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Chapter IV

Work & Energy

1. Work done by a force : Line Integral


2. Kinetic Energy & Work-Energy Theorem
3.Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
4. Potential Energy and Stability

Work Done by a Force



F( ri )

rA

rB

ri


W F r


F( ri )

ri

ri

WAB Lim

F( ri ) ri
ri 0


F( r ) d r
rB

rA

Line Integral in Two Dimensions


y

Let the equation of


the path be given
as : y(x )

Writing :

dr

xA

xB x

F(x, y) Fx (x, y) i Fy (x, y) j

and dr dx i dy j

dy
F dr Fx dx Fy dy Fx dx Fy dx
dx

(Fx Fy y) dx

and so,
WAB

xB

Fy ydx

xA

Here,

Fx (x, y(x)) & Fy (x, y(x))

are functions of x alone.

Example 4.10
Evaluate the work done by the force

3
2
F(x, y) = A(x i + x y j)
for the path from (0, 0) to (x0, ax02)
along the parabolic path :

y = ax

(A & a are constants with appropriate


dimensions)

(x0,ax02)

(0, 0)

x0

x0

WAB (Fx Fy y) dx A x 3 2a 3 x 6 dx

x 04 2 3 7
A
a x 0
7
4

Parametric evaluation of Line Integral


A curve in a plane can be represented
in terms of a parameter s : x(s) & y(s)

(x(s), y(s))

s2

s
s1
x

In parametric form :


dx
dy
F d r Fx (s)
Fy (s) ds
ds
ds

and
s2

WAB

dx
dy

Fx (s)
Fy (s) ds
ds
ds
s1

A known function of parameter s

Parameter :

0 2

Parametric Equations :

x() = R cos
y() = R sin

Example 4.10
Evaluate the line integral of

3
2
F(x, y) A(x i x y j)
from (0, 0) to (0, R) along the semicircle
shown.
y

R
x

Putting

x R sin & y R (1 cos )

Fx A R 3 sin 3 ; Fy A R 3 sin (1 cos ) 2


dx
dy
R cos ;
R sin
d
d

WAB AR 4 sin 3 cos (1 cos ) 2 sin 2 d


0

Substitute

cos x and integrate.

Work-Energy Theorem
The work done by the net force acting on
a particle is the change in the kinetic
energy of the particle :
W12 (KE) 2 (KE1 )
Proof :

2

dv
m
W12 F d r m v dt
dt
2
1
1
2

m 2

v 2 v12
2

d 2
1 dt (v ) dt

(KE) 2 (KE1 )

System of Particles : Total work done on all


the particles equals change in total KE.

For a system of particles, the internal


forces, in general, do work.
The change in the kinetic energy, is the
sum of work done by both the external
and internal forces.

In the absence of external forces, the


kinetic energy of a system of particles
may not be conserved.

However, for a special kind of a system


of particle, namely, the rigid body, the
internal forces do not do any work
A rigid body is a system of particles,
in which the distance between each
pair of particle is constant in time


r2

r1

r1

r2

d r1

d r2

d r2 - d r1

is the displacement of particle 2

with respect to particle 1

d r2 - d r1

d r2 - d r1 is perpendicular to the line

joining the two particles

Therefore,
W = W1 + W2

f12 dr1 f 21 dr2


f 21 (dr2 - dr1 ) 0
(Assuming that the force of interaction
is along the line joining the two
particles)

Prob. 4.5
Mass m whirls on a
m
frictionless table, held
to a circular motion by a
string which passes
through a hole in the
F
table. The string is
pulled through the hole
i) slowly ii)* in a general manner, so that
the radius of the circle changes from 1 to 2
Show that W-E theorem holds.

i) Equations of motion (Polar)


2

m(r r ) F

m(r 2r ) 0

d 2
(r ) 0
From the second equation :
dt

r 2 const. 12 1 22 2
2

1 1

Putting r 0 & 2 in the first equation


r
m 1412
F
3
r

m 14 12
W12 Fdx F dr
2
x1
1
x2

1
1
2 2
2 1

(KE) 2 (KE)1
1
(KE)1 m 12 12
2

ii)*

1
(KE) 2 m 2222
2

1212

F mr
3
r

dv r dr
dv r
1 d 2
dv r

vr

(vr )
r
dr dt
dr
2 dr
dt
1 d 2
1212

F m
(v r )
3
r
2 dr

W12 (KE) 2 (KE)1

Where,
1
2
2 2
KE m ( v r )
2
1
m v2
2

Conservative & Non-conservative


forces
Work done by a force in taking a body
from point A to point B in general
depends on the path joining the two
points
A force is said to be conservative if the
work done by it is independent of path.
Otherwise, it is non-conservative.

Example (Non-conservative force)

3
2
F(x, y) = A(x i + x y j)
y

( x 0 , ax 02 )
C2
C1

W12C1

x 04 2 3 7
A
a x 0
7
4

Equation of path C 2 : y (ax 0 ) x

x0

W12C2 (Fx Fy y) dx
0

x0

A ( x 3 a 3 x 30 x 3 ) dx
0

4
x
A(1 a 3 x 30 ) 0
4

W12C1

Conservative Force
Example I : Constant Force

2
W12 F d r F d r


( r2 r1 )


F ( r2 r1 )

r2

r1

Example II
Central Force :
A force whose magnitude depends only
on the distance of the particle from a
fixed point (centre of force) and whose
direction is radial


F( r ) f (r ) r

Infinitesimal Displacement Vector in Polar


Coordinates

dr
dr

r d

dr dr r r d


F dr f (r) dr

y
B

WAB

rB

rA

f (r ) dr

g(rB ) g(rA )

rB
rA

A
x

Where g(r) is the indefinite integral of f(r)

Potential Energy (Conservative Forces)

C2

U( r ) F d r

C1

ro
O

ro

(Work done by an external


agency in taking the body
from reference point to point
of interest, along any path)

U( ro ) 0

U( rB ) U( rA )

rB

rA


F dr

Examples of PE

1. Constant Force F F k

U( r ) F ( r ro ) F (z z o )
For gravity near earths surface,
F = - mg
And, U mg (z z 0 )

2. Central Force
r

U( r ) f (r ) dr
ro

a) Inverse-square attractive force

k
f (r ) 2
r
1 1
U(r ) k
r ro

for ro

b. Spring force

F f (r ) r

r
O

f (r) k (r )
r

1
U(r ) f (r ) dr k (r ) 2
2

Conservation of Mechanical Energy


From work-energy theorem,

WAB K B K A
From the definition of PE

WAB U A U B
K A UA K B UB

The man has done this work over a time


2s

t0
v

2s
3

s
8
2gs

Power developed by the man


Wman
P
3326 b ft s 1
t0

3326

6.0 hp
550

Or, E A E B

Where, E = K + U is the total mechanical


energy of the particle