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# Chapter IV

## 1. Work done by a force : Line Integral

2. Kinetic Energy & Work-Energy Theorem
3.Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
4. Potential Energy and Stability

F( ri )

rA

rB

ri

W F r

F( ri )

ri

ri

WAB Lim

F( ri ) ri
ri 0

F( r ) d r
rB

rA

y

## Let the equation of

the path be given
as : y(x )

Writing :

dr

xA

xB x

## F(x, y) Fx (x, y) i Fy (x, y) j

and dr dx i dy j

dy
F dr Fx dx Fy dy Fx dx Fy dx
dx

(Fx Fy y) dx

and so,
WAB

xB

Fy ydx

xA

Here,

## are functions of x alone.

Example 4.10
Evaluate the work done by the force

3
2
F(x, y) = A(x i + x y j)
for the path from (0, 0) to (x0, ax02)
along the parabolic path :

y = ax

## (A & a are constants with appropriate

dimensions)

(x0,ax02)

(0, 0)

x0

x0

WAB (Fx Fy y) dx A x 3 2a 3 x 6 dx

x 04 2 3 7
A
a x 0
7
4

## Parametric evaluation of Line Integral

A curve in a plane can be represented
in terms of a parameter s : x(s) & y(s)

(x(s), y(s))

s2

s
s1
x

In parametric form :

dx
dy
F d r Fx (s)
Fy (s) ds
ds
ds

and
s2

WAB

dx
dy

Fx (s)
Fy (s) ds
ds
ds
s1

## A known function of parameter s

Parameter :

0 2

Parametric Equations :

x() = R cos
y() = R sin

Example 4.10
Evaluate the line integral of

3
2
F(x, y) A(x i x y j)
from (0, 0) to (0, R) along the semicircle
shown.
y

R
x

Putting

dx
dy
R cos ;
R sin
d
d

0

Substitute

## cos x and integrate.

Work-Energy Theorem
The work done by the net force acting on
a particle is the change in the kinetic
energy of the particle :
W12 (KE) 2 (KE1 )
Proof :

2

dv
m
W12 F d r m v dt
dt
2
1
1
2

m 2

v 2 v12
2

d 2
1 dt (v ) dt

(KE) 2 (KE1 )

## System of Particles : Total work done on all

the particles equals change in total KE.

## For a system of particles, the internal

forces, in general, do work.
The change in the kinetic energy, is the
sum of work done by both the external
and internal forces.

## In the absence of external forces, the

kinetic energy of a system of particles
may not be conserved.

## However, for a special kind of a system

of particle, namely, the rigid body, the
internal forces do not do any work
A rigid body is a system of particles,
in which the distance between each
pair of particle is constant in time

r2

r1

r1

r2

d r1

d r2

d r2 - d r1

d r2 - d r1

Therefore,
W = W1 + W2

## f12 dr1 f 21 dr2

f 21 (dr2 - dr1 ) 0
(Assuming that the force of interaction
is along the line joining the two
particles)

Prob. 4.5
Mass m whirls on a
m
frictionless table, held
to a circular motion by a
string which passes
through a hole in the
F
table. The string is
pulled through the hole
i) slowly ii)* in a general manner, so that
the radius of the circle changes from 1 to 2
Show that W-E theorem holds.

## i) Equations of motion (Polar)

2

m(r r ) F

m(r 2r ) 0

d 2
(r ) 0
From the second equation :
dt

r 2 const. 12 1 22 2
2

1 1

r
m 1412
F
3
r

m 14 12
W12 Fdx F dr
2
x1
1
x2

1
1
2 2
2 1

(KE) 2 (KE)1
1
(KE)1 m 12 12
2

ii)*

1
(KE) 2 m 2222
2

1212

F mr
3
r

dv r dr
dv r
1 d 2
dv r

vr

(vr )
r
dr dt
dr
2 dr
dt
1 d 2
1212

F m
(v r )
3
r
2 dr

Where,
1
2
2 2
KE m ( v r )
2
1
m v2
2

## Conservative & Non-conservative

forces
Work done by a force in taking a body
from point A to point B in general
depends on the path joining the two
points
A force is said to be conservative if the
work done by it is independent of path.
Otherwise, it is non-conservative.

## Example (Non-conservative force)

3
2
F(x, y) = A(x i + x y j)
y

( x 0 , ax 02 )
C2
C1

W12C1

x 04 2 3 7
A
a x 0
7
4

## Equation of path C 2 : y (ax 0 ) x

x0

W12C2 (Fx Fy y) dx
0

x0

A ( x 3 a 3 x 30 x 3 ) dx
0

4
x
A(1 a 3 x 30 ) 0
4

W12C1

Conservative Force
Example I : Constant Force

2
W12 F d r F d r

( r2 r1 )

F ( r2 r1 )

r2

r1

Example II
Central Force :
A force whose magnitude depends only
on the distance of the particle from a
fixed point (centre of force) and whose

F( r ) f (r ) r

Coordinates

dr
dr

r d

dr dr r r d

F dr f (r) dr

y
B

WAB

rB

rA

f (r ) dr

g(rB ) g(rA )

rB
rA

A
x

C2

U( r ) F d r

C1

ro
O

ro

## (Work done by an external

agency in taking the body
from reference point to point
of interest, along any path)

U( ro ) 0

U( rB ) U( rA )

rB

rA

F dr

Examples of PE

1. Constant Force F F k

U( r ) F ( r ro ) F (z z o )
For gravity near earths surface,
F = - mg
And, U mg (z z 0 )

2. Central Force
r

U( r ) f (r ) dr
ro

## a) Inverse-square attractive force

k
f (r ) 2
r
1 1
U(r ) k
r ro

for ro

b. Spring force

F f (r ) r

r
O

f (r) k (r )
r

1
U(r ) f (r ) dr k (r ) 2
2

## Conservation of Mechanical Energy

From work-energy theorem,

WAB K B K A
From the definition of PE

WAB U A U B
K A UA K B UB

2s

t0
v

2s
3

s
8
2gs

Wman
P
3326 b ft s 1
t0

3326

6.0 hp
550

Or, E A E B

## Where, E = K + U is the total mechanical

energy of the particle