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Soils & Structures








N° 220 Second semester 2004

The System
in Top Form

A Well-Integrated Giant
Measuring 30 m in height and covering 10,000 m2, the Soumont wall located near Lodève
(Hérault) on the new A75 motorway between Clermont-Ferrand and the Mediterranean
Sea is one of the largest Reinforced Earth retaining structures in France.
Despite its enormous proportions, the work was harmoniously integrated into the rocky
environment using architectural cladding elements arranged in a terrace-like formation.

Dry Repair

Many structures were damaged
during the floods that hit
the south of France in 2002
and 2003. Freyssinet was called
in to repair a portion of the
Stay Cables
for a Record-Breaking Span
Philippe-Lamour canal near
Montpellier. Twelve 4 x 4 m square Construction of the Cooper
slabs were reconstructed with River Bridge in South Carolina
shotcrete, 160 m2 of concrete (USA) is well underway.
facing was restored and 320 m With a total length of 4,023 m,
of cracks and 71 joints were featuring a 900 m-long
treated. Using a mobile coffer cable-stayed stretch and
dam specially designed a central span of 472 m,
for this project, the repairs this is the largest structure of
were successfully completed its kind in the United States.
without the need to empty Freyssinet will supply and
the canal. install all 128 stay cables.

Reinforced Earth: Freyssinet Attends the fib Symposium

30 Birthday Candles in Japan Freyssinet presented its latest accomplishments
In June, Bruno Dupety, Freyssinet's at the fib (International Federation for
Chief Executive Officer, attended the traditional Structural Concrete) Symposium held in Avignon
KAI ceremonies organized by Sumitomo/Hirose (France) between the 26th and 28th of April.
and Kawasho, Reinforced Earth licencies This international event organized by the AFGC
in Japan. The most successful entities (French Association of Civil Engineering)
were given awards for excellence and brought together nearly 400 engineers,
Mr Niki, Hirose, Tanura and Yamamoto architects and experts from around the world.
received a trophy celebrating the thirtieth In addition to the official activities, visits
anniversary of Reinforced Earth’s licence to the Millau Viaduct, for which Freyssinet
in the Land of the Rising Sun. is installing stay cables, and the Mediterranean
TGV line were organized.

2 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


USA Prestressed Floors

4,800 Controlled Modulus

Columns. Between last June
for the Mirdiff Mall
and August, DGI-Menard, In February 2004, Freyssinet
the American subsidiary of Gulf LLC began the prestressing
Ménard Soltraitement, realized of 130,000 m2 of floors
4,800 Controlled Modulus for the new Mirdiff Mall in
Columns (CMC) south of Dubai. This is the largest
Burlington in the State
prestressing contract the
of Vermont to strengthen
the soil on a plot for future company has ever signed in
construction of a store. the United Arab Emirates. By
March 2005, 1,000 t of strands
FRANCE will have been installed

800 m2 of Carbon Fiber for several floors composed

Fabrics. Freyssinet France has
of full slabs and transverse
begun work in the Atlantic
Pyrenees region beams spanning 19 m.
to strengthen the steps
of the Bayonne amphitheater
constructed at the beginning of
the 20th century. A total
of 800 m2 of Carbon Fiber
Flyby through History
Fabrics and 13 tons of Motorists in Ohio (USA) will soon be able to retrace
metal beams will be installed the history of American aviation that took off in their
by October 2004. region. A crossroads near Dayton has been renovated
SUDAN with 11,400 m2 of Reinforced Earth covered with

architectural panels presenting a 16-scene history

of the story of the Wright brothers and their first Flyer.
the Corinth Gulf
Last August 7th, the Rion-Antirion
Bridge in Greece was inaugurated
with the passage of the Olympic flame
for the 2004 games held in Athens.
On this 2,252 m long bridge, built
by VINCI Construction Grands Projets,
5,200 m2 of Reinforced Earth. Freyssinet installed 368 stay cables
Reinforced Earth’s first (4,500 t of steel) equipped with
contracts in Sudan involved earthquake protection systems.
the construction of
Reinforced Earth approach
ramps to the Tuti Bridge
and the Al Gaba bridge,
both situated in Khartoum. IBM Opts for Prestressing
The surface areas of
the cladding is 900 m2 for the
Tuti structure and 4,300 m2
Designed by the renowned Swiss architect, Max Dudler,
the new IBM headquarters under construction in
for the Al Gaba structure. Zurich-Altstetten, is a 13-storey, 37,000 m2 complex. Freyssinet Polska, the Group’s Polish
The panels were precast Allreal AG is in charge of construction, in association with subsidiary, is five years old. Since its
by a local contractor with consultants Höltschi & Schurter and Walther Mory Maier. creation in 1999, it has participated in
a pleasing bush-hammered For construction of the slabs, the project engineers the construction of the country's most
architectural pattern. chose to implement a compact and easy-to-install prestigious sites : Gdansk Bridge, cable-
SOUTH KOREA prestressing solution like those designed by Freyssinet. stayed bridge over the Vistula in Plock,

Lightning-Speed Construction. Through the fruitful collaboration between Feldmann Bau etc., and has seen the incremental
With the assistance of the AG (Bilten) and Freyssinet, construction was completed launching of bridges in Czerniakowski
Vélizy Technical Department in just eleven months. and Wroclaw. Currently, it is among the
(France), Freyssinet Korea most active specialized of civil engineer-
(South Korea) constructed the ing companies in the country. Over these
Doomul cable-stayed past five years, Krzysztof Berger, the
footbridge in the heart of general director, has created a team of
Seoul last May in just eight Sols & Structures moves on talented young engineers; These include
days. This unique structure
Sols & Structures will from now on be published every Arkadiusz Franków, geotechnical engi-
presents a 14 m wide central
deck and is elevated 11 m six months. It will have supplementary pages and deal neer, Andrzej Kandybowicz, works man-
from the ground by 12 stay with new areas. Two articles are already being scheduled ager, Pawel Skrzypczak, financial direc-
cables, the longest of which is for the next edition: earthquake resistance devices on tor, Lucjan Talma, business manager,
20.2 m; Its tower stands the Rion-Antirion bridge and an article on the Polish and, last but not least, Zofia Krawczyc
at 18 m high. agency, Freyssinet Polska. who joined Freyssinet Polska in 1999.

Second semester 2004 Soils & Structures 3



The Versatility
of Stay Cables
Julio Martinez Calzón and Miguel Gomez cross elements, the
functional part of the
cables can create a
powerful aesthetic effect
Navarro are both engineers in the Spanish footbridge, were given a when they form a group.
Engineering Consultancy Company MC2 and hexagonal shape. Isolated cables should
Again, this reinforced be reserved for light,
participated in the design of the Valladolid the feeling of novelty spacious structures
Science Museum footbridge*. They look back and movement procured such as building roofs,
while crossing the for example. Conversely,
upon the genesis of this ground-breaking structure. For the on a bridge, a group is
structure, and sketch their vision for the future stabilizing cross cables, crucial to the aesthetic
we contemplated using outcome. Whether
of stay cables. one single cable they are used for bridges
anchored to the lower or for building roofs,
Soils & Structures. - footbridge that is between external part and wrapped stay cables and their
You helped design the prestressed with external prestressing and stay around each ring or architectural
Valladolid Science cables and equipped cables, let’s take a look polygon of the arrangement are a
Museum footbridge. with a cable-stayed back at the original footbridge. However, whim, a fashion
Would you classify it as component. An estimate project which was direction change statement. Their future
a cable-stayed structure? of the proportions conceived by the problems finally forced could be limited.
It’s a unique structure would be 80% architect José Rafael us to use double cables. During the 19th century,
that’s difficult to prestressing and 20% Moneo in collaboration Freyssinet performed western societies were
categorize. It would stay cables. To better with Enrique de Teresa, all the tests to validate likewise infatuated with
be better described as a understand this fusion the Science Museum this design with the arch bridges, which
architect. This was Cohestrand. In summary, later almost disappeared,
originally based on the the structure could be replaced by lintels,
form of a fish basket, defined as the dialogue only to resurface
and to make this idea or correlation between recently, like a fad.
more concrete, we a very fine metal wire
proposed using cables mesh and a woven net So, cable-stayed bridges
that would add to composed of only are a fad?
the total aesthetics of vertical and horizontal Not exactly.
the footbridge while cables. Clearly, the technique
also stabilizing the has been overexploited
pedestrian area. This Does this bold design without justification
produced the desired make way for a new in many locations, such
feeling of “spaciousness”. conception of cabled as developed countries
In short, the structure structures? in response to client
evolved through We showed a lot of demand based on
modification of the creativity in the design the desire for fashion
positioning of upper, of this structure, but or prestige.
lower and lateral cables didn’t forge a model Our society has gone
to yield the desired or type of design based through three phases
effect. In addition, the on new cable of stay cable structure
combinations. We do development.
Julio Martinez Calzón. believe, however, that During the first phase,

structures that were Is the design of a cable- The Collserola

large, interesting and stayed structure like that Telecommunications
Tower in Spain combines
innovative were built, of any other structure? the use of steel stay
but these have not aged The use of stay cables cables (supplied and
well. The second phase requires the design of installed by Freyssinet)
was characterized by structures that could be in the lower section with
Kevlar cables in the upper
a less-selective use of qualified as “aerial”; section to avoid disruption
the technique; This gave These pass over of radio broadcasting.
rise to the construction functional zones at great
of very interesting heights, and are
structures, but also necessary when the goal
The cables of the Valladolid
of ones that are more is to completely free
Science Museum footbridge
questionable. Lastly, up the lower space of a serve both as stay cables
the third and current site. In addition, it’s and prestressing elements.
phase benefits from important to remember
high-quality stay cables that, besides providing
and auxiliary elements, support, stay cables
thus permitting the are great aids during
creation of durable, construction.
easy-to-maintain Structurally speaking,
structures. The result when used on large
has been real progress constructions, they offer
in the areas of great freedom of design
watertightness, anti-UV and installation. Such
protection, vibration characteristics are the
control, and the high result of developments
durability of in digital analysis and
individually-protected computers.
strands, etc. Stay cables If modern architecture
are no longer used is to be regarded as architecture, we believe in the short term, solutions in the future
exclusively for structural complex, it’s because that parallel strand except in very particular to surpass the current
or aesthetic reasons, but these tools are available, cables have more design cases such as that limits. In our opinion,
now, thanks to these are used in an increasing potential and a larger of the Collserola however, the current
steps forward, can serve number of applications, range of applications Telecommunications traditional criteria,
as very interesting offer more possibilities than locked-coil strands, Tower. Here, steel stay with a few minor
functional and and new solutions. which are more limited cables were used for improvements, will
architectural objectives. In the framework of this to suspended structures the lower section and continue to decisively
Their use can become increasingly active use and industrial uses. composite Kevlar cables dominate the market
truly active and effective. of stay cable elements in Locked-coil strands were used for the upper for years to come. n
are less ductile under section to stabilize * Also see page 18.
current civil engineering the mast (because metal
recommendations. pieces would have
generated induction
What do you believe currents and, thus,
the future holds for could not be installed).
cable-stayed structures? Because of their cost
Though current stay and conditions of use
cable technology is demand for these
satisfactory, we foresee materials will not
continuing progress in become widespread
the quality of materials rapidly, and their use
and elements making up will remain limited to
steel stay cables. We are, specific applications.
however, more skeptical For the design of
about the development bridges, we could
Miguel Gomez Navarro. of composite materials perhaps use mixed

Second semester 2004 Soils & Structures 5


The System in Top Form

Freyssinet was a
pioneer of the
stay cable
technique and
has been working
for the past 30
years towards
perfecting it for
designers and
project owners.
The Freyssinet
system, based on
technology, has
found its latest
expression in the
Millau Viaduct.

gave in Asia last spring, (as part of
the two conferences on stay cables
organized by the Group - see page
22), Bruno Dupety, the CEO of
construction: the Far East. The tim-
ing was perfect: this year Freyssinet Millau: A technical
Freyssinet, again highlighted the
risk brought to his attention at the
beginning of 2004 by Michel Vir-
marks the 30th anniversary of the
Brotonne Bridge, the first cable-
stayed bridge built in France (1974)
and human success
logeux, consulting engineer: that and the tenth anniversary of the
this technology would become Normandy Bridge. The Freyssinet On the 27th of August 2004, at pre- group; The bridge will be officially
banal and that we would forget the Management team was also able cisely 12:04 pm, the final stay cable inaugurated on the 17th of Decem-
great strides it has made over the to boast current accomplishments was placed on the Millau Viaduct, ber. The main component of the
last 10 years. Bruno Dupety shared such as the Group's participation and, as he later admitted, Jean-Luc assignment has been accom-
this view with Jérôme Stubler, in several important sites (includ- Bringer, the Freyssinet site man- plished, yet a part of the team will
Freyssinet Deputy General Man- ing the Cooper River Bridge in the ager, breathed a sigh of relief. remain on site until mid-Novem-
ager and Structure Division Direc- USA and Centennial Bridge in Freyssinet held to the very short 12- ber in order to complete the final
tor, and thus quickly decided to give Panama – see page 16), two of which week delay that was defined for the crucial steps: cable tension adjust-
top experts in the field a forum in have attracted worldwide attention installation and tensioning of 154 ment, damper placement, injec-
which to share their experience which is not confined to specialists: stay cables, and thereby upheld its tions, etc. Freyssinet worked extre-
before audiences in the region of the Rion-Antirion Bridge in Greece pledge not to disrupt the construc- mely hard to respect the timeline,
the world that currently has the and, most recently, the Millau tion schedule for this important and achieved an exceptional level
largest number of bridges are under Viaduct in France. project, undertaken by the Eiffage of organization within a team that

6 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


A Quick Look at the Viaduct
The Millau Viaduct, that stretches across the Tarn valley, is 2,460 m
long and is held by 7 pylons that are 340 m high. Its deck rises
270 m above the ground and the main spans are 342 m long.
Designed to support a 4-lane motorway, the deck is composed of
a 32 m-wide trapezoidal orthotropic box girder, made of steel;
a central line of 22 stay cables per pylon holds the deck. The
structure was completed as part of a concession contract; The
construction contract was awarded to the Compagnie Eiffage du
Viaduc de Millau (CEVM), that will operate it for 75 years, the
building process was split between Eiffage TP (civil engineering)
and Eiffel (metal deck), which respectively subcontracted to
Freyssinet for nailing of the deck to the piers and supply, and
installation of the stay cables (1,500 tons).

PARTICIPANTS that he had been “following for 11

or 12 years”), got down to the job of
Owner :

Compagnie Eiffage du viaduc defining the profiles necessary for

de Millau. the site; These profiles were com-
Engineer : SETEC. municated throughout the Group.
t t t t

Architect : Lord Norman Foster. Almost 30 months later, the team at

Designer : Michel Virlogeux.
Project : Thalès, Arcadis ESG, work in Millau during the summer
Serf. of 2004 was a melting pot of French
Execution methods : Greisch collaborators with accents from

Ingénierie, Arcadis ESG, Thalès, various provinces, several techni-

Eiffage TP.
Main contractors : Eiffage TP, cians from Portuguese and British

Eiffel. subsidiaries, and actors from Major

Specialized contractor : Projects who had just descended

Freyssinet. from the pylons of the Rion-

Antirion. Comprised mainly of vol-
totaled nearly 100 people at the unteers, who were “proud and
height of activities (much larger delighted” to participate in this
than normal team sizes). Such prestigious site, and whose average
efforts are reminiscent of the level age, according to Jean-Luc Bringer,
of involvement shown during the was between 25 and 30 years; the
project to repair an arch of the tun- team, quickly got down to work
nel under the English Channel in with “very good morale”, no doubt
1996, a project that is still vividly aided by the favorable summer
remembered in the company. conditions.
Immediately following signature The stay cables, first installed on
of the contract in January 2002, pylons P3 and P2, were used as
DURING LAUNCHING OF THE DECK, 24 stay cables installed
on pylons P2 and P3 were used as launching cables. Manuel Peltier, Freyssinet project launching masts, and the related
Temporary saddles placed on the deck and pylons helped manager, and Jean-Luc Bringer, tasks were completed: temporary
to limit angular deformations in the anchoring points. employed in the Freyssinet France nailing of the deck, temporary pre-
Technical Department in Gémenos stressing of the crossbeams on
(Bouches-du-Rhône) at the time struts. The company was on site
(and long interested in a project from the start date in June 2003

Second semester 2004 Soils & Structures 7


to complete these operations.


The team was in full force following

closure of the deck, as if on the
starting line for a 2,460 m sprint – a
race in which it needed to pace
itself to the progress of the Eiffel
team responsible for erecting the
five remaining pylons while mak-
ing sure not to slow down the
waterproofing work behind it.
Simultaneously, a part of the team
definitively nailed the deck to the
piers. Instructions were to never
interrupt production whatever
happened. This objective was met
through the on-site presence of a
structural engineer and regular
communication with the Belgian
Engineering Consultancy Com-
pany BEG as well as the dedicated
efforts of Jean-Luc Bringer to coor-
dinate the team’s operations with
Eiffel. “Actually,” says Jean-Luc,
“only storms in August that
required us to evacuate the deck
sometimes several times per day
made us fear that we wouldn’t be
able to keep the deadline.” The
data initially planned for delivery
was the 9th of September and,
thus, the Freyssinet teams’ satisfac-
tion today, the 27th of August, is

A Personalized Solution
The contract for the supply and
installation of stay cables for the
Millau Viaduct, the main contract proposed a project with a concrete Its capacity to be dismantled
awarded to the company as part of deck, but the Group’s metal deck strand by strand allows close for
the project, forced Freyssinet to solution was chosen in the end. inspection in case of damage and
demonstrate the advantages of its “Use of a metal deck led to much replacement of the defective strand
system compared with the competi- smaller total stay cable weight than and not the entire stay cable. In
tion’s pre-fabricated solutions. This that required by the concrete solu- addition, because the Freyssinet
challenged to the fears of experts tion,” he explains. “And the choice system is assembled on site and
that the market would be con- of Eiffel put Freyssinet in competi- not delivered ready to install, it can
quered by solutions made com- tion with the offers of pre-fabricated be easily set to the final length and
monplace – in other words, that stay cable suppliers, solutions that are, adjusted. “On the contrary, with a
cables would sooner or later be con- in principle, in line with the philos- monolithic design, pre-fabricated
sidered as a “low-tech” product and ophy of Eiffel whose frames pre-fab- cables cannot be dismantled and
not as a solution that offers a well- ricated in Lorraine and Fos-sur-Mer thus require cumbersome installa-
developed and high-performance are delivered ready for assembly on tion means compared to Freyssinet
technology. the site.” stay cables which are installed
Manuel Peltier, project manager, “Consequently, it was our job to Jean-Luc Bringer, Freyssinet strand by strand.” These weren’t
recalls that both Freyssinet and demonstrate the numerous advan- site manager, grew up in the only advantages Freyssinet
the Millau region, and had been
Eiffage responded to the first call for tages of the Freyssinet stay cable “following” this project for could offer as incentives: the guar-
bids in the summer of 2000. Eiffage system,” continued Manuel Peltier. the past 11 or 12 years. anteed life span of its stay cables

8 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


of Freyssinet France, but
also from the Rion-Antirion
site in Greece and from
all subsidiaries (mainly
from Portugal and United
Kingdom), the Freyssinet
teams totaled almost
100 collaborators in the
final phases of stay cable
installation. Freyssinet also
contributed, though
with fewer numbers, to
the deck launching phase
by performing tensioning
and release of the
launching cables.
On top of each pier a small
team successively
performed the operations
to “un-nail” and then
“re-nail” the deck.

exceeds the 75 years of the conces-

sion contract, and its system is
qualified in application of the CIP
recommendations for stay cables
and the watertightness test of its
patented cable guided/stuffing box ON SITE
device that protects the anchoring
blocks from corrosion. Tools to Support the Methods
“This project was always viewed as From June 2003 to April 2004 deck launching, performed during "breaks in the weather” that lasted on
an enormous challenge and we average four days, required double the effort from the Freyssinet teams. On the piers and temporary
needed to provide convincing evi- bents, installed to divide each 342 m span into 171 m sub-spans, this phase involved un-nailing of the
deck following by re-nailing after launching.
dence of the company’s capability
On pylons P2 and P3 24 stay cables were used as launching cables to support the cantilevered deck
to complete work within defined and, under the effect of deck deformations, were successively tensioned when the deck reached the
deadlines. Freyssinet’s great body bents and piers and were then loosened. To limit and control angular deformation at the anchoring
of experience obtained over the points they were installed on pylons and the deck was placed on special deviation saddles. “These
past 10 years in the construction of devices,” explains Jean-Luc Bringer, “guarantee that the cable strands will not be subjected to combined
several bridges of the same size was stress due to tension and bending greater than 60% of the guaranteed breaking point and that the
probably the deciding factor for anchoring and anti-corrosion systems will not be damaged during launching.”
Eiffel,” concludes Manuel Peltier. n

Second semester 2004 Soils & Structures 9


soft corrosion protection material

optimising fatigue resistance stuffing box / strand guide
special stay cable assembly (patented)
• Tested at pressures greater wedges (patented)
than 10 bars, the
watertightness of the stuffing variable strand
box (1) / strand guide overlenght
developed by Freyssinet
protects the cables from
corrosion at the anchoring cap
•To control vibration,
Freyssinet has access to a
complete range of internal
(3,4,5) and external dampers.
•A "needle" system
(aiguilles), or interconnection steel anchorage tube
cables (6), placed on each
side of the stay cables
corrects their parametric
•In accordance with the most anchorage block surface corrosion
recent CIP recommendations, protected - externally threaded on
adjustable anchorage
a 55-strand cable identical
to the model used in Millau 1
was subjected to a fatigue
test in the Central Laboratory
of Bridges and Roads in IED (Internal Elastomeric IHD (Internal Hydraulic Damper). IRD (Internal Radial Damper).
Nantes (France) (2) to qualify Damper).
the Freyssinet system.
•The patented Freyssinet
Isotension system (7) makes
it possible to strictly apply
the same tension to all
strands in a stay cable.

3 4 5

The Advantages of ditions that result in “semi-adher-

ence”; thus guaranteeing that the
strands withstand extreme thermal
a State-of-the-Art System conditions. “Freyssinet stay cable
anchors and high resistance steel
blocks, in which the strands are
The Freyssinet HD stay cable, that The common part of Freyssinet stay bility and optimum anti-corrosion individually anchored with jaws,
can be composed of between 1 and cables consists of a parallel bundle protection. The seven wires of the are, mechanically speaking, mainly
169 strands, is based on the prin- of semi-adherent T15.7 strands strand are galvanized and isolated characterized by limited fatigue and
ciple that each of its components (called monostrands) threaded into from each other with petroleum residual resistance to breaking, that
are completely independent at all a collective HDPE (high density wax. Since the mid-1990s the filling is caused due to fatigue,” explains
levels: anchoring, corrosion pro- polyethylene) sheath. The mono- of the wax and extrusion of the Benoît Lecinq, Freyssinet technical
tection, installation, tensioning strands were developed and sheath covering the wires have been director. The company subjected
and replacement. patented to ensure excellent dura- performed in thermodynamic con- the system to intense fatigue tests

A computer model to design the dampers.

10 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004

by axial tension, in conjunction

with cross fatigue, followed by
breaking tests by tension.

A computer model
to define damper size
The results from independent labo-
ratories either meet or exceed the
principal acceptance criteria of the
CIP (French Interministerial Com-
mission on Prestressing).
Moreover, anchor durability is
closely correlated with its water-
tightness and corrosion protection.
The watertightness of the cable
stuffing box used with the Freys-
sinet system withstood pressures
greater than 10 bars in tests. The
Freyssinet stay cable anchors also
passed the watertightness test
recommended by the CIP. The
anchor-cable system was encased
in a 3 m tube filled with water. To
simulate real environmental condi-
tions, the cable was subjected, for
seven weeks, to repeated cycles of
tension and bending at water tem-
peratures varying between 20°C and
70°C. Upon dissection at the end of
the assay, no water infiltration was
observed. Over the past few years
cable vibration engineering has
become one of the specialties of
Freyssinet. The company devel-
oped a computer model to calcu-
late absorption requirements and
6 7 develop the most appropriate
dampers. A precise diagnosis of
stay cable stability is presented for
each project and a complete range
HISTORY of anti-vibration devices is offered.
30 Years of Long-Distance Development In addition to external spiraled
sheaths, Freyssinet can offer a large
The stay cable technology composed of prestressing strands was first used on the Brotonne Bridge in
range of internal and external
France in 1977 and the Rande Bridge in Spain in 1978. At that time stay cables were a parallel bundle
of strands inserted in a metal (Brotonne) or polyethylene (Rande) sheath, injected with the cement dampers. The internal dampers are
grout. The technology evolved during the 1980s with the creation of individual protection of the rein- installed in the anchors, and the
forcements, and improvement of anchor performance under fatigue using cleats. In 1988 while several external dampers are placed on an
cable-stayed structures were being built in the USA, using a technology similar to that used for the Bro- auxiliary support. To absorb “para-
tonne Bridge, the Wandre Bridge in Belgium was constructed using, for the first time, stay cables with metric instability” of the cables, a
individually protected strands. Then a new trend appeared: injection of stay cables into wax (second “needle” system was developed.
bridge over the Severn in Great Britain in 1996). During the 1990s individual parallel strand protection
This system is composed of inter-
became more diverse. To reduce the drag coefficient on the Normandy Bridge stay cables the individu-
ally protected strands were enclosed in an envelope composed of two half shells profiled into the shape connection cables that are unbro-
of a double helix. Today, this envelope has been replaced by a continuous sheath that is aerodynamic ken and that are placed on either
and asthetically pleasing whilst also providing ultraviolet ray protection. side of the lateral plane of stay
cables. They were notably used on
the Normandy Bridge. n

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 11



A City
in the Desert
In Abu Dhabi (United Arab
Emirates), in the middle
of the desert, Ménard
Soltraitement treated a 3.5 million
square meter platform by dynamic
compaction in preparation for
the future construction of 550 villas.

OCATED ON THE EDGE OF THE technique required quantities of

a half hours by car from the city of
water that exceeded possible supply
in the middle of the desert and thus
Al-Ain and near to the border with the second was the only logical
Oman, a real estate project plans solution,” specifies Dominique Jul-
for the construction of a division lienne, Manager of the Middle East
of 550 villas among the desert Ménard Soltraitement subsidiary.
dunes. This endeavor launched
by the city of Al-Ain will house 35 tons in Free Fall
Bedouins currently becoming in- For the large backfill operations up
creasingly settled. to depths of 25 m, the company
A 3.5 million square meter platform relied on seven cranes capable of
on which the buildings will be con- delivering nearly 900tons/meter on
structed was created in the sand. impact (equivalent of a 35 t masses and thereby avoided the extreme
The summits of the dunes were flat- released from a height of 25 m) and heat of the months of July and
tened and the depressions, the applied the new MARS process August when temperatures rise
equivalent of a surface area of 1 mil- (Menard Automatic Release Sys- above 50°C.” n
lion square meters, were filled in. tem) that allows the free fall of
“The sandy desert soil was formed 35 t masses without energy loss due
in successive layers without com- to braking or friction. “This auto-
paction,” explains Étienne Dhiver, matic release system, developed for
the project engineer. In this loose this site, optimizes the energy of
state, the ground was at risk of set- ground compaction by increasing
tling under its own weight or that of its deep impact and represents a
the villas. To avoid such settlement technological advancement in the
that would damage the new build- field of granular soil compaction,”
ings, Ménard Soltraitement stepped tells us Étienne Dhiver. This tech-
in. The company had two solutions nique also made it possible to com-
at its disposal to guarantee a maxi- plete treatment in merely nine Owner: city of Al-Ain.
t t

Main Contractor:
mum of 2.5 cm of foundation settle- months instead of the eleven Hyder Consulting.
ment and provide the necessary months provided for in the con- Contractors:

ground bearing capacity: vibroflota- tract. Michel Piquet, project man- Al Ghafly, Nael and NTCC.
tion (or vibrocompaction) and ager, concludes, “We were able to Specialized Contractor:

Ménard Soltraitement.
dynamic compaction. “The first finish the project at the end of June

12 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004



SYSTEM) optimizes the energy from ground compaction by
eliminating energy loss from braking or friction.

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 13



All the lifting jacks were

connected to a central
control system andcould
be operated individually
or in combination.

Lift of a
Heavy Weight
The delicate phase of
construction of the largest
Australian airport hangar,
jacking of a 3,000 t truss to
a height of 25 m, was assigned
to Austress Freyssinet.
HE BRISBANE AIRPORT MAIN- columns and mechanically lock it phase hoisted the truss 25 m off the
T TENANCE HANGAR is the lar-
gest facility of its type in Australia
into place. Austress Freyssinet was
responsible for the heavy lift. “To
Curve and Camber
The lift was completed in three
stages. “Pre-jacking the truss by
ground to its final position. All per-
manent steel connections were
and it has marked a major coup for perform the operation, we attached the initial 5 m was the most diffi- assembled and the load was then
the Queensland State Government specialist lifting jacks to steel plat- cult part of the operation due to transferred from the jacks to the
in cooperation with the principal forms that were temporarily fitted the pre-camber of 1.5 m in the structure. Six Austress team mem-
contractor Multiplex Constructions. to the top of the concrete columns” front section that would straighten bers completed the lifting opera-
This “state of the art” building will explains Tony Mitchell, the project under load.” advised Tony Mitchell. tion in three days and the hangar
feature a 160 m wide steel truss manager. The two front columns Months of planning was required was handed over on the 21st of
weighing 3,000 t supported by eight each had 2 No x 400 t jacks and the to develop an incremental jacking June 2004. n
40 m high concrete columns. The six back columns were each fitted sequence which would allow the
impressive proportions of the with 2 No x 150 t jacks. The jacks load to transfer to the truss from
hangar will allow it to simultane- were hydraulically linked to a cen- temporary supports without over-
ously accommodate three B767 air- tral control system where they stressing structural elements.
craft or one massive Airbus A380- could be operated individually or Deformation of the camber in the PARTICIPANTS
100 wide-bodied aircraft. in any combination. In addition, frontal truss under various loads
Owner: Government

The construction procedure was video surveillance cameras com- and the method required to main- of the State of Queensland.
simple, erect the concrete columns, bined with a laser survey system tain the structure horizontal by Main Contractor: Multiplex

fabricate the truss on a 3 m high allowed for monitoring jack loads compensating for the reduction in Constructions.
temporary support, then lift the and the truss height from the cen- curvature was carefully studied. Specialized Contractor:

Austress Freyssinet.
truss to its final position on the tral control. More classical in nature, the second

14 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004



A Mountain Record
SNC won
a contract for
the installation
of 30,000 m2
of Reinforced
Earth walls on the
motorway (France).
This record
In addition to retaining
contract forced the walls, Terre Armée
SNC was responsible
company to adjust for the studies and for
its production the supply of materials
for the construction
methods. of load bearing
abutments for the upper
passage of the Sinard,
constructed by
Campenon Bernard
Régions. Ease of
T OWNER, AREA, received the
green light on July 2001 and work
construction also
contributed to the
adoption of the
began on the Coynelle-Fau Pass Reinforced Earth
section of the A51 motorway to the
south of Grenoble. This new
10.5 km-long section will, by mid-
2006 become an extension of the
16 km section already open to traf- PARTICIPANTS ture, that successfully bid for the of the rocky cliff surroundings. All
fic between Claix and Coynelle work, which includes earthworks, the scales were then prefabricated
Owner: Area (Rhone-Alps

since 2000. The road is situated in Motorways). structures and restoration of traffic. in a partner factory of Terre Armée
a mountainous region with steep Main Contractor: Scetauroute. “This was a complex project for SNC using underwater cement to
t t

slopes that required the use of split Engineer : Guintoli-GTS-Bianco- Terre Armée requiring a mixture of guarantee concrete quality and
carriageways. Eurovia-MTS-Campenon technical and architectural tech- resistance to freezing and deicing
Bernard Régions joint-venture.
“Reinforced Earth is particularly Specialized Contractor: niques,” explains Pierre Sery, direc- salts. Construction of the retaining

well-adapted to this type of config- Terre Armée SNC. tor of Terre Armée SNC. walls began last May and will
uration where rocky terrain alter- continue until August 2005. “With
nates with loose soil,” explains Eric Inspiration from the Cliffs three teams at work, the rate of con-
Lucas, technical director of Terre SoilTech, the technical department struction averages 170 m2 of face
Armée SNC. In total, 10,000 m2 of of the Reinforced Earth Company, area per day and reaches up to
nailed walls and 30,000 m2 of Rein- is 18 m but, with superposing sec- performed a study to verify the 200 m2,” states a proud Pierre Sery.
forced Earth structures will guaran- tions, the total height reaches 22 m behavior of the EPDM pads This rate of installation led Terre
tee stability of the slopes and sup- in some locations. Their construc- between the cladding panels. Con- Armée SNC to acquire 67 forms,
port of the roadways. Five walls are tion was assigned to the Guintoli- cerning the aesthetic aspects, the 60 of which are equipped with spe-
currently under construction. The GTS-Bianco-Eurovia-MTS-Cam- Jourda agency designed a surface cific mats to reproduce the archi-
maximum height of one single rise penon Bernard Régions joint ven- decorated with a motif reminiscent tectural pattern. n

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 15



Bridging The Two Americas

Ninety years after the opening

of the canal, Panama recently
inaugurated a new structure over
the famous pass. Several entities in
the Group participated in the project.
Located in an earthquake-risk
region, the Centennial Bridge
can withstand ground
IFTEEN KM NORTH OF THE regular 34 m-wide and 4.5 m-high INTERVENANTS accelerations of up to 0.33 g.
F BRIDGE OF THE AMERICAS concrete box structures, the deck of
Owner: Ministerio de obras

constructed 40 years ago, the Cen- the main bridge was prestressed públicas, Panama. tractor was required to organize
tennial Bridge (the celebration of crosswise and lengthwise with steel Preliminary Design: T.Y. Lin. work so as to never interrupt traffic

the 100th anniversary of Panama’s cables (800 t) and is supported by Detailed Design, Consulting in the canal. Particularly difficult
Engineers and Temporary

was held at the end of 2003) will 128 stay cables (1,400 t) anchored during the sensitive phase of stay
Work: Leonhardt,
hold the new east-west motorway every 6 m and protected with white Ändra und Partner. cable installation, this constraint
built to reduce traffic on the old external HDPE (high density poly- Main Contractor: Bilfinger was a factor in the choice of the

structure by 50%. This structure, ethylene) ducts. All these compo- Berger. construction methods used. The
Specialized Contractor:

built over the Culera valley, meas- nents were supplied and installed access spans were cast in situ on
Freyssinet International & Cie,
ures a total of 1,052 m and rises to by Freyssinet. During construction Austress Freyssinet, scaffolding while the main bridge
80m above the canal. With these of the bridge, the main challenge Freyssinet Iberian-American was built by cantilever. The mobile
proportions, the Titan floating set before the main contractor, Bil- Division. formwork travellers were used to
crane can be passed underneath finger Berger, was the time con- install both the segments on piers
for lock maintenance and the canal straint. To allow opening of the and the members. “Bilfinger Berger
can be later widened to 275 m. structure on the 15th of August assigned us the formidable task of
The main bridge is comprised of 2004, the anniversary of inaugura- lifting the steel mobile formwork
two 200 m end spans and a 420 m tion of the canal by passage of the travellers,” explains John March-
central span. Access is gained American ship Ancon on the 15th ese, Freyssinet works manager on
through four spans varying from of August 1914, work was limited to site. Once they were partially
46 to 66 m in length. Composed of 29 months. In addition, the con- assembled at the base of the towers,

16 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


these two tools, each weighing

390 t, were installed using two
180 t-capacity cable jacks in addi-
tion to two 50 t jacks. Lifting was
performed between September
and October 2003. “The operation
was divided into two phases: the
first portion of the mobile form-
work travellers was lifted 70 m and
put into final place using tempo-
rary hangars. Then, the second part
was hoisted up and attached to the
first to form one unit. The installa-
tion of each mobile formwork trav-
ellers and subsequent safety con-
trols took 10 hours.”
Raja Asmar, Freyssinet project dir-
ector: “With two teams working in
two shifts seven days a week, good
coordination between the various
collaborators on the site made it
possible to achieve four-day manu-
facturing cycles per segment and
per mobile formwork travellers.”
Once the bank spans and closure of
the central span were completed, Custom passage
the mobile formwork travellers
were brought down in June and The redevelopment of an important intersection
July 2004. Because traffic could not
be interrupted, the mobile form- in the City of Auckland, in which the New
work travellers could not be low- Zealand subsidiary, Reinforced Earth Ltd,
ered in the middle of the canal.
Using launching techniques, the
participated, required all the ingenuity of its engineers.
Freyssinet teams brought the
mobile traveling forms down the IRST BUILT 150 YEARS ago for bridge, and the use of temporary Earth Ltd. The building of the south-
towers. They were then removed
using four 180 t-capacity jacks
F military needs, the Great South
Road remains one of the important
“Bailey” bridges to allow traffic to
pass through the site during the
ern abutment was complicated by
the discovery that a 300 mm diame-
attached to the deck with the north-south roads in Auckland. In work. The design featured exten- ter high-pressure gas main was
strands passed through openings. the South Auckland industrial area it sive use of Reinforced Earth retain- located in the middle of the struc-
Each removal took 8 hours. n intersects with Sylvia Park Road, ing walls, both temporary with ture, instead of to one side. As the
running east to west, before crossing Terratrel wire mesh facing, and pipe walls were not thick enough to
the North Island Main Truck Railway permanent, with precast concrete carry the extra height of the new
by means of a steep, narrow bridge. TerraClass facing panels. bridge, the structure was redesigned
The combination of the intersec- to use lightweight pumice fill. The
tion and adjacent bridge had cre- Solutions on staging of the bridge construction
a case-by-case basis
ated a traffic “bottleneck” which was achieved with the use of two,
had grown steadily worse as traffic Though at first glance a conven- seven metre high TerraTrel tempo-
density increased – 37,000 vehicles tional project, it held many sur- rary walls, with welded wire mesh
are converging on the intersection prises for the engineers of Rein- facing panels
daily. The current project consisted forced Earth Ltd, requiring all their In total, some 1,552 square meters
of widening the roads to add new ingenuity. “The absence of an accu- of permanent retaining walls with
lanes and building a new, wider rate map of the underground net- precast concrete TerraClass facing
bridge to current standards works meant that we had to adapt panels, as well as 280 square meters
The Contractor won the Project our solutions on a case-by-case of temporary TerraTrel walls. The
with an alternative design, involv- basis,” explains Don Asbey-Palmer, work began in January 2003 and was
ing staged construction of the engineering manager of Reinforced completed in July 2004. n

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 17



Technological Manifesto
at the Science Museum

Conceived by the architects

José Rafael Moneo and
Enrique de Teresa, this
contemporary/unique design for the
Valladolid Science Museum’s (Spain)
new footbridge illustrates the
creative possibilities available using
with prestressing and stay cables.
PENED LAST JULY 28TH, a foot- structure, involved longitudinal
O bridge designed with a fish bas-
ket in mind crosses the Pisuerga
and hexagonal prestressing,” speci-
fied Patrick Ladret, technical direc-
river and connects the city center tor of Freyssinet SA in Spain. Each
with the Valladolid Science of the 15 sections was prestressed
Museum. The 234 m structure is with a peripheral cable that passes
notably composed of a hexagonal over the six crests of the hexagon.
prism inside which the pedestrians This original design led Freyssinet
walk. After construction of the piers to develop, under the supervision
and cast in situ construction of a of the Engineering Consultancy
white concrete span, the elements Company MC2, a deviation saddle
were installed using a crane. The for inconspicuous passage of the
central span was put in place using cable and effective transmission of
a barge. stress. Based on full-scale tests per-
“This section, the longest in the formed at PPC, the Group’s factory,

18 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


to measure the resistance of the The patented Freyssinet Cohestrand

strands to deviation, and, in the cable system was chosen for its
Freyssinet SA facilities in Zamudio mechanical performance and
near Vizcaya to verify their sliding anchoring was provided with Sys-
onto the saddles, the solution pro- tem C blocks. Longitudinally, six
posed to MC2, and finally chosen external prestressing cables were
“associates anchoring to the top arranged along the hexagon crests.
and bottom crests of the hexagon, Forming a 110 m parabola between
the major angular deviation points, the two piers, these cables were
and of the deviation saddles to the slightly deviated at the anchorage
intermediary extremities,” explains points and hexagonal prestressing
Alberto GonzáLez Bueno, study and deviation saddles. Patrick Ladret
business engineer for Freyssinet. explains: “We had to find the best
solution to fit the architectural
design to offer prestressing with
PARTICIPANTS strands that could be individually
disassembled if necessary.” The In addition to its mechanical ducts and strands were placed on
Owner: Aguas del Duero.
t t

large number of direction changes function, the external the footbridge before the transla-
Architects: José Rafael Moneo, prestressing cable grid looks
Enrique de Teresa. (90) excluded the use of saddles like the fish baskets which tion operations. “Like a catenary,
Consulting Engineers:

separating the strands individually inspired the architect's design. specifies Alberto González Bueno,
MC2 Ingeniería.
Main Contractor: Pisuerga for financial and technical reasons. we used a temporary strand to

alliance (Puentes y Thus, external prestressing inject- install the ducts and individually
Calzadas and Joca Ingenieria). ed into the cement grout with 4C15 thread the strands before injecting
Specialized Contractor:

and 7C15 anchors was used. As all the cement grout.” n

Freyssinet SA.
integral parts of the structure, the Also see page 4.


A multipurpose gantry crane

From design to methods,
Freyssinet took responsibility
for complete engineering of
a device for a complex jacking

HE THAI STATE is sparing no struction and the erection of the

T effort in welcoming foreign visi-
tors and has begun work on a new
monumental metal truss covering
the main terminal building. By mid-
International Airport outside Bang- 2004 the work was progressing with
kok due to open in September the assembly of a second metal
2005. Built using modern architec- structure, intended this time for the
ture, its seven story terminal concourse. Lifting operation done gantry and its support rail system. Kittisatra, of Freyssinet Thailand.
(182,000 square meters) is located by mobile crane has to be discard- All the lifting work were carried out “The real specialty of the system is
around thirty kilometers to the east ed because of limited space. Freyssi- by the main contractor. “We sup- that the gantry is not only capable of
of the capital and in the long-term net Thailand was awarded by Italian plied the studies and method state- lifting and moving a segment of the
should have a capacity of 100 mil- Thai Development Co. Ltd, the ment, as well as the detailed draw- structure but of rotating more or
lion passengers a year. main contractor, the construction ings and calculation sheet for the less within 30 degrees in plan view
Work began in 2002 with the con- method and detailed design of the lifting system,” indicates Likhasit from center axis.” n

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 19



A Safe, Simple and

Economical Solution
In Isère (France), the benefits
of an innovative solution
proposed by Ménard
in joint-venture led the pack.

OW CAN LOOSE SOIL BE lowed by 47 cm layer of compacted

H IMPROVED to enable it to sup-
port both the dead and operating
gravel laid on an ordinary geotex-
tile. Over the remainder of the ter-
loads of a building? In order to rain, this distribution mattress was
allow the introduction of a do-it- 1.20 m thick made up of a single
yourself superstore in the Mal- 60 cm layer of inert compacted
adière industrial zone in Bourgoin- material and a 60 cm layer of gravel
Jallieu (Isère, France), this question laid on a geotextile.
was placed before the geotechni-
cians of the Experimental Center Simplified Design
for Building and Public Works The specifications for soil consoli- “This method simplified the design columns compared to hard inclu-
Research and Studies (CEBTP). The dation required the installation of of the structure itself compared to sions throughout was their better
initial analyses, revealed that the hard inclusions covered with a 1m the original solution and made it resistance to earthquakes. Christ-
foundation of the 30,000 m2 site thick layer of form and a reinforced possible to avoid "construction of ian Ernst tells us: “The dry columns
comprised a highly compressible, concrete slab. Christian Ernst of large reinforced concrete slabs that placed on top of the inclusions
8 m deep clay-peat layer on top of a Ménard Soltraitement: "Working would have been necessary to eliminated the hard point and
layer of sand and compact gravel. together, Ménard Soltraitement absorb the negative forces caused interstitial settlement phenomena.
To prepare the terrain, a distribu- and Keller-Fondations Spéciales by the hard points (inclusions).” Thus, the structure is guaranteed to
tion mattress (primary backfill) proposed a solution based on the In addition, these inclusions were withstand earthquakes.”
was placed in in two zones. The use of columns formed of hard at great risk of being sheared by The process, with all elements
first, designed to support the future inclusions in the clay-peat layer the earthworks equipment during accurately downscaled, was vali-
slab, was made up of two 30 cm lay- and topped, through the upper 2 m the backfill operations. Another dated in test specimen assays, cone
ers of inert compacted material fol- of backfill, with dry stone columns. clear advantage of the bi-modulus penetration tests and in situ tests
with 150% overload of the columns.
Measurements performed in paral-
PRINCIPLE OF INSTALLATION OF BI-MODULUS COLUMNS (BMC) lel illustrated the homogeneity of
settlement throughout the entire
surface. n

Owner: Castorama.
t t t

Architect: Paul Barbier.

Specialized Contractor:
Ménard Soltraitement
(project leader) and
Keller Fondations Spéciales

20 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004



A Kit of 39 Spans

Manufactured using B50

self-placing concrete to
simplify casting into the
mould, the U beams are
composed of 10.5 t of passive
steel, 64 m3 of concrete and
5.4 t of prestressing steel.

Precasting and installation:

in Spain, the Group’s subsidiary,
Tierra Armada, participated
in two phases of construction of a large
railway structure.
N THE TOLEDO-MONCEJÓN tors on which the slabs were cast.
O SECTION of the future Spanish
high-speed railway line, Tierra
“To avoid beam movement during
pre-slab placement and slab pour-
Armada helped construct the ing, we temporarily connected the
largest viaduct it had ever worked beams in groups of two using
on. The 1,659 m long structure is cables and four jacks,” continued
composed of forty-two 36 m spans. Salvador Lorente. On each span, 60
With the exception of the 3 central plates with 5.9 m lost frameworks
spans that were cast in situ, the 39 equipped with connectors were
others were composed of two pre- placed on the precast beams to
cast parallel U beams. We were form the abutments of the viaduct
involved in different phases of this and cover the U. To join the two
project, explains Salvador Lorente, parallel beams, 30 concrete plates
general director of Tierra Armada. with reinforced lost frameworks
First off, in our Loeches factory were installed. n
near Madrid, we fabricated the 78
beams (39 pairs) as well as the pre-
slabs and slabs. We then installed
them on the structure. “Once deliv-
ered to the site by special wide load PARTICIPANTS
delivery, the beams, each weighing Owner: GIF.
t t t t

160t, were installed by crane on the Engineer: Inocsa.

pot bearings on the head of the Main Contractor: Necso.
pier; These were then covered with Specialized Contractor:
Tierra Armada SA.
pre-slabs equipped with connec-

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 21


various stay cable configurations,

from the central line of stays to the
four-stay lines used for bigger
structures; he highlighted the evo-
lution of decks to composite solu-
tions and of pylons to forms that

Karl Frank.
give architects more room for
imagination and audacity. The
durability of stay cables, key to the
structural design, was discussed by
Professor Karl Frank from the Uni-
versity of Austin, Texas (USA). Based
on the example of the bridges of
Maracaibo Lake (Venezuela) and
Bruno Dupety. Kohlbrand (Germany), he dealt with
the problem of locked coil strand
corrosion and showed the evolution


The Freyssinet Stay

Cable on Tour in Asia
Last spring, Freyssinet organized Michel Virlogeux.
to systems with parallel cables
two conferences in Asia; This region threaded into metal sheaths or
of the world is where the largest HDPE. He also stressed the need to
bridge projects are carried out today. follow the recommendations of the
fib to search for “multibarrier” stay
cable protection methods. Michel
Virlogeux, consulting engineer and
he paradox of advanced tech- Kong on the 31st of March and the designer, presented the vibration
T nologies is that their applica-
tions often become commonplace.
second in Tokyo on the 2nd of
April. In his introduction, Bruno
René Walther.

installation will make way for even

problems encountered by design-
ers. Supported by mathematical
To prevent this risk and to increase Dupety, the chief executive officer more daring projects. Honorary illustrations, he presented the vari-
knowledge of the recently-devel- of Freyssinet International, stress- professor at the École polytech- ous types of vibration and “para-
oped high performance stay cable ed the public’s fascination with nique of Lausanne (Switzerland), metric excitation” and then detailed
systems, Freyssinet organized two cable-stayed bridges, and the fact René Walther presented the brief the devices available to eliminate or
conferences that brought together that the great strides made over the history of these structures. Illus- reduce these phenomena, such as
around 400 guests at the beginning past 30 years in terms of durabi- trated with many images, his pres- sheath helicoidal fillets developed
of 2004. The first was held in Hong lity, mechanical performance and entation gave an overview of the for the Normandy Bridge or the

22 Soils & Structures Second Semester 2004


and technical manager of Freys- DEVELOPMENT GROWTH

sinet respectively, presented the
Freyssinet HD stay cable system
Launching Opening
(see the article on p. 6) and boasted of Austress of Freyssinet
the successful results from the CIP
watertightness test to the audito- Menard Adria
rium. The consulting engineer,
Reiner Saul, summarized in Hong Following a few years
Kong the evolution of cable-stayed of successful collaboration
Maorun Feng. bridges designed, controlled or in the framework of various
supervised by Leonhardt, Andrä projects such as the Crni Kal
damping of stay cables using special Viaduct (Slovenia), Freyssinet
devices (needles, internal and exter- and the Slovene company
nal dampers). In Hong Kong, the Primorje recently created
chief engineer of the China Ministry a common subsidiary
of Communications, Maorun Feng, to develop the activities of
gave an overview of all large struc- After their successful Freyssinet and Reinforced
tures completed or under construc- collaboration during Earth in Slovenia, Croatia and
tion in his country since the mid- construction of the Townsville Bosnia. Andrej Kosir was
1970s. Over the last 10 years, con- sugar terminal, one to named operational director.
struction of 23 cable-stayed bridges consolidate the soil and the The new entity was baptized
Reiner Saul.
and 13 suspended bridges, all with other to install the floor by the general directors of
a central span over 400 m, has been und Partner over the last decade. prestressing (see Soils & the two groups in the
initiated, and 28 of them are al- He stressed that parallel cable sys- Structures no. 217), Ménard presence of the Economic
ready in service. The Chinese offi- tems have become the solution of Soltraitement and Austress Expansion Agency (PEE)
cial explained that, in the future, choice throughout the world. On Freyssinet have created of the French Embassy
we will witness cable-stayed struc- the same subject, but this time in Austress Menard. Managed in Ljublijana, the press and
tures with spans over 1,000 m. An Japan, Yoshinobu Kubo, Professor by Paul McBarron, this Slovene television. n
example is the Sutong Bridge cur- in the Civil Engineering depart- new entity will be active in
ment of the Kyushu Technological geotechnic engineering Freyssinet Adria
Institute, reviewed the numerous and soil improvement in 5270 Ajdovscina
Vipavska Cesta 3 Slovenia
cable-stayed structures con- the region including Australia
Tel.: +386 5 36 90 331
structed in his country after the and New Zealand. It’s Fax: +386 5 36 90 200
Katsuse Bridge. Focusing in partic- portfolio of processes and
ular on the structural and aerody- techniques includes
namic evolution of structures, he Freyssimix jet grouting
pointed out that the size of central columns, ground anchors,
spans of cable-stayed bridges had dynamic compaction,
increased by 12 m per year in Japan. dynamic substitution and
Jérôme Stubler. He concluded that, based on tests controlled modulus columns
performed in Japan on structures (CMC). n
like the Shin-Onomichi, multi-
strand stay cables would become Austress Menard
37, Prime Drive Seven Hills
the preferred solution. n
Sydney N.S.W 2147
Measuring 1,056 m in length
and 26.5 m in width, the Crni
Kal motorway viaduct crosses
the Osp Valley with piers over
110 m high. Constructed by
the SCT d.d. and Primorje d.d.,
the structure used Freyssinet
Benoît Lecinq. prestressing the piers and deck.

rently under construction that will

become, in 2008, the longest bridge
in the world with a 1,088 m central
span. Jérôme Stubler and Benoît
Lecinq, deputy general director Yoshinobu Kubo.

Second Semester 2004 Soils & Structures 23

The Freyssinet Group around the world
Africa and middle-East United States Thailand Terre Armée BV
Drainage & Ground
Improvement, Inc - Ménard
Bridgeville, PA
Freyssinet Thailand Ltd
Phone: (66.2) 266 6088/90
Phone: (31.76) 531 9332
Fax: (31.76) 531 9943
Freyssinet Egypt
Phone: (20.2) 345 81 65
Phone: (1.412) 257 2750
Fax : (1.412) 257 8455
Fax: (66.2) 266 6091

A/S Skandinavisk Spennbetong
Fax: (20.2) 345 52 37

Freyssinet LLC
Chantilly, VA
Freyssinet Vietnam
Phone/fax: (47.67) 53 91 74
in Africa
Freyssinet International & Co. Phone: (1.703) 378 2500 Phone: (84.4) 826 1416
Safat Fax: (1.703) 378 2700 Fax: (84.4) 826 1118 Poland
Tel.: (965) 906 7854 Freyssinet Polska Sp z.o.o.
Fax: (965) 563 5384 The Reinforced Earth Company Europe Milanówek
Vienna, VA Phone: (48.22) 724 4355
South Africa Phone: (1.703) 821 1175 Belgium Fax : (48.22) 724 6893
Freyssinet Posten Pty Ltd Fax: (1.703) 821 1815 Freyssinet Belgium NV
Olifantsfontein Vilvoorde Portugal
Phone: (27.11) 316 21 74 Venezuela Phone: (32.2) 252 0740 Freyssinet - Terra Armada
Fax: (27.11) 316 29 18 Freyssinet - Tierra Armada Ca Fax: (32.2) 252 2443 Lisbonne
Caracas DF Phone: (351.21) 716 1675
Reinforced Earth Pty Ltd Phone: (58.212) 576 6685 Terre Armee Belgium NV Fax: (351.21) 716 4051
Johannesburg Fax: (58.212) 577 7570 Vilvoorde
Phone: (27.11) 726 6180 Phone: (32.2) 252 0740 Romania
Fax: (27.11) 726 5908 Asia Fax: (32.2) 252 2443 Freyrom SA
United Arab Emirates Hong Kong Denmark Phone: (40.21) 220 2828
Freyssinet Middle East LLC Freyssinet Hong Kong Ltd A/S Skandinavisk Spaendbeton Fax: (40.21) 220 4541
Dubaï Kwung Tong - Kowloon Vaerloese
Phone: (971) 4 286 8007 Phone: (852) 2794 0322 Phone: (45.44) 35 08 11 Spain
Fax: (971) 4 286 8009 Fax : (852) 2338 3264 Fax: (45.44) 35 08 10 Freyssinet SA
Freyssinet Gulf LLC Reinforced Earth Pacific Ltd France Phone: (34.91) 323 9500
Dubaï Kwung Tong Freyssinet France Fax: (34.91) 323 9551
Phone: (971) 4 286 8007 Phone: (852) 2782 3163 Vélizy
Fax: (971) 4 286 8009 Fax: (852) 2332 5521 Phone: (33.1) 46 01 84 84 Tierra Armada Espana, SA
Fax: (33.1) 46 01 85 85 Madrid
Phone: (34.91) 323 9500
America Indonesia
Fax: (34.91) 323 9551
PT Freyssinet Total Technology Freyssinet International & Cie
Argentina Jakarta Vélizy
Phone: (62.21) 830 0222 Phone: (33.1) 46 01 84 84 Slovenia
Freyssinet - Tierra Armada SA Freyssinet Adria
Buenos Aires Fax: (62.21) 830 9841 Fax: (33.1) 46 01 85 85
Phone: (54.11) 4372 7291 Phone: (386) 5 36 90 331
Fax: (54.11) 4372 5179 Japan Ménard Soltraitement
FKK Nozay Fax: (386) 5 36 90 200
Brazil Tokyo Phone: (33.1) 69 01 37 38
Phone: (81.3) 5220 2181 Fax: (33.1) 69 01 75 05 Sweden
Terra Armada Ltda AB Skandinavisk Spaennbetong
Rio de Janeiro Fax: (81.3) 5220 9726
PPC Malmö
Phone: (55.21) 2233 7353 Phone/fax : (46.40) 98 14 00
Fax: (55.21) 2263 4842 TAKK Saint-Remy
Tokyo Phone: (33.3) 85 42 15 15
Phone: (81.44) 722 6361 Fax: (33.3) 85 42 15 14 Switzerland
Canada Freyssinet SA
Reinforced Earth Company Ltd Fax: (81.44) 722 3133
Terre Armée SNC Moudon
Mississauga Phone: (41.21) 905 0905
Phone: (1.905) 564 0896 Malaysia Vélizy
Freyssinet PSC (M) Sdn Bhd Phone: (33.1) 46 01 84 84 Fax: (41.21) 905 0909
Fax: (1.905) 564 2609
Kuala Lumpur Fax: (33.1) 46 01 85 85
Phone: (60.3) 7982 85 99 Turkey
Chile Freysas
Freyssinet - Tierra Armada S.A Fax: (60.3) 7981 55 30 Fyrom
Kadiköy On the future 265 km motorway under
Santiago de Chile Freyssinet Balkans
Phone: (90.216) 349 8775
Phone: (56.2) 2047 543 Ménard Geosystems Sdn Bhd Skopje
Fax: (90.216) 349 6375 construction between Nhaoundéré
Fax: (56.2) 225 1608 Subang Jaya Selangor Phone: (389.2) 3118 549
Phone: (60.3) 5632 1581 Fax : (389.2) 3118 549
Reinforced Earth Insaat
(Cameroon) and Touboro (Chad),
Colombia Fax: (60.3) 5632 1582
Stup de Colombia Great-Britain Proje Ve Tic. A.S
a site far from its bases, Ménard
Bogota Reinforced Earth Management Corrosion Control Services Ltd
Phone: (57.1) 257 4103 Services Sdn Bhd Telford Phone: (90.216) 484 4179
Fax: (90.216) 484 4174
Soltraitement set an amazing record
Fax: (57.1) 610 3898 Kuala Lumpur Phone: (44.1952) 230 900
Phone: (60.3) 6274 6162 Fax: (44.1952) 230 960 for speed last spring. Active six days
Fax: (60.3) 6274 7212
Tierra Armada Ltda
Bogota Freyssinet Ltd Oceania out of seven, and in double shifts from
Pakistan Telford
Phone: (57.1) 236 3786
Reinforced Earth Pvt Ltd Phone: (44.1952) 201 901 Australia the 10th of May to the end of June,
Fax: (57.1) 610 3898
Islamabad Fax: (44.1952) 201 753 Austress Freyssinet Pty Ltd
Phone: (92.51) 2273 501 Seven Hills the single team sent to consolidate
El Salvador
Fessic SA de CV Fax: (92.51) 2273 503 Reinforced Earth Company Ltd Phone: (61.2) 9674 4044 the compressible zones (before initiation
La Libertad Telford Fax: (61.2) 9674 5967
Phone: (503) 278 8603 Singapore Phone: (44.1952) 201 901 of earthworks) installed 27,000 vertical
Fax: (503) 278 0445 PSC Freyssinet (S) Pte Ltd Fax: (44.1952) 201 753 Austress Menard
Phone: (65) 6899 0323 Hungary
Seven Hills
Phone: (61.2) 9674 4044
drains for a total of 360,000 ml.
Presforzados Técnicos SA Fax: (65) 6899 0761 Pannon Freyssinet Kft Fax: (61.2) 9674 5967 This was the equivalent of a daily
Guatemala City Budapest
Phone: (502) 2204 236 Reinforced Earth (SEA) Pte Ltd Phone: (36.1) 209 1510 Austress Freyssinet Pty Ltd average of 12,000 ml compared with
Fax: (502) 2500 150 Singapour Fax: (36.1) 209 1510 Melbourne
Phone: (65) 6566 9080 Phone: (61.3) 9326 58 85 4,000 ml achieved by teams in single shift.
Mexico Fax: (65) 6565 6605 Ireland Fax: (61.3) 9326 89 96
Freyssinet de México SA de CV Reinforced Earth Company
Mexico DF South Korea Ireland (Ltd) The Reinforced Earth Company
Phone: (52.55) 5250 7000 Freyssinet Korea Co. Ltd Kildare Hornsby
Fax: (52.55) 5255 0165 Séoul Phone: (353) 45 431 088 Phone: (61.2) 9910 9900
Phone: (82.2) 2056 0500 Fax: (353) 45 433 145 Fax: (61.2) 9910 9999
Tierra Armada SA de CV Fax: (82.2) 515 4185
Mexico DF Italy New Zealand
Phone: (52.55) 5250 7000 Sangjee Ménard Co. Ltd Freyssinet - Terra Armata SRL Freyssinet New Zealand Ltd -
Fax: (52.55) 5255 0165 Séoul Roma Reinforced Earth Ltd
Phone: (82.2) 587 9286 Phone: (39.06) 418 771 Auckland
Fax: (82.2) 587 9285 Fax: (39.06) 418 77 201 Phone: (64.9) 2363 385
Fax : (64.9) 2363 385
Freyssinet Nederland BV
Ez Waddinxveen
Phone: (31.18) 2630 888
Fax: (31.18) 2630 152
FREYSSINET - 1 bis, rue du Petit-Clamart - 78140 Vélizy-Villacoublay - France - Phone: (+33 1) 46 01 84 84 - Fax: (+33 1) 46 01 85 85 -
Publication manager: Claude Lascols - Editor: Stéphane Tourneur ( - Contributed to this issue: Isabelle Angot, Krzysztof Berger,
Jean-Luc Bringer, Laure Céleste, Stéphane Cognon, Khalil Doghri, Alberto Gonzales Bueno, Dion Gray, Michelle Haynes, Dominique Jullienne, Likhasit Kittisatra, Patrick Ladret,
Salvador Lorente, Paul Mc Barron, Anna Marjanska, Tony Mitchell, Sylviane Mullenberg, Patrick Nagle, Don Palmer-Asbey, Manuel Peltier, François Prongué, Pierre Sery,
Alain Tigoulet, Faustino Valero - Editorial secretariat: Jean-Marc Brujaille - Layout: Idé - Photos: Daniel Jamme Camara Millau, Jose Angel Murillo, JF Saborit, StT, Francis
Vigouroux, Freyssinet and subsidiaries photo libraries - Front cover: Rion-Antirion bridge in Greece (Francis Vigouroux). ISSN: n°1763-0142.
Although Freyssinet makes every effort to supply the most precise possible information, the publishers and their employees
or agents cannot guarantee that this information is accruate and cannot aceept any responsibility if it is.