOR air and missile defense
operations with joint or multinational operations.
Joint land attack cruise missile defense (LACMD) elevated netted sensors system (JLENS) (Weapons Systems 1999) Provides over-the-horizon wide-area surveillance and precision-tracking (Fire
Control Quality) data; support the primary mission area of LACMD, using the Air-Directed Surfaceto-Air Missile (ADSAM) concept; support secondary mission areas of attack operations and battlefield
communications. It expands the battlespace for current Air Defense systems (Patriot, Navy Standard
Missile, AMRAAM, Medium Extended Air Defense System, and Forward Area Air Defense System)

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

and future Air Defense Systems. Also contributes to the production and distribution of a Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP), and to combat identification and classification.
Joint operations (JP 1-02) A general term to describe military actions conducted by joint forces, or by
Service forces in relationships (e.g. support, coordinating authority), which, of themselves, do not create joint forces. (Army) Operations carried on by two or more of the armed forces. See FMs 100-5,
100-15, 100-20, and JP 0-2.
Joint operations area (JOA) (JP 1-02) An area of land, sea, and airspace, defined by a geographic
combatant commander or subordinate unified commander, in which a joint force commander (normally a joint task force commander) conducts military operations to accomplish a specific mission.
Joint operations areas are particularly useful when operations are limited in scope and geographic area
or when operations are to be conducted on the boundaries between theaters. See also area of responsibility.
Joint radio operator and maintenance procedures simulator (JROMPS) (FM 3-01.11) The joint
radio operator and maintenance procedures simulator (JROMPS) was developed as a cheap and versatile training device for operators and maintainers of the JTIDS radio. It emulates all functions of
JTIDS through a computer link to a JTIDS mockup. JROMPS can effectively train personnel on the
initialization of JTIDS, the parameters necessary for data entry, operational procedures/scenarios,
automatic diagnostics and corrective maintenance.
Joint special operations area. (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) That area of land, sea, or airspace
assigned to a joint special operations command to conduct special operations. See FM 31-20.
Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (J-SEAD) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A broad
term that includes all suppression of enemy air defense activities provided by one component of the
joint force in support of another. (See also air defense suppression and suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD).) See FMs 44-100 (FM 3-01) and 6-20 series.
Joint tactical air ground station (JTAGS) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) JTAGS is a transportable,
mobile, in-theater element of US Space Commands (USSPACECOM) Theater Event System (TES).
JTAGS performs near real-time tactical event reporting of TBMs and other IR events by using the direct-downlinked data from the Defense Support Program (DSP) sensors. JTAGS uses a variety of
voice and data warning networks to report estimated launch point coordinates, predicted ground impact coordinates, and state vectors in support of the theater CINC. JTAGS use of in-theater networks
and Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS)/Tactical Data Distribution System (TDDS) broadcasts supports AAMDC and ARFOR TMD operations. USSPACECOMs concept of operations for
C2 of Space Forces furnishes the structure of command relationships and facilitates the full integration
of JTAGS into joint and combined operations to maximize its support of the warfighter.
USCINCSPACE, as supporting CINC to combatant (theater) CINCs, has combatant command
(COCOM) of JTAGS while the ARSPACE commander has OPCON.
Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) (AN/GSQ-240) (BMDO Glossary) A joint
service, jam-resistant, secure communications system that permits the interchange of essential tactical
information between aircraft, surface vessels, and mobile or fixed-base land stations.
Joint tactical terminal (JTT) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) The JTT is the technical/materiel replacement for the CTT, as well as several other legacy radio systems.
Joint Task Force (JTF) (JP 1-02) A joint force that is constituted and so designated by the Secretary
of Defense, a combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint task force commander.
Joint Theater Air And Missile Defense (JTAMD) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) JTAMD includes all
measures and means designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of surveillance and attacks against

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

the joint force by air and missile threats. Air defense operations represent the Armys contribution to
JTAMD operations. JTAMD is conducted to attain and maintain a desired degree of air superiority by
the destruction or neutralization of enemy air and missile forces. JTAMD operations include such
measures as the use of interceptors, bombers, antiaircraft guns, surface to surface and surface-to-air
missiles, air-to surface missiles, elements of information operations (IO), and electronic countermeasures to destroy the air or missile threat both before and after it is launched.
Joint Theater Missile Defense (JTMD) (JP 3-01.5) Joint theater missile defense refers to the integration of joint force capabilities to destroy enemy theater missiles in flight or prior to launch or to otherwise disrupt the enemys theater missile operations through an appropriate mix of mutually supportive
passive missile defense; active missile defense; attack operations; and supporting command, control,
communications, computers, and intelligence measures. Enemy theater missiles are those that are
aimed at targets outside the continental United States.

Joint Operation Planning and Execution System


Joint Operational Tactical System


joint rear area


joint suppression of enemy air defense


joint special operations area


Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System


Joint Tactical Air Distribution System


joint tactical air ground station


Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization


joint task force


Joint Tactical Information Distribution System


Joint Theater Missile Defense


Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization


joint tactical terminal


joint zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


tactical operation software (Patriot)


IFF codes table for Modes 1 through 4


kill assessment




kilobytes per second


kinetic energy


kilo feet



Kill (AR 310-25) As applied to air defense, the term used to denote that a hostile airborne, ballistic
and/or object has been destroyed or rendered non-effective. The word kill is further defined as Carrier- Immediate structural breakup of the target aircraft.
Weapon- The destruction or damage of a nuclear weapon so as to preclude detonation or considerably degrade the yield.
Track- Destruction of all target aircraft within a given flight (track).
Kill Assessment (KA) (BMDO Glossary) An evaluation of information to determine the result of a
ballistic missile/RV intercept for the purpose of providing information for defense effectiveness and
re-engagements. (USSPACECOM)
Kill probability (JP 1-02) A measure of the probability of destroying a target.
Kinetic Energy (KE) (BMDO Glossary) The energy from the momentum of an object, i.e., an object
in motion.
Kinetic Energy Weapon (KEW) (BMDO Glossary) A weapon that uses kinetic energy, or energy of
motion to kill an object. Examples of weapons, which use kinetic energy, are a rock, a bullet, a nonexplosively armed rocket, and an electromagnetic rail gun.



kilometers per second

Knot (Websters II) b. A unit of speed, one nautical mile per hour, approx. 1,15 statute miles per hour.

key performance parameters


known reference point




kill vehicle


kinetic warhead



USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Link 16



low altitude air defense


land attack cruise missile; low-altitude cruise missile


light air defense artillery


lightweight air defense launcher (USA TBMD term)


local air defense warning. See air defense warning (local)


launcher group message


launcher action message


local area network


logistics assistance office


logistics assistance representative

Large Repair Parts Transporter (LRPT) (FM 3-01.11) Provides a means to transport and store
large, heavy repair parts. It consists of a HEMTT M977 cargo truck with a heavy-duty materielhandling crane.
Laser-guided weapon (LGW) (JP 1-02) A weapon which uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser-marked/designated target, and through signal processing provides guidance commands to a control system which guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being
reflected. See also laser.
Laser range finder (LRF) (JP 1-02) A device which uses laser energy for determining the distance
from the device to a place or object.
Laser Target Designating System (JP 1-02) A system which is used to direct (aim or point) laser energy at a target. The system consists of the laser designator or laser target marker with its display and
control components necessary to acquire the target and direct the beam of laser energy thereon.

low-altitude simultaneous Hawk engagement


live air trainer; latitude



Launch (JP 1-02) The transition from static repose to dynamic flight of a missile.
Launch Azimuth (BMDO Glossary) Missile launch location measured in degrees clockwise from the
local north-pointing longitude line at the launch site. (USSPACECOM)
Launch Control Station (LCS) (FM 44-94 (FM 3-01.94)) The THAAD LCS includes an M1113
Heavy HMMWV, a trailer mounted PU-801 generator, and a modified S-788 shelter equipped with an
EPU. Consistent with its primary function as a multi-purpose communication element, the LCS includes the communications processing subsystem, fiber optic cable interfaces, and an extensive communications suite for internal and external tactical communications. The communications suite in78

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

cludes equipment to permit data communications via Tactical Digital Information Links B and J
(TADIL B and J), US Message Text Format (USMTF) and the Intelligence Broadcast System (IBS). It
also provides data and voice communications via the Area Common User System (ACUS) and the
AN/VRC-99, and voice communications via the Combat Net Radio (CNR). Other communications
equipment includes a Global Positioning System (GPS), AN/PSC-5 Single Channel Satellite Terminal,
AN/URS-5 Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT), circuit switching equipment, and Communications Security
(COMSEC) device. The LCS has a roof-mounted dual batwing antenna for the CTT/H-R terminal.
There are four ground-mounted antennas for the SINCGARS VHF radio sets and for the PLGR.
Launch pad (JP 1-02) Concrete or other hard surface area on which a missile launcher is positioned.
Launch Point Determination (BMDO Glossary) With computer methods, uses missile track observation to estimate the point on the Earths surface from which the missile was launched, expressed in
terms of circular error probable.
Launch time (JP 1-02) The time at which an aircraft or missile is scheduled to be airborne.
Launcher (JP 1-02) A structural device designed to support and hold a missile in position for firing.
Launch Control Station (LCS) (FM 3-01.11) The LCS includes an M1113 Heavy HMMWV, a
trailer mounted PU-801 generator, and a modified S-788 shelter equipped with an EPU. Consistent
with its primary function as a multi-purpose communication element, the LCS includes the communications processing subsystem, fiber optic cable interfaces, and an extensive communications suite for
internal and external tactical communications. The communications suite includes equipment to permit
data communications via Tactical Digital Information Links B and J (TADIL B and J), US Message
Text Format (USMTF) and the Intelligence Broadcast System (IBS). It also provides data and voice
communications via the Area Common User System (ACUS) and the AN/VRC-99, and voice communications via the Combat Net Radio (CNR). Other communications equipment includes a Global Positioning System (GPS), AN/PSC-5 Single Channel Satellite Terminal, AN/URS-5 Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT), circuit switching equipment, and Communications Security (COMSEC) device. The LCS
has a roof-mounted dual batwing antenna for the CTT/H-R terminal. There are four ground-mounted
antennas for the SINCGARS VHF radio sets and for the PLGR.
Launcher electronic module (LEM) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Includes seven power supplies, motor control unit, a launch control unit, a power control panel, a power distribution unit, a fan assembly, a pressure switch, and interconnecting cables.
Launcher missile-round distributor (LMRD) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Contains four distributor modules, circuit cards, a relay assembly, and interconnect cabling.
Launcher station test set (LSTS) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The launching station test set (LSTS) is a
portable test apparatus that is used to isolate faults in the launcher electronics.
Launching station (LS) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The LS is a mobile unit used to transport, aims, and
launch guided missiles.

light antitank weapon


load-bearing equipment


line of contact/line of departure


launcher control area (missile)


liquid crystal display


load-carrying equipment, lightweight computer equipment



USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


launcher control indicator




launcher control officer


Light Cavalry Regiment; Large Caliber Rocket


Launch Control Station (USA term)


launcher control unit; light weight computer unit


line of departure


low explosive; launcher electronics


launcher electronic assembly

Leakage (BMDO Glossary) The allowable threat objects passing through a BMD system expressed as
a percentage of the threat. To ensure overall system performance, permitted leakage is budgeted
among individual BMD phases and functions.
Leakage (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum allowable threat objects passing through a BMD
system expressed as a percentage of the design-to threat. To ensure overall system performance, permitted leakage is budgeted among individual BMD phases and functions.
Leaker(s) (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Airborne threat has passed through a defensive layer. Call could
include amplifying information.

light emitting diode


launcher electronic module


local early warning


live-fire exercise


launcher graph display


loop group modem

Liaison team (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A team of officers and/or enlisted personnel dispatched from
one element of a military force to another to maintain close and continuous communication, thus ensuring mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action between elements. Liaison teams ensure
that senior commanders remain aware of the tactical situation by providing them with exceptional,
critical and routine information, verifying the information, and clarifying operational questions. Also
called coordination team.

lateral ICC; local ICC


light infantry division

Light and special divisions interim sensor (LSDIS) (USAADASCH) OBSOLETE


line item number

Linebacker (Weapon Systems 1999) The Bradley Linebacker provides the air defender with shoot-onthe-move engagement capabilities against aerial threats over the full spectrum of terrain and maneuver
force operating speeds. The Bradley Linebacker system can engage low-altitude, high-speed fixedwing and rotary-wing aerial platforms, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles. The standard vehicle mounted launcher (SVML) for Stinger missiles replaces the TOW launcher found on the BSFV.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Line of communications (LOC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All routes, land, water, and air,
which connects an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and
military forces move. See also base communication zone (COMMZ).) See FMs 10-1, 100-5, 100-7,
100-10, and 100-15.
Line Of Sight (LOS) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The unobstructed path from a soldier, weapon sight,
electronic-sending and receiving antennas, or piece of reconnaissance equipment from one point to
another. (See also intervisibility (IV).) See FMs 1-111, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-15, 17-95, 71123, 100-15, and 100-20.
Line replaceable unit (LRU) (AR 310-25) A composite group of modules/subassemblies performing
one or more discrete functions in communications-electronics systems, constructed as an independently packaged unit for direct installation in communications-electronics equipment.
Live aircraft trainer (LAT)

See Patriot live aircraft trainer.

Live fire exercise (LFX) (AR 350-70) Exercise that is resource-intensive; player units maneuver and
employ organic and supporting weapons systems using full-service ammunition. LFXs integrate all
combat arms, CS, and CSS elements. The extensive range and resource requirements usually limit
them to platoon and company team levels. Consequently, their principal focus is unit and weapons integration at company team level. LFXs provide realistic training on collective and soldier skills. (FM
25-101) See "Exercise."

low-level transit route


launcher maintenance message


lower medium range


launcher/missile-round distributor


launch NOW intercept point


liaison officer


low noise receiver


local oscillator; lubrication order


low altitude defense


line of communications (logistic routes)

Local Air Defense Warning (LADW) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Local air defense warnings (LADW)
allow the local commander to alert his force to air and/or missile attack without changing the ADW.
LADW are designed to alert a particular unit, several units, or an area of the battlefield. LADW parallel ADW and reflect the local air and missile threat. Response to the LADW is METT-TC dependent.
The three LADW are as follows:

Dynamite. Attack is in progress. Enemy aircraft/missiles are within 50 km of the boundaries of a

unit AO or upon identification of predicted impact point for tactical ballistic missiles within the
boundaries of a unit's AO.

Lookout. Attack possible based on location and flight profile of a detected air platform. Enemy
aircraft and/or missiles are within 100 km of the boundaries of a unit AO or ballistic missile launch
is detected.

Snowman. Attack is not likely. Enemy aircraft and/or missiles are more than 100 km from the
boundaries of a unit AO and no tactical ballistic missile launch are detected.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Lock On (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Signifies that a tracking or target-seeking system is continuously and automatically tracking a target in one or more coordinates (e.g., range, bearing, elevation).

low-altitude forward area air defense




logistical exercise


logistics package


low- to medium-altitude air defense


low-altitude missile engagement zone




low-powered acquisition radar


long-range air defense


line of sight


line of sight-forward-heavy


line of sight-rear

Lost Lock (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Loss of radar/IR lock-on (advisory).
Low (JP 1-02) A height between five hundred and two thousand feet.
(FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Target altitude below 10,000 ft AGL.
Low-altitude missile engagement zone (LOMEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement zone.
Low-altitude simultaneous Hawk engagement (LASHE) (FM 3-01.87) The Patriot ICC interfaces
with Phase III Hawk and accommodates the Hawk low-altitude simultaneous Hawk engagements
(LASHE) capability. With the LASHE capability, Hawk can conduct close-in multiple simultaneous
engagements. The engagement monitor logic at the ICC accounts for Hawk multiple engagements capability. When Hawk enters the LASHE mode, that status is reported to the ICC and displayed by section in the Hawk engagement summary tab.
Low-level transit route (LLTR) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A temporary corridor of defined
dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air
defenses or surface forces. (See also minimum-risk route (MRR), air corridor, and flight corridor.) See
FM 100-103.

low probability of intercept


long range


line replaceable assembly


logistics readiness center


laser range finder


launcher response message


logistics release point


large repair parts transporter


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


long-range search


long range TBM


line replaceable unit


launching station (Patriot); launch site


launching station area; lubrication, semi-fluid, anti-seize


launching section control box (HAWK)


launching section control box operator (HAWK)


light and special divisions interim sensor


launching station diagnostic unit


launcher and sensor mock-up


launching station test set


local training area


lower TBM


long-term re-initialization


launcher test set


landing zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


March Order and Emplacement

M1 (FM 3-01.87) Gunners quadrant which is used to manually emplace radars and/or launchers.
M2 (FM 3-01.87) Aiming circle which is used to manually emplace radar and or launcher.

missile acquisition


maintenance allocation chart

Mach (Websters II) Speed of sound, one mach equals 1,116 feet per second at sea level (table of

major army command


Modified Air Defense System


maintain; maintained; maintenance; maintainer

Maintainer (BMDO Glossary) An individual responsible for retaining the major defense system in or
restoring it to a specified condition. Maintenance activities include inspection, testing, servicing, and
classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation.
Maintenance Control System (MCS) (TM 9-1425-600-12) The MCS executes in the Patriot Weapon
Control Computer (WCC); it controls and sequences the display aided maintenance functions, performs radar initialization, and performs the execution of diagnostic software, adjustment procedures
support software, and tactical program downloading to the RSU. The MCS also executes automated
software, multiple configuration software, IM software tools, and utility software.
Maintenance Operations (BMDO Glossary) The corrective and preventive maintenance operations
that do not require a deployment decision; it includes correction and subsequent validation testing and
the update of relevant status configuration, maintenance, and inventory databases.

maintenance assistance and inspection team.


man-portable air defense system.

Man-portable (JP 1-02) Capable of being carried by one man. Specifically, the term may be used to
qualify: 1. Items designed to be carried as an integral part of individual, crew-served, or team equipment of the dismounted soldier in conjunction with his assigned duties. Upper weight limit: approximately 14 kilograms (31 pounds). 2. In land warfare, equipment which can be carried by one man over
a long distance without serious degradation of the performance of his normal duties.
Man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) (FM 3-01.11) The Stinger MANPADS team carries
a manportable, shoulder-fired, infrared or IR/NUV seeking missile that requires no control from the
gunner after firing. It has an identification, friend or foe (IFF) interrogator that aids the gunner and
team chief in identifying targets. The team consists of a gunner and team chief.
Manual FAAD control system (MFCS) (USAADASCH) OBSOLETE. This term is no longer doctrinally valid.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Manual SHORAD control system (MSCS) (USAADASCH) OBSOLETE. This term is no longer
doctrinally valid.
March Order and Emplacement Trainer (MOET) (FM 3-01.11)
The Patriot Radar Set March Order and Emplacement Trainer (RS MO&ET) trainer is an institutional training device. The MO&E trainer will be a mock-up of the Patriot RS physical characteristics as applied to MO&E tasks. The trainer consists of an RS trailer with electrical power, a rotating platform with antenna face, a shelter and outriggers. The MO&E trainer will be used to train
Patriot missile crew members, operators and system mechanics, system maintenance technicians,
and AD officers in MO&E tasks. All MO&E tasks can be trained using this device instead of the
tactical systems.
THAAD The purpose of this device is to train THAAD personnel to march order and emplace
the THAAD radar. It is used in conjunction with the HEMTT tractor for training. The MOET consist of the Antenna Element (AE), Prime Power Unit (PPU), Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU), and
Electronics Equipment Unit (EEU). These components are described in the following paragraphs.
Antenna Element. The trainer will replicate the appearance and size of the AE. The simulator will
be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, march order and emplacement procedures. It will
be used to train the soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical and cooling lines to the CEU,
and signal data lines to the EEU. Prime Power Unit. The trainer will replicate the appearance and
size of the PPU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, March order,
and emplacement procedures. The PPU will also train the soldiers in proper connection of the electrical lines to the CEU. Cooling Equipment Unit. The trainer will replicate the appearance and
size of the CEU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, March order,
and emplacement procedures. It will train soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical and
cooling lines to the AE. Electronics Equipment Unit. The trainer will replicate the appearance
and size of the EEU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, March
order, and emplacement procedures. It will train soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical,
signal and data lines to the AE.

mission application program


map exercise

Maritime operation (JP 1-02) Actions performed by forces, or civilians over, under, or on the seas.

massive parallel processors (THAAD Radar)

Mass storage unit (MSU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Performs memory storage function for WCC.
Master information coordination central (MICC) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Information and Coordination Central has the capability to function as a master ICC (MICC) fire distribution element. Major features of a MICC include:
Increased external and internal interfaces
Brigade wide track management
Automatic fire distribution and battalion engagement assignment
A master ICC can work together with external elements. These may be as follows:
subordinate or lateral battalions (SICC, MICC)
higher echelons (CRC, TAOC, AWACS)
up to 12 Fire Units (ECS)

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


medium antitank weapon



Maximum Attrition (BMDO Glossary) Maximum attrition is employed in a target-rich environment

to destroy the maximum number of RVs, regardless of the type, by using all available or allocated interceptors. This option may not satisfactorily defend specific or required assets.



main battle area


megabits per second


maneuvering ballistic reentry vehicle


main battle tank


master bus unit


movement control agency


movement control center


missile countermeasures device


modified combined obstacle overlay


maintenance collection point


modular combined obstacle overlay; Modular Collective Protective Equipment


movement completion report


maneuver control system; maintenance control system


movement control team


motor control unit


missile defense


military decision-making process

Meaconing (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A system of receiving radio beacon signals and rebroadcasting them on the same frequency to confuse navigation. The meaconing stations cause inaccurate bearings to be obtained by aircraft or ground stations.
Meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference (MIJI) report (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A report to record and report interference experienced with communications which was not determined to
be caused by locally generated spurious signals or technical difficulties. This report is prepared based
on an interference report forwarded from the unit or element that initially experienced the interference.
The unit-level interference report is transmitted by the fastest and most secure means available. See
FM 34-40.

Medium Extended Air Defense System

Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) (BMDO Glossary) A measure of the reliability of an end item.
Defined as the total functioning life of an item divided by the total number of failures within the population during the measurement interval. The definition holds for time, rounds, miles, events, or other
measures of unit life. MTBF is a basic measure of reliability.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) (BMDO Glossary) The total elapsed time for corrective maintenance
divided by the number of corrective maintenance actions during a given period of time. MTTR is a basic measure of maintainability.


Medium (JP 1-02) As used in air intercept a height between 2,000 and 25,000 feet.
(FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Target altitude between 10,000 ft AGL and 25,000 ft AGL.
Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) (BMDO Glossary) A lightweight, highly transportable, low-to-medium altitude air defense and theater missile defense system designed to protect
critical fixed and maneuver corps assets. MEADS supersedes the Corps SAM program in 1995.
Medium-Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile with a range capability from
about 600 to 1,500 nautical miles.

major end item


mobile erector launcher


minimum engagement package

Method of control (MOC) See Air Defense Artillery methods of control


mission-essential task list


mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available


mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (civil)


missile engagement zone


manual FAAD control system


machine gun


See Pershing.


Military Grid Reference System




military intelligence


Statute mile (5,280 feet)


master information coordination central

U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL; [Army] Missile Command (preOct 96) (See AMCOM).
Midcourse guidance (JP 1-02) The guidance applied to a missile between termination of the boost
phase and the start of the terminal phase of flight. See also guidance.
Midcourse phase (JP 1-02) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile between the boost
phase and the reentry phase. See also ballistic trajectory; boost phase; reentry phase; terminal phase.

Multifunctional Information Distribution System


meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference


multiple-integrated laser engagement system


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Military grid reference system (MGRS) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A system which uses a
standard-scaled grid square, based on a point of origin on a map projection of the surface of the Earth
in an accurate and consistent manner to permit either position referencing or the computation of direction and distance between grid positions. See FM 21-26.
Military operations on urbanized terrain (MOUT) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All military actions
planned and conducted on a topographical complex and its adjacent natural terrain where man-made
construction is the dominant feature. It includes combat-in-cities, which is that portion of MOUT involving house-to-house and street-by-street fighting in towns and cities. See FMs 90-10 and 90-10-1.

military-owned demountable container


See Hawk.

MIM-104A (FM 3-01.87) Patriot missile Standard; was the first missile type fielded with Patriot
and contained an analog fuse. This fuse was replaced by a digital version of the fuse with the fielding
of the MIM-104A. Both of these missiles provide excellent performance against ABTs and adequate
performance against certain TBMs. The warhead fragment size limits performances against TBMs to a
mission kill.
MIM-104B (FM 3-01.87) Patriot missile standoff jammer counter SOJC; To counter the long-range
ECM threat, use the MIM-104B or SOJC missile. The guidance and navigation hardware was modified to allow the SOJC missile to fly a lofted trajectory to the jamming source and seek out the strongest emitter during terminal phase. To achieve the lofted trajectory needed to maintain missile maneuverability at long range, missile acquisition is delayed for the SOJC mission. The SOJC can fly five
times longer than the standard missile without the uplink/downlink between the radar and missile. The
SOJC missile retains thee same performance against ABTs and TBMs as the standard missile.
MIM-104C (FM 3-01.87) Patriot antitactical missile capability 2 (ATM); The ATM MIM-104C is
used to counter the advanced TBM threat. A new warhead and a dual-mode fuse were added to the
missile. The new warhead contains a more powerful explosive and larger fragments designed to place
sufficient kinetic energy on the warhead section of enemy TBMs to achieve a warhead kill. The dualmode fuse allows the ATM missile to retain ABT performance and optimize TBM fusing. The system
software based on the mission selected for the missile sets the fuse mode.
MIM-104D (GEM) (FM 3-01.87) Patriot guidance enhanced missile (ATM-1); Patriot GEM missiles
provide improved capability against TBMs and advanced ABTs. The GEM improves system effectiveness and lethality against high speed TBMs and incorporates a footprint with increased probability
of kill (Pk). The GEM also has increased lethality against advanced low radar cross section ABTs. The
modifications to the PAC-2 missile included an improved sensitivity of the C-band track-via-missiles
(TVM) seeker, improved S-band fuse reaction time, and higher TVM data rate.

minimum; minute

Minimum-risk route (MRR) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A temporary corridor of defined
dimensions recommended for use by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known
hazards to low-flying aircraft transiting the combat zone. (Army) The MRR must be approved by
the airspace control authority and avoids artillery, air defense weapons, landing zones, pick-up zones,
forward arming and refueling points, and Army airfields. See FM 100-103.

missile ignition request

Misfire (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. Failure to fire or explode properly. 2. Failure of a
primer or the propelling charge of a round or projectile to function wholly or in part. See FMs 6-series,
7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Missile (msl) (AR 310-25) A weapon or object to which propulsive energy is applied or continues to
be applied after launch.
Missile assembly-checkout facility (JP 1-02) A building, van, or other type structure located near the
operational missile launching location and designed for the final assembly and checkout of the missile
Missile control system (JP 1-02) A system that serves to maintain attitude stability and to correct deflections. See also missile guidance system.
Missile destruct (JP 1-02) Intentional destruction of a missile or similar vehicle for safety or other
Missile destruct system (JP 1-02) A system which, when operated by external command or preset
internal means, destroys the missile or similar vehicle.
Missile engagement zone (MEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement zone.
Missile guidance system (JP 1-02) A system which evaluates flight information, correlates it with
target data, determines the desired flight path of a missile, and communicates the necessary commands
to the missile flight control system. See also missile control system.
Missile intercepts zone (JP 1-02) That geographical division of the destruction area where surface-toair missiles have primary responsibility for destruction of airborne objects. See also destruction area.
Missile minder AN/TSQ-73 (TM 9-1425-600-12) An automated electronic air defense command and
control system which functions as overall activity director, coordinating the actions of subordinate battalion and providing interfaces with higher echelon Army elements and with other services (Air Force
or Marine Corps).
Missile monitor (JP 1-02) A mobile, electronic, air defense fire-distribution system for use at Army
air defense group, battalion, and battery levels. It employs digital data to exchange information within
the system and provides means for the Army air defense commander to monitor actions of the units
and take corrective action when necessary. It automatically exchanges information with adjacent missile monitor systems when connected with them by data links.
Missile release line (JP 1-02) The line at which an attacking aircraft could launch an air-to-surface
missile against a specific target.
Missile round (AR 310-25) A missile, with warhead complete for launching.
Missile round cable test set (MRCTS) (TM 9-1430-600-12) Test set used with the LE/LM to perform a TEST of the GM cable functions.
Missile round pallet (MRP) (FM 3-01.11) The THAAD missile round pallet is used to support and
erect a minimum of eight missiles to the launch elevation angle. The MRP incorporates an Azimuth
Determination Unit (ADU) that provides azimuth alignment information for the launcher during combat operations and a missile umbilical junction box that provides truck-to-MRP electrical interface.
The missile round pallet has forklift pockets for ground handling.
Missile round trainer (MRT)
(DA Pam 350-38) Patriot missile round trainer (MRT). The MRT is a training device that duplicates the external physical features of the missile canister and electronic characteristics of the
guided missile. It consists of a canister with ballast permanently secured inside, which approximates the tactical guided missile's weight and center of gravity. It enables transportation, handling
and load/unload training without the hazards of handling live explosives.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

The THAAD Missile Round Trainer consist of two separate configurations, the Missile Round
Pallet Trainer (MRPT) and the Missile Round Trainer (MRT). The purpose of the Missile Round
Pallet Trainer (MRPT) and the Missile Round Trainer (MRT) is to train operators in the handling
of the THAAD missile at the institution and unit. Both configurations are used in conjunction with
the THAAD launcher for training. The MRPT and MRT will simulate the weight, balance and
physical characteristics of the THAAD missile and will be used to train load/reload, hangfire and
misfire procedures, and to practice missile handling and transporting procedures.
Missile simulator round (MSR) (FM 3-01.11) The Bradley Missile Simulation Round (MSR) is used
to train Bradley crews in non-fire TOW tasks. It is the same size and weight as a real TOW missile. It
is used to practice uploading, unloading, removing misfires and storing TOW.
Mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The
phrase or acronym used to describe the factors that must be considered during the planning or execution of a tactical operation. See FM 101-5. (USMC) Mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops
and support available, and time available. Example considerations are:
Mission: The who, what, when, where, and why that must be accomplished.
Enemy: Current information concerning the enemys strength, location, disposition, activity,
equipment, and capability and a determination as to the enemys probable course of action.
Terrain (includes weather): Analysis of vegetation, soil type, hydrology, climatic conditions,
and light data to determine the impact the environment can have on current and future operations
for both enemy and friendly operations.
Troops (and support available): The quantity, level of training, and psychological state of
friendly forces, to include the availability of weapon systems and critical equipment.
Time available: The time available to plan, prepare, and execute operations for both enemy and
friendly forces.
Mission-essential task (MET) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A collective task in which an organization
must be proficient to accomplish an appropriate portion of its wartime mission(s). See FMs 25-100
and 25-101.
Mission-essential task list (METL) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A compilation of collective missionessential tasks which must be successfully performed if an organization is to accomplish its wartime
mission(s). See FMs 25-100 and 25-101.
Mission training plan (MTP) (AR 350-70) Provides comprehensive training and evaluation outlines,
and exercise concepts and related training management aids to assist field commanders in the planning
and execution of effective unit training. It provides units a clear description of "what" and "how" to
train to achieve wartime mission proficiency.

Multiple-Launch Rocket System




material management center


monolithic memory unit


movement orders; march order


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Mobile Erector Launcher (MEL) (USAADASCH) A towed launch vehicle capable of transporting a
TBM to a tactical location and elevating and launching the missile. A mobile erector launcher requires
external ancillary equipment to support launch operations.
Mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) (FM 3-01.11) Consists of an interface box at the ICC hardwired to a small extension node (SEN) van which will transmit the signal to other SENs, and various
digital secure and non-secure voice telephones. This allows the battalion to communicate with higher
echelons, other ADA units, and anyone in the net. It may be used to transmit TADIL-B and ADTL-1.



method of control (See Air Defense Artillery methods of control)





Modes of control (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Two modes of control are centralized and decentralized.
The mode of control selected will depend upon the capabilities of the C4I system, the weapon systems
being employed, and both the friendly and enemy air situations. The AADC's air defense plan will
specify the modes of control, trigger events when they should be changed, and who has the authority
to change them.

Centralized Control Mode. This mode is when a higher echelon authorizes target engagements to
fire units. Permission to engage each track must be requested by the fire unit from that higher AD
echelon. Centralized control is used to minimize the likelihood of engaging friendly aircraft while
permitting engagements of hostile aircraft and missiles only when specific orders are issued to initiate the engagement. Normally, centralized control is used for HIMAD aircraft engagements.

Decentralized Control. This mode is the normal wartime mode of control for air and missile defense. A higher echelon monitors unit actions, making direct target assignments on a management
by exception basis to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution, to prevent engagement of friendly air platforms, and to prevent simultaneous engagements of hostile air targets.
Decentralized control is used to increase the likelihood that a hostile aircraft or missile will be engaged as soon as it comes within range of an ADA weapon system. Normally, SHORAD engagements are decentralized. Normally, HIMAD theater missile engagements are decentralized.

Simultaneous (Use of Both Modes). Control of engagement operations during the air battle may
be centralized at a higher headquarters FDC or decentralized to a subordinate FDC. Centralized
control and decentralized control can be executed simultaneously. For instance, in a situation where
battle management has been decentralized to the ADA brigade FDC, the ADA brigade commander
exercises centralized control of subordinate units. At the same time, however, higher control echelons are continuously monitoring the actions of the brigade. These higher echelons are exercising
decentralized control while the brigade commander exercises centralized control. Thus, centralized
control and decentralized control are conducted simultaneously.


March Order and Emplacement Trainer


method of fire


(OBSOLETE) military operations other than war (obsolete as of 3/96 per GEN Hartzog)


mission-oriented protective posture




military operations on urbanized terrain


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Moving target indicator (MTI) (JP 1-02) A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in
motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the output of a suitable memory circuit.
Moving target simulator (MTS)/improved moving target simulator (IMTS) (DA Pam 350-38) The
MTS/IMTS attains realism through the use of audio and video representations of moving aircraft
against a larger simulated landscape setting. Students use the MTS/IMTS to simulate Stinger engagement and practice associated tasks. MTS/IMTS are located at major installations in CONUS and
OCONUS. Standards for IMTS remain the same.

mandatory parts list


Multi-subscriber equipment packet switch network


meters per second

MQM 107 Streaker Training Target (DA Pam 350-38) The Streaker is a reusable turbojet-powered
fixed-wing target. It may be configured to provide training for all ADA weapon systems through the
use of mission tailored ancillary equipment and augmentation and radar reflectors. The Streaker system is government owned and contractor operated and may be set up at most ranges where ADA
weapons are fired.

missile round


medium-range ballistic missile


missile-round cable test set


multiple rocket launcher


missile round pallet


minimum risk route; missile readiness report


missile round simulator


missile-round trainer; mission recording tape


manstation; milliseconds, mobilization station


main support battalion


Manual SHORAD Control System


minimum safe distance


missile support element; mobile subscriber equipment; multi-subscriber equipment




mean sea level


main supply route; missile simulator round; missile site radar


mobile subscriber radio terminal (AN/VRC-97); mobile subscriber radiotelephone


mass storage unit


minimum safe velocity


missile track; message type


maneuver training area


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


mean time between failure


moving target indicator


masked terrain map


missile threat origin NOT AN APPROVED ACRONYM OR TERM


modified table of organization and equipment


mission training plan; MOS training plan


missile tracking radar


missile test station; moving target simulator, missile tracking sensor; missile test set


multiservice tactics, techniques, and procedures


mean time to repair


MANPADS under armor



Multiple-Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) (DA Pam 350-38) Multiple integrated
laser engagement system/air-to-ground engagement system/Air Defense (MILES/AGES/AD). The
MILES/AGES/AD is available through local Training Support Centers (TSC). This training device
provides a realistic training environment with real time hit/kill feedback for Avenger, Stinger and
BSFV weapon systems. The system duplicates all engagement tasks through the use of laser firings.
MILES is an approved eye-safe training device.



missile warning center


movement warning order; modification work order


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


named area of interest

Named area of interest (NAI) (JP 1-02) The geographical area where information that will satisfy a
specific information requirement can be collected. Named areas of interest are usually selected to capture indications of adversary courses of action, but also may be related to conditions of the battlespace.
See also area of interest.
National Missile Defense (NMD) (BMDO Glossary) A ground-based anti-ballistic missile system
designed to protect U.S. against limited ballistic missile threats. It consists of four elements: groundbased interceptors (GBI); a ground-based radar (GBR); a battle management command, control, and
communications (BM/C3) system; and a constellation of Space and Missile Tracking System (SMTS)
(a.k.a. Brilliant Eyes) satellites.
National Simulation Center (NSC) (AR 350-50-3) The NSC is a secure three story structure located
on Fort Leavenworth, KS, whose mission is to support training exercises worldwide, operate the NSC
simulation facility, and provide support to other simulation related activities. Their primary mission is
to support BCTP rotations in a direct support (DS) role. They also provide the space and equipment to
support the WCOPFOR participation in all BCTP rotations. The NSC has the capability to remote up
to 120 workstations and 50 microvax computer systems.
National Test Center (NTC) (BMDO Glossary) The National Test Center, located at Ft. Irwin, CA. A
large maneuver area that serves as the Armys primary testing center for Army maneuver forces.
Friendly forces are pitted against enemy forces to validate proposed procedures and doctrine.
National Training Center (NTC) (AR 350-70) The Fort Irwin training center that provides a heavy
combat battalion task force 2 weeks of intensive combat training on a rotational basis.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Nautical mile (JP 1-02) A measure of distance equal to one minute of arc on the Earths surface. The
United States has adopted the international nautical mile equal to 1,852 meters or 6,076.11549 feet.

navigational enhancement system


national command authority


net control station


net control station EPLRS


night defensive position

Near real time (JP 1-02) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed
by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies that
there are no significant delays. (See also real time)


Negation (BMDO Glossary) RV destruction or other actions which prevent damage to the defended
area from conventional, nuclear, chemical, or biological effects.

noncombatant evacuation operations

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Net (communications) (JP 1-02) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a
common channel or frequency.
Net control station (NCS) (JP 1-02) A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net.
Net time reference (NTR) (FM 6-24.8) JTIDS, A subscriber terminal that is assigned as the reference
for system time for each synchronized netted system.

narrow field of view


north finding system


negative IFF


national item identification number


no kill




nautical mile (6,080 feet)




national missile defense (BMD weapons systems program)

Node (BMDO Glossary) A set of equipment and processes which performs the communications functions at the end of the datalinks which interconnect those elements which are resident on the network.

North American Aerospace Defense Command

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) (BMDO Glossary) A bi-national command of Canadian and U.S. forces responsible for defense of North America from bomber and
ALCM/SLCM attack. Located in Colorado Springs, CO.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An organization of nations
in North America and Western Europe that have common political goals.
North Finding System (NFS) (FM 3-01.87) The NFS part of the automatic emplacement provides the
azimuth, roll, and crossroll information for the radar and each launcher of the Patriot system. The NFS
is also referred to as the bearing-distance-heading indicator (BDHI). It is a gyrocompass-based system,
which senses the platform attitude with respect to the Earth' true north reference.

network participation group


north reference


near real time


national simulation center


negative SIF


non-stocked logistics


national stock number


National Training Center (USA, Ft. Leavenworth, KS); National Test Center


non-tactical link


net time reference


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


non-tactical tape


nuclear detonation


night vision device


night vision goggles


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


operations and intelligence


observer/controller (BWFX, Div, Corps exercise)

ODS 1 / 2

optical disk system one or two




onboard home on jam



Object Rate (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum rates (per second) that a sensor can acquire
RVs, decoys, AOs, or fractionated missile/PBV debris.
Object in FOV (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum number of RVs, decoys, Aos, or fractionated
missile/PBV debris that a sensor can acquire at one time.
Obscurant (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A gas, liquid, solid particle, or combination of these, either
man-made (such as smoke) or natural (such as dust), suspended in the atmosphere, that may attenuate
or block any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This can effect such things as visual observation, laser rangefinders or designators, radars, and thermal sites.
Observer Controller (OC) (AR 350-50-3) An individual tasked to observe training and provide administrative control and constructive feedback to participants during a training exercise. BCTP OCs do
not evaluate the units during BCTP rotations. They provide doctrinal expertise by the Battlefield Operating Systems. They give constructive feedback to the unit commander(s) and staff. The OCs provide input for the formal AAR during the exercise portion of the rotation, conduct informal AARs, and
serve as a data source for improvements of U.S. Joint doctrine, Army doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, material, and soldiers (DTLOMS). All BCTP OCs must complete a comprehensive certification program before performing duties as an Observer Controller. OPSGRPs A and B
have observer-controllers while OPSGRP C and D have observer-trainers.
Observer Trainer (OT) (AR 350-50-3) An individual tasked to observe and train commanders and
their staffs operating in a environment as either the Army component or as the nucleus for a JTF HQ.
They do not control the exercise, hence the focus on trainer, not controller. OPSGRP C and D call
their soldiers observer-trainers.



offensive counterair; operational control authority


Office of the Chief of Air Defense Artillery


observation and fields of fire, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues
of approach


operations control unit; operators console unit (THAAD)


optical disk (Patriot)


optical disk drive


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


optical disk unit

Offensive counterair (OCA) (JP 1-02) Offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy
aircraft, missiles, launch platforms and supporting structures and systems both before and after launch,
but as close to their source as possible. Offensive counterair operations range throughput enemy territory and are generally conducted at the initiative of friendly forces. These operations include attack
operations, fighter sweeps, escort, and suppression of enemy air defenses. See also counterair; defensive counterair, operation.

organizational maintenance storage van


OBSOLETE. Operations other than war (obsolete as of 3/96 per GEN Hartzog) (Replace with stability and support operations.)


observation post


operate; operated; operation; operational; operator


operational command


operational control


operational data


operator (not an approved abbreviation)

Operating tempo (OPTEMPO) (AR 350-70) The annual operating miles/hours for systems in a particular unit required to execute the commander's training strategy. It is stated in terms of the
miles/hours for the major system in a unit; however, all equipment generating significant operating
and support cost has an established operating tempo.
Operational control (OPCON) (JP 1-02) Transferable command authority that may be exercised by
commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all
aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the
command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service
and/or functional component commanders. Operational control normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control does not, in itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit
Operational missile

See operationally ready missile

Operational readiness float (ORF) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A quantity of selected class II and VII
items authorized for use by direct support maintenance units in exchange with supported units if a like
item cannot be repaired in a timely manner. See FM 63-2-1.
Operational missile launcher (AR 310-25) A launcher which has been accepted by the using service
and has been issued to units for tactical and/or strategic use.
Operationally ready missile (AR 310-25) An operational missile on a serviceable launcher to serviceable firing control equipment.

opposing forces

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


operation plan




operation order


operations (employment)




operations security


operating tempo


operational readiness evaluation; operational readiness exercise


operational readiness float


organize; organized; organization


operator system interface


operational search lower bound


Operator Tactics Trainer Scenario Translator System


OTT Scenario Translator System


observer trainer




over-the horizon backscatter (radar)


over-the-horizon targeting


on-line training mode




operator tactics trainer


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

P (code)

precise code


personnel and administration


presumed air-breathing threat


Patriot advanced capabilities


Patriot advanced capabilities - 2


Patriot advanced capabilities, level 2/level 3. Formerly called ERINT


Patriot advanced capabilities - 3


Patriot advanced capabilities - 4


Patriot data information link; Patriot digital information link


Position and Azimuth Determining System


propulsion arming firing unit

Palletized Loading System (PLS) (JP 1-02) A truck with hydraulic load handling mechanism, trailer
and flatrack system capable of self-loading and unloading. Truck and companion trailer has a 16.5-ton
payload capacity.

Patriot Automated Logistics System


pulse acquisition radar (Hawk); phased array radar

Parallel Processing (BMDO Glossary) In parallel processing multiple processors (CPUs) divide up a
large task into smaller ones and each CPU acts on the subdivided task simultaneously so that much
higher effective processing speeds can be attained.

Passive Alignment System

Passive air defense (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All measures, other than active defense, taken
to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air action. These measures include deception, dispersion, and
the use of protective construction. (See also active air defense and air defense.) See FMs 44-63 and
Passive defense (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) Applies to measures initiated to reduce vulnerability and to minimize damage caused by theater missiles TM attacks. Passive defense includes TM
counter-proliferation and deterrence; TM early warning and nuclear, biological, and chemical protection; counter-surveillance; deception; camouflage and concealment; hardening; electronic warfare;
mobility; dispersal; redundancy; recovery, and reconstitution.
Passive defense measures (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Measures taken to reduce the possibility or effects of nuclear, biological, and chemical attack. See FM 3-3.
Passive ballistic missile defense (AR 310-25) All defensive measures, other than active defense,
taken to minimize the effects of hostile attack by ballistic missiles. These include the use of cover,
concealment, camouflage, dispersion, and protective construction.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Passive homing guidance (JP 1-02) A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in the missile
utilizes radiation from the target. See also guidance.
Passive missile defense (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Passive missile defense applies to measures initiated
to reduce vulnerability to TM attack and to minimize the effect of damage caused by TM attack. Passive missile defense includes TM early warning and NBC protection, counter-surveillance, deception,
camouflage and concealment, hardening, electronic warfare, mobility, dispersal, redundancy, recovery, and reconstitution.
Passive sensor (BMDO Glossary) A sensor that detects naturally occurring emissions from a target for
tracking and/or identification purposes.
Patriot (Phased Array Tracking Radar Intercept on Target) (PAC-3 SMMP) The Patriot system is an
air defense missile system that provides air defense support of ground forces and high value assets
against air and missile threats. Patriot is designed to cope with the theater and corps air threat through
2008. The threat is characterized by defense suppression tactics using saturation, maneuver, electronic
countermeasures, tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) armed with conventional and unconventional warheads, and cruise missiles. The key features of Patriot design are a multifunction phased array radar,
sophisticated in-flight missile guidance, and automated operation with capability for human override.
The single, multifunction phased array radar performs the following functions: High and low altitude
surveillance, detection, identification, target track, missile track, and guidance. Automated operation
provides firepower and ability to defeat saturation attacks. Standardized circuit modules and built-intest-equipment along with less system peculiar major items provide a significant improvement in
availability and maintainability for lower operating costs.
Patriot Advanced Capability Configuration 1 (PAC 3 Config. 1) (PAC 3 SMMP) (a) Expanded Weapons Control Computer (EWCC), Optical Disk (OD) and Embedded Data Recorder
(EDR). This materiel change will upgrade performance of the weapon control computer (WCC) and its
peripherals. The WCC data throughput and memory size will each be increased by a factor of four
through replacement of hardware employing very highspeed integrated circuits (VHSIC) technology.
Peripheral devices which permit the full utilization of the EWCC will be implemented by the replacement of the current recovery storage unit (RSU) and the mass storage unit (MSU) with an optical disk.
The EDR will record all mission essential data during an air battle to be available later for analysis and
training. (b) Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM). The GEM will provide improved TBM and advanced ABT capability. The missile hardware modifications consist of incorporating a switchable low
noise RF signal amplification into the missile's front-end electronics and an improved fuse having a
shorter reaction time to enhance the missiles lethality features.
Patriot Advanced Capability Configuration 2 (PAC 2 Config. 2) (PAC 3 SMMP) (a) Radar
Enhancement Phase II. Radar enhancement Phase II adds a pulse doppler processor to significantly reduce pulse doppler waveform dwell times allowing full use of the waveform in multiple search sectors
thereby improving target detection in high clutter, chaff, and ECM environments. (b) Classification,
Discrimination, and Identification (CDI) Phase 1: This task provides for the integration of intelligence
sources into the Patriot System to assist in identification of targets. These improvements will enhance
battle management and achieve maximum enemy attrition while minimizing fratricide. (c) Counter
Anti-Radiation Missile (CARM). The CARM program strategy is to use intelligence data to identify
the Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM) carrier and engage the carrier; then to identify the ARM in flight
and take active measures which includes engagement, to defeat/destroy the ARM. (d) Communications Upgrade (Battalion and above): Patriot communications will be upgraded by integrating with the
Mobile Subscriber Equipment and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) in the
Battalion ICC to improve battalion and above communications. This voice and/or data communication
circuit improvements will improve service with other U.S. communication services.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) (PAC-3 SMMP) (a) Radar Enhancement Phase III. Phase
III improvements will increase the average power of the transmitter, providing greater multifunction
capability. Additional power and multifunction capability is required to achieve many of the PAC-3
ORD requirements. (b) CDI Phase 3. The final phase of this program involves the integration of a state
of the art High Range Resolution (HRR) waveform and processor into the radar to provide categorization of aircraft (ABTs) and discrimination of TBM reentry vehicles from debris and/or PENAIDs. (c)
Remote Launch Phase III. This improvement will provide the capability for a fire unit to deploy missiles and launchers at remoted launcher farms and to share launchers between fire units. (d) Communications Upgrade (Battalion and below): Patriot communications will be upgraded by integrating with
the Mobile Subscriber Equipment and the JTIDS in the fire unit Engagement Control Station (ECS) to
improve intra-battalion and fire unit communications. This voice and/or data communication circuit
improvements will improve service with other U.S. communication services. (e) Launch Point Determination. This modification calculates the predicted launch points of threat TBMs which are under
track and broadcasts the information over appropriate in-place communications nets to other TMD users. This capability would possibly provide the TMD attack pillar the means to target the launch
Patriot antenna element task trainer (PAETT) (FM 3-01.11) The antenna element task trainer is a
task training device used to train the removal and insertion of the individual elements in the Patriot
phased array radar antenna. The radar antenna systems group diagnostics are performed using either
the ECS or the POMT. Identifying particular faulty elements will be accomplished using full-scale silk
screen drawings, partial scale photographs, or overhead projections of line drawing or photographs.
Using one of these media in lieu of tactical equipment better fills requirements of student and instructor safety and convenience, and off-loads time from tactical equipment to training devices.
Patriot communications system task trainer (PCSTT) FM 3-01.11) The communication system
task trainer consists of two tactical UHF radio stacks, a patch panel, an antenna control unit, three
communications systems controls and a power distribution panel to provide hands-on training in initialization, operation, and maintenance of the AN/GRC-103 UHF radio communications systems.
Patriot cooling liquid electron tube removal and replacement task trainer (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Cooling Liquid Electron Tube Removal and Replacement (CLET) (R&R) task trainer is a
mockup of the right rear of the RS shelter, a simulated CLET rear door, and all associated hardware to
perform R&R procedures. The CLET mockup includes four coolant hoses and two electrical cables.
Patriot Conduct Of Fire Trainer (PCOFT) (DA Pam 350-38) Patriot conduct-of-fire trainer (PCOFT). The P-COFT simulates the Patriot system displays, controls, communications and data processing systems at the operator and supervisory levels of the engagement control station and the information and coordination central.
Patriot Data Link Upgrade (DLU) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot data link upgrade task trainer consists
of a rack of tactical DLU equipment to provide hands-on training in operation of the DLU system. Although the same basic classroom configuration as the data link terminal (DLT) used for the DLU
modified DLT on the ECS, the assemblies comprising the trainer will be different. The DLU modification will add the SINCGARS radio AN/VRC-9O as the over-the-air communications link. A fiber optics unit will not be included due to its cost. Instead, the radio transmitters will need to be loaded
(dummy load) the same as the unmodified DLT. A signal will be picked up, and the signal connected
to the other DLU receiver via hardwire. The DLU task trainer enables the student to perform the following emplacement tasks:
Energize DLT module A2
De-energize DLT module A2

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

DLT power-up
Radio AN/VRC-9O loading
DLT self-test
DLT synchronizing
Security unit TSEC/KY-57 loading
Patriot digital information link (PADIL) (FM 3-01.87) PADIL is a secure point-to-point full duplex
link (transmits and receives simultaneously) for exchanging information between Patriot battalions and
batteries at a rate of 32 kbps. PADIL provides two-way, simultaneous exchange with multirouting to
enhance survivability.
Patriot embedded trainer See embedded trainer
Patriot empty round trainer (ERT) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Empty Round Trainer (ERT) canister
is a reworked expended Patriot missile round canister with appropriate markings. The ERT is used in
both the institution and unit to train Patriot missile crewmembers in transporting, handling, and unloading procedures of expended round canisters.
Patriot intermediate maintenance instructional trainer (PIMIT) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Intermediate Maintenance Instructional Trainer (PIMIT) is a training device used to provide intermediate
maintenance level training to students in the use of diagnostic programs, adjustments and calibration
procedures, use of Test, Measuring and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), parts location, and troubleshooting of system malfunctions.
Patriot live aircraft trainer (LAT) (DA Pam 350-38) The LAT is a version of the tactical software
modified to track live targets and simulate their engagement.
Patriot missile round trainer (MRT) See missile round trainer
Patriot organizational maintenance trainer (POMT) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Organizational
Maintenance Trainer (POMT) provides a realistic static mockup of the Engagement Control Station
(interior and exterior) with operator consoles interchangeable to the battalion Information Coordination Central (ICC) configuration, and the interior and exterior of the Radar Set shelter. The POMT
consists of the active maintenance trainer simulator and the parts task trainer. It is used to train maintenance personnel in the use of Display Aided Maintenance (DAM), non-display aided maintenance
(non-DAM), and BITE indicator procedures to diagnose, fault locate, remove and replace defective
components, and use software routines for the RS, the ECS, and ICC.
Patriot radar frequency comparator task trainer (PRFCTT) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Radar Frequency (RF) Comparator task trainer is a mockup of the tactical radar RF Comparator and consists of
tactical and mockup Battery Replaceable units (BRU). The following is a list of the removal and replacement tasks that can be taught with the RF Comparator task trainer:
Remove and replace radome with support and cooling (A139)
Pressure switch (S1). Remove and replace
Tube axial fan 81 or 82. Remove and replace
Radome Feed assembly. Remove and replace
Main Comparator horn assembly (A140) housing
Microwave device assemblies A142, A143, or A144
Microwave device assemblies A142, A143, or A144 air duct hose assembly

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Patriot radar set March order and emplacement trainer (RS MO&ET) See March order and emplacement trainer.
Patriot time of day (PTOD) (FM 3-01.87) The Patriot time of day (PTOD) clock can be altered or
changed by the lowest numbered FU even though the ICC is on line. The PTOD entry is a manual operation that is normally synchronized via voice with higher echelon unit (HEU If there is an operator
error or delayed input for the PTOD, this will affect the synchronization of HEUs and external communication links. Once the battalion nets all the FUs together, the time from the lowest numbered unit
is used as the master for all units PTOD. The PTOD is an inherent function of the GPS that will be
used by the ECS and ICC. PTOD is required to support told-in target correlation and fusion. Timely
target cueing and target hand-off also require PTOD.
Payload (JP 1-02) 2. The warhead, its container, and activating devices in a military missile.
Payload build-up (missile and space) (JP 1-02) The process by which the scientific instrumentation
(sensors, detectors, et cetera) and necessary mechanical and electronic subassemblies are assembled
into a complete operational package capable of achieving the scientific objectives of the mission.

pre-classification filter


pulse code modulation


Patriot conduct of fire trainer


platoon command post; power control panel


passive correlation track on jam


peripheral control unit


priority designator


post deployment build (Patriot); power distribution box


power-driven decontamination equipment


principal direction of fire


planned deployment net loading


pulse doppler processor


power distribution system


power distribution unit


protective entrance; practical exercise, priority of engagement


penetration aids


pending engagement


Program Executive Officer, Air and Missile Defense (US Army)


power entry panel

Pershing (JP 1-02) A mobile surface-to-surface inertially guided missile of a solid propellant type. It
possesses a nuclear warhead capability and is designed to support the ground forces with the attack of
long-range ground targets. Designated as MGM-31A.

probability of false alarm


process for engagement


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


Patriot fire unit


predicted ground impact point


predicted ground impact point/time

Picture Element (PIXEL) (BMDO Glossary) The smallest element of a display space that can be independently assigned color and intensity; the finest detail that can effectively reproduced on a recording medium.

positive identification


passive identification on


Patriot missile integration team (PAC-3 Program term)


predicted intercept point; product improvement proposal/program


priority intelligence requirements

Pitch (Websters II) 3. To revolve about a lateral axis so that the nose lifts or descends in relation to
the tail. Used of an airplane.

picture element


probability of kill


phase line; party line


precision lightweight GPS receiver


prescribed load list


palletized loading system


product manager; preventive maintenance; project manager; performance measure


preventive maintenance checks and services


pedestal-mounted Stinger


part number



Point defense (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The defense or protection of special vital elements and installations; e.g., command and control facilities, air bases. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 44100, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15.
Point of impact (JP 1-02) 2. The point at which a projectile, bomb, or reentry vehicle impacts or is
expected to impact.

port of debarkation


port of embarkation


petroleum, oils, and lubricants


preparation for overseas movement


pre-positioning of materiel configured to unit sets


Patriot organizational maintenance trainer


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Pop-up point (PUP) (FM 44-8 (FM 3-01.8)) The location at which aircraft quickly gain altitude for
target acquisition and engagement. This point occurs at the end of low-level terrain flight to avoid detection or prevent effective engagement.

positive; position

Positive control (JP 1-02) A method of airspace control which relies on positive identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an airspace, conducted with electronic means by an agency having
the authority and responsibility therein.

passage point


planned position indicator


precise participant location information


Patriot project office


precise positioning service


prime power unit (THAAD)

Precise code (P (code)) (FM 3-01.87) The satellite transmits a coarse acquisition (CA) code and a
precise code (P code). The user is able to obtain a more accurate position and velocity solution, a circular error probability (CEP), when using a P code (10 meters CEP) than when using a CA code (100
meters CEP).
Precise positioning service (PPS) (FM 3-01.87) The PPS is a military service providing a high degree
of accuracy. PPS is restricted to US and allied military forces and, if in the national interest, to selected civil users.
Precise time (JP 1-02) A time requirement accurate to within 10 milliseconds.
Precision Gunnery System (PGS) (DA Pam 350-38) Precision gunnery system (PGS). This is a vehicle-appended gunnery training device for the BSFV that uses eye-safe lasers and retro-reflectors. PGS
is interfaced with vehicle electronics and its operation is transparent to the crew. It is interoperable
with MILES, remoted target systems (RETS), thru-sight video (TSV), the Hoffman device, and area
weapon effects signature simulator (AWESS). This device supports precision gunnery, downgraded
gunnery and force-on-force training with main gun, coax and TOW.
Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) (FM 3-01.87) The PLGR uses data from earth orbiting
satellites to determine location and elevation. Readings obtained in UTM coordinates, latitude, longitude, and elevation. A minimum of three satellites is required to allow the PLGR unit to determine its
position on the earth in three dimensions.
Pre-classification filter (PCF) (FM 3-01.87) The pre-classification filter (PCF) attempts to determine
if a new track is actually an aircraft, or if it is chaff or clutter.
Predicted intercept point (PIP) (BMDO Glossary) The calculated position in space where the target
and interceptor coincide.
Predicted point (AR 310-25) Position at which it is expected a moving target will arrive at the instant
of firing; point that a moving target is expected to reach at the end of the dead time between the last
observation and the moment of firing. It should not be confused with the set forward point, the predicted position of the target at the moment of impact.
Prepared launcher (AR 310-25) A tactical launcher, serviceable, assigned to a combat unit, requiring
only emplacement and/or loading to effect combat usage.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Prepared missile (AR 310-25) A tactical missile, assembled and serviceable, assigned to a combat
unit, requiring only target designation programming and launching to effect combat usage.
Preset guidance (JP 1-02) A technique of missile control wherein a predetermined flight path is set
into the control mechanism and cannot be adjusted after launching. See also guidance.
Presumed air-breathing threat (PABT) (FM 3-01.87) Presumed ABT (PABTs) target classifications
are applied to targets whose previously observed flight profiles do not demonstrate characteristics that
would allow a confirmed classification. All targets are initially classified with the default of PABT.

pulse repetition frequency

Prime power unit (PPU) (FM 3-01.11) The prime power unit (PPU) is a transportable unit that furnishes primary AC power to the CEU for distribution to the other THAAD radar components.
Primary sector of fire (PSF) See Sector of fire
Primary target (JP 1-02) An object of high publicity value to terrorists.
Primary target line (PTL) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) PTLs are established to assist in the distribution
of ADA fires. Sectors of fire for HIMAD are normally designated at battalion after review of radar
coverage diagrams. The battery commander or platoon leader normally designates sectors of fire or
PTLs for SHORAD. These limits must be clearly defined by right and left azimuths. Those ADA units
with automated tactical data systems must know whether they are to assign and engage air targets
within or beyond the stated sector boundaries.
Principal direction of fire (PDF) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The direction of fire assigned or designated as the main direction in which a weapon will be oriented. It is selected based on the enemy, mission, terrain, and weapons capability.
Probability of Kill (Pk) (BMDO Glossary) The lethality of a weapon system. Generally refers to armaments (i.e., missiles, ordnance, etc.) Usually the statistical probabilities that the weapon will detonate close enough to the target with enough power to disable the target. (Defense Systems Management College)
Procedural control (JP 1-02) A method of airspace control which relies on a combination of previously agreed and promulgated orders and procedures.
Prohibited Area

See Air Defense Artillery prohibited area

projectile; project

Projectile (JP 1-02) An object projected by an applied exterior force and continuing in motion by virtue of its own inertia, as a bullet, shell, or grenade. Also applied to rockets and to guided missiles.

pedestal stand assembly

Pseudo-pursuit navigation (JP 1-02) A method of homing navigation in which the missile is directed
toward the instantaneous target position in azimuth, while pursuit navigation in elevation is delayed
until more favorable angle of attack on the target is achieved.

primary sector of fire


positive SIF


Patriot support and maintenance equipment


Patriot system maintenance trainer


packet switch network


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


power support platform


probability of single shot kill


presumed tactical ballistic missile


primary target line


Patriot time of day; precise time of day


primary target line




parts task trainer



Pull-up point (FM 44-8 (FM 3-01.8)) The point at which an aircraft must start to climb from a lowlevel approach to gain sufficient height from which to execute the attack or retirement.
Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) (BMDO Glossary) In radar, the number of pulses that occur each
second. Not to be confused with transmission frequency which is determined by the rate at which cycles are repeated within the transmitted pulse.

pop-up point


prohibited volume


prohibited volume attribute


prisoner of war




pickup zone


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


quality assurance


quality control


quick-erect antenna mast


quick response program (Patriot)


quadripartite standardization agreement

Quadrant (AR 310-25) Instrument with a graduated scale used in laying the piece for elevation. Also
called a gunners quadrant.
Quality assurance (AR 310-25) That function of management by which conformance of material to
contract and specification requirements is assured. This assurance is obtained by evaluation of production quality controls and inspections exercised by procedures, supplemented by direct verification inspection of product.
Quality control (AR 310-25) That function of management relative to all procedures, methods, examinations, and tests required during procurement, receipt, storage, and issue that are necessary to
provide the user with an item of the required quality.
Queue (BMDO Glossary) A store for a sequence of packets, or messages, which are waiting to be
processed. A transmit queue for instance is a store of packets waiting to be transmitted.
Quick response program (QRP) (PAC-3 SMMP) The QRP enhancements are not a part of the PAC3 enhancement program but are listed in the PAC-3 SMMP; (a) Radar Enhancements: These improvements will counter the advanced RCS aircraft and tactical missile targets. (b) Emplacement Enhancement: This improvement will replace the Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS)
with the NAVES. NAVES is a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and North Finding System
(NFS) combination that will provide present location, azimuth, and altitude to the tactical user in all
weather and blackout conditions. (c) Remote Launch Phase 1: This improvement phased program will
provide the capability to launch missiles from a launcher emplaced in excess of current restrictions.
This modification will allow for emplacement of launchers closer to defended areas. (d) Battalion Tactical Operations Center (BTOC). This improvement will provide the Patriot battalion with a fully
automated force operations (FO) planning, training, and analysis system designed to integrate into the
engagement operations (EO) at the Information and Coordination Central (ICC).


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


reconnaissance and surveillance


real time







redeployment assembly area


rear area combat operations



Radar (JP 1-02) A radio detection device which provides information on range, azimuth, and/or elevation of objects.
Radar clutter (JP 1-02) Unwanted signals, echoes, or images on the face of the display tube, which
interferes with observation of desired signals.
Radar correlation (AR 310-25) The determination that a track appearing on a radar scope or plotting
board is the same track as that on which information is being received from another source.
Radar cross section (RCS) (BMDO Glossary) Area of an object as scanned by radar; measured in
square meters.
Radar discrimination (AR 310-25) The ability to distinguish separately on a radar scope objects
which are in close proximity to each other.
radar silence (JP 1-02) An imposed discipline prohibiting the transmission by radar of electromagnetic signals on some or all frequencies.
Radar Weapons Control Interface Unit (RWCIU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Provides for two-way data
transfer between WCC and RS.

region air defense commander

radio frequency (RF) (Websters II, New College Dictionary 1995) 2. A frequency in the range
within which radio waves may be transmitted, from about 3 kilohertz to about 300,000 megahertz.
radome (AR 310-25) The covering (housing) for a radar antenna essentially transparent to electromagnetic energy.

regimental artillery group

Raid (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1) An operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration of hostile
territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or to destroy installations. It ends with a planned
withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100,
71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

radar action message; reliability, availability, and maintainability

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

range (JP 1-02) The distance between any given point and an object or target.
Range Resolution (BMDO Glossary) The difference between the true distance (from sensor) to target
and the calculated distance to target based on sensor data, at maximum sensor range.

rear area protection


radar antenna system group


radar action type


reentry body


rifle bore cleaner


reserve component


radio-controlled aerial target


receive and compare FP data


radio-controlled fixed-wing target


radio-controlled miniature aerial target


radar countermeasures


radar cross section


remote control unit






radar data record




radar enhancement

Readiness conditions (JP 1-02) See operational readiness; state of readiness

Ready missile (AR 310-25) A tactical missile possessed by a combat unit mounted on a launcher requiring only a fire command to effect combat use.
Real time (JP 1-02) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information, which has been delayed only
by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no noticeable delays.
(See also near real time.)


recognition (JP 1-02) 1. The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of objects
such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as communications-electronics patterns. 2. In
ground combat operations, the determination that an object is similar within a category of something
already known, e.g. tank, truck, man.


Reconstitution (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Those actions that commanders plan and implement to
restore units to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and
available resources. Reconstitution operations include regeneration and reorganization. See FMs 63-2,
71-100, 71-100-1/2/3, 100-9, 100-10, and 100-15.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Reentry phase (JP 1-02) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile or space vehicle where
there is a significant interaction of the vehicle and the Earths atmosphere. See also, boost phase; midcourse phase; terminal phase.
Reentry Vehicle (RV) (BMDO Glossary) 1. Reentry vehicles are objects containing nuclear warheads. They are released from the last stage of a booster rocket or from a post-boost vehicle early in
the ballistic trajectory. They are thermally insulated to survive rapid heating during the high velocities
of reentry into the atmosphere, and are designed to protect their contents until detonation at their targets. 2. That part of a space vehicle designed to re-enter the earths atmosphere in the terminal portion
of its trajectory.

return of forces to Germany

Regeneration (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Rebuilding of a unit through large-scale replacement of
personnel, equipment, and supplies, including the reestablishment or replacement of essential command and control and the conduct of mission essential training for the newly rebuilt unit. See FM 1009.
Released (JP 1-02) Weapons and crews, which have been released from commitments and states of
readiness. When so released, they are given a time at which a state of readiness will be resumed.
Remote control terminal (RCT) (FM 3-01.11) The Remote Control Terminal (RCT) is a display and
control input device used with the Sentinel radar. It is a rugged, compact minicomputer with graphic
display screen and multifunction control input keyboard. The Sentinel operator controls the operation
of the radar with the keyboard. The RCT provides a real-time tactical air picture on a graphic display
screen at remote locations. Sentinel radar target tracks are displayed to the operator in target symbology that shows range, elevation, velocity, and track number information.
Remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) (JP 1-02) An unmanned air vehicle capable of being controlled from
a distant location through a communications link. It is normally designed to be recoverable. See also
Remotely piloted vehicle trainer station (RPVTS) (DA Pam 350-38) Remotely piloted vehicle target system (RPVTS). The RPVTS consists of two 1/5-scale propeller driven target aircraft configured
to resemble the SU-25 Frogfoot and the MI-24 Hind-D helicopter (AUTOGYRO). Each may be
equipped with MILES/AGES and support Avenger and BSFV gunnery, small Arms and
MANPADS/Stinger live-fire training missions.

remotely employed sensor

Repeater-jammer (JP 1-02) A receiver-transmitter device, which amplifies, multiplies, and retransmits the signals received for purposes of deception or jamming.
reorganization (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Action taken to shift resources within a degraded unit to
increase its level of combat effectiveness. See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-20, and 100-9.
reprogrammable microprocessor tracking head trainer (RMP THT) (DA Pam 350-38) M160
RMP THT. The Stinger training set M160 is used to train the Stinger gunners in the operation of the
re-programmable microprocessor (RMP) Stinger weapon system. The M160 RMP provides training in
improved IR/UV detection and has an improved performance indicator. The major difference between
the M134 and the M160 is the M160 may have its flight software tailored for different threats by reprogramming (replacing) the read-only memory (ROM) module in the gripstock.
restricted area

See Air Defense Artillery restricted area; Air defense restricted area

Restricted operations area (ROA) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Identifies airspace of defined dimensions
within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted, generally for a short time. The

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

airspace control authority establishes these areas in response to the requests of ground force commanders. Consequently, the maneuver unit commander will normally have complete weapon control
status authority within an activated restricted operations area. Restricted operations areas for air and
missiles can be established to maximize ADA effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapon
control status will be WEAPONS FREE. Restricted operations areas for ADA can be established to
maximize air effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapons control status will be WEAPONS
Restricted operations zone (ROZ) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) A volume of airspace of defined dimensions designated for a specific operational mission. Entry into that zone is authorized only
by the originating headquarters. See FM 100-103.

radio frequency


radio frequency interference


range height indicator

Rider (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) A bogey that is conforming with safe passage routing/airspeed/altitude procedures.

ripple fire

risk management (JP 1-02) The process by which decision-makers reduce or offset risk. See also
management: risk.

reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition


Rivet Joint


rocket launcher


remote launch/communications enhancement upgrade


routing logic radio interface unit (Patriot)


routing logic radio interface unit upgrade (Patriot)


(maximum) range. See Interceptor Track Range (Max)


remote multiplexer combiner


(minimum) range


remote maintenance monitor


reprogrammable microprocessor




radar operator


restricted operations area


roll on/roll off

Robust (BMDO Glossary) Used in describing a system; indicates its ability to endure and perform its
mission against a responsive threat. Also used to indicate system ability to survive under direct attack.
robustness (BMDO Glossary) 1. The ability to produce correct results despite input errors. 2. The existence of coordinated multiple capabilities that perform the same broad task/mission. Provides BMD
warfighter with sufficient flexibility to negate the specified threat with application of a variable mix of
ground and space-based systems. (USSPACECOM)

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


See regional operations center


rules of engagement


Republic of Korea

roll (FM 3-01.87) The measurement of the level of an end item (radar/launcher), side to side, usually
taken in mils.

range only radar

Routing Logic Radio Interface Unit (RLRIU) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Provides interface between
WCC, modems, and UHF radios.

restricted operations zone


release point


repair parts and special tools list


remotely piloted vehicle


remotely piloted vehicle trainer station


rapid reaction force


radar receiver group; radio receiver group


radar response message


radio relay terminal


radar set (Patriot); readiness station (USA term); Roving Sands


reception, staging, operation and force integration (Joint Forces term)


reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of position




reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition


recovery storage unit; remote switching unit


radar transmitter group


radiotelephone operator


radar message type

Rules of engagement (ROE) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Directives issued by competent
military authority, which delineates the circumstances and limitations under which United States
forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. See FM 100-20.

restricted volume; reentry vehicle


restricted volume attribute


rotary wing


radar weapons control interface unit


radio wire integration


radar warning receiver


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


rigid wall shelter


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


safe and arming


surface to air






search/talk intermediate frequency




selective availability; situation awareness; surface-to-air


standard use Army aircraft flight route


sector air defense commander


small arms for air defense


semi-active homing


size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment


salvo fire

Salvo (SALVO) (JP 1-02) 2. In close air support/air interdiction operations, methods of delivery in
which the release mechanisms are operated to release or fire all ordnance of a specific type simultaneously.

surface-to-air missile; subsystem action message

SAM-D (JP 1-02) An Army air defense artillery, surface-to-air missile system under development to
replace Nike Hercules and the improved HAWK systems.

surface-to-air missile report


surface-to-air missile status report


satellite access request


stability and support operations (replaces OOTW) (NOT an authorized acronym)


safety arming test aid


satellite communications

Satellite and missile surveillance (JP 1-02) The systematic observation of aerospace for the purpose
of detecting, tracking, and characterizing objects, events, and phenomena associated with satellites and
in-flight missiles, friendly and enemy. See also surveillance.

squad automatic weapon


slave bus unit


supply catalog; signal corps


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

scan (BMDO Glossary) In an Electro-magnetic or acoustic search, one complete rotation of the antenna.

Stinger control box


surface-to-surface missile system; any threat TBM (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)).


standalone display unit; Stinger distribution unit


suppression of enemy air defenses

Sea-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile launched from a submarine or
surface ship.
Search sector (AR 310-25) Area in the sky or on the surface assigned to be covered by a searchlight,
radar, or other device for the purpose of detecting and locating targets.

commercial- or government-owned (or leased) shipping container



Sector of fire (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A defined area which is required to be covered by
the fire of individual or crew-served weapons or the weapons of a unit. See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-91, 17-91,
17-12, and 23-1.
Seeker (AR 310-25) A device for terminal guidance which can detect and track some target characteristic.
Selective identification feature (SIF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A capability which, when
added to the basic Identification Friend and Foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and
display selected coded replies. (See also identification, friend or foe (IFF), and IFF on/off line.) See
FM 1-111.
Selective Kill (BMDO Glossary) Assigns interceptors to targets on the basis of missile type, launch
area, impact area, time of launch/arrival or predicted threat utility (e.g., SS-18 or its follow-on).
Selective, Adaptive Defense (BMDO Glossary) Selective, adaptive defense assigns interceptors to
RVs based upon defended assets values, the number of arriving RVs and time to impact.
Self defense (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Because there will never be sufficient specialized air defense
assets to provide force protection for all units and vital assets, all units must be capable of using their
organic weapons for self-defense against air attack. Self-defense is never denied.

strobe engagement mode

Semi-active homing guidance (JP 1-02) A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in the
missile utilizes radiation from the target which has been illuminated by an outside source.
Semi-Active Sensor (BMDO Glossary) One that does not generate radiation itself, but that detects
radiation reflected by targets when they are illuminated by other BMD components. Such devices are
used for tracking and identification and can operate without revealing their own locations.

small extension node

Sensor (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An equipment which detects, and may indicate, and/or record objects and activities by means of energy or particles emitted, reflected, or modified by objects.
sensor data (BMDO Glossary) Measurement information. For passive sensor it is usually irradiant
time, and LOS. For an active sensor it may include range, Doppler, cross-section, etc., as well.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Sensor System Interface (SSI) (FM 3-01.11) The SSI is a TSG configured with a subset of TOC
functionality to provide remote radar management. The SSI provides the interface between the remote
radar and the EO/FO TSG. The SSI provides direct sensor tasking and management functions for its
associated radar in response to direction from its EO/FO TSG.
Sentinel (FM 3-01.11) The Sentinel is organic to divisional SHORAD battalions, ACRs, and is replacing LSDIS in light and special divisions. Sentinel is designed to operate in all types of weather, severe
ECM environments and survive anti-radiation missile (ARM) attacks. The mission of the Sentinel is to
alert the Linebacker, the Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle, and MANPADS Stinger teams of hostile
and unknown aircraft (FW and RW), cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It also protects friendly forces from fratricide and provides air situational data to command and control centers.
Sentinel institutional maintenance trainer (SIMT) See institutional maintenance trainer
Sentinel radar (AN/MPQ-64) (FM 3-01.11) The Sentinel radar is a mobile, compact, modular, multifunction, phased-array radar. It consists of a radar antenna unit mounted on top of the transceiver unit.
The radar antenna unit also includes an IFF interrogator, an IFF antenna, and an auxiliary ECCM antenna mounted on a single pedestal that rotates during operation. The antenna unit is lowered by hand
crank to the stowed position for road march.
Sentinel Training System (STS) (FM 3-01.11) The Sentinel Training System (STS) is capable of
training students to operate the Sentinel system. The STS simulates the functional, physical operations
and characteristics of the system. The Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) has the capability to interface
with and control up to eight student stations to provide personnel training in the operator tasks associated with the Sentinel system. The IOS has the capability to monitor any selected student station.

signal entry panel; spherical error probability


southern European task force


supported force


supplemental force control measures


Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

shoot-look-shoot (SLS) (BMDO Glossary) A tactic used to achieve Defense Engagement Options
(DEOs), such as assured kill by shooting at the target, looking to see if it was killed, and shooting
again, if necessary, to achieve the kill.

short-range air defense

SHORADEZ short-range air defense engagement zone

Short-Range Air Defense Engagement Zone (SHORADEZ) (JP 1-02) See weapon engagement
short-range attack missile (JP 1-02) An air-to-surface missile, armed with a nuclear warhead,
launched from the B-52 and the FB-111 aircraft. The missile, range, speed, and accuracy allow the
carrier aircraft to standoff from its intended targets and launch missiles outside enemy defenses.
Designated as AGM-69.
short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) (JP 1-02) A ballistic missile with a range capability up to about
600 nautical miles.

super-high resolution display


simplified handheld terminal unit


set indicator


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


single integrated air picture


subordinate ICC


standardized integrated command post rigid wall shelter


standard integrated command post shelter


standardized integrated command post softtop shelter

sidelobes (BMDO Glossary) Residual EMR surrounding the main beam, which is of weaker power
than the main beam.
Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) (JP 1-02) An airborne radar, viewing at right angles to the axis
of the vehicle, which produces a presentation of terrain or moving targets.

selective identification feature




signal officer

signal operation instructions (SOI) (JP 1-02) A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command.
signal processor group (SPG) (TM 9-1425-600-12) Performs mathematical functions on data received from receiver group and associated ECS in conjunction with two digital processors located in
roadside utility bay.
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (JP 1-02) The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude
of noise signals at a given point in time.
signature (target) (BMDO Glossary) 1. Distinctive type of radiation emitted or reflected by a target,
which can be used to identify that target. 2. The characteristic pattern of the target displayed by detection and identification equipment.
signature track (JP 1-02) In air defense, the track of an aircraft or missile which behaves in an unusual manner which warrants attention and could pose a threat to a defended area.

system integration integrated product team (THAAD Program term)



simultaneous engagement (JP 1-02) The concurrent engagement of hostile targets by combination of
interceptor aircraft and surface-to-air missiles. See also, modes of control.

single-channel ground and airborne radio system

Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) (Weapon Systems 1999) Provides commanders with a highly reliable, secure, easily maintained combat net radio (CNR) with voice
and data handling capability, in support of command and control operations.

SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network


situation map


situation report


situation template

situational training exercise (STX) (AR 350-70) Mission-related, limited exercises designed to train
one collective task or a group of related tasks and drills through practice. STXs teach the standard,
preferred method for carrying out the task. They are more flexible than drills and usually include

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

drills, leader tasks, and soldier tasks. STXs may be modified based on the unit METL or expanded to
meet special mission requirements. To ensure standardization, service schools develop STXs to teach
the doctrinally preferred way to perform specific missions or tasks. (FM 25-101) See "Exercise."

squad leader; skill level; sea level


standoff land attack missile


side-looking airborne radar


sea-launched ballistic missile


side lobe canceller (cancellation)


sea-launched cruise missile


selected subordinate elements

Slew Time (BMDO Glossary) The time needed for a weapon/sensor/antenna to move from point to
slew-to-cue (STC) (USAADASCH) STC allows the Avenger to interface with digital early warning
data provided through the EPLRS based inter-FAAD network, and automatically slew the turret in
both azimuth and elevation, centering the threat target in the gunners field of view.
slow (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Target with a ground speed of 300 knots or less.

shoot-look-shoot; side-lobe suppression


soldiers manual; status monitor

small arms (JP 1-02) Man-portable, individual, and crew-served weapon systems used mainly against
personnel and lightly armored or unarmored equipment.

soldiers manual of common tasks


subject matter expert




system maintenance technician


switch multiplexer unit


signal to noise ratio


state of alert


site-oriented correlation


state of emissions; status of equipment


state of emission control


sector of fire; special operation forces


signal operation instructions (See also CEOI)


standoff jammer


standoff jammer counter


standard operating procedure; standing operating procedure


state of readiness


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


special instructions (JFACC term)


start point; self-propelled; start point

special control instructions

See Air Defense Artillery special control instructions


seaport of debarkation


seaport of embarkation

Space defense (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy vehicles (including missiles) while in space, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of
such attack.
Space And Missile Defense Command (SMDC) See United States Army Space and Missile Defense
SPACECOM Space Command

safe passage corridor


safe passage corridor attribute




signal processor group

Spherical error probability (SEP) (FM 3-01.87) The differential distance computation is required
because of missile acquisition and spherical error probable (SEP). SEP applied to measurement states
that 50 percent of the time the measurement is within the error limits. This also means that 50 percent
of the time the measurement is outside the error limits.

seaport of debarkation

Spoofing (BMDO Glossary) Any technique by which sensitive information or commands may be substituted or stopped without the knowledge of the personnel involved.

system performance parameters


standard positioning service








short-range ballistic missile


systems requirement code


securable remote control unit; SINCGARS remote control unit


short-range pop-up


short-range pop-up


small repair parts transporter


short range TBM


supply support activity


signal support battalion; single-side band


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


small scale operations


surface-to-surface cruise missile


space and strategic defense command


single shot engagement kill probability


system support group


sensor system interface; standing signal instructions


self-screening jammer


single shot kill estimated probability


single shot kill probability


solid-state local oscillator


surface-to-surface missile


system support plan


single shot probability of kill


surface-to-air SHORAD missile tactical order

Stability and Support Operations (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) (Army) The use of military capabilities for any purpose other than war. (See also counterdrug, counterinsurgency, domestic emergencies,
humanitarian assistance (HA), military operations other than war (MOOTW), and peace operations.)
See JP 3-07 and FM 100-20. (Replaces operations other than war [OOTW].)

staff exercise


stabilizer master oscillator


standardization agreement (NATO)

Standard Integrated Command Post Shelter (SICPS) (Weapon Systems 1999) A family of standard
command post facilities. The family includes a tent CP, a rigid wall shelter (RWS) CP, a track vehicle
CP (M1068), a 5-ton expansible van CP, and a soft-top HMMWV CP.

surveillance, target acquisition, and night observation


strategic threat assessment report

State of alert (AR 310-25) As used in air defense, the combat readiness maintained by a fire unit expressed in terms of the period of time within which the unit must be capable of launching at least one
missile. States of alert are: Battle stations (fire within 30 seconds), 5-minute, 15-minute, 30-minutes,
1-hour and 3-hour.
State Of Emissions (SOE) and State Of Readiness (SOR) (JP 1-02) See defense readiness conditions; weapons readiness state.
(FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) States of readiness (SOR) describe the degree of readiness of ADA fire
units and sensors expressed in minutes from time of alert notification to time of weapon firing or
sensor in operation. States of readiness can also be modified to include emission control and system
configuration considerations and are then called states of emission (SOE) control. SOR and SOE
are based on the WAD and air defense warning. ADA battalion commanders for their subordinate
batteries, platoons, and fire units normally designate them. Additionally, SOR and SOE can be
used to specify personnel manning requirements. ADA commanders use WAD, SOR, and SOE to

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

ready the force in a logical way for action against the enemy while retaining the ability to stand
down units for rest or maintenance. Actual timelines and manning requirements will be determined
by theater plans or the unit TACSOP and assigned mission while taking into account the factors of
METT-TC. System configuration considerations resulting from modifications of states of readiness, based on weapons alert designators and air defense warning. See also, weapons alert designator.

BS, ABT (air breathing threat)


BS, BM (ballistic missile)


Battle Passive


5 min


1 hour


3 hours to assume SOE 1/2/3


6 hours to assume SOE 1/2/3


Non-Mission capable status


Unit moving, in transition, or reduced readiness battery (RRB) status




The team is prepared to engage targets.


The team is capable of engaging targets within 5 minutes.


The team is capable of engaging targets within 15 minutes.


The team is capable of engaging targets within 30 minutes.


The team is capable of engaging targets within 1 hour or more.


Radiating and sensor broadcast net (SBN) broadcasting.


Prepared to radiate (radar operating but not emitting), SBN broadcasting.


Prepared to radiate within 15 minutes, SBN broadcasting.


Prepared to radiate within 30 minutes, SBN broadcasting.


Prepared to radiate within 1 hour or more, SBN broadcasting.


start of exercise




sensitivity time control; slew-to-cue

std emp

standard emplacement

stealth aircraft (Janes) Low-visibility aircraft with little or no radar signature.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Stellar guidance (JP 1-02) A system wherein a guided missile may follow a predetermined course
with reference primarily to the relative position of the missile and certain preselected celestial bodies.
See also guidance.
Stinger (JP 1-02) A lightweight, man-portable, shoulder-fired, air defense artillery missile weapon
for low-altitude air defense of forward area combat troops. Designated as FIM-92A.
Stinger control box (SCB) (FM 3-01.11) The Stinger control box (SCB) is the primary operator interface for the Bradley Linebacker system. It provides the controls and indicators needed to perform aerial engagements with missiles.
Stinger training launch simulator (STLS) (DA Pam 350-38) The STLS is a low-cost training device
designed to give realistic live-fire training to Stinger gunners. The STLS equipment is available
through local TSCs. The expendable eject missile is ordered through normal live training ammunition
channels. STLS is a modified THT consisting of a launcher. The seeker is located below the launch
tube which allows for ejection of a simulated round. The simulated round is propelled about 170 meters down range by a boost motor at the rear of the missile.
Stinger troop proficiency trainer (STPT) See Troop Proficiency Trainer

secondary target line


Stinger training launch simulator


surface-to-air missile tactical order; standing tactical order; special technical operations
(JFACC term)


short takeoff and landing

Stop Fire

See fire control orders.


soldier training publication


Stinger troop proficiency trainer, See Troop Proficiency Trainer


short-term re-initialization; simulated target range


standards in training commission


See MQM 107 Streaker training target

STRIKWARN (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A message transmitted to give advance warning of a
friendly nuclear attack to ensure friendly forces can protect themselves from the effects of the attack.
strobe (FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Radar indications of noise jamming.

softtop shelter; stockpile-to-target sequence


stockpile-to-target (USA term)


secure telephone unit


situational training exercise

Subsonic (Websters II) 2. Having a speed less than the speed of sound in a designated medium.
Supersonic (Websters II) Having, caused by, related to, or traveling at a speed greater than the speed
of sound in a specified medium.
Supplemental force control measures (SFCM) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Supplemental fire control
measures are procedural management measures issued by competent military authority which delineate or modify hostile criteria, delegate identification authority, or which serve strictly as aids in fire

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

distribution or airspace control. Army commanders request the establishment of supplemental fire control measures through the A2C2 system. The approval authority is normally the ACA, who promulgates
the measures in the airspace control order (ACO) and special instructions (SPINS). Supplemental fire
control measures include: air defense action area, weapon engagement zone, high-density airspace
control zone, weapons free zone, temporary airspace restrictions, restricted operations area, minimum
risk route, standard-use Army aircraft flight routes, and sector of fire and primary target lines.
Support relationships (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Specific arrangement and responsibilities between
supporting and supported units. Following are the four support relationships within ADA:
Direct support (DS) A mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly the supported forces request for assistance. A DS ADA unit provides
dedicated air defense for a specific element of the force, which has no organic air defense. The
supporting ADA unit coordinates movement and positioning with the supported unit.
General support (GS) That support which is given to the supported force as a whole and not to
any particular subdivision thereof. GS is commonly used to protect EAC, corps, or division level
General support-reinforcing (GS-R) A tactical artillery mission of supporting the force as a
whole and of providing reinforcing fires for another artillery unit. ADA units with a GS-R mission
have a primary responsibility to provide support to the force as a whole within a specific area, but
must coordinate with the supported ADA unit to reinforce the coverage of assets in the AO.
Reinforcing A tactical mission in which one artillery unit augments the fire of another artillery
unit. A reinforcing ADA unit is positioned to protect one or more of the reinforced units priorities
as specified by the supported ADA unit commander.
Suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) That activity which
neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or
disruptive means. (ARMY) The Army has primary responsibility for suppressing ground-based enemy air defense weapons to the limits of observed fire. The US Air Force (USAF) has responsibility
from beyond the limits of observed fire out to the range limits of Army weapon systems; the Army,
secondary responsibility. Even if the USAF can target or observe, the Army may still have to attack
the target. Beyond the range limits of Army weapons, the USAF is responsible. (See also suppression.)
See FM 6-series. (Army) campaign SEAD SEAD operations that are preplanned, theaterwide
efforts conducted concurrently over an extended period against air defense systems normally located
well behind enemy lines. complementary SEAD SEAD operations that involve continuously seeking enemy air defense system targets to destroy them. localized SEAD SEAD operations that support tactical air operations, Army aviation operations, reconnaissance, and the establishment of corridors for Air Force and Army assets.

supervise; supervisor

Surface-to-air guided missile (SAGM or SAM) (JP 1-02) A surface-launched guided missile for use
against air targets.
Surface-to-air missile envelop (JP 1-02) That airspace within the kill capabilities of a specific surface-to-air missile system.
Surface-to-surface guided missile (JP 1-02) A surface-launched missile designed to operate against a
target on the surface.
Surveillance (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The systematic observation of aerospace, surface,
surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

other means. (Army) This includes the use of special NBC and air defense equipment. (See also

Stinger vision module


standard vehicle-mounted launcher (missile pod)



Sweep Jamming (BMDO Glossary) A narrow band of jamming that is back and forth over a relatively
wide operating band of frequencies.

surface wire-grounding system


synchronize; synchronization




system control

System Support Group (SSG) (FM 3-01.11) The THAAD SSG consists of an M-1078 Light to Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) equipped with an electric crane installed in the cargo bed and a towed
PU-802 generator. The SSG is also used to support fiber optics cable laying activities and to transport
additional items of equipment required for THAAD Battery operations. Transported equipment includes communications ancillary equipment (e.g., antennas, antenna masts, fiber optic cable assemblies), site preparation equipment (e.g., concertina wire, camouflage netting), and soldier support items
(e.g., duffel bags, rations). The generator provides a backup source of power for the TOS and LCS.
System Threat Assessment Report (STAR) (BMDO Glossary) Required by DoD 5000.2 and validated by DIA. Establishes the threat (to a Services Mission Area) and is part of basis for considering
mission deficiency and potential program new start. Updated to support a DAB Milestone or when the
threat changes significantly. (Also Strategic Threat Assessment)



USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


high-speed serial data buffer


communications multiplexer




table of allowance; target area; theater Army


tactical assembly area


theater Army air defense commander

TAADCOORD theater Army air defense coordinator


tabular display

Table-top-trainer (TTT) (FM 3-01.11) The Avenger Table Top Trainer (TTT) is an interactive
graphics trainer with the principle features of the Avenger turret/gunner station. A 17-inch monitor
presents the out-of-window (canopy) view and the gunners FLIR display. In addition, a FLIR fieldof-view (FOV) footswitch and a tactical gunner handstation provide the gunner-machine interface.

tactical air control; terminal air controller


tactic; tactical; tactics


tactical aircraft; tactical air


tactical air command center


tactical evaluation


tactical (weapons) fire


tactical initialization


tactical control

TAC OPDAT tactical operations data

TAC OPORD tactical operations order

tactical operations


tactical air control center


tactical fire


tactical initialization

TAC OPORD tactical operations order


tactical operations

TAC OPDAT tactical operations data


tactical air control system


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


tactical satellite

Tactical air liaison officer (TALO) (Army) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An Air Force officer who
works at the division or higher rear command post G4 section and facilitates the coordination of cargo
aircraft. He maintains information on runway availability, cargo handling capability, and the location
of brigade medical treatment facilities and landing areas. See FMs 71-100-1/2/3 and 100-15.
Tactical air-to-surface missile (TASM) (AMDMP FY99) TASMs are air-launched, precision-guided
munitions designed to strike ground targets. They are ideal against targets, such as bridges, that are
difficult to destroy with dumb bombs. They are similar to air-launched CMs, but are smaller, have
shorter ranges, lack wings and aerodynamic lift associated with CM flights, and are launched by tactical fighter-bomber aircraft.
Tactical ballistic missile (TBM) (USAADASCH) See theater ballistic missile.
(BMDO Glossary) A land based missile generally having a range of < 3000 miles that can be
employed within a continental theater of operations.
Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) Predicted Ground Impact Point (PGIP) An elliptical area that
indicates where a TBM most likely will strike the ground. This area varies in size based on the known
or suspected accuracy of the TBM if it functions normally. (See also theater missile defense (TMD).
See FM 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Tactical Command System (TCS) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot Tactical Command System (TCS) is a
facility which accommodates the commander and staff of up to ten air defense personnel and provides
automated equipment to support force operations (FO) tasks which complement the EO activities in
the Patriot ICC. The TCS is mounted on an M934 5-ton expandable van. It is co-located with and interfaces directly to the Patriot ICC using MSE and LAN, uses US Army common hardware and software components, and is powered by a standard US Army 30 kW, 60 Hz generator with UPS backup
Tactical control (TACON) (JP 1-02) Command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed and,
usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or
tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be delegated to,
and exercised at any level at or below the level of combatant command.
Tactical control assistant (TCA) (FM 3-01.87) The enlisted personnel who assists the TCO in the
operation of the air defense system and conduct of the air battle. The TCA monitors and initiates all
Tactical control officer (TCO) (FM 3-01.87) The officer in charge (OIC) of an air defense battery
fire control crew. Responsible for all actions during air battle operations. These actions include, but
are not limited to; identifying all targets; ensuring the system is in assigned search, identification, and
engagement mode; verifies activation/deactivation of SIF and Mode 4; monitors situation display and
alert messages; applies or removes cease fire, hold fire or engage hold; makes firing doctrine changes;
and directs radar emission control schedule.
Tactical digital information link (TADIL) (JP 1-02) A Joint Staff approved, standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information. Current practice is to characterize a tactical
digital information link (TADIL) by its standardized message formats and transmission characteristics.
TADILs interface two or more command and control or weapons systems via a single or multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of tactical information. a. TADILAA secure, half-duplex, netted digital data link utilizing parallel transmission frame characteristics
and standard message formats at either 1364 or 2250 bits per second. It is normally operated in a roll128

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

call mode under control of a net control station to exchange digital information among airborne, landbased, and shipboard systems. NATOs equivalent is Link 11. b. TADIL-BA secure, full-duplex,
point-to-point digital data link utilizing serial transmission frame characteristics and standard message
formats at 2400, 1200, or 600 bits per second. It interconnects tactical air defense and air control units.
NATOs equivalent is Link 11B. c. TADIL-CAn unsecure, time-division digital data link utilizing
serial transmission characteristics and standard message formats at 5000 bits per second from a controlling unit to controlled aircraft. Information exchange can be one-way (controlling unit to controlled
aircraft) or two-way. NATOs equivalent is Link 4. d. TADIL-JA secure, high capacity, jamresistant, nodeless data link which uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS)
transmission characteristics and the protocols, conventions, and fixed-length message formats defined
by the JTIDS Technical Interface Design Plan (TIDP). NATOs equivalent is Link 16. e. Army Tactical Data Link 1 (ADTL-1)A secure, full-duplex, point-to-point digital data link utilizing serial
transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at a basic speed of 1200 bits per second. It interconnects tactical air control systems and Army or Marine tactical air defense oriented systems. f. Interim JTIDS Message Specification (IJMS)A secure, high capacity, jam-resistant nodeless
interim message specification that uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS)
transmission characteristics and protocols, conventions, and fixed-length message formats defined by
the IJMS. See also airborne tactical data system; data link.
Tactical director (TD) (FM 3-01.87) The TD is responsible for the battalion air battle operations. The
TD is responsible for resolving target identification. This ensures that friendly aircraft are protected
and not engaged. The TD directs IFF/SIF interrogations as required by the situation. The TD is responsible for applying all engagement overrides (HOLD FIRE, CEASE FIRE, or ENGAGE HOLD).
The TD monitors the higher echelon net and alert messages, and responds to all except engage commands. The TD normally coordinates directly with the brigade or master battalion level TD.
Tactical director assistant (TDA) (FM 3-01.87) The TDA monitors and initiates all engagements. In
the semiautomatic engagement mode, the TDA assigns all engagements to subordinate batteries (or
battalions, when operating in the master battalion role). In the automatic engagement mode, the TDA
monitors and assigns engagements within the battalion. The TDA monitors the battalion status panel
and ensures that the batteries are in the assigned mode of control and weapon control status, including
areas enabled. The TDA monitors the batteries' equipment and communications status indicators, as
well as missile inventory of each battery and for the battalion. The TDA monitors cease-fires and hold
fires applied to targets within his area of responsibility and may apply engage hold on a target as appropriate.
Tactical Event Reporting System (TERS) (FM 44-100) The Tactical Event Reporting System
(TERS) is a worldwide distribution system currently made up of the Tactical Receive Equipment and
Related Applications (TRAP) system, the Tactical Information Broadcast System (TIBS), and the
Joint Operation Tactical System (JOTS). Within two to four minutes of launch, the theater commander
is provided tactical missile launch warning data, including the place of launch, time of launch, type
missile, and a course azimuth. This warning information can be used to alert friendly forces (defensive
weapon systems such as air and missile defense systems) and attack systems.
Tactical intelligence broadcast service (TIBS) (FM 3-01.11) The TIBS network provides timesensitive tactical information via UHF broadcast from aircraft and/or the satellite communications system. TIBS provides tactical data and alert and early warning of TBM launches. Data can be filtered
based on specified parameters such as areas of interest, altitudes, specific targets, collection parameters, etc. Up to 20 filters can be selected through software and initiated by the laptop computer workstation. Primary interest in TIBS data is TBM launch.
Tactical missile (AR 310-25) A missile produced for combat use.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Tactical operations center (TOC) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A physical groupment of
those elements of an Army general and special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and
the tactical support thereof. (See also command post).)
Tactical Operation Station (TOS) (FM 3-01.11) The TOS is the operational module for the BM/C3I
segment and contains two servers and two identical workstations. The TOS exchanges data and voice
with the LCS via a high-capacity dual fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) local area network
(LAN). The fiber-optic lines carry data and voice communications to the LCS.
Tactical Station Group (TSG) (FM 3-01.11) The basic BM/C3I group is the Tactical Station Group
(TSG), which consists of a TOS and LCS linked together with fiber optic cables, and a SSG. The TSG
can operate independently as a communications relay (CR), or be combined with another TSG to form
a battery or battalion tactical operations center (TOC). A TSG can be attached to a remote radar site
where it functions as a sensor system interface (SSI).
Tactical Warning (JP 3-01.5) Geographic combatant commanders are responsible for establishing
theater event reporting systems to acquire, process, and disseminate warning information to joint force
components and population centers. They are also responsible for implementing tactical event systems
architectures into local operations and intelligence nets. Component commanders are responsible for
providing warning to assigned forces. Warnings are both general (that missile launches are imminent
or have occurred) and specific (that specific units or areas of the battlefield or theater are in danger of
attack). The geographic combatant commanders tactical warning requirements are supported by national and theater intelligence systems.
Tactically Quiet Generator (TQG) (Weapon Systems 1999) The new DOD Standard Family of tactical electric power sources which reduces noise (to 70dBA @ 7m) and infrared (IR) signature.
Tactics (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. The employment of units in combat. 2. The ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and/or to the enemy in order to use their full
potentialities. (Army) Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures (TTP) 1. Tactics the art and
science of employing available means to win battles and engagements. 2. Techniques the methods
used by troops and/or commanders to perform assigned missions and functions, specifically, the
method of employing equipment and personnel. 3. Procedures the standard and detailed courses of
action that describe how to perform a task. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123,
100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

theater air defense; tactical air defense


theater air defense asset planner


theater air defense command


tactical digital information link


target acquisition and designation sight; tactical air defense system


target area of interest


theater Army movement control agency


theater and missile defense


test action number


tactical air operations center (US Marines)

Target (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A geographical area, complex, or installation planned for
capture or destruction by military forces. 2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency,

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for
future firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst which hits the target. (NATO) In radar, any
discrete object which reflects or retransmits energy back to the radar equipment, or the object of a radar search or surveillance. See FM 44-100. (Army) An object, vehicle, individual, and so forth,
which is the aiming point of any weapon or weapon system. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and
Target acquisition (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The detection, identification, and location of a
target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. (See also target analysis.)
See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.
Target allocation (JP 1-02) The process, following weapon assignment, of allocating a particular target or area to a specific surface-to-air missile unit or interceptor aircraft.
Target analysis (JP 1-02) An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required obtaining a desired level of damage or casualties. (See also target
Target area of interest (TAI) (JP 1-02) The geographical area where high-value targets can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Not all target areas of interest will form part of the friendly
course of action; only target areas of interest associated with high priority targets are of interest to the
staff. These are identified during staff planning and wargaming. Target areas of interest differ from
engagement areas in degree. Engagement areas plan for the use of all available weapons; a single
weapon might engage target areas of interest. See also area of interest; high value target; target.
Target discrimination (JP 1-02) The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to identify or engage any one target when multiple targets are present.
Target object map (TOM) (BMDO Glossary) A data set which contains three-dimensional position
estimates for target and other objects predicted to be in a weapon interceptors field of view for use in
target designation (USSPACECOM).
Target reference point (TRP) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An easily recognizable point on the ground
(either natural or man-made) used to initiate, distribute, and control fires. TRPs are designated by maneuver leaders from platoon through battalion to define battalion, company, platoon, section, squad, or
individual sectors of fire and observation usually within an engagement area. TRPs can also designate
the center of an area where the commander plans to distribute or converge the fires of all his weapons
rapidly. TRPs are designated using the standard target symbol and numbers issued by maneuver commanders. Once approved by the battalion fire support officer, TRPs can be designated as indirect fire
targets using the standard target symbol with letters and numbers issued by the fire support officer.
(See also engagement area (EA), principle direction of fire (PDF), and sector of fire.) See FMs 6series, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, 17-15, 17-9 and 23-1.

tracking adjunct system

Task force (TF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A temporary grouping of units, under one
commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a specific operation or mission. 2. Semi-permanent
organization of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a continuing specific task. 3. (Army) A battalion-sized unit of the combat arms consisting of a battalion control
headquarters, with at least one of its major organic subordinate elements (a company), and the attachment of a least one company-sized element of another combat or combat support arm. (See also task
organization.) A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a fleet or higher authority for
the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


task organization


tactical air-to-surface missile


technical bulletin


to be announced


to be determined; to be developed




to-be-engaged queue


tactical ballistic missile; theater ballistic missile


tactical ballistic missile defense; theater ballistic missile defense


to be resolved


training circular; training center


tactical control assistant


tactical control officer


Tactical Command System; Tactical Control Station (THAAD/Patriot)


transportable computer unit


tactical director


tactical director assistant


transportable defense acquisition radar


tactical display console


TRAP data dissemination system; tactical data distribution system


tactical display and engagement control console


time division multiple access


track data record

Techniques (AR 350-70) The general and detailed methods used by troops and/or commanders to perform assigned missions and functions, specifically, the methods of using equipment and personnel.
Example: A tactic of covering an obstacle with direct and indirect fires may be executed by emplacing
machine guns on the flanks to place direct fire down the length of the obstacle and using mortars to
place indirect fire on the obstacle. Both types of fires can be shifted beyond the obstacle to cut off
withdrawal of an opposing force.


tempo (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The rate of military action; controlling or altering that rate is a necessary means to initiative. All military operations alternate between action and pauses as opposing
forces battle one another and fight friction to mount and execute operations at the time and place of
their choosing. See FM 100-5.
Temporary Airspace Restrictions (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Temporary airspace restrictions can be
imposed on segments of airspace of defined dimensions in response to specific situations and requirements. These can include close air support (CAS) operations, air-refueling areas, and concentrated interdiction areas. The promulgation of such restrictions will include the following:

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Identification of the airspace user being restricted.

Period, area, altitude, and height of restriction.

Procedures for cancellation or modification of the restriction in event of communications loss.

Four common temporary airspace restrictions are: restricted operations areas, minimum risk routes,
standard-use Army aircraft flight routes and air corridors, and sectors of fire and primary target lines.
Terminal guidance (JP 1-02) 1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2. Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given
an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over, landing upon, or departure from an air
landing or airdrop facility. See also guidance.
Terminal phase (JP 1-02) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile between reentry into the
atmosphere or the end of the midcourse phase and impact or arrival in the vicinity of the target. See
also boost phase, midcourse phase, reentry phase.
Terrain flight (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) Flight close to the Earths surface during which
airspeed, height, and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid
enemy detection and fire. See FM 1-111.
(FM 44-8 (FM 3-01.8)) The tactic of employing helicopters in such a manner as to use the terrain, vegetation, and man-made objects to degrade the enemy's ability to visually, optically, or electronically detect or locate the helicopter. This tactic involves a constant awareness of the capabilities and positions of the enemy weapons and detection means in relation to available masking terrain features and flight routes. Terrain flying involves flight close to the earth's surface and includes the following flight techniques:

Contour flight. Flight at low altitude conforming generally to, and in the proximity of, the contours of the earth. It is characterized by varying airspeed and altitude as dictated by vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light.

Low-level flight. Flight generally carried out above obstacles but at an altitude where detection by
a threat force is avoided or minimized. It is, therefore, at a constant indicated altitude and airspeed.

Nap-of-the-earth flight. Flight at varying airspeeds as close to the earth's surface as vegetation,
obstacles, and ambient light will permit while generally following contours of the earth.

Terrain masking (AR 310-25) The ability of terrain features to deny observation of an object.
Terrestrial reference guidance (JP 1-02) The technique of providing intelligence to a missile from
certain characteristics of the surface over which the missile is flown, thereby achieving flight along a
predetermined path. See also guidance.

tactical exercise without troops


Test and Experimentation Command


task force


time to first launch


time of flight




Theater High-Altitude Area Defense


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Theater Air And Missile Defense (TAMD) (USAADASCH) The integration of joint force capabilities to destroy air or theater missile threats in flight or prior to launch or to otherwise disrupt the enemys air and theater missile operations through an appropriate mix of offensive counterair (OCA) and
defensive counterair (DCA) operations consisting of mutually supportive passive air defense; active
air defense; attack operations; and supporting command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) measures.
Theater Air And Missile Defense Coordinator (TAAMDCOORD) (FM 100-12 (FM 3-01.12)) Integrates with active defense operations and planning at the Army service component level. The
TAAMDCOORD is the ARFOR Commander representative for active defense planning and coordination with the JFACC, ACA, and AADC. The TAMDCOORD prepares the active defense appendix to
the air and missile defense annex for the ARFOR OPLAN. In addition, the TAAMDCOORD ensures
the corps active defense requirements are integrated into active air defense and TMD planning.
Theater Air and Missile Defense Operations (TAMDO) (FM 44-94 (FM 3-01.94)) Theater air and
missile defense operations encompass all activities focused on the identification, integration, and employment of forces supported by theater and national capabilities to detect, identify, classify, locate,
track, discriminate, minimize the effects of and destroy air and theater missile threats (to include largecaliber rockets). The preferred method to counter the air and theater missile threat is to destroy or disrupt operations prior to launch. The next most desired option is to intercept and destroy the threat in
flight. TAMD must also apply measures to reduce vulnerability and minimize damage in the event attack operations and active defense measures are ineffective.
Theater high altitude area defense (THAAD) (FM 44-94 (FM 3-01.94)) The THAAD system is being designed to negate TBMs at long ranges and high altitudes, supporting both exoatmospheric and
endoatmospheric hit-to-kill engagements. THAAD generally will have multiple shot opportunities,
thereby minimizing the likelihood of damage caused by weapons of mass destruction and falling debris. THAAD, employed with PAC-3 or the Navy Area Defense System, provides commanders with
near-leak-proof protection against TBMs. The THAAD system includes missile rounds, launchers,
BMC3I units, radars, and support equipment. The missile consists of a single-stage booster and a kinetic kill vehicle that separates from the booster prior to intercept and destroys a target by colliding
with it ("hit-to-kill"). The mobile launcher transports the interceptors in addition to firing them. The
THAAD radar provides threat early warning, threat type classification, interceptor fire control, external sensor cueing, and launch and impact point estimates for the THAAD system. The THAAD radar
is based on state-of-the-art, solid-state, X-band radar technology. The THAAD BMC3I system manages and integrates all THAAD components and links the THAAD system to other AMD systems and
to maneuver forces, supporting a multi-tiered, interoperable TMD architecture. All system components
are airliftable by C-141 cargo aircraft.
theater missile (TM) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A missile, which may be a ballistic missile,
cruise missile, or an air-to-surface missile (not including short-range, non-nuclear, direct-fire missiles,
bombs, or rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target is within a given theater of
operation. See FM 44-100 (FM 3-01) and JP 3-01.5.
Theater Missile Defense (TMD) (JP 3-01.5) Theater missile defense applies to the identification, integration, and employment of forces supported by other theater and national capabilities to detect,
identify, locate, track, minimize the effects of, and/or destroy enemy TMs on the ground and in flight,
their ground-based launchers and supporting infrastructure; TM-capable ships and vessels in port or at
sea; and enemy aircraft armed with air-to-surface missiles.
Theater Missile Defense Ground-Based Radar (TMD-GBR) (BMDO Glossary) A ground-based,
air transportable sensor that provides search, tracking and discrimination capabilities for the THAAD
interceptor system. Also referred to as THAAD Radar.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Theater Missile Defense System (JP 3-01.5) Refers to a system or systems with applicable capabilities that may be used to support passive defense measures, active defense measures, attack operations capabilities, and the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence and countermeasures required to counter the missile threat.

tactical high-energy laser

Through sight video camera (TSVC) (FM 3-01.11) The Through Sight Video Camera (TSVC) is a
vehicle appended system that provides a video and sound recording of gunnery or tactical engagement
exercises in real time. It is used in the institution and field environment for gunnery training to provide
an evaluation and critique of actual engagement sequences. It provides immediate playback through
use of an onboard monitor.



tracking head trainer

Tactical Intelligence Broadcast Service; Theater Information Broadcast Service; Theater
Intelligence Broadcast System.
Tiered Defense (BMDO Glossary) The use of defensive systems at different phases of the missile trajectory.
Time of Flight (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum time for a booster or vehicle to perform its
function from time of launch.
Time of flight (TFLT) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the
time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or
weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.
Time sensitive targets (TST) (JP 1-02) Those targets requiring immediate response because they pose
(or will soon pose) a clear and present danger to friendly forces or a highly lucrative, fleeing targets of
Time to first launch (TFL) (FM 3-01.87) TFL is an estimated time it takes for the target approaching
the battery to be engaged with intercept occurring within an acceptable probability of kill. The acceptable kill probability region is within the azimuth limits of the track sector and within a range value
based on the target's altitude and ECM history.
Time to last launch (TLL) (FM 3-01.87/TM 9-1430-600-10-1) Time to last launch (TTLL) is the
time remaining to the last opportunity to initiate an engagement so intercept will occur before the target penetrates the asset boundary. This is a very forgiving calculation (99 seconds describes time to
last launch). It assumes that the target is heading directly towards the center of the asset at its current
Time to launch release (TLR) (TM 9-1430-600-10-1) TLR indicates the time remaining before the
target is automatically engaged by the system. 99 seconds describes release time to last. In the semiautomatic engagement mode, TLR is equal to TTFL.



time to last launch


time to launch release


theater missile; technical manual; tactical missile (USA term)




theater missile defense


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


theater missile defense-ground based radar (THAAD Radar).


test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment


transportation movement officer


terrain mapping trainer




TPT netted trainer; trinitrotoluene


tasking order


tactical operations center


time of day


table(s) of organization and equipment


time of flight


tactical operations initialization


track on jam




target object map


threat order number


tactical operations station; Tactical Operation Simulation/System

TOW (missile) (JP 1-02) A component of a tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-command link
guided missile weapon system which is crew-portable.

tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (missile)


tactical planner


time-phased force and deployment data


time-phased force deployment list


tactical packet network


THAAD Project Office; TRADOC Project Office (formerly TSM SHORAD)


troop proficiency trainer; target practice tracer


TPT replacement (disk)


TPT library (disk)


tactically quiet generator (Patriot)

Track Assessment (BMDO Glossary) Looks for anomalies in an object track data. An anomaly in the
track may indicate a hit.
Track Correlation (BMDO Glossary) The combining of track information for identification purposes,
using all available data.
Track File (BMDO Glossary) A targets stated estimate, confidence, covariance matrix, and associated LOS measurements with irradiants with confidence of association; or some subset of the above.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Tracking (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by
radar, optical, or other means. (DOD) 2. In air intercept, a code meaning, By my evaluation, target is
steering true course indicated.
Tracking and Pointing (BMDO Glossary) Once a target is detected, it must be followed or tracked.
When the target is successfully tracked, a weapon is pointed at the target. Tracking and pointing are
frequently integrated operations.
Tracking Range (Max) (BMDO Glossary) The maximum line of sight distance at which a sensor can
maintain track of an object.
Track via missile (TVM) (FM 3-01.11) The Patriot missile is commanded to the vicinity of the target
by the WCC and then the on-board missile seeker acquires the target. The target is then TVM, while
the two-way data link is maintained at an increased rate. The missile moves to the intercept point
while the RS illuminates the target.
Track while scan (TWS) (FM 3-01.87) The TWS process can be used in conjunction with the GLIF.
TWS is applied to elevation angles and range (except the very long-range region beyond the system
maximum range).
Tracking head trainer (THT) (FM 3-01.11) The Stinger Tracking Head Trainer (THT) has the same
seeker and general appearance as the weapon round except for the performance indicator assembly.
The performance indicator assembly provides a means to critique the gunner after target engagement
when an engagement is, or is not, correctly performed. The THT is used to train gunners in tasks required for engagement of aircraft. It is used at the unit level for sustainment training, at service schools
to train entry-level personnel, and in the IMTS for target engagement. A benefit of the THT is quality
training for operators and the reduction of ammunition expenditures.

Training and Doctrine Command, Ft. Monroe, VA (US Army)

TRADOC System Manager (TSM) (AR 350-70) An individual appointed by the CG, TRADOC,
responsible for coordinating the combat developer (CD), user, and trainer efforts in the life cycle management of the assigned system. This individual also is responsible for doctrinal and organizational
standardization or interoperability with NATO.
Transponder (JP 1-02) A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal, upon proper interrogation. See also responsor.
Transporter erector launcher (TEL) (USAADASCH) A self-propelled launch vehicle capable of
transporting a TBM to a tactical location and elevating and launching the missile. A TEL contains all
ancillary equipment needed to support launch operations.

tactical-related applications; tactical-receive and equipment related applications

Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) (BMDO Glossary) An electronic tube in which a stream of electrons
interact continuously or repeatedly with a guided electromagnetic wave moving substantially in synchronism with it, in such a way as an amplifier or oscillator at frequencies in the microwave region.
Traverse level (JP 1-02) That vertical displacement above low-level air defense systems, expressed
both as a height and altitude, at which aircraft can cross the area.

transmit/receive element array (THAAD)


Tri-Service Tactical Digital Communications System

Troop proficiency trainer (TPT) (FM 3-01.11)

(DA Pam 350-38) The Stinger Troop Proficiency Trainer (STPT) Stinger troop proficiency trainer (STPT). The STPT is a computer-based device that superimposes one or more inde137

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

pendently moving aerial target images and terrain backgrounds onto the optical sight of Stinger
weapon systems. It provides the gunner with a visual representation of a realistic battlefield environment.
The Avenger Troop Proficiency Trainer (ATPT) Provides real time, free-play, and interactive
simulation of stationary and remote operations. The TPT is used in conjunction with tactical
equipment at unit level to train and sustain crewmember engagement skills and to train entry level
personnel at the institution.

The Sentinel Troop Proficiency Trainer (STPT) Is embedded into and used with the actual
Sentinel equipment. The TPT will display incoming and outgoing information that will stimulate
operator procedural actions. This will provide real time, free play interactive simulation that is representative of initialization, BIT/BITE, operations and the evaluation of data/error messages. The
TPT will provide reports of operator actions and summary reports used to determine operator performance to standard.

The FAADC3I Troop Proficiency Trainer (FTPT) Is an embedded device within the system
that supports a stand-alone capability to train operators to initiate and monitor critical actions. The
TPT allows the operator to sustain operational skills in garrison or in the field without external
training devices.
Patriot Troop Proficiency Trainer (PTPT) (DA Pam 350-38) Patriot troop proficiency trainer
(TPT). The TPT is a software program used to train information and coordination central (ICC) and
engagement control systems (ECS) operators. It is also used to evaluate and maintain proficiency
levels of current operators. The TPT may be programmed for battalion/battery exercise training.

tropospheric scatter

Tropospheric scatter (JP 1-02) The propagation of electromagnetic waves by scattering as a result of
irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties of the troposphere.

target reference point



True north (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The direction from an observers position to the geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic meridian. See FM 21-26.

theater storage area


tactical storage device


Tactical Station Group; Tactical Shelter Group


TRADOC System Manager; Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Systems



tactical standing operating procedures


time slot reallocation


troop subordinate trainer, time sensitive target


tactics, techniques, and procedures


target tracking radar


tactical unmanned aerial vehicle

Tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missile See TOW (missile)


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


target value analysis


track via missile (USA term)


track via missile-analog processor


track via missile-correlation processor


track while scan


traveling wave tube


tactical weapon control computer unit diagnostics


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


unit of issue


unmanned aerial vehicle


utility helicopter


ultra high frequency


unit identification code




unit level logistics system

Umbilical cord (missile) (AR 310-25) Cable fitted with a quick disconnect plug on the missile
through which missile equipment is controlled and tested while the missile is still attached to launching equipment or parent plane.

unit maintenance collection point


unit movement officer


upper medium-range

Unit conduct of fire trainer (UCOFT) (FM 3-01.11) The BSFV Unit Conduct of Fire Trainer
(UCOFT) is the main device for initial and sustainment training of BSFV 25-mm gunnery skills at the
unit level in CONUS and OCONUS units. It is a modular computer-based gunnery trainer for the
BSFV commander and gunner. The UCOFT provides computer-generated battlefield video scenarios
with sound effects for simulated target engagements used for training and evaluation.
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) (USASMDC Website The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, a MACOM, serves as
the Armys proponent for Space and National Missile Defense, and as the Army integrator for Theater
Missile Defense. The command ensures that Army warfighters have access to space assets and products to win decisively with minimum casualties and effective missile defense to protect our nation as
well as our deployed forces and those of our friends and allies.
United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) (BMDO Glossary) The unified command of
USSPACECOM. Responsible for the Army elements of the SDS system. Located in Colorado
Springs, CO.


Unknown (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A code, meaning information not available. 2. An
unidentified target. (Army) An aircraft or ship which has not been determined to be hostile,
friendly, or neutral using identification friend or foe (IFF) and other techniques, but which must be
tracked by air defense or naval engagement systems.
Universal polar stereographic grid (JP 1-02) A military grid prescribed for joint use in operations in
limited areas and used for operations requiring precise position reporting. It covers areas between the
80-degree parallels and the poles.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Universal time (ZULU) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A measure of time that conforms, within
a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Universal Time (UTI) is determined from observations of stars, radio sources, and also from
ranging observations of the Moon and artificial Earth satellites. The scale determined directly from
such observations is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO)); it is slightly dependent on the place
of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by
polar motion, the time scale UTI is obtained. When accuracy better than one second is not required,
Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Formerly called Greenwich
Mean Time. (See also ZULU time.) See FM 101-5.
Universal transverse mercator (UTM) grid (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A grid coordinate
system based on the transverse mercator projection, applied to maps of the Earths surface extending
to 84 degrees N and 80 degrees S latitudes. See FM 21-26.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (JP 1-02) A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human
operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely,
can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or non-lethal payload. Ballistic or semiballistic vehicles, cruise missiles, and artillery projectiles are not considered unmanned aerial vehicles.
See also remotely piloted vehicle.





user operational evaluation system


universal polar stereographic

USAADASCH United States Army Air Defense Artillery School. Located at Ft. Bliss, TX
USARSPACE United States Army Space Command

United States Space Command


United States Forces Korea, US Army Garrison, Yong San (USAGY), Seoul, Republic of


unit training area


unengageable TBM; upper TBM


universal transverse mercator (grid); unit training mission




USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary




visual aircraft recognition


video display control



Very high (JP 1-02) A height above 50,000 feet.

(FM 90-38 (FM 3-97.18)) Above 40.000 ft AGL.

Very low (JP 1-02) A height below 500 feet.


very high altitude


very high frequency


very high-speed integrated circuit

Virtual training (AR 350-70) Training executed using computer generated battlefields in simulators
with approximate physical layout of tactical weapons systems and vehicles. Virtual tactical engagement simulation (TES) training permits units to maneuver over much larger areas.

visibility; visual


very low altitude




vertical short takeoff and landing


variable speed training target


virtual target


vertical takeoff departure point; vectoring target designation points


video tracking group


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary


weapons alert designator


wide area network

Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) (Operational Requirements Document (ORD), 23

Aug 1999) An Army Force XXI tactical telecommunications system consisting of infrastructure
and network components from the maneuver battalion to the theater rear boundary. The network provides command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
(C4ISR) capabilities that are mobile, secure, survivable, seamless, and capable of supporting multimedia tactical information systems. The networks capability to support unit task reorganization and realtime retasking of battlefield support elements is a vital enabler for Army 2010 and beyond operational
concepts. The network will allow all Army commanders and other communications network users at
all echelons to exchange information internal and external to the theater from wired or wireless telephones, computers (Internet-like capability) or from video terminals.
warhead (JP 1-02) That part of a missile, projectile, torpedo, rocket, or other munitions which contains either the nuclear or thermonuclear system, high explosive system, chemical or biological agents
or inert materials intended to inflict damage.
warning order (WARNO/WO) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) 1. A preliminary notice of an order or action which is to follow. 2. A crisis action planning directive issued by the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff that initiates the development and evaluation of courses of action by a supported
commander and requests that a commanders estimate be submitted. 3. A planning directive that describes the situation, allocates forces and resources, establishes command relationships, provides other
initial planning guidance, and initiates subordinate unit mission planning. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20,
7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, 101-5, and JP 5-0. (Patriot) (TM 9-1425-600-12)
The Battalion command element issues a warning order for the next move. This order will contain, as
a minimum: (1). Primary and alternate FP site locations for the next move. These locations are normally chosen by map inspection, based on knowledge of tactical requirements and site selection criteria. (2). Primary and secondary target lines for each FP. (3). Probable time of march order. (4). Priority
of FP movement. (5). Battalion-level logistics support for site selection and preparation.

warning order


warfighter simulation (USA term)


weapons control computer


weapons control order


weapon control status. See Air defense weapons control status; weapons control status

Weapon alert designator (WAD) (FM 44-100 (FM 3-01)) Weapons Alert designators (WAD) describe a progressive system of alert postures. They are used by the AD commander to specify minimum percentages of ADA fire units within parent organizations that are required to be at given states
of readiness. ADA commanders use weapons alert designators to meet the threat, provide maintenance, and allow crew rest.
HIMAD Weapons Alert Designators (EXAMPLE ONLY)

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary



5 min

1 hr


3 hr



















6 hr








NOTE: x% = % of fire units. RTF = Ready to Fire. RTM = Ready to Move.

SHORAD Weapons Alert Designators(EXAMPLE ONLY)


5 min

15 min











30 min

1 (or



NOTE: x% = % of fire unit at each readiness condition. RTF = Ready to Fire.

Weapon assignment (FM 3-01.11) Involves the selection and scheduling of available launchers and
missiles against attacking TBMs. It is an iterative process that is repeated at fixed intervals or upon the
occurrence of an event that alters the weapon assignment basis. The system first determines available
battlespace, first shot, last shot, best shot opportunity, and the available engagement opportunities.
Based on the number of engagement opportunities available and the number of missiles allocated according to defense objectives, the system selects a method of fire. The system uses shoot-look-shoot as
the method of fire where feasible.
Weapon control computer (TM 9-1425-600-12) In conjunction with instructions entered at either
display and control station, controls all FP operations.
Weapon control status (WCS) (FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) The degree of fire control imposed upon
Army units having assigned, attached, or organic air defense weapons. (See air defense weapon control status.)
WEAPONS FREE (JP 1-02) In air defense, a weapon control order imposing a status whereby
weapons systems may be fired at any target not positively recognized as friendly. (FM 44-100)
This is the least restrictive weapon control status.
Weapons tight (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air defense, a weapon control order imposing a status whereby weapons systems may be fired only at targets recognized as hostile. (See
also air defense, weapons free, and weapons hold.

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

Weapons hold (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) In air defense, a weapon control order imposing a status whereby weapons systems may be fired in self-defense or in response to a formal
order. (See also weapons free, weapons tight, and air defense weapon control status.) See FM 44100 (FM 3-01).
Weapon engagement zone (WEZ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1) In air defense, airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with a particular
weapon system. a. fighter engagement zone (FEZ). In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with fighter aircraft.
b. high-altitude missile engagement zone (HIMEZ). In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with high-altitude
surface-to-air missiles. c. low-altitude missile engagement zone (LOMEZ). In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally
rests with low- to medium-altitude surface-to-air missiles. d. short-range air defense engagement
zone (SHORADEZ). In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with short-range air defense weapons. It may be established within a low- or high-altitude missile engagement zone. e. joint engagement zone (JEZ). In air
defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the multiple air defense systems (surface-toair missiles and aircraft) are simultaneously employed to engage air threats.
Weapon system employment concept (JP 1-02) A description in broad terms, based on established
outline characteristics, of the application of a particular equipment or weapon system within the framework of tactical concept and future doctrine.
Weapon-target line (JP 1-02) An imaginary straight line from a weapon to a target.
Weapons assignment (JP 1-02) In air defense, the process by which weapons are assigned to individual air weapons controllers for use in accomplishing an assigned mission.
Weapons control

See weapons control status.

Weapons control computer (WCC) (FM 44-85 (FM 3-01.85)) (Patriot) The WCC provides the necessary data processing for the Patriot FU, including capability for communications with other FUs or
battalions through a routing logic radio interface unit (RLRIU).
The major subsystems within the computer system are the-

Central processing unit (CPU)

Input/output control unit (IOCU)

Monolithic memory unit (MMU)

Peripheral control unit (PCU)

The WCC configuration consists of two CPUs, one IOCU, and 512K of main memory.
Weapons free See Weapons Control Status
Weapons free zone (WFZ) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) An air defense zone established for
the protection of key assets or facilities, other than air bases, where weapon systems may be fired at
any target not positively recognized as friendly. (See also weapons free and air defense weapon control status.) See FMs 100-103 and 44-100 (FM 3-01).
Weapons hold See Weapons Control Status
Weapons Readiness State (JP 1-02) The degree of readiness of air defense weapons, which can become airborne or be launched to carry out an assigned task. Weapons readiness states are expressed in

USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

numbers of weapons and numbers of minutes. Weapons readiness states are defined as follows: a. 2
minutes Weapons can be launched within two minutes. b. 5 minutes-- Weapons can be launched
within five minutes. c. 15 minutes Weapons can be launched within fifteen minutes. d. 30 minutes
Weapons can be launched within thirty minutes. e. 1 hour-- Weapons can be launched within one
hour. f. 3 hour Weapons can be launched within three hours. g. Released Weapons are released
from defense commitment for a specified period of time.
Weapon(s) System (JP 1-02) A combination of one or more weapons with all related equipment, materials, services, personnel and means of delivery and deployment (if applicable) required for selfsufficiency.
Weapons tight See Weapons Control Status
Weighted coverage

See employment guidelines.


weapon engagement zone


weapons free


waveform generator


wide field of view


weapons free zone


warfighter exercise


World Geodetic System 1984


weapons hold



Wide field of view (FOV) See field of view

wild weasel (Janes) An aircraft specifically modified to identify, locate, and physically destroy or
suppress enemy ground based or ship based air defense systems.

warning order; warrant officer


world geodetic system-84

World geographic reference system (GEOREF) (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A worldwide
position reference system that may be applied to any map or chart graduated in latitude and longitude
regardless of projection. It is a method of expressing latitude and longitude in a form suitable for rapid
reporting and plotting.



White Sands Missile Range, NM


weapons tight




wheel vehicle


USAADASCH Air Defense Artillery Glossary

X-axis (JP 1-02) A horizontal axis in a system of rectangular coordinates; that line on which distances
to the right or left (east or west) of the reference line are marked, especially on a map, chart, or graph.





extra high tactical ballistic missile

Yaw (JP 1-02) 1. The rotation of an aircraft, ship, or missile about its vertical axis so as to cause the
longitudinal axis of the aircraft, ship, or missile to deviate from the flight line or heading in its horizontal plane. 3. Angle between the longitudinal axis of a projectile at any moment and the tangent to
the trajectory in the corresponding point of flight of the projectile.
Y-axis (JP 1-02) A vertical axis in a system of rectangular coordinates; that line on which distances
above and below (north or south) the reference line are marked, especially on a map, chart, or graph.

Zeroize (AR 310-25) 1. To align the variable cryptographic elements (e.g., rotors) of a cryptoequipment to a specified basic setting unrelated to operational settings. 2. To destroy the setting of
machine elements automatically upon the occurrence of an untoward event; e.g. a crashing impact, the
loss of electrical power, or possible capture by the enemy.
Zero-length launcher (AR 310-25) Launcher which supports the missile in the desired altitude prior
to ignition, but which exercises no control on the direction of the missiles travel after ignition.
Zero-length launching (JP 1-02) A technique in which the first motion of the missile or aircraft removes it from the launcher.
ZULU time (JP 1-02/FM 101-5-1 (FM 6-99.1)) A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping.
ZULU time is determined from observations of stars, radio sources, and also from ranging observations of the Moon and artificial Earth satellites. The scale determined directly from such observations
is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is slightly dependent on the place of observation.
When ZULU time is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale ZULU is obtained. Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time. (See also Universal
Time.) See FM 101-5.