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EXPERIMENT : WORK DONE BY A VARIABLE FORCE (TANGENTIAL

EFFORT)

OBJECTIVES

To demonstration the work done by a variable force (tangential effort)


Investigates as area under the graph of force by carries a different load
and the distance when it moves.

THEORY
This experiment is designed to reinforce the general principle that the work
done, particularly by a variable force, can be determined simply by measuring
the area under the graph of force and distance moved. A pivoted arm carrying a
load hanger at its end is restrained by a spring balance at right angles to the
arm. The angular position of the arm is indicated by a protractor scale attached
to the back board. The effort is the force needed to hold the weighted arm at a
particular angle. This can be repeated for several different weights.

The efforts Fo, F1, F2, F3, F4, Fi are the forces needed to hold the weighted arm
at particular angle. Assuming that the weight of the weighted arm is negligible.
The forces balance for particular position is shown in figure 2.

At position 0, no tangential effort required to hold the weight, at the position i, (

= 90
at any angle

) the maximum effort is required. Efforts between positions 0 and I

from the vertical line can be determined from

F()

= w sin

--------------(1)

From the definition of the work.


W = F x s----------------(2)
Where S equal to the displacement in the direction of force F, from figure 2,
S = r --------------(3)

= weight arm angle in radian

Then the work done by force in particular interval can be calculated from

F()

-------------(4)

The total work done by the force as the weighted arm moves from position 0 to I
can be approximately by
n

W=

wi
i=1

W=

F() S
i=1

-----------(5)

EQUIPMENT
Loads (500g, 1000g), load hanger, spring balance,

PROCEDURE
1. The load hanger with 500g of load are hanged at the pivoted arm.
2. The spring balance is attached at the end of the pivoted arm and
perpendicular to the wpivoted arm (equilibrium in the horizontal direction
must be observed). Reading of the spring balance must be zero.
3. The spring balance is pulled by hand to ( the pivoted arm 10 degree, the
perpendicular between the pivoted arm and the spring balance is
observed)
4. The spring balance reading is recorded for 10 degree interval of the
pivoted arm.
5. 500 g of load is putted into the hanger. The reading of spring balance are
recorded until 90 degree.
6. Repeat step 1 until 5 by replace the 500g of load with 1000g.
7. The graph is ploted base on the tabulated data (tangential effort vs
curve).-

RESULT

W
(kg)

(sin) ( rad )
30

40

50

60
0.5

70

80

S=
r
F (N)

W EXPERIMENT W THEORITICAL

0.52
36

0.98
1

0.18
85

0.1849

0.4623

0.69
81

2.15
3

0.25
13

0.5423

0.7923

0.87
27

2.94
8

0.31
42

0.9263

1.1806

1.04
72

3.92
4

0.37
67

1.4782

1.6002

1.22
17
1.39

4.90
5
5.88

0.43
98
0.50

2.1572
2.9589

2.0271
2.4283


90

100

110

20

30

40

50
1.0

60

70

80

90

100

63

27

1.57
08

5.88
6

0.5
655

3.3285

1.74
53

6.37
7

0.62
83

4.0067

3.0350

1.91
99

6.37
7

0.69
12

4.4078

3.1859

0.34
91

1.96
2

0.12
57

0.2470

0.52
36

4.41
5

0.18
85

0.8322

0.9246

0.69
81

6.08
2

0.25
13

1.5280

1.5846

0.87
27

7.94
6

0.31
42

2.4966

2.3612

1.04
72

8.82
9

0.37
67

3.3259

3.2003

1.22
17

9.81
0

0.43
98

4.3144

4.0542

1.39
63

10.7
91

0.50
27

5.4246

4.8566

1.57
08

11.2
82

0.56
55

6.3797

5.5476

1.74
53

11.2
82

0.62
83

7.0882

2.7738

0.4218

6.0700

EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION (THEORICICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL)