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A TEST OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL FEATURES THAT DETERMINE AGE CHANGES

ON THE AURICULAR SURFACE OF THE ILIUM AS AN ESTIMATION OF AGE AT


DEATH

A Thesis by
Angie Marie Rabe
Bachelors Degree, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 2004

Submitted to the Department of Anthropology


and the faculty of the Graduate School of
Wichita State University
in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts

August 2009

Copyright 2009 by Angie Marie Rabe


All Rights Reserved

A TEST OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL FEATURES THAT DETERMINE AGE CHANGES


ON THE AURICULAR SURFACE OF THE ILIUM AS AN ESTIMATION OF AGE AT
DEATH

The following faculty members have examined the final copy of this thesis for form and content,
and recommend that it be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Master of Arts with a major in Anthropology.

______________________________
Peer Moore-Jansen, Committee Chair

______________________________
Robert Lawless, Committee Member

______________________________
JoLynne Campbell, Committee Member

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor, Peer Moore-Jansen, for his guidance and support
throughout my academic career. I would also like to thank the other members of my committee,
Robert Lawless and JoLynne Campbell, for their participation.
I would also like to express my appreciation to Lyman Jellema at the Cleveland Museum
of Natural History for making this research possible. I also want to acknowledge the Nancy
Berner Fund, the Marvin Munsell Anthropology Fellowship, and the Friends of Anthropology
Fellowship from Wichita State University for these generous awards, which have provided
financial support.
I would also like to thank my family for their love and support, because without them this
would not have been possible!!

iv

ABSTRACT
The study of age changes in the human pelvis has long been at the core of research in
human osteology. Particularly, studies have focused on joint surfaces as the age during the
lifetime of an individual. This study examines age changes in the posterior ilium, specifically the
auricular surface. The auricular surface is defined as the semi-lunar sacral articulation on the
medial surface of the ilium.
A special focus is placed on the assessment of a previous aging technique applied to the
auricular surface and the posterior ilium (Lovejoy et al. 1985). A second objective addresses the
potential refinement of the proposed age groups defined by Lovejoy et al. (1985). Few studies
have yet to test the use of qualitative scoring system on the auricular surface. This study was
conducted using a sample of 102 Black females from the Hamann-Todd collection at the
Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Both the left and right auricular surfaces were examined
bringing the total number of surfaces recorded to 204.
In addition to qualitative observations of the surfaces six measurements of the auricular
surface were recorded to determine if the size and shape of the surface changes with age. To test
age effects separate t-tests were applied to their right and left size dimensions of the surface to
test for right and left symmetry and size differences between the surfaces of young and old
specimens. The findings presented here suggest that the nature of qualitative morphological
features change with age. As age increases the sacroiliac joint becomes less mobile and
degenerative changes on the auricular surface that include lipping on the apical border increase,
which may affect the shape and size of the auricular surface as age increases. The t-test results
indicate that there are no significant differences between the left and right auricular surfaces.
Age according to the t-test also indicates that there are no significant differences from young to
old age, with the exception of one measurement. The inferior auricular surface length (IFASLT)
v

is the minimum width of the auricular surface between the apex and the posterior border of the
auricular surface. The difference in this measurement from young to old is affected by the
increase in apical and retro-auricular activity. As retro-auricular activity increases it affects the
posterior border of the auricular surface causing the border to become less pronounced. The
apex is affected by the increase of lipping as age increases. Increasing age causes this
measurement to be slightly higher than in younger individuals, whether as a result of activity or
less clarity in the measurement as age increases is unknown.
The findings presented here suggest that the nature of qualitative morphological features
change with age. To test these findings a chi-square analysis was applied to determine if the
presence and absence of features are determined by age. Results concluded that all features, with
the exception of porosity had significant results. Based on these results a revised age phase
system limited to four phases is presented, which represents a less precise, but more consistently
reliable indicator of age than that of the eight phase system proposed by Lovejoy et al. (1985).
The findings suggest that morphological features are best seen within the decade rather than
within half a decade, suggesting that it is better to include broader age ranges in order to account
for a more accurate age estimation of an individual.

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
I.

Page

BACKGROUND

Skeletal Aging Methods


Cranial Suture Closure
Pubic Symphysis
Sternal Rib
Auricular Surface
Adult Pelvic Girdle
Anatomy
Pubis
Ischium
Ilium
Ilium of the Auricular Surface
Function of the Pelvis
Variation of the Os Coxa
Sexual Dimorphism
Evolutionary Trend of the Adult Human Pelvis
Previous Studies
II.

III.

IV.

1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
9
10

MATERIAL AND METHODS

17

Introduction
Materials
Hamann-Todd Collection
Recording Data
Methods
Metric Observations
Non-Metric Observations
Data Analysis

17
17
17
19
19
19
20
25

RESULTS

27

Summary Statistics
Analysis of Frequencies
Chi-Square
T-Test

27
31
40
43

DISCUSSION

47

Introduction
Frequency Analysis and Chi-Square Tests
Symmetry

47
50
51

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Chapter
IV.

Page

DISCUSSION
Results in Comparison to the Lovejoy et al. (1985) Study
Revised Age Phases
Preliminary Testing
Conclusion

51
53
54
56

REFENENCES

57

APPENDICES

63

Appendix A. (A1-A6) Auricular Surface Measurements


Appendix B. Measurements of the Left Auricular Surface
Appendix C. Measurements of the Right Auricular Surface
Appendix D. Means and Standard Deviations for the Left and Right Auricular Surface
Appendix E. Frequencies and Percentages for the Left Auricular Surface
Appendix F. Frequencies and Percentages for the Right Auricular Surface
Appendix G. Qualitative Scores for the Left Auricular Surface
Appendix H. Qualitative Scores for the Right Auricular Surface
Appendix I. Hamann-Todd Test Sample used for comparison in Revised Method

64
67
70
73
74
75
76
79
82

viii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

PAGE

1. Sample Distribution by Age from the Hamann-Todd Collection

18

2. Auricular Surface Measurements

20

3. Summary of Eight Age Phases (Lovejoy et al. 1985)

24

4. Means and Standard Deviations Age 20-24

27

5. Means and Standard Deviations Age 25-29

28

6. Means and Standard Deviations Age 30-34

28

7. Means and Standard Deviations Age 35-39

28

8. Means and Standard Deviations Age 40-44

29

9. Means and Standard Deviations Age 45-49

29

10. Means and Standard Deviations Age 50-59

30

11. Means and Standard Deviations Age 60+

30

12. Means and Standard Deviations from All Age Groups

30

13. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Billows

31

14. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Striae

33

15. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Fine Granulation

34

16. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Coarse Granulation

35

17. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Dense

35

18. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Microporosity

36

19. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Macroporosity

37

ix

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


TABLE

PAGE

20. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Apical Activity

38

21. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Retro-auricular Activity

39

22. Chi-Square Data for the Left Auricular Surface

40

23. Chi-Square Data for the Right Auricular Surface

41

24. Chi-Square for the Feature Porosity

41

25. Chi-Square Features for young, middle to old, and young to old

42

26. Chi-Square for Retro-auricular activity for young, middle to old, and young to old

43

27. Chi-Square for Apical changes from young, middle to old, and young to old

43

28. t-Test Results for the Left and Right Auricular Surface

44

29. t-Test Results for Age 20-24 to 60+

45

30. Correct Classification for Revised Method and Lovejoy et al. (1985)

55

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

PAGE

1. Pelvic Girdle

2. Billows and Striae

21

3. Fine Granulation

21

4. Coarse Granulation and Microporosity

22

5. Subchondral Destruction

22

6. Apex and Retro-auricular Region (Lovejoy et al. 1985)

23

7. Line Graph of Feature Billows and Striae

32

8. Line Graph of Feature Granularity and Density

34

9. Line Graph of Feature Porosity

37

10. Line Graph of Feature Apical Changes

38

11. Line Graph of Retro-auricular Activity

39

xi

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND

Introduction
When estimating the age of an individual from skeletal remains alone, it is important to
identify characteristics in the human skeletal anatomy that reflect developmental traits along with
subsequent degenerative change because these effects are all critical to interpret the age at death.
Any studies of documented juveniles, bone growth and dental eruption, particularly with
the development and fusion of ossification centers, provide useful known age sequences in order
to compare individuals of unknown age. In the adult human skeleton this becomes somewhat
more difficult since age related changes become increasingly more variable. Although standards
are currently available for the estimation of adult age at death from several skeletal areas many
fall short of their expected levels of accuracy (Murray and Murray 1991). One probable reason
for this is that the age ranges provided by some methods (e.g., auricular surface (Lovejoy et al.
1985) and sternal rib end techniques (Iscan et al. 1984) do not describe the full range of age
variation at defined stages (Osborne et al. 2004).

Skeletal Aging Methods


In the adult human skeleton the best indicators of age involve two types of methods,
gross and specific analyses. Specific methods include dental thin sectioning and
histomorphometry, which take thin cross sections of bone to be analyzed microscopically. This
gives more accurate results when compared to gross methods, but require more time, equipment,
and knowledge, and necessitate some destruction of the material (Charles et al. 1989, Robling
and Stout 2000).
1

Gross methods on the other hand are faster and do not require destruction. These
methods include age estimation from the morphological changes in the pubic symphysis,
auricular surface, cranial suture closure, sternal rib ends, and degenerative changes in the spine,
joints, and skull, including resorption of cancellous bone, and loss of teeth (Ubelaker 1989).
Degenerative changes in the skeleton can be used as a general indicator of age at death.
As age increases osteophytes, which are boney outgrowths, also increase (Stewart 1976). These
boney outgrowths are common on the rounded center of the vertebra, the ischium, calcaneous,
and sternal ends of the ribs, and where joints occur, developing through the ossification of
cartilage (Stewart 1976).
Cranial Suture Closure
Cranial suture closure, though variable, is also an indicator of age estimation. In
subadults cranial suture lines are clearly visible but as age increases sutures begin to close and in
some older individuals suture lines can even become obliterated. Two common methods for
aging cranial sutures are Acsadi and Nemeskeris (1970) endocranial phases and Meindl and
Lovejoys (1985) ectocranial phases. Meindl and Lovejoys study (1985) found lateral-anterior
sutures to be a better indicator than vault sutures, along with ectocranial suture verses
endocranial sutures.
Pubic Symphysis
Age estimation using the pubic symphysis has become a popular aging method and has
become the standard used to apply to other aging techniques such as the sternal rib ends, and the
auricular surface. A technique which associates surface features of the pubic symphyseal face to
age changes was tested and as a result a six phase analysis of pubic symphysis morphology was
developed (Katz and Suchey 1986). This six phase age analysis was developed as a

modification to the ten phase system originally developed by Todd (1920), which was found to
over age individuals and lacked distinct morphological phases leading to inconsistent assignment
to an age range among different observers (Katz and Suchey 1986).
Sternal Rib
Sternal rib ends as an indicator of age estimation was similarly developed to form a phase
system based on morphological changes (Iscan, Loth, and Wright 1984). This included a nine
phase system, which was sex specific. Additional research suggests that age changes are also
population specific (Iscan, Loth, and Wright 1987).
Auricular Surface
In a similar fashion to the pubic symphysis aging method, aging of the auricular surface
of the ilium was developed by Lovejoy et al. (1985). This technique is based on the premise that
age at death of an individual can be estimated by examining morphological features of the
auricular surface of the ilium. This method was developed under the same assumptions of the
pubic symphysis aging method, namely that surface morphology undergoes regular changes as
the result of progressing age.
Advantages of the auricular surface over the pubic symphysis are that qualitative
changes in the auricular surface extend well beyond the age of 50, while they generally do not in
the pubic symphysis (Lovejoy et al. 1985). Also the use of the auricular surface may improve
age estimation in females since this joint is affected by stress during childbirth (Suchey 1979),
whereas the pubic symphysis has been demonstrated to be a less accurate predictor in females
than in males (Lovejoy et al. 1985).
Another advantage of the auricular surface aging technique is that the survival rate of this
region is higher than the pubic symphysis in archaeological populations (Lovejoy et al. 1985). In

addition Haglund (1997) reports that the public symphysis, iliac crest, and ischial tuberosity are
the most frequently destroyed portions of the os coxa in cases involving carnivore activity. Also
the ribs are commonly removed by animals as a result of carnivore activity, which is a common
taphonomic agent in many forensic cases.

The Adult Pelvic Girdle


The pelvic girdle is positioned at the base of the spine with the sacrum and coccyx at the
midline. The sacrum articulates posteriorly with the os coxa at the sacro-iliac joint and the two
bones, the os coxae articulate anteriorly at the pubic symphysis, which is illustrated in Figure 1.
The os coxa is made up of three separate bones, the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. In adults
these bones are fully united at the acetabulum and represent one bone (Scheuer and Black 2000).
The pelvic girdle is supported by abdominal muscles anteriorly, the iliac fossa laterally, and the
fifth lumbar posteriorly (Scheuer and Black 2000). The pelvis also supports and protects the
internal organs such as the bladder, rectum, and internal genitalia (Scheuer and Black 2000).

Figure1. Pelvic Girdle

Anatomy
Pubis
The pubis is the most anterior of the three bones of the os coxa. It articulates medially
with the opposite pubis, inferiorly with the ischium, and superiorly at the acetabulum with the
ilium and ischium, with the borders of the pubis forming the obturator foramen (Baker et al.
2005).
The pubis is the last of the pelvis elements to begin ossifying, which ossifies around the
the 5th fetal month (Bass 2005). The narrow, flat inferior ramus of the pubis completes fusion
with its ischial counterpart by 8 years of age (Baker et al. 2005). The pubic symphysis presents
the typical appearance of an epiphyseal surface with its ridges and furrows that characterize it
throughout childhood and early adulthood. The changes associated with aging of the pubic
symphysis are due to secondary ossification that begins around the age of 20 (Baker et al. 2005).
According to Scheuer and Black (2000) by age 20-23 the dorsal margin forms along the
dorsal border of the pubic symphyseal surface, by age 23-27 the epiphysis appears for the pubic
tubercle and delimitation of the upper and lower borders of the symphyseal face commence, by
24-30 there is active ventral rampart formation and obliteration of the ridge and furrow
appearance of the ventral and dorsal aspects of the pubis symphyseal face, and by age 35 the
ventral rampart is complete and the symphyseal rim is mature. These features make the pubis a
reliable indicator for determining age (Scheuer and Black 2000).
Ischium
The ischium is located laterally and inferiorly to both the ilium and the pubis. The
ischium forms the posterior inferior aspect of the os coxa. The ischium contributes to the
formation of the acetabulum and its superior border also forms the lateral and inferior margins of

the obturator foramen. The ischium consists of a ramus and a body. The ramus is an extension of
the body and projects anteriorly, while the body projects posteriorly with the posterior aspect of
the ramus bearing a thick and roughened oval known as the ischial tuberosity (Scheuer and Black
2000).
The ischium begins ossification between the 3rd and 5th fetal month from one ossification
center and fuses with the pubis between 4 and 8 years of age (Baker et al. 2005). The ischium
has one secondary ossification center beginning between the ages of 13 and 16 for the epiphysis
of the ischial tuberosity, which begins to fuse between the ages of 16 and 18 and is fully fused by
21 to 23 years (Baker et al. 2005).
Ilium
The first bone of the os coxa to ossify is the ilium. This begins at 2 to 3 fetal months
(Baker et al. 2005). Two epiphyses generally develop for the ilium. A small cap for the anterior
inferior iliac spine begins to ossify around ages 10 to 13, but this center is sometimes linked to
the acetabular epiphysis and is not always found separately (Baker et al. 2005). This epiphysis
fuses completely between the ages of 17 and 20 (Scheuer and Black 2000). A second epiphysis
of the ilium is the iliac crest. This epiphysis begins ossifying from two separate centers around
the age of 12 or 13 in females and 14 to 15 in males (Baker et al. 2000). These separate centers
grow toward the midpoint of the crest and unite to form a single iliac crest epiphysis that begins
to fuse to the blade of the ilium between 17 -20 years and is complete by age 23 (Baker et al.
2005).
Ilium and the Auricular Surface
The ilium is the largest and most superior portion of the os coxa. It is a flat blade like
bone. The superior border of the blade has a long metaphyseal surface called the iliac crest,
6

which changes in thickness throughout its length and is slightly S shaped (Baker et al. 2005). On
the medial and posterior aspect of the blade is an articular surface shaped like an ear, which is
named for its shape (Gray 1995). The auricular surface is the region on the ilium that articulates
with the sacrum to the form the sacroiliac joint.

Function of the Pelvis


The function and shape of the pelvic girdle in modern humans serves to house and protect
viscera, but the female has had to take into account the secondary function of the pelvis, which is
its capability to house a fetus. Pregnancy releases certain hormones, particularly relaxin, which
increases mobility in the sacroiliac joint allowing the joint to expand even further (Sashin 1930).
Therefore the female pelvis is a functional compromise between providing a large enough birth
canal and the necessary framework for attachment of the muscles that facilitate bipedal
locomotion.

Variation of the Os Coxa


The os coxa is highly variable as a result of both genetic and environmental factors.
Reasons for this variation are a result of childbirth, nutritional status, and locomotion. As a
result differences in the os coxa are most visible when comparing males to females.
Up to adolescence, the pelvic girdle is much the same size and shape in boys and girls
(Reynolds 1947). Some authors suggest that the differences in form and morphological
characteristics of the os coxa are a result of the differences in growth rates that are attributed to
the growth hormones that begin in puberty (Coleman 1969). A study by Ellison (1982) and
Worthman (1993) found that age at menarche is best predicted by bi-iliac width, the distance

between the iliac crests of the pelvis. They concluded that a median width of 24cm is needed for
menarche. Moerman (1982) also demonstrated a relationship between growth in pelvic size and
reproductive maturation. She found that the crucial variable for a successful first birth is the size
of the pelvic inlet, the bony opening of the birth canal. Her study concluded that in an American
sample of 90 well nourished girls ages 8-18, birth size of the pelvic inlet is reached at 17-18
years of age.
Sexual Dimorphism
Several useful indicators for sexing the os coxa are that in general the male pelvis is more
robust and has more distinct muscle markings, the obturator foramen is larger and oval shaped in
males, whereas it is smaller and more triangular in females, and since the female pelvis is
adapted for childbirth, the pelvic basin is more spacious and less funnel shaped, also the
acetabulum is larger in males to accommodate the larger femoral head (Bass 2005). In general
the female pelvis is longer horizontally and lower vertically than that of the male. Usually the
male iliac blade is higher and narrower that of the female (Straus 1927).
Many of the sex indicators in the os coxa are in response to the areas surrounding the
auricular area (Iscan and Derrick 1984, St.Hoyme 1984). For instance females will have a raised
and narrow iliac auricular surface, and they may have a wide and deep preauricular sulcus. The
sciatic notch is wide and shallow and arthritic changes are more common in older women. In
males the iliac auricular surface may be more depressed and wide with a narrow and shallow
preauricular sulcus. The sciatic notch is deep and narrow and arthritic changes are seen more
rarely (Iscan et al. 1984 and St.Hoyme 1984).
The preauricular sulcus, when present is narrow and more shallow in children and males,
and represents a growth scar, but studies have demonstrated that the preauricular sulcus in

females is a result of posterior iliac widening, which is a result of pregnancy (Houghton 1975
and Kelley 1979). As a result of this it is reasonable to expect that the stresses of pregnancy to
enlarge or alter the auricular surface will also affect the area around it, such as the sciatic notch.
A wide sciatic notch, which may widen even further if the sacroiliac joint is mobile, is of
obvious value in childbearing (Cave 1937).

Evolutionary Trends of the Adult Human Pelvis


The morphology of the pelvis is particularly important in the investigation of human
evolution, as it clearly reflects the uniquely bipedal form of locomotion. Humans are the only
primate where the triangular shaped ilium is wider than it is high (Straus 1929). However, the
unique feature of the human ilium is not its great width but its reduced height. Functionally this
brings the sacroiliac joint close to the hip joint thereby reducing the stress on that part of the
ilium that transmits the entire weight of the upper body from the backbone to the hip joint in
bipedal posture (Aiello and Dean 1990).
Another important morphological feature of the human ilium is the orientation of the
blade portion. In humans the blade forms the side of the pelvis resulting in a convex gluteal
surface, a concave iliac fossa, and a very distinctive S-shaped iliac crest (Aiello and Dean 1990).
The location and function of major muscles in the region of the pelvis influence variation in size
and shape of the ilium among different species, and it has been suggested that the human form of
a short, wide, and back bending ilium is a direct reflection of an adaption or selection favoring
habitual bipedalism (Mednick 1955).
The human pelvis is short, squat, and basin shaped (Aiello and Dean 1990). The pelvic
girdle is formed by the articulation of the os coxa as it articulates with sacrum and coccyx. The

position of the pelvis between the trunk above and the legs below ensures that it is intimately
involved in the transfer of body weight from the upper body to the ground (Scheuer and Black
2000). In order to have bipedal posture it is essential that the center of gravity of the body
remains directly over the rectangular area formed by supporting the feet (Aiello and Dean 1990).
In adult humans the center of gravity is located in the midline just anterior to the second sacral
vertebra (MacConaill and Basmajian 1969). Body weight is then transmitted to the sacroiliac
joints, acetabulum, and then the femoral heads (Scheuer and Black 2000).

Previous Studies
The sacroiliac joint is influenced by sex-linked factors more than any other part of the
skeleton (Iscan and Kennedy 1989). Sex differences in this joint do not begin to show until
puberty, at which time males progress along lines of strength and females sacrifice strength for
mobility (Brooke 1924). In males the sacral auricular surface is wide and flat, but has a narrow
groove corresponding to the ridged iliac surface. Females on the other hand have a narrow
elevated joint, which Brooke suggests makes the joint more moveable. Brooke (1924) found in
his study that the mobility of the sacroiliac joint could be definitively linked with sex and age.
Results showed that in males, movement of the joint progressively decreases until the fifties,
after which time in most cases complete ankylosis occurs. Ankylosis is the stiffening an
immobility of a joint as the bones begin to fuse, as a result of trauma or disease (Stewart 1976).
However out of a sample of 105 females, not one showed signs of ankylosis (although some
showed signs of arthritic or inflammatory changes).
Ankylosing spondylitis of the sacroiliac joint was examined by Stewart (1976) in various
populations, including American whites and blacks, and the Bantu of South Africa. His findings

10

suggested that ankylosis progressed fairly regularly with age, and occurred more commonly on
the right side, and intensified in the fifth decade. Statistically, almost 90% of cases were male,
and ankylosing was found most frequently in Black Americans, followed by Bantu, then White
Americans (Stewart 1976). More recent studies have confirmed that the tighter post auricular
space between the sacrum and ilium in males probably predisposes them to ankylosis (Iscan and
Derrick 1984).
Distinctive differences in the auricular surface have been observed by examining the
thickness of the cartilage that covers the opposing sacral and iliac surfaces (Schunke 1938).
Schunke (1938) suggested that the sacral cartilage was primarily hyaline with surface cells
arranged in compact, parallel layers, while the cartilage on the iliac portion of the joint was
primarily fibrous with occasional portions of hyaline cartilage, and that after the third decade the
surfaces of the joint became roughened, furred, and frayed (Schunke 1938). These changes to
the auricular surface are attributed to the age related increase in the proportion of fibrocartilage
in the joint (Sashin 1930) rather than as a result of the more typical process of degeneration seen
in other movable joints with synovial cavities (Schunke 1938, Meindl and Lovejoy 1985).
Age progression in the sacroiliac joint was first pointed out by Brooke (1924) and Sashin
(1930) who noticed regular changes in the sacroiliac joint with increasing age. Then almost 50
years later Lovejoy et al. (1985) introduced a new method for the determination of adult skeletal
age at death based upon chronological changes in the auricular surface of the ilium.
Lovejoy et al. (1985) developed a method that estimated age-at-death by examining
morphological features of the auricular surface. This method was developed under the
assumption that the surface morphology of the auricular surface will undergo regular changes

11

that result from age progression. However, these changes are more difficult to interpret than
those used in pubic symphyseal aging (Lovejoy et al. 1985).
The use of the auricular surface has two advantages over pubic symphyseal aging. The
survival rate of this region is higher than the pubic symphysis in archaeological populations and
qualitative changes in the auricular surface extend well beyond the age of 50, while they
generally do not in the pubic symphysis (Lovejoy et al. 1985).
The study was based on 250 well-preserved auricular surfaces from the Libben
prehistoric collection housed at Kent State University. The authors established that auricular
surface morphology changed with age based on the previous studies of Brooke (1924), Sashin
(1930), and Schunke (1938), which determined degenerative changes in the cartilage of the joint.
From this Lovejoy et al. (1985) determined that these degenerative changes in the joint would
lead to surface changes on the bone as age progresses. Terminology for the description of
surface features was developed by the authors in order to describe these changes. Feature
descriptions are described by billowing, striations, granulation, density, and porosity. From
these feature descriptions based on their study they were able to define eight stages of
morphological changes, which were divided into five and ten year increments, with an age range
spanning 20-60+ years.
In addition to Lovejoy et al. (1985) study other studies have been conducted to test the
accuracy of the auricular surface aging technique. Murray and Murray (1991) undertook a case
by case blind study to examine the use of the auricular surface technique as a single aging factor
and to determine if this technique is equally applicable across race and sex. This study was
tested using a sample of 189 individuals from the Terry Collection, housed at the Smithsonian
Institution. It was concluded that degenerative change does not appear to correlate with race nor

12

sex. The authors did find that the auricular surface technique exhibited a tendency to
overestimate younger individuals and underestimate older individuals (Murray and Murray
1991), thus making this technique less reliable as a single indicator of age.
Igarashi et al. (2002) wanted to revise Lovejoy et al. (1985) study in three ways. First the
authors wanted to identify morphological features by using reference samples. Second they
wanted to link morphological features to chronological age by using reference samples. Third,
they wanted to estimate age of individuals from a target sample. In order to accomplish this
study a total of 13 features of the auricular surface were identified and marked as either present
or absent on a sample of 700 modern Japanese skeletal remains, 438 males and 262 females
(Igarashi et al. 2002).
A revised method was proposed that identified the features typical of younger and older
individuals concluding that Igarashi et al. (2002) age ranges are more effective than other aging
methods. In addition they found that there were not significant differences between the left and
right side of both males and females. They were able to determine statistically, the frequency of
features, based on the absence or presence of nine 9 for a male and 7 for a female, then to
identify modal appearances for each characteristic for older and younger age groups. The
provided scatterplots demonstrate that in both male and female samples, ages of older individuals
were underestimated (Igarashi et al. 2002).
Problems with Lovejoy et al. (1985) age phases are also addressed by Buckberry and
Chamberlain (2002). The separate features of the auricular surface described by Lovejoy et al.
(1985) such as porosity, surface texture, and marginal changes, appear to develop independently
of each other. The age of onset for each stage of different features of the auricular surface
appears to vary, and as a consequence the 5 year age categories of Lovejoy et al. (1985) tend to

13

overlap. Since the age ranges developed by Lovejoy et al. (1985) have overlapping
characteristics of features, it can be difficult to use the method provided by Lovejoy et al. (1985).
The Lovejoy et al. (1985) method can lead to uncertainty and in some cases confusion when
assigning individual auricular surfaces to a particular age stage (Buckberry and Chamberlain
2002). The authors suggested that this issue can be resolved by applying a qualitative scoring
system. This would allow different features of the auricular surface to be examined
independently (Buckberry and Chamberlain 2002). Thereby making this method easier to apply
and also accommodate for the overlap often seen between different stages.
The new method records age-related stages for different features of the auricular surface,
which are then combined to provide a composite score from which an estimate of age at death is
obtained (Buckberry and Chamberlain 2002). Blind tests were conducted on known age skeletal
collections from Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, with statistical tests showing that the age
related changes were not significantly different for males and females. The scores from the
revised method also showed a slightly higher correlation with age than the Suchey-Brooks public
symphysis stages (Buckberry and Chamberlain 2002).
Testing the revised method by Buckberry and Chamberlain (2002) Mulhern and Jones
(2004) examined 309 individuals from the Terry and Huntington Collection. The authors also
used the original method by Lovejoy et al. (1985). While they demonstrated that the revised
method is equally applicable to males and females as well as blacks and whites. They also
concluded that the revised method is less accurate than the original method for individuals
between 20-49 years of age, but more accurate for individuals between 50-69 years of age.
Although the revised method provides a way to age individuals over 60 years, it has greater

14

inaccuracy than in younger ages, which indicated that it should not be used as a single indicator
of age at death in older adults (Mulhern and Jones 2004).
Buckberry and Chamberlains (2002) study was revisited again by Flays, Schutkowski,
and Weston (2006). When documenting a skeletal collection, which spanned from the late 17th to
early 19th century, they suggested that the composite scores of trait expressions as expressed on
the auricular surface correlate, at least in general with age, and show a positive association with
known chronological age. Yet, their conclusions show that when composite scores were
combined to define auricular surface phases, which ultimately assign age estimations, only three
distinct developmental stages, compared with seven suggested by Buckberry and Chamberlain
(2002) could be identified and statistically supported, showing a considerable degree of
individual variation in age (Flays et al. 2006).
Finally, Osborne et al. (2004) reconsiders the auricular surface as an indicator of age at
death and proposes that because of the similarities in the eight phase age system proposed by
Lovejoy et al. (1985) a modified six phase age system would be more accurate for determining
age estimation from the auricular surface.
In their study, the authors provide a more realistic view of the variation associated with
auricular surface morphology and age. Based on examination of 266 individuals of documented
age, sex, and ancestry from the Terry and Bass donated collections (Osborne et al. 2004), each
individual was scored using the standards established by Lovejoy et al. (1985) and it was found
that ancestry and sex had no significant effect on the auricular surface age expression. In order
to assess the variation in age per phase, standard descriptive statistics and error ranges were
calculated, and because the mean ages of some of the eight phases did not differ significantly

15

from one another a six phase age system was presented by the authors, which refined auricular
surface phase descriptions (Osborne et al. 2004).

16

CHAPTER TWO
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Introduction
This study documents the application of the auricular surface technique of age estimation
using eight measurements, two on the os coxa and six to determine if size and shape vary
between the left and right auricular surface. Eight morphological characteristics derived from
Lovejoy et al. (1985) study was adapted into a qualitative scoring system in order to determine if
auricular surface features can be independently used to revise a method of age estimation from
the auricular surface.

Materials
Two samples were used in this research, a cadaver collection housed at Wichita State
University Biological Anthropology Laboratory (WSU-BAL) and the Hamann-Todd Collection
housed at the Natural History Museum in Cleveland, Ohio. The protocol for this method was
designed and tested using the Moore-Jansen Cadaver Collection and the resulting protocol was
then used to collect data on specimens from the Hamann-Todd Collection. The Hamann-Todd
Collection was chosen as a resource due to its state of completeness and accessibility. Results
presented are based on data collection from the Hamann-Todd Collection sample of 102 Black
females.
Hamann-Todd Collection
The Hamann-Todd collection was first assembled by the anatomy professor, Dr. Carl
Hamann in 1893 (Cobb 1981). The collection consists of donated dissecting room cadavers that
were collected from individuals born in United States, primarily from the lower socio-economic
17

strata of ethnically White and Black Americans (Todd and Lindala 1928). In 1912 T. Wingate
Todd, followed Dr. Carl Hamann as the Dean of Medicine at the School of Medicine of Western
Reserve (Case Western Reserve University 2009). Specimens for the Hamann-Todd collection
were collected until 1938. Today the collection is housed at the Museum of Natural History in
Cleveland, Ohio and consists of 3,100 modern humans. It is the largest, modern, documented
human skeletal collection in the world. Each cadaver has extensive documentation, which
includes height, weight, age at death, sex, group affiliation, and cause of death, making it one of
the most researched and published collections (Cleveland Museum of Natural History 2009).
Only individuals with a documented age at the time of death were used. This included a
total of 102 Black females. The right and left os coxa of each individual was examined, making
the total sample number 204. This sample represents individuals ranging in age from 20 to 87
(Table 1). The age range was chosen to ensure fully mature specimens and each individual was
selected to include a fairly even distribution of specimens that represented each age range,
represented by Lovejoy et al. (1985).

Table.1 Sample Distribution by Age from the Hamann-Todd Collection


Ages
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-59
Left
12
14
11
17
11
10
13

60+
14

Right

12

15

11

17

11

10

12

14

Total

24

29

22

34

22

20

25

28

Measurements and surface features were recorded without the knowledge of the
individuals true age. The left and right surfaces were scored independently using the standards
set forth by Lovejoy et al. (1985) and adapted to the qualitative scoring system developed at
Wichita State Biological Anthropology Laboratory.
18

Recording Data
A data collection form was then created on excel, which consisted of recording spaces for
eight metric and nine non-metric observations as well as demographic information, and any other
applicable information. Data from the Hamann-Todd Collection was entered into the excel data
sheet at the time of collection.

Methods
Measurements were chosen which would best define the shape and size of the auricular
surface. These include measurements that typically characterize size and shape such as breadth
and height. Standard measurements of the os coxa were also included. These include two
measurements that were defined by Moore-Jansen et al. (1994). The other six non-traditional
measurements were developed by the author and Dr. Moore-Jansen. These include the
maximum height and breadth of the auricular surface, along with an inferior and superior
auricular surface breadth and length. All measurements used are listed in Table 2 and are
detailed in Appendix A1-A6. Measurements of the auricular surface were taken with sliding
calipers and were recorded to the nearest millimeter. The two measurements of the os coxa were
taken using spreading calipers and were recorded to the nearest millimeter.
Measurements were chosen in order to quantify the size and shape of the auricular
surface to determine if it is possible to identify changes in size and shape with age. It is expected
that the auricular surface will erode with age and thus get smaller. These measurements were
also selected in order to determine if there are any signs of asymmetry between the left and right
auricular surface.

19

Table 2. Auricular Surface Measurements


Measurement Abbreviation
Description of the Measurement
MXBR

Maximum breadth of the os coxa is the distance from the


anterior superior iliac spine to the posterior superior iliac spine.

MXHT

Maximum height of the os coxa is the distance from the most


superior point of the iliac crest to the most inferior point on the
ischial tuberosity.

MXHTAS

Maximum height of the auricular surface taken from the most


superior to the most inferior border of the auricular surface.

MXBRAS

Maximum breadth of the auricular surface is the distance from


the most anterior superior point to the most inferior point on
the auricular surface.

IFASBR

Inferior auricular surface breadth is the minimum width of the


auricular surface between points on the anterior and posterior
border of the auricular surface.

SPASBR

Superior auricular surface breadth is the maximum width of


the auricular surface between points on the superior and inferior
border of the auricular surface.

IFASLT

Inferior auricular surface length is the minimum width of the


auricular surface between the apex and the posterior border of
the auricular surface.

SPASLT

Superior auricular surface length is the maximum width of the


auricular surface between the apex and the posterior border of
the auricular surface.

Non-metric Observations
Additionally nine non-metric observations were selected to be recorded on each
specimen. Visual assessments were made by examining the different features which Lovejoy et
20

al. (1985) defined. For this study the terminology was based on Lovejoy et al. (1985) study.
These eight morphological characteristics and features defined by Lovejoy et al. (1985) include
billowing, striae, granularity (fine and coarse), densification, porosity (micro and macro),
subchondral destruction, the apex, and the retro auricular region and are defined as follows.
Billowing refers to a series of transverse ridges that tend to cover the entire surface in
younger individuals while slowly disappearing in older individuals. Striae appear after billowing
and are the remnants of the ridges once associated with billowing. Striae differ from billows only
in degree, billows become striae with age. An example of billows and striations is shown in
Figure 2.
Granularity refers to the gross appearance of the surface. Granulation becomes coarser
with increasing age. Fine granulation is an indicator of youth, and is usually associated with
billows and striae. An example of fine granulation is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 2. Billows and Striae

Figure 3. Fine Granulation

(Hamann-Todd Specimen 1969)

(Hamann-Todd Specimen 2252)

21

The general sequence, then, is from a fine to coarse condition, with eventual loss to
densification. Coarse granulation can be seen in Figure 4. Densification is another surface
feature, which refers only to the surface appearance and not to the actual amount of bone present.
Dense bone replaces coarse granularity with smooth compact bone.
Porosity is perforations of subchondral bone. Fine porosity is optically visible
perforations also defined as microporosity. An auricular surface displaying microporosity is
shown in Figure 4. Macroporosity is defined as less regular, large, generally oval perforations
ranging from 1 to 10mm in diameter. Subchondral destruction refers to surfaces that are
typically porous and irregular, and is displayed in Figure 5.

Figure 4. Coarse granulation and Microporosity

Figure 5. Subchondral Destruction

(Hamann-Todd Specimen 2127)

(Hamann-Todd Specimen 2278)

The apex is the portion of the auricular surface that meets with the posterior extension of
the arcuate line. The retro-auricular region refers to the area directly posterior to the auricular
surface extending to the posterior inferior iliac crest as shown in Figure 6.
22

Figure 6. Apex and Retro-auricular region (Lovejoy et al. 1985).

In the presented study each feature of the auricular surface was examined independently
and was examined using a revised new qualitative scoring system, which was developed by the
author and Dr. Moore-Jansen, in order to examine the morphological changes on the auricular
surface. The revised system uses a scoring system of 0-3, which ranges from absent, minor,
moderate, and majorly present. The absence, less than 1% of a feature will be scored as a 0.
Minor will be scored as a 1 and represent that 1-25% of the surface is occupied by a particular
feature. Moderate will be scored as a 2 and signify that 25-50% of the surface is occupied by
this feature. The score of a 3 will be given to any feature that is represented as occupying over
50% of the auricular surface.
The only exception to this previous scoring system will be for apical changes. Here the
author will use the scoring system devised by Buckberry and Chamberlain (2002). With 1
representing a sharp and distinct apex with the auricular surface possibly being slightly raised
relative to adjacent bone surface. A score of 2 indicates that some lipping is present at the
23

apex, but the shape of the articular margin is still distinct and smooth. Meaning the shape of the
outline at the surface of the apex is a continuous arc. The score of 3 represents irregularity
occurring in contours of the articular surface, suggesting the shape of the apex is no longer a
smooth arc.
Lovejoy et al. (1985) used these features to develop eight phases that represent age
ranges from age 20 to 60 plus, which portray chronological changes. A summary of each phase
is as listed in Table 3.

Table 3. Summary of Eight Age Phases (Lovejoy et al. 1985)


Age 20-24
PHASE I- Surfaces are fine grained with marked transverse organization and pronounced
billowing. Neither retro-auricular nor apical activity is present, nor is there evidence of
macroporosity. Should any subchondral defects be present they will appear smooth-edged.
Age 25-29
PHASE II- There is slight loss of billowing that is replaced by striae, marked transverse
organization and granularity that is only slightly coarser than in Phase I. There is no evidence of
macroporosity, apical or retro-auricular activity.
Age 30-34
PHASE III-Reduction of billowing, which are replaced by striae and the loss of transverse
organization. The surface exhibits coarser granulation and has no changes at the apex, but has
the possibility of slight retro-auricular activity.
Age 35-39
PHASE IV- Exhibits uniform coarse granularity, poorly defined transverse organization and the
reduction of striae. There may also be slight retro-auricular activity and minimal apical change.
Age 40-44
PHASE V- There is loss of transverse organization, vague striae, coarse granularity and some
densification. Retro-auricular activity is slight to moderate, apical change is slight and
macroporosity may be present.

24

Table 3. Summary of Eight Age Phases (Lovejoy et al. 1985) (continued)


Age 45-49
PHASE VI- Displays continued replacement to coarse granularity with dense bone, and the loss
of transverse organization and striae. Moderate retro-auricular activity, apical change with
irregular margins and macroporosity may also be present.
Age 50-59
PHASE VII- Typically includes surface irregularity, densification, and moderate to severe retroauricular activity, apical change with irregular margins and macroporosity.
Age 60+
Phase VIII-Features include irregular surface, densification with subchondral destruction, severe
retro-auricular activity, and apical change with marginal lipping, as well as the presence of
osteophytes and macroporosity.

Each feature was examined independently using the scoring system mentioned above to
determine if the absence or degree of presence of each feature could differentiate when these
morphological features begin to disappear or increase in relation to age. From this a revised age
phase system will be developed.

Data Analysis
The data collected was entered into an Excel spreadsheet. Data was then interpreted
using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Summary statistics were calculated for the
auricular surface measurements this includes the mean and standard deviation for measurements
in each age group. In addition to the summary statistics an independent t-test was performed on
the data collected from the auricular surface measurements to determine difference of means for
each measurement on the left and right auricular surface. An independent t-test was also

25

conducted on the measurements between the youngest and oldest age groups to observe any
differences in size that may be a result of age.
Frequency analyses were calculated on the qualitative scores collected from the
morphological features. In order to test the significance of these scores chi-square analyses were
performed, which examined each feature in relation to age. The age ranges presented by
Lovejoy et al. (1985) are the same age phases used in the results section, which were used to
analyze both the qualitative and quantitative data.

26

CHAPTER THREE
RESULTS
Summary Statistics
An analysis of summary statistics for the measurements taken on the os coxa and the
auricular surface are provided in the tables below. These tables simply summarize the
observations of the eight measurements that were recorded on the os coxa and the auricular
surface. The eight measurements consist of two measurements on the os coxa and six on the
auricular surface. The maximum breadth and maximum height of the os coxa were observed
along with the maximum height, and maximum breadth of the auricular surface. Other
measurements include an inferior and superior auricular surface breadth, with an inferior and
superior auricular surface length; all measurements were recorded to the nearest millimeter. The
mean and standard deviation for each measurement is presented for eight age ranges. Table 4
examines the age group 20-24, which has a mean age of 23.

Table 4. Means and Standard Deviations Age 20-24 (n=12; Mean age= 23, SD 1)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
146 10 189
9
45
4
51
7
14
3
17
4
24
5
33
4
R
148 10 190
8
45
5
51
6
14
3
17
3
24
4
33
5

Observations in Table 4 show that the same mean is recorded for all measurements
except two, which are the maximum breadth and height of the os coxa. The maximum breadth
of the os coxa (MXBR) for the left is 146mm and the right is 148mm, both with a standard
deviation of 10. The maximum height of the os coxa (MXHT) has a mean of 189mm for the left
and the right is 190mm. Standard deviations are same for the maximum breadth of the os coxa
(MXBR) and the inferior auricular surface breadth (IFASBR), but vary by one standard deviation
27

between the left and right for all other measurements. Means and standard deviations vary
slightly for all measurements between the ages 25-29 for both the left and right, which is shown
in Table 5.
Table 5. Means and Standard Deviations Age 25-29 (Left n=14; Age 27, SD 2/ Right n=13; Age 27, SD 1)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
148
9
194
11
45
4
51
5
16
3
17
2
24
4
34
4
R
152
9
196
10
46
4
52
4
16
3
19
2
25
3
34
3

Means and standard deviations are the same for the inferior auricular surface breadth
(IFASBR), although it has increased by 2mm from the previous age range. The superior
auricular surface length (SPASLT) is also the same for the left and right and has a mean of
34mm with a difference of one standard deviation between the left and right (Table 5).
Observations for the means and standard deviation for the ages 30-34 are observed in Table 6.

Table 6. Means and Standard Deviations Age 30-34 (n=11; Mean age=32, SD 2)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
148
8
192
9
47
2
51
4
14
3
19
3
27
4
34
4
R
147
8
191
8
45
3
50
5
15
2
18
3
27
4
35
3

The inferior auricular surface length (IFASLT) had a mean of 27mm for the left and right
auricular surface. All other measurements vary by at least one or two millimeters for the ages of
30-34, which has a mean age of 32 (Table 6). The age range of 35-39, exhibits little difference
between means and standard deviations for the left and right auricular surface (Table 7).

Table 7. Means and Standard Deviations Age 35-39 (n=17; Mean age=37, SD 2)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
146
6
191
5
44
5
51
5
15
3
18
3
24
3
34
4
R
146
6
191
6
44
5
50
6
16
3
18
3
25
4
34
6

Measurements with the same means and standard deviations are the maximum breadth of
the os coxa (MXBR) maximum height of the auricular surface (MXHTAS), and the superior
28

auricular surface breadth (SPASBR). Measurements with the same mean only are the maximum
height of the os coxa (MXHT), which varies by a difference of one standard deviation between
the left and right, and the superior auricular surface length (SPASLT), which differs between 2
standard deviations from the left and right auricular surface (Table 7).

Table 8 below examines

the age range of 40-44, which has a mean age of 41, with a standard deviation of 2.

Table 8. Means and Standard Deviations Age 40-44 (n=11; Mean age=41, SD 2)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
147
9
193
8
44
5
52
6
14
3
19
3
24
6
33
4
R
147
8
192
7
45
2
53
6
16
3
18
3
24
5
34
4

Measurements in Table 8 are similar for both the left and right auricular surface, but only
two measurements have the same mean, which are the maximum breadth of the os coxa at
147mm and the inferior auricular surface length at 24 mm. In Table 9 the mean age observed is
46 for the age range of 45-49.

Table 9. Means and Standard Deviations Age 45-49(n=10, Mean age=46, SD 2)


Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
153
9
196
14
46
4
54
2
16
5
19
6
24
6
34
5
R
154
9
196
13
46
5
54
3
17
4
20
4
26
5
35
4

Standard deviations for the ages 45-49 all differ by one standard deviation in regards to
the left and right, with the exception of the maximum breadth of the os coxa (MXBR) which has
a standard deviation of 9 for both the left and the right. Three measurements the maximum
auricular surface height (MXHTAS), breadth (MXBRAS), and the maximum height of the os
coxa (MXHT) all have the same mean for the left and right (Table 9). The age range of 50-59
had a different sample size for the left and the right, which is shown in Table 10.

29

Table 10. Means and Standard Deviations Age 50-59 (Left n=14; Age 52, SD 2/ Right n=12; Age 53, SD 2)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
149
8
192
9
47
5
53
5
16
3
20
5
28
4
28
3
R
152
8
194
10
46
5
53
5
15
3
21
5
28
5
35
2

Results show that the superior auricular surface length (SPASLT) differs by a mean of
7mm from the left and right, besides this measurement there is little variation between the left
and right means and standard deviations which occur at ages 50-59 (Table 10). Means and
standard deviations for specimens ages 60+ are similar to the previous age range of 50-59 (Table
11).

Table 11. Means and Standard Deviations Age 60+ (n=14; Mean Age 68, SD 7)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
153
9
193
9
48
5
54
6
16
3
19
3
28
4
28
4
R
153
8
194
10
48
6
54
6
17
3
18
3
28
4
35
3

The inferior auricular surface length mean is the same at 28mm for both the left and right
and all other measurements show little variation between the left and right, with the exception of
one. The superior auricular surface length differs by a mean of 7mm between the left and right
(Table 11). Table 12 is a summary table which examines the differences between the left and
right auricular surface for the total sample.

Table 12. Means and Standard Deviations from All Age Groups (n=102; mean age=41, SD 15)
Side MXBR SD MXHT SD MXHTASSD MXBRAS SD IFASBR SD SPASBR SD IFASLT SD SPASLT SD
L
149 9
193 9
46
5
52
5
15
3
18
4
25
5
34
4
R
150 8
193 9
46
4
52
5
16
3
19
4
26
4
34
4

Results for auricular surface measurements show that they are extremely variable
between the different age groups and Tables 4-11 show that the standard deviations are high
between individual measurements. Yet the means within each age group only show slight
30

differences, as shown in Table 12, which demonstrates consistency between the left and right. In
order to confirm these results though a t-test must be performed. A t-test on the left and right
will determine if these differences are significant. Another t-test will also be conducted
comparing the age groups to determine if there are significant changes in size and shape of the
auricular surface in correlation with age. Original data collected for each individual on the left
and right auricular surface can be found in Appendix B, Appendix C, and Appendix D.

Analysis of Frequencies
A frequency distribution table for the morphological features of the auricular surface was
organized to show the number of individuals associated with each score that was observed. This
was done for both the left and right auricular surface as shown in Table 13 through Table 21 .
Table 13 shows frequencies and percentages for the left and right auricular surface for
the feature billows collected from the Hamann-Todd collection. Results of billows and striae in
correlation with age in decade and percent displayed of each trait are listed in Figure 7 for the
left auricular surface.
Table 13. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Billows

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
3
25
8
67
1
8
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
9
64
5
36
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
9
82
2
18
0
0
0
0

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
7
58
5
42
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
5
33
9
60
1
7
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
9
82
2
18
0
0
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
17 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
11 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
Totals (n=102)
14 100
86
0
0
15
0
0
1
0
0
0
102
Age 35-39 Age 40-44 Age 45-49 Age 50-59 Age 60+
(n=17)
(n=11)
(n=10)
(n=12)
(n=14)
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
Totals (n=102)
16 94
11 100 10 100 12 100
14 100
84
1
6
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
17
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
102

31

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
10 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
13 100
0 0
0 0
0 0

The left auricular surface indicates that the highest percentage for the presence of billows
is in the age range 20-24, which has a percentage of 67%. After the age of 34 the feature billows
is absent. The right auricular surface indicates that the feature billows has the highest percentage
between the ages 25-29 where 60% of billows present are minor. Billows on the left and right
auricular surface decrease with age and decrease considerably after the age of 34 and are absent
on both after the age of 40. Figure 7 illustrates a decrease in billows and striae as age increases.
Striation results for frequencies and percentages collected on the left and right auricular surface
are located in Table 14.

100
90
80
70
60
% 50
40
30
20
10
0

billows
striae

20

30

40
50
Age inYears

60

Figure7. Billowing and Striae for Left Auricular Surface

32

Table 14. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Striae

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
0
0
5
42
6
50
1
8

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
3
21
4
29
5
36
2
14

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
4
36.5
4
36.5
3
27
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
9
53
7
41
1
6
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
8
73
2
18
1
9
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
6
60
4
40
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
10 77
3 23
0 0
0 0

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
Totals (n=102)
14 100
54
0
0
29
0
0
16
0
0
3
102

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
3
25
5
42
3
25
1
8

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
3
20
8
53
1
7
3
20

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
5
45.5
5
45.5
0
0
1
9

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
8
47
8
47
1
6
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
7
64
4
36
0
0
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
5
50
4
40
1
10
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
10 83
2 17
0 0
0 0

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
12 86
2
14
0
0
0
0

Totals (n=102)
53
38
6
5
102

Striae can also be seen to decrease with age but is more prevalent in all ages with the
exception of 60+. Table 14 shows that for the left auricular surface striae were only absent from
the age range of 60 and over, but had more than 50% present ranging from minor to majorly
present between the ages of 20-34. After the age 34 there is a decrease from moderate and major
to only minor present, which continues as age increases to the age of 50-60+ to the absence of
striae. The right auricular surface for striae exhibits that it is present in all of the age ranges but
decreases to less than 50% present, and from moderate to minor present after the age of 40.
Fine granulation is exhibited in Table 15, which shows the left and right auricular surface
frequencies and percentages. The left auricular surface shows that the percentage of fine
granulation seemed to decrease as age increased, but it was only absent after the age of 50.
Figure 8 shows fine, coarse granulation, and dense bone in correlation with age for the left
auricular surface.

33

Table 15. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Fine Granulation

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
1
8
3
25
4
33.5
4
33.5

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
3
21
5
36
5
36
1
7

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
4
36
5
46
2
18
0
0

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
3
25
3
25
2
17
4
33

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
1
7
8
53
5
33
1
7

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
6
55
2
18
2
18
1
9

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
12 71
2
11.5
2
11.5
1
6

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
9
82
1
9
1
9
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
7
70
1
10
0
0
2
20

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
Totals (n=102)
14 100
63
0
0
17
0
0
14
0
0
8
102
Age 35-39 Age 40-44 Age 45-49 Age 50-59 Age 60+
(n=17)
(n=11)
(n=10)
(n=12)
(n=14)
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
(n) %
Totals (n=102)
8
47
9
82
7
70
11 92
13 93
58
4
23.5 0
0
1
10
1 8
0
0
19
4
23.5 2
18
0
0
0 0
1
7
16
1
6
0
0
2
20
0 0
0
0
9
102

100
90
80
70
60
% 50
40
30
20
10
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
13 100
0 0
0 0
0 0

fine grain

coarse grain
dense

20

30

40
50
Age in Years

60

Figure 8. Fine grain, Coarse grain, and Dense bone for the Left Auricular Surface
Fine granulation appears to decrease as age increases and is replaced with coarse grain,
which takes over faster than fine grain disappears. Frequencies and percentages for coarse
granulation are shown in Table 16.

34

Table 16. Frequencies and Percentages for the Feature Coarse Granulation

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
7
59
4
33
1
8
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
2
14.5
3
21
7
50
2
14.5

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
1
9
3
27
2
18
5
46

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
1
6
5
29
4
24
7
41

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
0
0
0
0
3
27
8
73

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
1
10
2
20
1
10
6
60

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
1 8
2 15
6 46
4 31

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
2
14
5
36
3
21
4
29

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
6
50
4
33
2
17
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
4
27
5
33
5
33
1
7

Age 30-34
(n=12)
(n) %
2
18
2
18
2
18
5
46

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
1
6
5
29
4
24
7
41

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
0
0
0
0
5
45.5
6
54.5

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
1
10
2
20
3
30
4
40

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
0 0
4 33
3 25
5 42

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
0
0
7
50
2
14
5
36

Totals (n=102)
15
24
27
36
102

Totals (n=102)
14
29
26
33
102

The left auricular surface appears to have coarse granulation present in all age ranges but
has the strongest percentage in individuals aged 40-44, where 73% of fine granulation was
majorly present on the auricular surface. Both the left and right show a decrease from minor
present to an increase in moderate to major present after the age of 40. Figure 8 confirms that
dense bone increases as age increases. Frequency and percentage results for the feature dense
bone are shown in Table 17 for the left and right auricular surface.
Table 17. Frequencies and Percentages for Dense Bone

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
12 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
14 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
8
73
2
18
0
0
1
9

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
11 65
6
35
0
0
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
8
73
2
18
1
9
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
6
60
2
20
2
20
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
5 38.5
5 38.5
1 8
2 15

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
1
7
8
57
3
22
2
14

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
11 92
1
8
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
15 100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=12)
(n) %
7
64
3
27
0
0
1
9

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
13 76
3
18
1
6
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
5
46
4
36
2
18
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
6
60
1
10
3
30
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
5 42
3 25
2 16.5
2 16.5

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
2
14
6
43
3
22
3
22

35

Totals (n=102)
65
25
7
5
102

Totals (n=102)
64
21
11
6
102

Dense bone does not appear to be present on the left auricular surface until the age range
30-34, where it is minor. The feature then appears to increase from minor to major as age
increases. The right auricular surface shows it increasing from minor to moderate after age 40
and from moderate to major after age 50.
Table 18 shows frequencies and percentages for the left and right auricular surface for the
feature microporosity that was collected from the Hamann-Todd collection. Porosity results in
correlation with age in decade are illustrated in Figure 9 for the left auricular surface.
Table 18. Frequencies and Percentages for Microporosity

LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
7
58
5
42
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
8
57
6
43
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
4
36
6
55
0
0
1
9

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
4
23
10 59
2
12
1
6

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
7
64
4
36
0
0
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
5
50
5
50
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
6 46
5 39
2 15
0 0

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
8
57
5
36
1
7
0
0

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
7
58
5
42
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
10 67
5
33
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
6
55
4
36
1
9
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
7
41
9
53
0
0
1
6

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
4
36
7
64
0
0
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
6
60
4
40
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
2 17
10 83
0 0
0 0

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
5
36
7
50
2
14
0
0

36

Totals (n=102)
49
46
5
2
102

Totals (n=102)
47
51
3
1
102

90
80
70
60
%

50
micro

40

macro

30
20
10
0
20

30

40

50

60

Age in Years

Figure 9. Porosity for the Left Auricular Surface


The left auricular surface has the highest presence of microporosity between ages 35-39.
The right auricular surface has the highest percentage of microporosity between the ages of 5059 with 83% as minor present. There appears to be no trend in microporosity, although Figure 9
shows that macroporosity has a steady trend of increasing with age. Table 19 exhibits results for
macroporosity from left and right auricular surfaces.
Table 19. Frequencies and Percentages for Macroporosity
LEFT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
9
75
2
17
1
8
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
13 93
1
7
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
9
82
2
18
0
0
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
13 76
3
18
1
6
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
7
64
3
27
1
9
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
8
80
2
20
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
7 54
4 31
1 7.5
1 7.5

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
3
22
6
43
3
22
2
14

RIGHT
Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 30-24
(n=12)
(n) %
10 83
2
17
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
14 93
1
7
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
9
82
2
18
0
0
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
12 71
5
29
0
0
0
0

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
6
54.5
5
45.5
0
0
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
6
60
3
30
1
10
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
5 41.5
5 41.5
1 8.5
1 8.5

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
4
29
8
57
1
7
1
7

37

Totals (n=102)
69
23
7
3
102

Totals (n=102)
66
31
3
2
102

The highest percentage of macroporosity present is from age 60 and over where at least a
total of 80% of individuals exhibit this feature. A distinct trend does not exist for either the left
or right auricular surface, but shows that macroporosity becomes more prominent after the age
50.
Results of frequencies and percentages for apical changes for the left and right auricular
surfaces are shown in Table 20. Apical changes with correlation to age are illustrated in Figure
10, which indicates that there is a distinct trend showing that from the age of 30+ there is a
decrease in a distinct apical border, with an increase in lipping. After the age of 20 there is a
steady increase in some lipping at the apex. Age 40 is the peak age at which some lipping
occurs, but there remains a steady trend in some lipping to the age of 60+.
Table. 20 Frequencies and Percentages for Apical changes
Age 20-24
(n=12)
Score
(n)
%
(1) distinct
10
83
17
(2) some lipping 2
(3) major changes 0
0

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n)
%
11
79
3
21
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
3
27
8
73
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
4
23
10
59
3
18

Age 40-44
(n=12)
(n) %
2
18
7
64
2
18

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
1
10
8
80
1
10

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
1
8
7
54
5
38

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
0
0
6
43
8
57

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n)
%
10
83
1
8.5
1
8.5

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n)
%
12
80
3
20
0
0

Age 30-34
(n=11)
(n) %
2
18
9
82
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
3
17.5
11
65
3
17.5

Age 40-44
(n=12)
(n) %
1
9
6
55
4
36

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
1
10
7
70
2
20

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
0
0
7
58
5
42

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
0
0
8
57
6
43

LEFT

RIGHT
Score
(1) distinct
(2) some lipping
(3) major changes

38

Totals (n=102)
32
51
19
102

Totals (n=102)
29
52
21
102

90
80
70
60

distinct

% 50
40

some lipping

30

major lipping or
irregular border

20
10
0
20

30

40

50

60

Age in Years
Figure 10. Apical changes for the Left Auricular Surface

The left auricular surface shows that a distinct and sharp apex is present in about 80% of
individuals between the ages 20-29. From the age of 30 there is an increase in lipping at the
apex although the articular margin has a distinct shape. The right auricular surface shows that a
distinct and sharp apex is present in 75-87 % of individuals between the ages 20-29.
Table 21 has results of frequencies and percentages for the retro-auricular activity from
the left and right auricular surfaces. Figure 11 shows correlations of retro-auricular activity with
age.

39

Table 21. Frequencies and Percentages for Retro-auricular Activity

LEFT
Score
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
10 83
1
8.5
1
8.5

Age 25-29
(n=14)
(n) %
11 79
3
21
0
0

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
2
18
9
82
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
6
35
9
53
2
12

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
3
27
8
73
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
1
10
9
90
0
0

Age 50-59
(n=13)
(n) %
1
8
9
69
3
23

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
0
0
7
50
7
50

RIGHT
Score
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24
(n=12)
(n) %
9
75
3
25
0
0

Age 25-29
(n=15)
(n) %
13 87
2
13
0
0

Age 30-34
(n= 11)
(n) %
3
27
8
73
0
0

Age 35-39
(n=17)
(n) %
2
12
14 82
1
6

Age 40-44
(n=11)
(n) %
2
18
9
82
0
0

Age 45-49
(n=10)
(n) %
0
0
8
80
2
20

Age 50-59
(n=12)
(n) %
0
0
8
67
4
33

Age 60+
(n=14)
(n) %
0
0
7
50
7
50

Totals (n=102)
34
55
13
102

Totals (n=102)
29
59
14
102

90
80
70
60
%
%

50

minor

40

moderate

30

major

20
10
0
20

30

40
50
Age in Years

60

Figure 11. Retro-auricular activity for the Left Auricular Surface


Both the left and right auricular surfaces show that the retro-auricular area exhibits signs
of minor activity from the age of 20-29 and has an increase in moderate activity after the age of
30. Figure 11 demonstrates that minor activity decrease at age 30, while moderate activity
increases to the age of 40 and then decreases and major activity increase at the age of 40+.

40

Original data sheets for the frequency distributions are shown in Appendix E and Appendix F,
followed by the qualitative scores for all Hamann-Todd specimens in Appendix G and Appendix
H.
Chi-Square Tests for Age and Side
A chi-square contingency table was used to show if a relationship exists between each
feature in relation to age. Correlations were calculated separately for each feature, billows, striae,
fine and coarse grain, microporosity, macroporosity, dense bone, apical changes, and retroauricular activity across eight age phases 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-59, 60+.
Results are shown in Table 22 and Table 23.

Table 22. Chi-Square Data for the Left Auricular Surface


Feature
Chi-Square Value
df
Critical Chi-Square Probability
Billows
51.00
14
29.14
0.00 *
38.93
0.00 *
Striae
54.90
21
Fine
61.70
21
38.93
0.00 *
Coarse
44.20
21
38.93
0.00 *
Dense
48.30
21
38.93
0.00 *
Micro
18.50
21
38.93
0.62
Macro
28.20
21
38.93
0.13
Apical
59.40
14
29.14
0.00 *
62.40
14
29.14
0.00 *
Retro
* Statistically Significant compared with age if p <.05

The critical values for the associated degrees of freedom are listed in Table 22 and Table
23. If the chi-square value is less than the critical value this indicates that there is no association
between the features present and age. The purpose of the chi-square test is to determine whether
the observed frequencies differ from frequencies that could be expected by chance. Using the
chi-square statistic and its associated degrees of freedom, the probability was determined.
Probability reports that the difference between the observed and expected frequencies occurred
by chance. Results are significant if there is a probability of .05 or less.
41

Table 23. Chi-Square Data for the Right Auricular Surface


Feature
Chi-Square Value
df
Critical Chi-Square Probability
Billows
43.5
14
29.14
0.00 *
Striae
36.9
21
38.93
0.02 *
Fine
53.2
21
38.93
0.00 *
Coarse
39.5
21
38.93
0.01 *
Dense
44.1
21
38.93
0.00 *
Micro
24.8
21
38.93
0.26
Macro
27.4
21
38.93
0.16
Apical
62.2
14
29.14
0.00 *
Retro
75.7
14
29.14
0.00 *
* Statistically significant results compared with age for p <.05

Results for billows, striae, fine and coarse granulation, dense bone, apical changes, and
retro-auricular activity appear to show significant results for the left and right auricular surfaces.
Microporosity and macroporosity for the left and right auricular surfaces have p-values greater
than .05 thus neither form of porosity correlates significantly with age.
Since results for microporosity and macroporosity were not significant both were
combined in order to determine if porosity showed a trend with age. Table 24 shows the results
for porosity when it is compared to all age groups.
Table 24. Porosity
chi-square
df
probability
35.2
21
0.03
*
*Statistically significant if p<.05

When porosity is compared to all age ranges the results are significant since the
probability is less than .05.
A row by column contingency table was also done to determine if the there is a trend
between the outcome of absent and presence of a feature (billows, striae, fine, coarse, dense,
microporosity and macroporosity) were examined independently and compared to young, middle
42

to old, and young to old age, which is shown in Table 25. Apical changes and retro-auricular
activity were also compared to the same age groups by degree of activity present.
Table 25. Features from young, middle to old, and young to old age (df=1)
Age 20-24 to 35-39
Age 40-44 to 60+
Feature
chi-square
probability
chi-square
probability
Billows
18.50
0.00 *
n/a
n/a
Striae
9.21
0.00 *
4.34
0.04 *
Fine
11.00
0.00 *
2.77
0.09
Coarse
9.69
0.00 *
1.71
0.19
Dense
5.34
0.02 *
11.50
0.00 *
Micro
3.62
0.06
0.11
0.70
Macro
0.008
0.92
4.57
0.03 *
*Statistically significant results when compared to age if p<.05

Age 20-24 to 60+


chi-square
probability
16.10
0.00 *
26.00
0.00 *
22.00
0.00 *
5.54
0.00 *
22.30
0.00 *
0.003
0.95
7.46
0.01 *

Results showed a significant trend from young to old. The 20-24 to 60+ had significant
results from all features, with the exception of microporosity. The young age group from 20-24
when compared to age 35-39 also showed significant results for all features but one. This time
the exception was macroporosity. The middle to old age group of 40-44 to 60+ had the most
interesting results, with the features striae, dense, and macroporosity showing significant results,
whereas the features of granulation and microporosity exhibit a p-value greater than .05. Billows
for the middle to old age group could not be calculated in the chi-square since all billows are
absent after age 40 and the value for both outcomes of feature present and absent would be 0.
Features striae, dense, and macroporosity had significant results, but granulation and
microporosity did not show significant results for the middle to old age range.
Table 26 shows the chi-square value and probability for retro-auricular activity for the
same age groups.

43

Table 26. Retro-Auricular activity from young, middle to old, and young to old age
Age 20-24 to 35-39 Age 40-44 to 60+
Age 20-24 to 60+
chi-square
12.10
9.02
17.50
degrees of freedom
2.00
2.00
2.00
probability
0.00*
0.01*
0.00*
*Statistically signifcant if p<.05

Results for retro-auricular activity show that there is a trend between these specific age
groups.

The activity of this feature is significant not only from young to old, but more

specifically shows a trend from a young age as age increases. Table 27 shows results for apical
changes.

Table 27. Apical Changes from young, middle to old, and young to old age
Age 20-24 to 35-39 Age 40-44 to 60+
Age 20-24 to 60+
chi-square
12.60
1.35
19.00
degrees of freedom
2.00
2.00
2.00
probability
0.00*
0.51
0.00*
*Statistically signifcant if p<.05

Apical change had significant results in young individuals, and from young to old age.
The middle to old age range did not have significant results.

t-Test
In order to determine if there is a difference between the means for the os coxa and
auricular surface measurements a t-test was performed on the female means of all measurements
for both the left and right. The t-test compares the actual difference between the two means of
the left and right in relation to the variation in the data (expressed as the standard deviation of the
difference between the means).

44

Since the measurements of the left and right are being analyzed, a suitable null
hypothesis would be that there is no difference in the measurements between the left and right.
The t-test will determine if this data is consistent with this or if it departs significantly from this
expectation. If there is a difference in means than the results will show significant results with
the t-value being higher than the t critical value and having a probability of less than .05.
Results for the t-test are located in Table 28 in order to indicate if there is indeed a
difference between the means of the left and right os coxa and auricular surface measurements.
Table 28. T-Test Results for the Left and Right Auricular Surface
Code
MXBR
MXHT
MXBRAS
MXHTAS
IFASBR
SPASBR
IFASLT
SPASLT

Measurement
Left Mean
Maximum Breadth of Os Coxa
148.5
Maximum Height of OS Coxa
192.5
Maximum Breadth of Auricular Surface
45.6
Maximum Height of Auricular Surface
52.2
Inferior Auricular Surface Breadth
15.1
Superior Auricular Surface Breadth
18.3
Inferior Auricular Surface Length
25.3
Superior Auricular Surface Length
34.3

Right Mean Left Variance Right Variance t- value


149.4
75.4
73.1
-0.72
193
83.8
79.4
-0.38
45.8
21.2
19.5
-0.2
52.1
26.4
27.9
0.05
15.7
10.8
9.5
-1.36
18.5
13.5
12.3
-0.35
25.9
21
19.3
-0.97
34.4
16
16.2
-0.17

Probability t Critical
0.47
1.97
0.7
1.97
0.84
1.97
0.96
1.97
0.17
1.97
0.73
1.97
0.34
1.97
0.86
1.97

In this case the probability of the calculated t value is higher than .05 for all
measurements, so the means are not significantly different. There are no significant differences
between the left and the right measurements.
A t-test was also performed to see if a difference in means could be found between the
youngest age group and the oldest age group. Results for the t-test are shown in Table 29, which
indicate that only one measurement the inferior auricular surface length (IFASLT) had
significant results.

45

Table 29. T-Test Results for Age Group 20-24 and 60+
Age 20-24
Code
Measurement
Mean Variance
MXBR
Maximum Breadth of Os Coxa
146
102.5
MXHT
Maximum Height of OS Coxa
189.3
83.1
MXBRAS Maximum Breadth of Auricular Surface
45.3
18.4
MXHTAS Maximum Height of Auricular Surface
51.2
43.2
IFASBR Inferior Auricular Surface Breadth
14
10
SPASBR Superior Auricular Surface Breadth
17.3
11.7
IFASLT
Inferior Auricular Surface Length
23.5
23
SPASLT Superior Auricular Surface Length
32.5
15.9
* Statistically significant difference of means when compared to age if p<.05

46

Age 60+
Mean Variance t- value Probability t Critical
153
90.2
-1.8
0.08
2.06
193.1
86.4
-1.1
0.3
2.06
48.14
23.8
-1.5
0.1
2.06
53.9
33.6
-1.1
0.3
2.06
15.9
8.9
-1.5
0.1
2.06
18.5
9.2
-0.9
0.4
2.06
27.6
16.9
-2.3
0.03*
2.06
35
17.2
-1.5
0.1
2.06

CHAPTER FOUR
DISCUSSION
Introduction
In forensic anthropology it is essential to learn as much as possible from skeletal remains
so that identification of an individual may be obtained. This includes developing an accurate
biological profile, which includes group affiliation, sex, and age. When determining age at death
of an individual, it is crucial that age ranges are broad enough so that potential positive
identification is not excluded. Yet it is also desirable that an age range is also sufficiently narrow
to give meaning to the estimate. The purpose of this study is to address the auricular surface
aging method previously devised by Lovejoy et al. (1985), particularly to test and suggest
potential refinement of the age phases proposed by Lovejoy et al. (1985). The aim is to attempt
to establish a more accurate age phase system that would clarify some of the overlap between
features of the already established 5 year increments in the eight age phase system.
In addition to the development of a revised age phase system auricular surface
measurements were recorded to determine if the size and shape would change with age and
whether or not the right and left auricular surface express symmetry.
Summary Statistics and Independent T-Test
The mean and standard deviation for all eight measurements was calculated so that a
summary of observations could be made about the data in order to conclude whether or not there
is indeed a difference between the left and right and whether or not age has an effect on these
measurements.

47

The os coxa is highly variable as result of both genetic and environmental factors and
since it known that the surface undergoes degenerative changes this study wanted to examine
how the size and shape are affected. Would dimensions of the surface from the recorded
measurements become smaller with age as a result of these degenerative changes since the joint
surfaces are eroding? Further would the left and right erode in a similar fashion or would there
be significant differences in one side? Does the shape of the auricular surface increase as age
increases, since lipping on the apical border and retro-auricular activity increase with age?
The findings reported on means and standard deviations in Tables 4 through Table 12 are
quite revealing. Standard deviations are high for the small sample size in each group, which
indicates that there is individual variation, but there does not appear to be much variation
between the same age groups or among the left and right auricular surfaces. To test these effects
a t-test was conducted to test for right and left symmetry. The left and right measurements
across all age groups were used in the t-test. The t-test results indicate that for the right and left
there are no significant differences in the means. All measurements produced relatively low
values in relation to their critical value.
This suggests that although there is variation in measurements they do not seem to
increase or decrease significantly as a result of age. Instead it is most likely a result from
individual variation. This is extremely useful because two separate standards do not need to be
established in order to use this aging method.
Variability of measurements possibly reflects different sources of individual variation one
result could be from the obstetric requirements of females. Several authors have demonstrated
that pregnancy can alter the area in and around the auricular surface (Brooke 1924, Coleman

48

1969, Houghton 1975, and Kelley 1979). Another factor that could contribute to size and shape
variation among individuals is stress on the vertebral column from carrying heavy loads on a
routine basis. The transfer of weight from the upper body to the lower limbs occurs in the
sacroiliac joint. This can lead to the growth of articular facets on the joint surface, which could
alter its shape (Trotter 1967). Considering that the Hamann-Todd collection is mainly composed
of specimens from the lower socio-economic strata and that this sample was consisted of Black
females from the early 20th century (Todd and Lindala 1928).
Measurements were also tested to see if a difference occurs with age. A t-test was
performed on the youngest age group of 20-24 and compared to the oldest age group of 60+.
From table 29 the t-value does indicate that the younger individuals all had smaller means than
the older individuals. Results from this test indicate that there is not a significant difference
between the means. It seems that there are not considerable differences in the sacroiliac joint
from either growth or degenerative change that effect size. The only exception to this is the
measurement of the inferior auricular surface length. The inferior auricular surface length
(IFASLT) is the minimum width of the auricular surface between the apex and the posterior
border of the auricular surface. It is suggested that this measurement might show difference
between the youngest and oldest age range since this measurement is taken from the apex and as
age increases so does lipping around the apical border. Also the posterior border of the auricular
surface across from the apex may be affected as activity in the retro-auricular area increases with
age.
Frequency Analysis and Chi-Square Tests

49

The results presented here will aid in determining when specific features on the auricular
surface begin to change with age by examining the results of the frequency distributions and chisquare results. The chi-square analysis was performed to determine if the features examined
were indeed correlated with age. The results of the chi-square analysis presented in the previous
section is important because it demonstrated that the results for billows, striae, fine and coarse
granulation, dense bone, apical changes and retro-auricular activity did not occur by chance and
that they are influenced by age. This data supports Lovejoy et al. (1985) that there is a natural
progression of features being replaced. Billows become striae. Fine granulation occurs at
younger ages and is eventually replaced by coarse granulation and dense bone. Apical changes
and retro-auricular activity increase with age.
As these were results were shown to be statistically significant and suggest that features
are correlated with age (Table 22 and Table 23). Each feature can now be examined
independently to determine at what age these features are absent or have the strongest presence.
The strongest correlations are billows and striae between ages 20-39. Billows will be absent
from 40+, where as striae may remain present from 40 plus, but will decrease from major,
moderate, to minor as age increases. Billows will eventually replace striae. Fine granulation
also has the strongest percentages between ages 20-39, like striae fine granulation may remain
present to age 40 plus years, but will decrease from major, moderate, to minor as age increases.
Coarse granulation exhibits the opposite pattern of fine granulation and is strongest after 40
years. Coarse granulation begins to increase significantly about age 30, when it increases from
minor, moderate, and major presence as age increases. Dense bone increases as age increases
from minor to moderate after the age of 30 years than from moderate to major as age increases.
Major presence of dense bone begins only after age 50. Apical changes have a distinct and sharp

50

apex present in individuals between the ages 20-29 years and from the age of 30+ years there is
an increase in lipping at the apex. Retro-auricular area showed signs of minor activity from the
age of 20-29 years and an increase in moderate activity after the age of 30 years.
Symmetry
It is evident that there is not a considerable difference from the left and right auricular
surface for the qualitative data that was recorded to determine the level of presence of a
particular feature to Lovejoys et al. (1985) age ranges (Table 22 and 23). This is also supported
by the summary statistics that were gathered to determine shape and size of the auricular surface
(Table 12).
Results in Comparison to the Lovejoy et al. (1985) Study
In contrast to the findings of the Lovejoy et al. (1985) study, although not entirely
inconsistent microporosity and macroporosity showed no correlation with age. Chi-square tests
of the results for microporosity and macroporosity demonstrated not to be significant in the
Cleveland sample studied.

Nor could any pattern be seen from the frequencies for

microporosity and macroporosity (Table 15 and 16). Figure 9 shows that there is no pattern
between microporosity besides that it decreases with age. Macroporosity on the other hand
showed a steady trend in an increase of macroporosity with an increase in age, with the greatest
presence in individuals older than 50. Since chi-square results for both the left and right
auricular surface showed that the features microporosity and macroporosity did not indicate a
correlation with age, a chi-square test was done, which combined both microporosity and
macroporosity into one category of porosity. The chi-square results for porosity had a p- value
of .03, p<.05 is significant. So when porosity was grouped together results indicated that

51

porosity could be a significant indicator for age. Thus it is concluded that porosity is not the best
indicator for determining age, though macroporosity may define older age.
The difference in the role of porosity represented here could possibly be, at least in part,
the result of mistakenly representing pathological lesions as porosity. Another explanation could
be that the Cleveland sample displays higher bone loss or osteoporosis at younger ages, as a
result of differences in hormone levels, body composition, nutrition, or physical activity.
Nutritional deficiencies can also possibly play a role as deficiency stress can affect the
mineralization of bone (Nelson and Villa 2003). Alternatively the observed pattern may just be
natural degeneration or breakdown from storage or handling. All of which could result in
misidentification of porosity. Finally, it is possible that microporosity and macroporosity are
simply not influenced by a single factor such as age.
The chi-square tests of age difference in the absence and presence of any feature showed
interesting patterns of results. These results are shown in Table 25. The young group of 20-24
compared to 35 to 39 showed all features, with the exception of macroporosity as significant
(Table 25). This is because each feature seemed to have a steady trend of either the feature being
absent or present within those age groups (Table 13 to 21). The same is true with the age group
of 20-24 to 60+, the exception here being microporosity. The middle to old age group of 40-44
to 60+ had the most intriguing results with the features striae, dense, and macroporosity having
significant results. Billows is absent after age 40, which clearly shows a correlation with age.
Granulation did not produce significant results when these age groups were compared. In Figure
8 granulation levels out so there is not significant increase from age 40 to 60, although the
feature is still a useful indicator of age since it mostly absent in younger individuals aged 20-30.

52

The middle to old range had the least amount of features with significant results. A reason for
this is that most features seem to transition during this middle age range, much like granulation.
Proposed Four Phase Age System
This is why a broader age range is needed. The data presented in Figures 7 through
Figure 11 clearly shows that features are best seen within the decade rather than within half a
decade. Based on these results a revised age phase system limited to four phases is presented,
which represent a less precise, but consistently reliable indicator of age than that of the Lovejoy
et al. (1985) study.
Revised Age Phases
In general four age modes best represent age change from morphological features as
follows:
1. Under age 30: Billows are strongly present and decreasing to minor present as age increases,
with moderate to major striae. Fine granularity is strongly present with some minor coarse
granularity possible. Apical and retro-auricular activity is minor.
2. Age 30 to 40: Billows decrease and may be absent. Presence of striae decreases after the age
of 30, but may still be present. Fine granulation is present with an increase of moderate to major
coarse granularity after the age of 30. Apical changes beginning with retro-auricular activity
from minor to an increase in moderate activity.
3. Age 40-50: Billows completely absent after age of 40, with striae decreasing to minor and are
absent by age 50. Fine granulation after the age of 40 decreases to minor or absent and is
replaced with coarse granulation that peaks to major presence at age 40. From 40 to age 50 there
53

is an increase in dense bone. Macroporosity also increases after age 40. Apical changes include
some lipping, with few major changes. Retro-auricular activity is minor to moderate.
4. Age 50+: Apical changes include some lipping to major lipping or irregular border, which
increase with age. Minor to moderate changes on the retro-auricular area, and highest presence
dense bone with coarse granularity. No billows, striae, or fine granulation are present.
Macroporosity along with subchondral destruction may be present.
In comparison Lovejoy et al. (1985) is as follows:
1. 20-24: Billowing and very fine granularity.
2. 25-29: Reduction of billowing, but retention of youthful appearance.
3. 30-34: General loss of billowing, replacement by striae, and distinct coarsening of
granularity.
4. 35-39: Uniform coarse granularity.
5. 40-44: transition from coarse granularity to dense surface; this may take part over
islands of the surfaces of one or both faces.
6. 45-49: Completion of densification with complete loss of granularity.
7. 50-59: Dense irregular surface of rugged topography and moderate to marked activity
in periauricular areas.
8. 60+ : Breakdown with marginal lipping, macroporosity, increased irregularity, and
marked activity in periauricular areas.
As the age ranges are narrow in the Lovejoy et al. (1985) standards, it is more difficult
to determine accuracy of age from the eight phase method since features overlap between phases.
Preliminary Testing
Further investigation using the broader age ranges against Lovejoy et al. (1985) was
conducted on a test a sample. This sample included forty specimens from the Hamann-Todd
collection and were chosen randomly to represent an even age distribution. The test sample that

54

was chosen is shown in Appendix I with qualitative scores shown in Appendix G. Results of
correctly aging each specimen are demonstrated in Table 30.

Table 30. Correct Classification of Age from Test Sample (n=40)


AGE RANGE REVISED METHOD LOVEJOY ET AL. (1985)
20-24
60%
20%
25-29
80%
60%
30-34
80%
40%
35-39
60%
80%
40-44
100%
20%
45-49
60%
40%
50-59
80%
80%
60+
80%
80%

Results indicate that the percentage of individuals correctly aged is higher in the revised
method, with the exception of the age range 35-39. A reason for this is that the middle age
ranges are the transitional phases for most features making it more difficult to accurately age an
individual. In the both the Lovejoy et al. (1985) study and the revised method individuals in the
20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 age ranges that were aged incorrectly were found to be
overestimated and from the age ranges of 40-44, 45-49, 50-59, and 60+ individuals that were
aged incorrectly were underestimated. One reason that the revised method has higher
percentages of correctly classified individuals could be a result from the sample that was used.
The revised method was developed and tested on a small sample from the same population,
where as the Lovejoy et al. (1985) method was developed on a prehistoric population sample.
Further testing comparing this method to other populations should be conducted at a later time in
order to confirm these results.
It has been suggested that when the accuracy of the defined eight modal age phases was
tested from previous studies the same results as found here were also presented. The ages of
55

younger individuals were found to be overestimated, and the ages of older individuals were
found to underestimated (Murray and Murray 1991). Murray and Murray (1991) using a sample
of 189 individuals from the Terry Collection, also found that the amount of degenerative change
in the auricular surface did not depend on race or sex. They concluded, however, that the rate of
change was so variable among individuals that the auricular surface was not suitable to use as a
single method for age estimation. Saunders et al. (1992) performed blind tests on identified
skeletons from a 19th century Canadian pioneer cemetery using the Lovejoy et al. (1985) method
and found that its inaccuracy increased as age increased, and that it overestimated the ages of
younger individuals and underestimated the ages of younger individuals, and showed that the
intraobserver error was 19.3% and suggested that this error might be caused by the difficulty of
applying this method.
Conclusion
This study serves as a complement to Lovejoy et al. (1985) study and it confirms that
features change with age. The chi-square tests are interesting and important since they indicate
that the morphological features are influenced by age. These results validate that features
changes with age and when these changes begin and end, but due to overlap of ages between
features no specific standard for a particular feature can narrowly and conclusively be
determined. This may be due to individual factors of body composition that contribute to
differences in the auricular surface. Differences could be from the size and shape of the joint
itself, which are a result from the thickness of the joint cartilage, or from occupational stress. The
results of this study are interesting because it confirms that each feature should be examined
independently and that there is a definite correlation with each feature and age.

56

Distinct trends of each feature and age are shown in Figures 7-11. These trends, while
they are consistent with Lovejoy et al. (1985) study, suggest that trends are best seen within
decade since the overlap of features is too narrow to determine specific stages of development or
loss of a particular feature. This study suggests it would be better to include broader age ranges
in order to account for a more accurate age estimation of an individual.
Although Lovejoy et al. (1985) did not intent intend for the auricular surface aging
method to be used in a forensic context as a single indicator of age since it is to variable. The
auricular surface is still a reliable indicator for estimating age at death since it documents the
morphological changes that develop as age progresses. Therefore using both the Lovejoy et al.
(1985) study and this revised study it is possible to increase the accuracy of estimating age at
death from the auricular surface. Upon further study it is hoped that this revised method will
eventually be applicable to various population studies. In order to provide a reliable and
consistent mean for estimating age at death from skeletal remains.

57

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58

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63

APPENDICES

64

Appendix A. Auricular Surface Measurements

A1. Maximum height of the auricular surface (MXHTAS)


taken from the most superior to the most inferior border of the
auricular surface.

A2. Maximum breadth of the auricular surface (MXBRAS)


is the distance from the most anterior superior point to the most
inferior point on the auricular surface.

65

Appendix A. Auricular Surface Measurements (continued)

A3. Inferior auricular surface breadth (IFASBR) is the


minimum width of the auricular surface between points on the
anterior and posterior border of the auricular surface.

A4. Superior auricular surface breadth (SPASBR) is the


maximum width of the auricular surface between points on the
superior and inferior border of the auricular surface.

66

Appendix A. Auricular Surface Measurements (continued)

A5. Inferior auricular surface length (IFASLT) is the


minimum width of the auricular surface between the apex and
the posterior border of the auricular surface.

A6. Superior auricular surface length (SPASLT) is the


maximum width of the auricular surface between the apex and
the posterior border of the auricular surface

67

Appendix B. Measurements of the Left Auricular Surface Measurements (n=102)


HT #
1339
1562
1213
2092
2838
1617
1978
2209
1161
1969
3036
1558
545
2041
2675
1539
2363
1539
1622
2072
1427
2064
2356
704
1536
2830
589
1899
2073
1925
2516
3088
1785
2057
3336
529
931
128
1415
2303
2561

Age
20
21
22
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
30
31
31
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
35
35

Side
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

MXBR
162
145
160
152
145
152
135
132
149
142
130
148
155
156
140
145
156
145
135
151
164
141
142
139
162
142
152
148
164
148
148
136
150
141
146
137
156
158
152
142
150

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


198
41
40
14
25
31
31
191
42
40
13
15
21
30
209
51
59
14
15
18
27
181
45
49
15
16
27
36
190
51
60
23
23
31
38
196
45
52
12
14
21
33
180
48
56
12
17
26
34
179
39
47
16
14
19
33
192
39
50
13
16
17
24
183
48
56
12
18
22
33
180
46
50
11
17
22
35
192
49
55
13
18
27
36
196
43
49
15
17
24
34
211
46
49
11
19
30
38
186
41
49
18
15
20
33
196
43
52
18
21
25
31
198
49
53
17
21
26
32
194
50
54
19
20
25
31
173
36
42
18
18
23
31
194
43
51
21
16
27
39
212
43
51
12
16
24
35
186
45
51
16
16
27
36
195
44
49
14
16
23
28
186
48
52
13
18
25
36
203
53
66
16
16
15
43
184
42
48
17
15
24
34
189
49
55
13
17
21
29
196
44
51
15
16
29
34
203
52
58
15
23
32
42
177
46
52
11
18
22
33
191
49
53
15
23
34
39
190
45
48
13
18
26
37
196
49
52
14
16
23
32
185
45
51
21
16
27
35
190
47
50
12
16
22
30
188
46
41
14
19
27
34
210
45
49
10
22
31
35
194
42
50
13
15
20
30
200
46
53
15
20
22
29
178
37
50
15
16
22
37
195
42
50
23
16
28
40

68

Appendix B. Measurements of the Left Auricular Surface Measurements (n=102) (continued)


HT #
642
1516
1530
2529
1489
2022
2276
2708
1300
2284
2612
2827
3131
657
1297
2024
2252
2342
2288
1749
3269
2096
1748
3161
520
530
1534
2053
2115
1856

Age
36
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
45
45
45
45
45

Side
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

MXBR
142
140
150
141
145
142
149
138
149
137
139
148
152
131
165
140
143
152
147
141
152
146
147
150
148
153
166
145
170
152

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


193
33
46
15
21
21
31
189
54
57
14
21
29
36
186
48
51
14
24
30
34
186
50
53
16
16
19
33
196
44
58
22
15
24
38
191
33
38
9
17
24
24
191
43
53
11
19
24
36
188
48
59
17
17
21
30
192
44
47
15
16
26
35
192
43
50
16
24
24
39
191
45
56
15
20
24
35
196
45
53
14
15
26
40
195
43
47
15
14
24
35
179
37
46
14
24
29
32
199
49
55
17
16
20
26
186
49
49
11
15
29
37
188
48
53
12
21
28
35
198
49
53
15
21
26
34
193
43
49
17
21
31
36
192
44
58
20
17
16
29
194
39
50
15
18
20
29
185
42
46
9
21
26
30
196
49
66
11
18
15
38
208
40
50
14
12
26
39
195
40
52
13
14
24
35
189
44
52
12
16
21
34
211
49
54
12
18
25
30
177
43
50
12
16
19
33
225
53
57
23
36
40
38
201
49
55
20
19
26
37

69

Appendix B. Measurements of the Left Auricular Surface Measurements (n=102) (continued)


HT #
3581
3182
1744
3152
2283
2332
2621
3022
2127
2660
1321
2278
3070
2706
2517
3058
3171
868
2470
1912
751
1469
2147
3288
152
1122
2867
2232
2593
2329
1301

Age
46
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
52
53
54
54
55
55
56
60
60
60
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
73
75
87

Side
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

MXBR
na
148
148
147
142
144
140
145
138
154
164
155
156
152
152
159
141
158
134
157
145
161
160
156
150
156
149
147
145
174
150

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


201
46
57
23
17
27
42
191
39
52
15
17
17
28
191
47
56
14
17
23
36
182
45
55
11
17
22
28
193
42
47
14
18
25
36
187
54
51
14
27
35
39
187
41
49
11
13
21
37
180
48
54
13
15
28
32
186
48
53
13
29
30
35
196
47
55
21
23
33
41
212
50
62
21
19
31
38
196
50
58
15
17
23
33
196
54
59
18
26
26
31
186
46
55
14
18
23
37
205
39
47
18
16
28
36
197
45
49
19
20
28
37
180
46
51
14
17
30
39
193
49
57
16
16
30
34
180
47
52
12
17
24
31
198
55
56
18
21
29
37
180
41
46
16
18
29
31
210
45
60
16
18
28
38
195
53
59
17
18
36
43
192
51
52
12
19
24
33
186
52
58
13
21
27
29
201
51
54
19
18
33
37
185
42
44
12
19
21
33
190
41
45
22
16
30
36
187
43
51
14
15
23
30
207
52
61
18
16
24
37
200
52
60
17
27
28
41

70

Appendix C. Measurements of the Right Auricular Surface (n=102)


HT #
1339
1562
1213
2092
2838
1617
1978
2209
1161
1969
3036
1558
545
2041
2675
1539
2363
1539
1622
2072
1427
2064
2356
704
1536
2830
3181
589
1899
2073
1925

Age
20
21
22
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
30
30

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

MXBR
162
146
162
155
145
154
136
132
147
140
na
150
155
156
140
147
158
146
132
153
164
142
147
140
163
147
158
152
152
158
147

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


201
43
44
16
18
28
32
194
40
40
17
12
19
22
205
46
56
16
14
19
38
186
43
49
14
17
25
36
187
56
60
22
24
32
38
196
45
49
13
17
25
33
182
47
54
11
22
23
30
181
41
50
15
15
20
32
190
40
48
12
14
21
26
184
50
56
11
16
22
32
180
44
50
11
16
23
37
193
49
56
15
16
28
35
196
47
52
14
18
28
31
213
49
51
11
22
31
39
187
44
48
19
15
26
35
196
43
52
20
20
23
31
199
46
51
18
20
24
36
196
48
55
21
22
24
32
177
41
46
14
17
28
33
196
44
53
19
20
28
36
211
43
50
12
18
26
35
192
46
55
17
24
25
30
191
48
53
12
20
23
30
189
50
55
14
18
28
37
203
55
64
16
18
25
38
186
41
46
16
17
21
34
208
43
55
16
22
17
36
189
46
51
15
14
21
32
193
44
47
17
16
26
33
203
50
59
16
17
29
36
178
46
50
13
18
26
33

71

Appendix C. Measurements of the Right Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)


HT #
2516
3088
1785
2057
3336
529
931
128
1415
2303
2561
642
1516
1530
2529
1489
2022
2276
2708
1300
2284
2612
2827
3131
657
1297
2024
2252
2342
2288
1749
3269
2096
1748
3161

Age
31
31
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
35
35
36
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

MXBR
148
135
149
139
145
137
158
158
152
140
153
143
140
149
143
152
145
149
139
145
138
138
151
151
132
162
142
145
158
145
141
150
149
148
146

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


191
50
54
18
25
30
35
188
45
50
12
18
25
36
190
49
55
16
18
25
38
184
40
45
13
14
28
38
189
45
48
19
18
22
33
188
42
45
14
17
30
35
207
43
45
13
21
33
40
190
43
47
19
17
23
30
200
48
51
16
20
23
27
178
40
49
14
16
26
33
196
45
54
17
18
25
50
186
37
46
9
16
21
30
190
55
61
15
26
34
42
188
45
49
19
22
32
34
183
54
57
14
17
21
30
199
45
57
22
17
25
39
190
38
43
13
18
21
23
193
43
47
14
20
23
35
187
48
59
17
14
20
29
190
45
45
18
18
28
33
190
44
47
18
20
33
39
190
43
49
16
23
25
36
198
44
50
17
15
26
33
197
38
41
13
14
26
35
179
41
53
23
22
25
32
200
47
60
15
15
22
33
190
44
50
17
15
27
39
189
45
49
19
16
31
33
200
47
53
17
21
25
36
190
45
48
17
18
28
35
191
44
55
15
15
20
29
193
44
54
14
18
18
28
185
41
45
11
16
24
33
194
45
65
11
17
13
38
204
48
53
15
13
27
40

72

Appendix C. Measurements of the Right Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)


HT #
520
530
1534
2053
2115
1856
3581
3182
1744
3152
2283
2332
2621
3022
2660
1321
2278
3070
2706
2517
3058
3171
868
2470
1912
751
1469
2147
3288
152
1122
2867
2232
2593
2329
1301

Age
45
45
45
45
45
45
46
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
55
56
60
60
60
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
73
75
87

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

MXBR
148
155
170
147
170
156
154
144
149
146
137
146
144
144
155
160
156
157
156
154
163
136
160
134
155
144
159
162
156
147
157
148
148
149
167
154

MXHT MXHTASMXBRAS IFASBR SPASBR IFASLT SPASLT


194
40
50
11
17
25
29
190
46
53
16
18
26
32
212
50
54
14
19
28
37
180
42
55
12
18
20
32
221
54
57
20
30
38
42
202
47
58
22
16
26
37
200
49
56
17
19
25
38
187
40
47
17
16
20
31
193
50
57
16
18
24
32
183
44
53
21
24
29
35
193
45
50
15
23
24
36
191
47
52
12
26
30
35
185
40
48
12
14
22
32
180
49
55
16
18
23
34
196
51
56
20
29
33
35
215
50
62
13
22
28
36
194
41
52
16
18
24
36
199
55
63
18
27
31
33
190
44
48
14
20
25
39
203
40
48
12
18
39
35
197
46
51
16
16
29
33
182
45
51
12
22
29
39
195
51
56
22
17
32
37
178
45
53
15
15
36
31
198
45
51
20
16
30
36
181
41
45
17
14
26
33
209
56
68
17
23
25
36
199
50
60
18
19
30
44
193
53
52
12
20
30
36
185
48
54
13
20
31
29
204
50
55
20
18
26
35
185
41
47
14
18
22
37
194
41
46
20
16
29
34
192
43
52
16
14
25
34
210
56
61
21
21
25
35
199
55
57
14
24
27
38

73

14

11

17

11

10

13

14

102

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-59

60+

Total

74

15

11

17

11

10

12

14

102

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-59

60+

Total

41

68

53

46

41

37

32

27

N Mean Age
12
23

Age Range
20-24

41

68

52

46

41

37

32

27

N Mean Age
12
23

Age Range
20-24

15

SD
1

15

SD
1

149

153

151

154

147

146

147

152

MXBR
148

149

153

149

153

147

146

148

148

MXBR
146

193

193

192

196

193

191

192

194

14

11

46

48

47

46

44

44

47

45

52

54

53

54

52

51

51

51

15

16

16

16

14

15

14

16

18

19

20

19

19

18

19

17

25

28

28

24

24

24

27

24

193

194

194

196

192

191

191

196

10

10

13

10

46

48

46

46

45

44

45

46

52

54

53

54

53

50

50

52

16

17

15

17

16

16

15

16

19

18

21

20

18

18

18

19

26

28

28

26

24

25

27

25

Means and Standard Deviations for Measurements on the Right Auricular Surface from the Hamann-Todd Collection for Females (n=102)
IFASBR
SD SPASBR SD
IFASLT
SD
SD
MXHT
SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD
10
190
8
45
5
51
6
14
3
17
3
24
4

Means and Standard Deviations for Measurements on the Left Auricular Surface from the Hamann-Todd Collection for Females (n=102)
SD
MXHT
SD MXHTAS SD MXBRAS SD
IFASBR
SD SPASBR SD
IFASLT
SD
10
189
9
45
4
51
7
14
3
17
4
24
5

34

35

35

35

34

34

35

34

SPASLT
33

34

28

28

34

33

34

34

34

SPASLT
33

SD
5

SD
4

Appendix D. Means and Standard Deviations for the Left and Right Auricular Surfaces

Appendix E. Frequencies and Percentages for the Left Auricular Surface (n=102)
Feature
Billows

Score
(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24 (n=12) Age 25-29 (n=14)


(n)
%
(n)
%
3
25
9
64
5
36
8
67
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 30-34 (n= 11) Age 35-39 (n=17)


(n)
%
(n)
%
9
82
17
100
2
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 40-44 (n=11) Age 45-49 (n=10)


(n)
%
(n)
%
11
100
10
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59 (n=13) Age 60+ (n=14)


(n)
%
(n)
%
Totals (n=102)
13
100
14
100
86
0
0
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
102

Striae

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

0
5
6
1

0
42
50
8

3
4
5
2

21
29
36
14

4
4
3
0

36.5
36.5
27
0

9
7
1
0

53
41
6
0

8
2
1
0

73
18
9
0

6
4
0
0

60
40
0
0

10
3
0
0

77
23
0
0

14
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

54
29
16
3
102

Fine

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

1
3
4
4

8
25
33.5
33.5

3
5
5
1

21
36
36
7

4
5
2
0

36
46
18
0

12
2
2
1

71
11.5
11.5
6

9
1
1
0

82
9
9
0

7
1
0
2

70
10
0
20

13
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

14
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

63
17
14
8
102

Coarse

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

7
4
1
0

59
33
8
0

2
3
7
2

14.5
21
50
14.5

1
3
2
5

9
27
18
46

1
5
4
7

6
29
24
41

0
0
3
8

0
0
27
73

1
2
1
6

10
20
10
60

1
2
6
4

8
15
46
31

2
5
3
4

14
36
21
29

15
24
27
36
102

Dense

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

12
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

14
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

8
2
0
1

73
18
0
9

11
6
0
0

65
35
0
0

8
2
1
0

73
18
9
0

6
2
2
0

60
20
20
0

5
5
1
2

38.5
38.5
8
15

1
8
3
2

7
57
22
14

65
25
7
5
102

Micro

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

7
5
0
0

58
42
0
0

8
6
0
0

57
43
0
0

4
6
0
1

36
55
0
9

4
10
2
1

23
59
12
6

7
4
0
0

64
36
0
0

5
5
0
0

50
50
0
0

6
5
2
0

46
39
15
0

8
5
1
0

57
36
7
0

49
46
5
2
102

Macro

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

9
2
1
0

75
17
8
0

13
1
0
0

93
7
0
0

9
2
0
0

82
18
0
0

13
3
1
0

76
18
6
0

7
3
1
0

64
27
9
0

8
2
0
0

80
20
0
0

7
4
1
1

54
31
7.5
7.5

3
6
3
2

21.5
43
21.5
14

69
23
7
3
102

Apical

(1) distinct
10
(2) some lipping 2
(3) major changes 0

83
17
0

11
3
0

79
21
0

3
8
0

27
73
0

4
10
3

23
59
18

2
7
2

18
64
18

1
8
1

10
80
10

1
7
5

8
54
38

0
6
8

0
43
57

32
51
19
102

Retro

(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

83
8.5
8.5

11
3
0

79
21
0

2
9
0

18
82
0

6
9
2

35
53
12

3
8
0

27
73
0

1
9
0

10
90
0

1
9
3

8
69
23

0
7
7

0
50
50

34
55
13
102

10
1
1

75

Appendix F. Frequencies and Percentages for the Right Auricular Surface (n=102)
Feature
Score
Billows (0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

Age 20-24 (n=12)


(n)
%
7
58
5
42
0
0
0
0

Age 25-29 (n=15)


(n)
%
5
33
9
60
1
7
0
0

Age 30-34 (n=11)


(n)
%
9
82
2
18
0
0
0
0

Age 35-39 (n=17)


(n)
%
16
94
1
6
0
0
0
0

Age 40-44 (n=11)


(n)
%
11
100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 45-49 (n=10)


(n)
%
10
100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 50-59 (n=12)


(n)
%
12
100
0
0
0
0
0
0

Age 60+ (n=14)


(n)
%
Totals (n=102)
14
100
84
0
0
17
0
0
1
0
0
0
102

Striae (0) Absent


(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

3
5
3
1

25
42
25
8

3
8
1
3

20
53
7
20

5
5
0
1

45.5
45.5
0
9

8
8
1
0

47
47
6
0

7
4
0
0

64
36
0
0

5
4
1
0

50
40
10
0

10
2
0
0

83
17
0
0

12
2
0
0

86
14
0
0

53
38
6
5
102

Fine

(0) Absent
(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

3
3
2
4

25
25
17
33

1
8
5
1

7
53
33
7

6
2
2
1

55
18
18
9

8
4
4
1

47
23.5
23.5
6

9
0
2
0

82
0
18
0

7
1
0
2

70
10
0
20

11
1
0
0

92
8
0
0

13
0
1
0

93
0
7
0

58
19
16
9
102

Coarse (0) Absent


(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

6
4
2
0

50
33
17
0

4
5
5
1

27
33
33
7

2
2
2
5

18
18
18
46

1
5
4
7

6
29
24
41

0
0
5
6

0
0
45.5
54.5

1
2
3
4

10
20
30
40

0
4
3
5

0
33
25
42

0
7
2
5

0
50
14
36

14
29
26
33
102

Dense (0) Absent


(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

11
1
0
0

92
8
0
0

15
0
0
0

100
0
0
0

7
3
0
1

64
27
0
9

13
3
1
0

76
18
6
0

5
4
2
0

46
36
18
0

6
1
3
0

60
10
30
0

5
3
2
2

42
25
16.5
16.5

2
6
3
3

14
43
21.5
21.5

64
21
11
6
102

Micro (0) Absent


(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

7
5
0
0

58
42
0
0

10
5
0
0

67
33
0
0

6
4
1
0

55
36
9
0

7
9
0
1

41
53
0
6

4
7
0
0

36
64
0
0

6
4
0
0

60
40
0
0

2
10
0
0

17
83
0
0

5
7
2
0

36
50
14
0

47
51
3
1
102

Macro (0) Absent


(1) Minor
(2) Moderate
(3) Major

10
2
0
0

83
17
0
0

14
1
0
0

93
7
0
0

9
2
0
0

82
18
0
0

12
5
0
0

71
29
0
0

6
5
0
0

54.5
45.5
0
0

6
3
1
0

60
30
10
0

5
5
1
1

41.5
41.5
8.5
8.5

4
8
1
1

29
57
7
7

66
31
3
2
102

Apical (1) distinct


10
(2) some lipping1
(3) irregular 1

83
8.5
8.5

12
3
0

80
20
0

2
9
0

18
82
0

3
11
3

17.5
65
17.5

1
6
4

9
55
36

1
7
2

10
70
20

0
7
5

0
58
42

0
8
6

0
57
43

29
52
21
102

Retro

75
25
0

13
2
0

87
13
0

3
8
0

27
73
0

2
14
1

12
82
6

2
9
0

18
82
0

0
8
2

0
80
20

0
8
4

0
67
33

0
7
7

0
50
50

29
59
14
102

(1) Minor
9
(2) Moderate 3
0
(3) Major

76

Appendix G. Qualitative Scores for the Left Auricular Surface (n=102)


HT#
1339
1562
1213
2092
2838
1617
1978
2209
1161
1969
3036
1558
545
2041
2675
1539
2363
1539
1622
2072
1427
2064
2356
704
1536
2830
589
1899
2073
1925

Age
20
21
22
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
30

Billows
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Striae
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
2
0
2
0
1
1
3
1
2
2
2
3
0
1
0
1
1

Fine
2
3
0
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
0
1
1
2
1
2
2
0
1
0
1
0
2
0

Coarse
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
0
3
3
3
2
3

77

Dense
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Micro
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

Macro
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Apical
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2

Retro
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2

Appendix G. Qualitative Scores from the Left Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)
HT#
2516
3088
1785
2057
3336
529
931
128
1415
2303
2561
642
1516
1530
2529
1489
2022
2276
2708
1300
2284
2612
2827
3131
657
1297
2024
2252
2342
2288
1749
3269
2096
1748
3161

Age
31
31
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
35
35
36
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44

Billows
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Striae
0
1
2
0
2
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
2
0

Fine
1
1
2
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
2
2
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

Coarse
0
2
1
3
1
3
1
2
3
3
2
1
2
1
3
0
2
1
3
1
3
1
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
3

78

Dense
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0

Micro
3
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

Macro
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

Apical
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
3
3
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
3
2

Retro
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

Appendix G. Qualitative Scores from the Left Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)
HT#
520
530
1534
2053
2115
1856
3581
3182
1744
3152
2283
2332
2621
3022
2127
2660
1321
2278
3070
2706
2517
3058
3171
868
2470
1912
751
1469
2147
3288
152
1122
2867
2232
2593
2329
1301

Age
45
45
45
45
45
45
46
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
52
53
54
54
55
55
56
60
60
60
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
73
75
87

Billows
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Striae
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fine
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Coarse
3
3
0
1
3
1
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
3
0
2
1
3
1
2
2
3
0
3
3
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
3
0
2
1

79

Dense
1
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
3
1
0
1
3
2
0
0
3
1
1
2
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
2

Micro
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

Macro
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
0
3
1
0
3
0
1

Apical
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3

Retro
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3

Appendix H. Qualitative Scores from the Right Auricular Surface (n=102)


HT#
1339
1562
1213
2092
2838
1617
1978
2209
1161
1969
3036
1558
545
2041
2675
1539
2363
1539
1622
2072
1427
2064
2356
704
1536
2830
3181
589
1899
2073
1925

Age
20
21
22
22
22
22
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
30
30

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Billows
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0

Striae
0
1
2
1
3
1
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
2
1
1
1
3
0
3
3
1
1
0
1
0
1
3
1

Fine
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
3
0
0
1
3
3
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
2
0

Coarse
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
0
2
1
1
0
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
0
1
0
3
0
2
1
3
2
0
3

80

Dense
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Micro
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

Macro
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
o
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Apical
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2

Retro
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2

Appendix H. Qualitative Scores from the Right Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)
HT#
2516
3088
1785
2057
3336
529
931
128
1415
2303
2561
642
1516
1530
2529
1489
2022
2276
2708
1300
2284
2612
2827
3131
657
1297
2024
2252
2342

Age
31
31
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
35
35
36
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Billows
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Striae
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

Fine
2
0
0
0
0
3
1
1
2
0
1
2
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
2

Coarse
2
0
3
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
0
3
3
1
1
3
1
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
2

81

Dense
0
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Micro
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
3
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0

Macro
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0

Apical
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
3
2
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
1

Retro
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1

Appendix H. Qualitative Scores from the Right Auricular Surface (n=102) (continued)
HT#
2288
1749
3269
2096
1748
3161
520
530
1534
2053
2115
1856
3581
3182
1744
3152
2283
2332
2621
3022
2660
1321
2278
3070
2706
2517
3058
3171
868
2470
1912
751
1469
2147
3288
152
1122
2867
2232
2593
2329
1301

Age
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
45
45
45
45
45
46
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
55
56
60
60
60
65
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
73
75
87

Side
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

Billows
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Striae
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Fine
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

Coarse
3
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
0
1
2
1
3
3
2
3
1
2
2
3
3
3
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
2
3
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
1

82

Dense
1
2
1
0
2
1
1
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
2
0
2
1
1
0
1
0
3
3
0
0
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
0
3
1
1
0
2

Micro
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
0
2
1
0
1

Macro
1
0
1
1
0
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
3
0
1
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
3
1
0
1
1
1

Apical
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
1
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3

Retro
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
3

Appendix I. Hamann-Todd Test Sample for Revised Method and Lovejoy et al. (1985)
HT#
1339
1213
1617
1978
1969
545
2041
1539
1622
2356
2073
2516
1785
2057
529
128
2561
1530
2022
2284
657
2252
2288
3269
3161
530
2053
3581
3182
3152
2332
2660
2278
2706
3058
1912
3288
2867
2329
1301

AGE
20
22
22
23
24
25
25
26
27
28
30
31
32
33
34
35
35
37
38
39
40
40
41
42
44
45
45
46
48
49
50
51
53
54
55
60
65
70
75
87

83