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Detection of Motile Aeromonas Existence at Golden Fish

and Its Sensitivity on Novobiocin
Agmaza Martapija
Study Program of biology at Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty
University of Tanjungpura Pontianak
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appearance of this disease. Therefore, this bacteria

existence detection through isolation and
characterization that performed earlier is very
important, therefore its handling and prevention of
infection can be tried, thus it will not cause fish
farmer experience financial loss.

Motile Aeromonas is one of several causes of
septicemia disease at fish. Cultivation activity does
not considering suitability factor, whether fish
density, food and environment condition that may
increase stress at fish which later decrease
immunity, therefore it is very easy for pathogen to
infect it. The purpose of this research is detecting
the existence of Motile Aeromonas and observing
colony morphology characteristics, cell and its
physiology. Isolation from fish ulcer at TSA media,
acid and gas that resulted from glucose metabolism
and positive motility test indicates the existence of
these genus and the result will then followed by
several physiologic test, colony with white yellow
color at TSA media and forming colony with
yellow at TCBS, and it is the characteristics of
Aeromonas genus colony. This bacteria is including
in proteolotic bacteria that signed with gelatinase
enzyme that being result in, and this enzyme is able
to decipher gelatin as the biggest compound in fish
scales, therefore it gives easiness on infection
process. Treatment with novobiocin antibiotic,
zone average obstruct of these genus <21mm
(Barry table), thus it can be concluded that this
bacteria is resistant to novobiocin.
Keywords : Motile Aeromonas,
characterization, goldfish

Clinical symptom observation and
infected fish behavior
Early detection is performed by observing the most
prominent clinical symptom that is ulcer and gold
fish behavior that directed to Motile Aeromonas
Water quality measurement
Water quality measurement includes temperature,
pH, and soluble oxygen.
Isolation and detection of Motile
Aeromonas existence
Isolation comes from ulcer that assumed infected
by Motile Aeromonas at TSA media that already
incubated 48 hours at 25C in temperature. At TSA
media, the color of bacteria colony is the white and
yellow, round, and flat edge, negative gram, shaft
cell, no spore (Holt et al., 1994). If there is colony,
then there will be identification with biochemical
testing to make sure that the colony is Motile
Aeromonas. Biochemical testing is performed by
using TSIA media, Sulfide Indol Motility, Simon
sitrate and urease agar.



Ulcer at fish that caused by Motile Aeromonas

infection may decrease fish selling price. Its
existence at chronical level may develop into
hemoragic septicemia, besides decreasing meat
quality and has high mortality. Fish can be infected
easily when its body immune is decreasing, stress
or abundance of bacteria is too high ( Dana and
Angka, 1990, in Olga, 2002). This disease infection
may happen horizontally among fish, however it is
not happen vertically from parent to its offspring (
Hayes, 2000). Cultivation activity which is not
performed right such as too high density, bad
cultivation tools condition, dirty pool maintenance,
too fertile pool condition because it has many
organic material, low O2 content may spur the

Sensitivity Test at Novobiocin
Muller Hinton media is used for sensitivity testing
on novobiocin. Light zone diameter is compared
with Barry table to find out its sensitive or resistant


Clinical symptoms of all most prominent samples

is that there is ulcer, besides darker fish body,
prominent eye, ability to swim is decrease, too
much slobber production then it is decreasing fast,
thus the skin of the body becomes coarse, fish gills
is broken, difficulty in breathing. The existence of


Agmaza martapija, Detection of Motile Aeromonas Existence at Golden Fish and Its Sensitivity on
oxygen content, nutrient deficiency and pollution
and general condition that support the growth of
this bacteria (Post, 1983).

Motile Aeromonas (MA) is assumed as one of

several causes although bacteria from other genus
is able to socialize and will make the situation

Table 1: Water quality data







Based on water quality observation at cultivation

place, temperature, pH, and DO is normal, there is
possibility that infection is spurred by cultivation
handling system and fish selling and buying
activity, and it is suitable with Sarono et al. (1993)
that the handling that cause wound and the
disappearance of scale become a factor that cause
the appearance of ulcer by MA. MA bacteria when
it is seen from the way it alive has opportunistic
pathogen nature, always under the water and attach
fish at the weak time ( Newman, 1982). The spread
of this bacteria is widened in the public watery and
the member of this species has ability to live and
develop at wide environment condition. The result
of the research of Hazen et al. (1978) shows that
this bacteria is spread in water which temperature
is 4-45C, pH 5,2-9,8. Based on the temperature
and pH observation in cultivation area is 27,5C
and pH 6,4, there is possibility that this bacteria
develops well. The existence of MA that has been
detection becomes a reference for handling process,
fish that already has ulcer, when it is in a big
number, must be cured and vanish stress factor, but
when the infected fish is in small number, it will be
better if they are destroyed to prevent wider

Figure 1: Ulcer at gold fish body

The result of the isolation of gold fish ulcer, based
on microscopic observation shows that MA colony
will grow at TSA media which color is white and
yellow and when it is planted at TCBS, it will form
yellow colony, and it is suitable with Yuasa, et al.
(2003) that several species Aeromonas will be able
to grow at TCBS media with yellow colony.
Microscopic observation shows that MA bacteria
cell is a negative gram with shaft form.

Figure 2: Motile Aeromonas bacteria cell

All MA isolate that already obtained has motile
nature, therefore it is often called Motile
Aeromonas. According to Richards and Roberts
(1978), this bacteria is a motile one with one
flagella at the edge (monotric). At TSIA media, it
shows K/A (alkali/acid) reaction, MA is able to
utilize glucose as its carbon resources, but it does
not able to decipher lactose and sucrose, and at this
media, H2S gas is formed with other gas, and it is
suitable with Sarono et al. (1993) that Aeromonas
genus means that it is able to produce gas.
Biochemical examination is performed to help fish
diagnosis that assumed infected by MA, at SIM,
indol (+), motility (+), urease (-), Simon sitrate (-)
catalase (+), grow at KCN, hydrolysis gelatin (+),
and resistant on novobiocin. The result of
biochemical test shows that this bacteria is able to
produce gelatinase that able to decipher gelatin that
become the element of scales arranger that it is able
to cause destruction at scale and necrosis network.
The destruction able to spur secondary infection by
other bacteria, fungi and virus. Ulcer that caused by
MA will appear because of the decrease of soluble


This research shows the existence of Motile

Aeromonas through isolation and characterization
of fish ulcer, characteristics that being owned show
possibility of infection process to be directed to
mortality, therefore this detection is an early step to
handle and prevent wider spreading.
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