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CONTENTS

The
Japan
Architect
4

Between Reality and

- Hajime Yatsuka

AUTUMN

$flj

1991-4

162

Fukuoka, Phenomenologicai ... -------------------------Steven Hall + Hideaki Ariizumi

Kumamoto Artpolis

Riken Yamamoto & Field Shop

12

Hotakubo

24

Kumamoto Municipal Housing Estate, Shinchi Master Plan

26

Shinchi

46

Kumamoto Municipal Housing Estate, Takuma: Master Plan

48

Takuma Housing

Yusaku Kamekura

54

Takuma Housing Project----- Yasumitsu Matsunaga/SKM Architects & Planners

SHINKENCHIKLJ-SHA CO., LTD.

58

Takuma Housing

62

Saishunkan Seiyaku Women's Dormitory---Kazuyo Sejima Architects & Associates

76

Common City Hoshida-------------Kazunari Sakamoto Studio

Publisher and Editorial Director


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Editor
Yasuh'~ro

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Cover Design

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90

Master Plan

92

Steven Holl Block - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S t e v e n Hall Architects

104

Rem Koolhaas Block ------Rem Koolhaas/Office for Metropolitan Architecture

116

Mark Mack Block - - - - - - - - - - - - M a r k Mack/Mack

128

Osamu lshiyama Block - - - - - - - - Osamu lshiyama Laboratory, Waseda Univ.

138

Christian de Portzamparc Block ----Atelier d'Architecture Christian de Portzamparc

150

Oscar Tusquets Block --------Oscar Tusquets/Tusquets, Oiaz & Associates

172

Y's Court

180

Orchid Court Phase 1--Charles W. Moore/Moore Ruble Yudell + Mitsui Construction

188

Hillside Terrace Complex, Phase 6------Fumihiko Maki/Maki and Associates

196

Ryokuen-toshi Development

208

Detail Drawings

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Riken Yamamoto & Field Shop

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162

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Y'S COURT NAKAHARA---------:fbk"ii'.JC/SKM~ntni!lllljj:.mjiJf

BETWEEN REALITY AND UNREALITY


Hajime Yatsuka

Housing has been the most important task in the history of


Modern architecture, both in the West and Japan. However,
Japan in the past two decades has hardly witnessed any signiflcant achievement in this f1eld. It is without doubt that this
phenomenon reflects the reality in which housing problems
have become a secondary concern for Japanese people, except in
cases speculation. That the only achievement in this period
was to crown the concrete houses of several stories with pitched
roofs covered by traditional kawara tiles, illustrates how futile
the effort has been. This strange discovery of kawara housing is
none other than there-transfer of the so-called "imperial crown
style" of prewar times. This association with Japanese imperialism into the field of domestic architecture, well illustrates the
conservative nature of past solutions.
Featured in this issue are recent housing projects in Japan.
They cover a broad range of programs from social housing,
private developments, dormitories, and a group of detached
houses by a single architect. The variety and scope of these projects enables us to give insight into the nature of the problems of
urban dwellings and their relation to the city. The main focus

this article will concentrate on two developments; Kumamoto


(which includes Hotakubo by Yamamoto, Shinchi housing by
Hayakawa and the Saishun-Kan women's dormitory by Sejima),
a Japanese counterpart of the IBA projects of Berlin, known as
the Kumamoto Art Polis and secondly, the Nexus development
designed by architects from abroad.
The Hotakubo housing by Riken Yamamoto, represents a
very realistic approach to the housing dilemma. It is an exceptiona! renovation in terms of organization of inner spaces, since
Kunia Maekawa's readaptation of the Unite d'Habitation in his
apartment house of Harumi (Tokyo) in the late 1950's. It is even
"revolutionary" and epoch-making, considering how conventiona! almost all the pu~lic housing built in Japan has been. The
Hotakubo project is the climax of a design ~Y Yamaiiloto that began in series of his smaller townhouses. These
liOUs'es are based on the reflection of the conditio ;;in Japanese /
cities and their respective climates. In Hotakubo, Yamamoto
offers.. a re-interpre!ation of tradition::!.Jife ~
tyeologies; living quarters facing towards a common space
(court), sC'iiir-open galleries to connect living quarters to bed- .

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rooms, and large covered balconies for outdoor life. These are
quite skillfully arranged and designed within a limit a very low
budget. Overall, a highly reasonable and thoughtful proposal.
(
Unfortunately, however, the proposal was not well recieved by
\ a small group
its inhabitants. Those who had been accus) tome~ to the normal and architecturally prosaic type of housing. And as often is done, journalists who have little insight
-;bout the nature of the problems involved, report this as an
example of the architect's egoism. His will to sacrifiCe the
inhabitants for the sake of"design" which is, as they argue, alien
to the life and local climate. They never understood that the
trouble arose because of the architect's concern for life and
/ climates, not by the absence of it. This is quite an interesting 1
case that illustrates people are not living firmly on the real con- \
clition, but rather on the convention which has no "real" justif1- (
cation in the end. To compare this case with others such as the
Shinchi housing and Nexus in particular provides an even more
revealing perspective.
The Shinchi housing project consists of various phases, each
phase will have its own character, but the same guidelines will

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apply to all the phases. The fmal project is to be built in ftve successive stages, each of which is to be designed by different architects.
working system as a joint group has been adopted
before, however, the working method is quite unique. This was
arranged to reflect the different conditions of the site. The was
arranged to reflect the different conditions of the site. The
Shinchi, with a very long and narrow site, is traveresed by the
main access street. This seemed a convenient case for the experiment of urban design a Ia Viennese Hoffs circa 1930. For this
purpose, a team of architects with a relatively common method
and language was organized. They were then requested to work
within the prescribed guidelines of presenting long blocks parallel to the main street. It was intended that the whole complex
transfers from an urban setting in the fmt phase to a more rural
setting of the last phase.
This method of designing at Shinchi greatly contrasts the
method utilized in the Takuma housing project. Takuma is also
part of the Kumamoto Artpolis. Here, I tried an experiment,
instead of imposing strict guidelines as in Shinchi. I gave the
architects a free hand on the site. Unlike the Nexus architects,

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]A 19914 HOUSING

the three Takuma architects were chosen for their common


ideology and mterests. Takuma is divided into three phases,
instead of one architect taking an individual phase, all three
decided to work on each phase together. Hence, the Takuma
project becomes.a type of patchwork. Each section comprised of
works by all the architects. The buildings acting like a thread
tying the whole site together.
Returning to our subject of the confrontation of reality and
unrealty, it is fascinating to note that many ofHayakawa's previous residenses were often used as houses of young characters
portrayed by popular actors and actresses in television dramas.
It is compelling to see the important role the image of the house
plays in these fashionable dramas. To further illustrate this
point; there exists in some television programming magazines,
regular articles devoted to analyzing these houses and the
characters who inhabit them. Peo le are living in the illusion
rath~n in reali.!.YJo meet with their real soc status. They
escape into the ~ld of the "urb.i!n nomad_:and live vicariously
for one hour every night. The Shinchi project by Hayakawa is
more modest in shapes and colors compared to his previous

works. This, due to


that it is a
housing project with
a tight budget (actually even tighter than Yamamoto's Hodakubo) and the inhabitants are not "urban nomads", Toyo Ito
put it) with youth, money, time, and tireless interest for the most
fashionable urban life style. Instead, this project is very large in
scale, the merit of which he managed to utilize as much as
possible to present signiftcant outdoor spaces with urban
theatrical settings. In these spaces, people can be "famous for
ftfteen minutes", as Andy Warhol once said, without transgressing their own territory.
The idea of the nomad is not new to.Kazuyo Sejima. While
working for Toyo Ito, Sejima was featured as a model in the
presentation photographs for the Tokyo nomad woman project.
The new women's dormitory for Saishun-kan is her fmt major
commission since establishing her own offtce. This project is
deeply rooted in the ideas of this nomad women and of the
female client who established Saishun-kan, a manufacturer of
beauty-health care products. The client wants her female
employees (ages 18-19) to live and work together under her
supervision for the fmt one years of their apprenticeship. For

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this reason, Sejima's design takes the character of a Fourien


pharanstere, or early Russian communal house. Sejima's idea to
reduce the private sector as much as possible, producing a
unproportionally large common space, which is actually a
covered court underlies this spirit of communalism. The obsession with light (this building is basically one large glass box
including the roof with broad skylights), also conftrms this
association with Fourieism. Here, we can witness the strange
juxtaposition of quasi arcaic space of maternalistic supervision
and modern nomadism. Strange because nomadism was originally intended to be against any form of constraint, including
maternalism. It is without doubt that the innocent lightness in
the language of Sejima contributes a lot to decolorize the overbearing maternal atmosphere which can tend to appear suppessive. The projects of Yamamoto, Hayakawa and Sejima are all
attempts to manipulate real and unreal conditions in their own
way, to fmd common ground between the two.
The coexistence of both the real and unreal as the Kumamoto
projects show is more prominent in the Nexus projects in
Fukuoka which is adjacent to Kumamoto. If we were to under-

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stand the word "real" in terms of the acquaintance with local


conditions such as life style, climate, social customs, etc., it only
leads to the too apparent conclusion that foreign architects can
never design "real" housing. However, after observing that social
housing projects bound with a lot of realistic conditions are not
neccessarily, good or bad, ruled by the real conditions today, it
seems absured to insist that housing is something to be designed
exclusively by local architects. The contemporary globalization
of so many aspects related to the life of people already deprives
us the groundwork for this kind of conservative argument.
The Nexus project is a typical showcase to illustrate the possible solutions for housing problems in this age of globalization.
Rem Koolhaas, regarding this project, states that western architects designing in Japan face a dilemma. Whether to design as
usual as in their homecountry or to reflect the Japanese reality.
These alternatives are realistic in either case. Koolhaas, refering
to this rapid globalization of Japan, further ad~ in another
occasion, " . . this confronts us with an incredible dilemma or
accumulated dilemmas which have to do with scale, program,
articulation, strangeness, and alienation from origins. These are

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I
phenominally complex; do any of us have terms of reference to
really judge their success or failure? I don't think so. This issue is
such that you cannot bemoan the loss of status to our profession, and at the same time reject every symptom of a new
territory for the profession." For other critics, this influx of
foreign architects is an unfortunate event. The outcome they
argue is both irresponsible and inadequate, one where there is
" ... no dialogue between buildings, the surrounding or the.
public". In these comments, the sly hint to Japan money to buy
architectural talents from the West (and spoil the Japanese environment) is apparent. I stand with Koolhaas on this issue. I
believe that we do not have any ultimate criterion for
judgement.
In fact, we see a lot in Nexus which cannot be judged. Should
we simply just follow our customery-procedure for judgement,
and reject these schemes? A typical example is the heterogeneity
of the expression each building demonstrates. The harmonious
townscape in the normal sense of the word doesn't exist here.
The easiest association of Japanese people would be the exhibition sites of mass-prefabricated houses. (unique in the world,

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but very popular here). In these sites, there exists no harmony


among houses, apparently because the only concern for the
house-maker is to demonstrate the character of their commodities. People never expect the effect of the harmonious townscape in these selfish orgies of commodities. (Sakamoto's
Hoshida project is an interesting project to be seen in this light.)
This association easily leads people to the conclusion that, also
in Nexus, the commercialism of the developer and the selfIshness of the architect have spoiled the social responsibility of
architecture to the general townscape. This reaction was
espoused by many, including the ex-leader of the Metabolist
group, Kiyonori Kikutake. Even among the invited architects,
Oscar Tusquets seems to have felt betrayed when the original
ru~out of having blocks parallel to the street was
violated and then abandoned in the course of the design. This
violation has justification in two aspects. First, buildings in front
of their site are perpendicular to the street which makes it
impossible to have a street as a space in the European sense.
Secondly, this idea of a street as a space has never existed in
Japan traditionally. (For this reason Hayakawa's Shinchi is

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rather an unique expirement)


In Japanese cities (contemporary), with few exceptions, we
have no norms or guidelines for townscapes anymore.
cially considering the fact that this project is not based on the
homogenity of its inhabitants as the Kumamoto Artpolis
projects, the heterogenity which this second " eisenh ff''
seventy years s ows is acceptab e in princip e. At the same time,
( though, it might be better to reserve final judgement about the
success or failure in terms of the quality of new townscape
created.
On the question of the heterogenity Nexus presents, we
should develope our analysis beyond the level of the appearance
of individual buildings. It relates to the problem of the "peculiarity" of Japanese culture as Koolhaas suggests. Japanese people
tend to believe that we can absorb, and have actually absorbed
western cultures, but our culture is too unique in the world to be
understood by foreigners. More concretely, the problem of the
possible social image of inhabitants architects would have in
mind. How for i archit cts conceive of e inhabita
n
~? In my view, the attitudes of two American

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architects, Mark Mack and Steven Holl, were both coherent and
~ Their buildin s resent almost the same im~
.the would build or wish to build in their own country. Exceptions arising from differences caused by local conCfffions such as
regulations and building customs. In some sense, their realistic
approach by-passes the dilemma which Koolhaas put into question. As much as real buildings, their works seem to be quite
reasonable and successful in their design. The differences
between their works, com'spond to the differences in the individual architects geographic backgrounds; the populistic the WestCoast Mach and the sophisticated the East Coast Hoi!. The two
of them, along with Yamamoto's Japanese approach present
examples which will interest the adherents of critical regionalism. Holl's work especially is countable as his best to date.
When I asked Hoi! about his conception of the inhabitants in
his building, he replied half in jest, that the inhabitants would be
servants of the ones in Koolhaas's apartment block. In fact, the
long outdoor corridor, which is beautifully designed, but is not
neccessarily indespensible functionally, represents his notion.
He seems to have bared in mind the scene of people coming and
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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

going generating a sense of community. This is similar to what


Yamamoto must have had in mind for his courtyard with living
quarters facing each other in spite of the inconvenience of
privacy. (Maybe we should note that they also share a interest in
internal spatial organization).
(' By contrast, the work of Koolhaas is actually not collective
i
housing. Rather a gathering~pendent court houses which
. he has tried to base on the scheme of ~ander Rohe and
~mer. Here, we can see no sense of the community, his
choice
of furniture for the model room is highly implicative in
)
this respect. It is far from the puristic taste of Mies; a copy of the
sculptures of ancient Greece, chairs both decorative and postmodern and large audio-visual equipment. Mies is none other
than pretext to provide the neutral setting for these hybrid elements. They offer us a scene of "less of bore", in the setting of
"less is more." His possible inhabitants are those who make a
random access to these hybrid data bases. What is at issue, is this
randomness, which was made possible only in this age of globalization and the electronic media, not the qualities of individual /
elements. And it seems that Koolhaas regards this random-

access possibility as a function of freedom-such a elitist vision


of the nomad society!
Among these hybrid elements are traditional Japanese ele- \
ments, not only in Koolhaas's building, but in others as well. In
Koolhaas's work, he makes use of a black fake-stone wall
(actually tinted concrete). The wall will eventually act as a j
"sockle" for Isozaki's two towers (to be completed at a later (
date). As a Westerner, Koolhaas probably envisioned his wall as
a reference that recalls the fortification of old Japanese feudal
castles (perhaps a sarcastic gesture towards Isozaki's upcoming
towers). The wall, however, has associations of cheap commercia! strip architecture for the Japanese observer. One could
say that it is now a parody of a parody. Another example of the
pop/traditional is the tatami room by Christian Portzamparc in
his Golden Tempietto. Some Japanese observers seem to be
perplexed to see them, since many Japanese are particularly
sensitive about the authtmtic manner of traditional elements. If
we were to view these Japanese elements at Nexus in this manner, they become nothing more than kitsch and pastich (didn't
Frederick Jameson argue that pasticheness is an important

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factor of the postmodern?). If, however, we take them as not


neccessarily indispensable pop elements we have a different way
to appreciate them. In this context, the black "Mountam" by
Portzamparc transforms into a welcome sight on the landscape.
To borrow, out of context, from Koolhaas," ... if you analyze
them as architecture, they have lots of flaws. If you analyze them
on their program, they maybe some of the most amazing
things".
The manner of the only Japanese architect, Ishiyama looks
somehow odd in this context. He is an architect who rejects the
authentic manner in architecture, refering to the tradition of
Japanese craftmanship. At Nexus, he could not fmd any
authentic object in the Japanese sense to challenge. This compelled him to a rather awkward and defensive position of trying
to descriminate his non-authentic Japaneseness from the fake
Japaneseness of foreign architects. Seen standing side by side, it
becomes very clear that Ishiyama's building is quite realistic and
substantial, while Koolhaas and Portzamparc's are unrealistic
and non-substantial (actually semiotic). Oscar Tusquets, the
realistic architect whose works are based on the traditional and

authentic, seems to have suffered most in the foreign situation.


This experiment is interesting, in the sense that it presents the
intersection of the real and the unreal in a most striking way. If I
were to reserve the unconditional approval of this project, it is to
miss the abscense of the social program (master plan) to transform this open possibility to a more defmitive positive way. But
that is,
course, beyond the ability of individual architects.
This next step of the Nexus project invol~es the "architectural
producer" of Nexus and by chance, also the commissioner of
Kumamoto, Arata Isozaki (I am acting as director of Kumamoto
upon Isozaki's request). Isozaki plans to add two large skyscrapers to the Nexus landscape. His scheme recalls Leonidov's
proposal for Dom Naromtiazhprom. It is a very bold proposal,
should it fail, it will surely bring the rest of Nexus down with it.
Isozaki also plans to add a couple of follies into the landscape.
Given his involvement for exposition 1990 in Osaka, (in which
he, along with myself as design coordinater, brought together
architects from abroad to design follies), it is not surprising to
fmd that the follies of architects Zaha Hadid and Daniel Liebeskind are to be reconstructed at Nexus.

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~------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~
JA 1991-4 HOUSING

11

OKumamoto Artpolis/!i~:$?-~;fiJ;z.

RIKEN YAMAMOTO & Fteld Shop

Hotakubo Housing /
~~1!!1EEii!lH~ll!l

Hii!I:iji:t:j:l)

W*i!I'Jlli~~ti~

Because it is intended for occupancy solely by


people of low income brackets, Japanese public
housing must be built on small budgets. Although
such housing is state subsidized, building-cost
increases inevitably reflect in rent increases. Furthermore, the designer who wants to produce good
public housing within limited budgets must work
under various~. For instance, each
household must be assured more than ..bours o
sunlight daily. Standard floor areas must"bdrom 70
square meters per apartment. The so-called
fublic Housing Law specifies these and still more
minor matters like numbers of rooms and amounts
of storage space. All these considerations have made
it very difftcult to employ bold ideas in the designs
of Japanese public housing.
Hotakubo Housing too is low-cost and subject to
the Public Housing Law. In one respect, however, its
planning was blessed above all its predecessors. It
was planned in con.nection with a municipal design
enterprise called the Kumamoto Artpolis.
An urban-architecture movement originally proposed by the former governor, the Kumamoto
Artpolis aims ultimately to create a city by improving the design quality of each building built in
Kumamoto Prefecture. Its commissioner, Arata

jtoBo

!sozaki, appointed me to design this housing


project.
In spite of the rigorous restrictions imposed on
public housing, in this instance, the spirits of the
prefectural staff are high because of their awareness
of doing something unprecedented. Their expectations of me too are related to novelty: the newness
of my system for assembling dwellings within the
development.
Although very strict from the designer's standpoint, the Public Housing Law has effectively maintained a certain standard of quality. But its concern
for quality was concentrated only on the apartments themselves and did not extend to methods of
combining them. It was enough to line them up
horizontally in piled-up stories as long as they did
not interfere with each other. Under such circumstances, no valid system for combining apartment
units existed.
The plan for Hotakubo Housing proposes such a
system. Basically, the 'apartments surround a courtyard, referred to as the Central Plaza. The difference between this and the ordinary garden-style
apartment building is that no access to the courtyard is provided directly from the outside. The
Central Plaza is available only to the inhabitants of

the 110 dwellings in the development.


Each apartment has 2 staircases. One connects
with the loop road surrounding the building and
provides access to the apartment from the outside.
The other leads down into the Central Plaza. To
reach the plaza from outside, it is necessary to use
both staircases and pass through one of the apartments. Each apartment is a threshold to the Central
Plaza.
The closed nature of the plotting supplied a reference point for planning individual apartments. In
each, sleeping quarters are positioned on the road
side; family quarters are placed facing the Central
Plaza. On the third and all higher stories, a bridge
connects the two. On the second story, they are
joined by a small inner garden space. For a simple
reason, the family room is as open to the Plaza as
possible: theoretically, the Central Plaza may be
limitlessly open as long as it is isolated from the outside world.
The entire architectural system rests on the character of the Central Plaza. The success of the plan
on whether the inhabitants feel the Central Plaza is
exclusively their own; that is, whether they believe
that all 110 apartments constitute a single unit.
(Riken Yamamoto)

Sile.
12

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

.~1

ITIIIIIII 111ft
0
A-rype unit plan; scale: 11200.
C-rype unit plan; scale: 11200.

B-rype unit plan; scale: 11200.

\~~I

1 JAPANESESTYLE ROOM
2 LlVlNG ROOM/OlNlNG ROOM
3 TERRACE
4 BRlDGE
5 COURT

T'l :.
4

D-type

D-type

C-type

[).rype unit plan; scale: I1200.


A-type

Section; scale: 11200.


JA 1991-4 HOUSING

13

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JA 19914 HOUSiNG

19

(pp. 14-15) Aairt! 11icw.


(pp. 16-17) Gmaal z;itw ;;om the ren/ral plaza.
(p. 18) Eh-z;alion of central plaza side.
(p. 19) Fami{y-use spaces j{ICe /award the miiml plaza.
(leji) Staircase.< around the ;mime/a of/he buildiug complex.
()acing page} Lower porliou of the buildiug perime/er.
II~

1510 iifl'li.

06 tHO J~r1~11~JVjmvf.::;L
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IZOXD ftf!l!yt./I.JOJP.ifHi.
(2!i(J ltNi;j./I.JO)lloiCI"i I)'

location: Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture


architects: RIKEN YAMAMOTO & Field Shop
client: Kumamoto (Municipal Government)
structural engineers: lmai Consulting Structural Engineer
general contractors: 1st phase; Wakuda Construction Co.,
Ltd. (West wing) and Takahashi Construction Co., Ltd.
(North wing)
,
2nd phase; Mitsuno Construction Co., Ltd. (East wing)
and Yasuda Construction Co., Ltd. (assembly hall)
site area: 11,184m 2
building area: 3,562m 2
total floor area: 8,753m 2
structure: reinforced concrete (partly molded concreteblock bearing wall); 5 stories
floor area ratio: 78.3%
building coverage: 31.9%
number of housing: 110
completion date: September, 1991

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

I
,

I
~

!}acing p{/gc) Li,~bt cnurt.


(top) D-typc 1111it.
(middlt'} B~l)p~ mn!.
(vollom) A-l)pc Jil!ti.
CtZ((l itlit.
LU D!l17'fi:1 1,
(<f>l B!t 17'ftF1

( 1:1 A!t17'fU'.

HAciiME YATSUI<A/UPM

Shinchi Housing :Master Plan


n~*-m.g:ml1!JE'!Itlil ~'IS" .A?'- /7 /:!it:;f:t/1\;lll

UPM /\J~!;I:t.:!I)JI*~lt~~

The plan calls for rebuilding a housing development


(716 households, built between 1962 and 1967} to
enable it to accommodate 1,078 households, or a
population of about 4,000 peopl~, on a 13-hectare
site. Extending over 5 years, the project is conceived
of in urban terms and needs a program consonant
with that conception. The master plan is characterized by a decidedly linear composition of a kind
rarely encountered in Japan.
The site is divided among 3 zones: the dense,
urban, west zone, in which buildings are middlerise; a zone that, urban in nature, conforms to the
scale of the adjacent prefectural highway; and the
less dense, urban, east zone, in which the buildings
are low-rise. Each zone is a distinctive locale, but
visual continuity is maintained among them by
means of a single axis. The goal of the composition
is to provide a residential environment in which
people can experience a varied spatial sequence.
The 5 participating architects are Kunihiko Hayakawa, Riichiro Ogata, Yuzuru Tominaga, Hiroshi
Nishioka, and Kenjiro Ueda. Each was in charge of
apartment-building design for one of 5 construction phases. Nonetheless, the entire group strove to
cooperate on the basis of a common concept to provide a rich residential environment by making good
use of topographical variety, diverse and individualized apartment buildings, and a network of
plazas.
;: OJW!"@iik.tl9624'tJ G19674'fUJ'tl..{~iljt~ ht~. 716)3'
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0) 3 -:;JO) 'f-.._, ('PJ!ili\1liW!l!':f1JfflO)Ii!lmli<J!!illftO)f1.lt!l!E,
IJI\if!:?.. -T-I~<i.:;ttrc; u~ll!lmli<JEIVJ!.OJIJI\i!!rcii!l!l!!/E, f!J;
/i!iffi;Wf.t:fiJfflOJ~:9H't:J!!illJ!I.OJJ,I!itl!18:J OJ, ttL'ftLOJt!l
/EO)!f.\'r.\~~tP u~ rillu ~-:J < IJ :l 1- l'> < 1:: lilJieyf.:,
tnG~ 1 *0)~-rm:~tli<J.: ti!EI.lt~ -~tn <;:~:-c.

:t!tl.:li!'M!v- 1 :r. .._, :J.tJ!{.t;!i:ti-r!5 -5fi!!i!lftO)Mnx~


sfeiHOJ'tiV-5 . .!fl.lllfllii', kill:tJllll-~~. lii:il<il!, ji!j
Jlillilb., J:B3ii!!=!l~0)5At.t>, lJtllt.PG SJtil*t:ttL'fh
IW:I Htl:i -r fitllillt~ Hl.lll 1' -5 t.t', ;t!<ii!lO) ::1 :-- -t 7 II:: 1-c, ;t{I:;OJ<V-5!1!JM~H>I-, ~f:l-c@ltt~t;t.:fitll,
JZ:~O)::f,-:; 1- '7-? 1:J: 1J, ii'tJ>I;.:(i!!\'llJ!I.tii!~T -5;:
1:: ;~;s~~~ n -r' -5,
Site,
24

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

(p. 24) General vit"<D; PIH/JeS 4 and 5 in foregro1111d.


(a/Jo11e) Gmera/1Jit11' with phrtse I in fortground.
(/if!) Gmmd vitw.
Photos 011 pt1ge 24 and 25 /Jy UZJII'II Towinttga.
{24l(l

;g1,

5JY[Jilt~J,;(,V)'t;i~HJ:~;!.

UJ 1 MJi!l:l'b:.~vJ)~:;H~~!.

<NJ

~~:;a~i~~:.

JA 19914 HOUSING

25

fl

KUNIHIKO HAYAKAWA, Arcilitect &

Shinchi Housing-A
Kumamoto Municipal Housing Estate, Shinchi
!i~:<t:m '8''llil1!l@lltilA

~JIIJBi'Ht~li!l:le~

i;

Site; scale: III ,200.

. . 26

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

.............-..................
.. ".
.

.. ~

~"

'

'

___ _
..

_/

/).~

Ncm site conjiguratiou, shoii'ing cbangts

1i1

lrvds. rc l

J~~i

..

~ "'".

Ntw site col!/iguration, showing !tryout of bausing blocks. ;rr L tJUJ <tl'll!!~ 1 T 9 r.

Surrounded by a residential district, Kumamoto


Municipal New Housing Development A, phase I,
(276 dwellings) is located in the northwest suburbs
of the city of Kumamoto. Before this project was
initiated, 186 municipally operated wooden, row
houses with small, hedge-enclosed gardens had
stood on the site for about 30 years. The new development provides half again as many dwellings as
this old arrangement. Because the former residents
will return to occupy apartments in the new build, irrgs, the design makes every effort to preserve such
traces of the original layout as topographical levels,
stone-wall forms, and in-site road patterns. We

32

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

strove to develop layout diversity to replace the kind


of mere repetition generally considered inevitable
in developments as large as this one. Diversity
together with the preservation of the old topog
raphy within the communal zone of the new plan
received major priority in the design.
The buildings are of 2 types: low rise (2 to 3
stories) surrounding courtyards, and linear-form,
medium rise (5 stories). The buildings include apartment layouts of 13 types in the medium-rise buildings and 10 types including 2 maisonette types in
the low-rise buildings. The diverse open spaces
located throughout the project include individual

approach zones for the low-rise apartments, open


first-floor zones (en pilotis), concourses, pergolas,
and reflecting pools. AU of these open spaces articulated on Slevels form a network that enriches the
communal zones.
Attached to either end of the medium-rise building is a single-layer (1.2 meters deep) facade the
same height as the low-rise buildings. These facades
establish a familiar scale for the spaces enclosed by
the apartment buildings, integrate the medium- and
low-rise buildings, and prevent the north-south
(front-back) standardization observed in ordinary
apartment buildings.
(Kunihiko Hayakawa)

, I:

~~.,~

-~~-"----~-

--==--- i

~----;;;;::

=--= II

2761iP ;: J: !.J tiolliX. t< h 6 ff~;;Ji:liJiil'Wfit!!B!lJtiJA (~ 1!liD


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;:: ;::;;:jiA,"{'Pt~A.tfl:il!'i1:;/iX.fitj'!j:"(fj':jh-c <M~lfJ.
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t, i<:; 1::l::ii!i U~Jl:tff:it!llf~mJ:ilt>~P1~ U~iH1\!i'lilR


c;t)l::-t 6;:: 1:, ;::c;t).,;,t~-:Jc;t)ii!ll111iil!
~rrc;t)<P-r*i'i tt::t71 ot 'J -r 1 ~.SifJ6 ~c;t) ttt? -r
''6.

c;t)Jl!l:lful'1i!!~/~7'-~t;.:l::", A.!ftc;t):c;t)J;!,l;::t.r-t6~c

tlfffltti::"I:J:W!~"c;t)t>IJ;t;m.rt-:Jtv>;tJ:

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H~:il1'7t:~U~ ~

<P~Z.I!Illv"'C~Ilr,"t6{1;1;/t!illl! (2~311l!fl!) l:~titl::(ljl

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c;t)i!f,J\, i< i? I::<P/!lllt"'CI:J:l3:5' 1/, f.!J;/!lllt"ti:J: 2WJ~
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?. ;H:., f.!J;
Ji!ii*l::.tol:t 600~~891: t> v>;tMi-fiP"-c;t)7/o-7~
r.,-t>iJitifel -r~flil-t 6<P~!lf. -t- G-r t:: o 71, :::1 ~:I
-:A, /~-::17-t>'J 7V:77..f ~:7' /-Jvt;.:cfl{lfl:#

T-0, 5.-:Jc;t)VJH::;tirr'iftl>ht.:;t-//:. :A- :A

c;t);t.;;

7-Jii,

ii~-:J:J;!J~tillllliitH'!lil>t;.:t,c;t)

1:: Gt~ '' 1:: ''? ~tl'itJ>i? 1::!; ht.: ~ c;t)t.!.? t.:.
l>i?~, <P/t!iltc;t)illiim~!.JM~~filt!illl!t~G81'

-:J/t!i.:ti\7 7"'t-l" kl:, Iiili! I:: J: ?"'Ci!ll


:A-:Atmlh{>TP:A7-JH::-t
6f:!l:j!fiJZ.t? t!IHt;;: <, tf11llllttfiliill!f-f:;$:ft.8"ll:
6 l:~f;:, ili!ii='Jl;:, ~tiiii=Jltv>?ltf3fE!1'c;t)illii-1t
8ht.:lillf[c;t)'Jl;:fllf1J" <-tlllliEb:lltlt b-:l.
1.2mc;t)~f':fe: f~
:l;ht.:;t-/~

(!j!./11 1'!!~)

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

33

location:

Joint Vemure of
Oda, Patio, Wakuda, and
site area: 28,1
area: 7,134m?
total
;rre: 23,047m 2
structure: reinforced concrete; I basement ancl 5 stories
(medium-rise building), I basement and 3 stories (low-rise
building)
iloor area ratio: 82.0o
building
number o(
date of completim:: ~hy. I99I

(p. 27) Vit<'1 tozr:l(lrdJ lbr uori/; m.:di:mt~riu building seen from
tbe soutb mahum-ris( building.
"'
(pp. 28-29) South nw!inm-rise /Jwlding S<C/1 beyond tb, T<jlming pool.
(pp. 30-31) Birr/'s-eye vi,;!l. T/x Shincl!i Housing Estah
composed oj two meduon-risc blocks (170 meters lout) set rtlong
the edges of tbe site with low-rise blocks situated a/ 1be Wiler.
Formed 1dtbin liN compos ilion
blocks
12me/er-square wuryards

the medimn-

u( 1be sou/b medium(2U{J I 1 Mit.H:~!:

1J 1/ 1

!.:1-!t!4i:rx;,

(28' 291() ~ 7 V 7 T 1 / 7' 7'-Jv~ l CJl,X., r~

iflfMrti/JU,

(303!(() '1il!L !i:iffJ::~citi~ttl:i:Ul70mv)fIMI!li2l!lil. 12m


f!J Cl)>/t!fr 5 ~(:30m ftrQ)rlr!.f!T ~ "')(I~J(o~l!lth t.; "df;:J;:hv;t& to 11.;;,.

I39YLUII\11!li llllf01:lii' 0 He;~ 'tt.; t:;~. <1.'0.l~!i:IH0:1J:&) 7


r 1;'~~1111J!i l f<iJ(!!'(~(? HII ~ iL t:L, '>.
(39i['f} 31~077"'1--f'lp~;,Z:;;cpf~I~L

5 levels ruu! black elements. Elements painted Nack


are dispersed within tbe large site, gmerating au 11/usion of disorder whicb injlumces tbe scale of the open
space.
5 JV) Yr.! IV(: m~ .:L V J, ./ ~, fh:kltf(i~V)tjq:f.r, { 1t C;
tlf::t.. v ~ / ~ t;t!f,({ l. ;t -7'/ 7-......Z- AV)A?'"-J}"f'f1l

~(.'t "

Isometric

of t!Je low-rise building.

}A 1991-4 HOUSING

!il;IMI!li7 -1 Y;. f 9 ., ?[1L

rr

L __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Perspeclive drawing oftl COIITI)'tlrd in !be lourrise building complex.

Isometric

llli0W'ill~- f'i-7..

of tbe medium-rise building.

t1!11li!T11 > f ~

Perspeaive d"1wing of a COIITI)'ard in !be low-rise building complex.

l!\101!lt<lll~- '''-"

?til.

]A 1991-4 HOUSING

35

SOUTH MEDIUM-RISE BUILDING

t\~iliW

Soutb elevation,

UNIT PLANS IN THE MEDIUM-RISE BUILDING: Scale: 11200. l'fllf*;z..::.., r77:--

Category I, 2LDK, SF.

36

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

NORTH MEDIUM-RISE BUILDING

1~1-ltNi

North ek11111ion; sct1k: 111,000.

Soutb &vation.

Top floor; scale: 111,000.

Middle floor.

Grolfnd floor.

Category 1, 2LDK, 5F.

Category 1, JDK, 5F.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

37

Category !, 3DK, 1,2,3F.

Category 1, 2LDK, 3F.

Category 2, 3DK, JF-5F


Category 2, 3Dk, IF.

Category 2, 3DK, 1F, for the sroerely handicapped.

Municipal housing laws in japa11 classify housing units into


two ojjicia/ categories based on the)n.come bmel of the tenant.
Category I units,jor the higher:income group, are about five
square meters larger than the Category 2 units.
ftatt'm~'~ ftatt~~~tz~~9~n. ~2
I'U ~ 5m'll1*~ <, 2!U ~ b ;lJ;i'.TliHHJflH l n ~.

Category 2, 2LDK, 5F.

Ca1egory 2, 3DK, 2F.

Category 2, 2LDK, IF, for the severely handicapped.

North-south wtiuu; J<ai': II 1,000.

LOW-RISE BUILDING f:<:!;iW

Upper floor.
GroHud jloor; scale: 111,000.

.I

UNIT PLANS IN THE LOW-RISE BUILDING; Scale: 11200.

I,
Category 2, JDK.

2F

1f
Category I, 4DK (for multi-generation families, maisonette)

42

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

lF
Category 2, 4DK (for m11ltigenemtion families, maisonelle}

West elevation.

Category 2, 2DK.

Category 2, 2DK.

Category 2, 2DK.

Category 2, 2DK.

Category 2, 2DK.

Category 2, JDK.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

43

(pp. 40-4 I) Nor! ban t.'.rhTtor ~:r tlh' so!t!h nwlium-rist'


building.
(ltw'ngptt.gc, almzJt) 30-ml'lcr~~~JIIflrc cour{yard, mrroundal I:v
low-rise h!otks.
(jil(JIIg ptlgc, bdo11U Wi:stcm side of lih' JOmelersq/llm
wurlyard.

(aboz1c) lnt..-rior o/11 housing unitjacing 1/;e 30-mc/ersqntll'<'


ro u rlytl rd.

(bd(;Zt''} Enlmnrc approtldnN~J'

lo

lo"h"-rist !JominR

uni!J.

1w 11 CLJ rjl,l(<r~J!d.. lt:fi~.JYH.~.


1.-!H(J.l ;wmitw)rj 1!0:::::::-l . .::. .: .
(~-It(

;tiJ 1 {r:::llU\'It~it!qLt!f.S.

Fl il~I~/I!!(:{OmfiJLiJ'I 1 1l:f:::::-l ~ljjl~j)'tt~.

( !'.J 30mflrC)rjt!J.!.:::::- I( F1 nU\1t~(0-i'"v).I./

t:ifriLI...:(!:fij~I'-J.

r 7:.- -;,,

eKumamoto Artpolis ~~;$:7-r;f- 1 )A

KAZUNARI SAKAMOTO+ ITSLIKO HASEGAWA+ YASUMITSU MATSUNAGA

Takuma Housing: Master Plan


n~;tm-&it~l1lt&i:it~tillli

W;t-!ilt '-ffi:sJl!i*-=t- .,:;;,J<P:x

A rebuilding of an older housing development (4


hectares, 288 households, built in the late 1960s),
this project provides 375 households and was completed in 3 phases, each 3 years long. The site, which
is located in the northeastern part of the city of
Kumamoto, is on one side of a bypass surrounded
by distribution-industry facilities. There are hills on
the northeast, a residential district on the south, and
a large supermarket on the north.
The apartment buildings are positioned around a
north-south central promenade (Greenway) serving
as the plan axis. They are all from 3 to 5 stories tall.
The 3 built in each phase plus 2 existing buildings
make a total of 11.
The exclusively pedestrian central Greenway
serves as the backbone of the entire development.
Its width varies to create a number of assembly
places-croquet grounds, children's park, plaza, and
so on -open to people in neighboring districts.
In an unusual departure, 3 architects participated
in all phases of the project from establishing basic
policy ideas throughout all 3 construction phases.
Ordinarily, when more than 1 designer cooperates
on a project, construction phases are divided among
the members of the group. In this instance, however, cooperation was much tighter because, th>ugh
the work arrangement entails more difftculties, a
diverse overall composition was required.

(above) Site.
(rig/JI) General vie-d!-tbe preliminary desigJI stage.
il:l 'r.fi'Jti!JTr.

ltil 'r.W!B~ : &*;~~,ltf1Fir.

:::IDniiiliii1960if:l-l:i&"Fi:~~~L!'M~, *"J 4 haiD~Iil!Bl ~tEIEI:H::l\:.:Utb',), 7- ~ ;f,-1v~, YCJir000J, It:~


tti!288.P '.!:375.P:;: 3 if-& 3 WJ::bt~-:> C:}!:C:~:t 6 t 1D t.: i::H~P.X t.,, t:p9i::::i.!iflJ!.li:EB':ID*IJF!l L~@!U-:MI.ilili!!i
c:-~;;,. l&lf.!li;J:~~*ill~t~llll. mt:lffiilii'l'Rtfliillt:::!lll:Htt~ lll.l:HiaGn-<>.
,,1,{.AIDJ{'fC:, ~t~::J!ilb?i~:;:{!]:fi!1t.,, !il:ti: :::ID7'o;J:r.:7 ~IDtlfi.!<m.I-1:-:Jl<l:, 3AIDilltift~bi;IJ!i
'tlti!, ~tf::::klll!.A-;f-7-7':; ~ l:itVC<>o.
;f:!ll)~IDi'fUi:b>?miEIG, tGl:3Wl't'l1D!i.ll:I'IIH:b
JiJJt!liDt:j:l-:!(:tli~t::jjg:;;,7o.t..:r-r (cp-:!(:~ilil ?:-~

t-=..,c:llltifi'HH3'toi:Etf!H!~1ft-ltt,::: 1::::~;;,. 1il :


1: G'l, of :.11.1:::t-;~- v 1 't o_if)C:-iHEIJ!tbir;tiflt:.l1. f>:IDillt~t~bilbh[EJ't 6t,il', Il1Jl:::'1: l:illtrr~?:-?HH
no.li-lll!i;tT'l3~5~.1J!'LIDt:j:lf\H", fUM;:" /J/i;;tJi-Jill'n:$6bi, :::L':U 'Jff9iitHf?tJ>, ~
1: 3-lll!, :13 J: rf~ff:ID 2-lll!t~M.:lltf!L'ln!iXt :.11.6::: fi!lt.i:i:f;P.IIifiXt;J(Il:n:, d) :t 'l 3 AIDilltrr~IDmJilli'F'l'R

1:1::t..:o.
tii'tr~WF!ll:: ~:.11.t.:t:p-:!(:~~~;t,

46

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

13!lJ:t!liD'ltffi1: t., 1' tiD

""'1

Hl:LIDI::Gn-<>.

~c; scale:

h
'

112000.

JA 1991-4 HOUSIN G

47

KAZLINARI SAKAMOTO Studio

Takuma Housing Project


l!!i*m1il'Hm:CJJil!!
l;&*-/iX,li!fJell

First floor (Phase 2); scale: 11800.

Staion (Phase 2): scale: 11500.

48

JA 1991-4 HOUS!NG

Unit type D.

Unit type R

l>i---+--t

Unit type A; scaic: l/200.

Because of high density and the need to give priority to privacy, apartment buildings in ordinary
housing developments tend to be aggregations of
dwellings completely shut off from each other.
Lacking continuity with surrounding town spaces,
both the buildings and the developments they compose seem self-contained, isolated, virtually autistic
compositions.
Like Common City Hoshida, Takuma Housing
connects with Greenway, the main thoroughfare
traversing and leading (except for vehicular traffic)
outside the development. Our plan introduces the
Greenway public space, which connects the various
apartment buildings, into the buildings themselves.
In other words, the 3 buildings cross or stand along
the Greenway or intersect it at right angles. Communal passages (5 meters wide) branching from the
Greenway pass through the centers of the buildings.
Mostly open to the sky, these indoor passages connect with the buildings by means of gently sloping
ramps and staircases. In addition to providing residents with semi-indoor semi-outdoor routes of
access, the passages connect with the central Greenway and with roads leading out of the development.
The open spaces above them introduce air and light
into the apartments and connect private interiors
with public (or common) passages. An assembly
space adjacent to the central Greenway is located
above the intersection of2 of these internalized passages. Though centrally located, in terms of motion
lines and space, it is open to the world outside the
housing development.
In short, while taking steps to improve the comfort 'of the apartments, this plan attempts to suggest
how to plan a housing development with continuity
between interior and exterior spaces, connections
between public and private zones, and smooth relations between the development and the surrounding region.
(Kazunari Sakamoto)

location: Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture


architects: Kazunari Sakamoto (Tokyo Institute of
Technology)
client: City of Kumamoto
structural engineers: DAN Structural Design
general contractors: Koshin-Fuji JV
site area: 35,873m 2
building area: 966m 2 (building 3), l,OS!m 2 (building 5),
703m 2 (building 8), 259m 2 (assembly hall)
total floor area: 3,479m 2 (44 houses) 3,785m 2 (48 houses)
2,529m 2 (32 houses) 417m 2 (assembly hall)
structure: reinforced concrete void and rigid frame struc
ture; 4 stories
floor area ratio: 80.86%
building coverage: 23.170/o
number of housing: 371
projected completion date: March, 1992 (phase 1), March,
1994

ltt*O)~

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me!
(1&:$:-!iX:)

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

49

(pp.50-51) Jforid.< oftbe Pb,li,' !.

tso. 51 to

~11 ji)jm.o,t

Ammbly hall (Phme 2), .firs/floor; scale: 11300.

52

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Secoud floor.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

53

eKumamoto Artpolis/lffi;$:7-~;f,IJ?,

ITSUKO HASEGAWA Atelier

Takuma Housing Project

'i

.\

Soulh eleva/ion; scale: 11600.

~lj
:t!

My goal is not producing individual buildings but


creating entire environments, like this housing project. Throughout design and supervision, I pursued
aims adopted at the outset: investigating of the
nature of municipal housing and public architecture
and proposing possibilities for their future development. The Japanese residential environment is
characterized by fragile wooden architecture and a
strong tendency to natural generation. The sudden
introduction into such an environment of a group
of homogeneous, massive, artificially regulated
apartment buildings creates a wo~ld that is isolated
from and alien to its surroundings. As time passes,
however, life evolves inside and outside the buildings. The trees grow. And, as these things occur, the
settlement acquires contingency and irregularity,
enabling it to blend gradually into its setting. Possibly part of the appeal of housing developments
alive with activity is this strange blending of regulated artificiality and biological natural contingency.
Stimulating the unobstructed emergence and
overlapping of such conditions ought to be a

54

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

major theme in reconstruction plans for housing


developments.
For the sake of apartment buildings with a high
degree of spatial diversity, I have attempted to use
articulation differentiation in the system for repeating housing units. To impart the appear of natural
generation in an artificially created structure, I have
mixed forms instead of striving for definite regularity. The entire site slopes. And I have made
maximum use of the incline in the hope of producing residential boundaries that fit in well with the
local environment. I have avoided buildings tall
enough to thrust conspicuously higher than the
ordinary dwellings nearby. The basis of the
assembly method is a system of repetitions of the
staircase-room form. The junctional staircases are
passages and light and air wells too. The apartment
blocks on either side of each staircase are subtly out
of alignment. The system of differentiation and
repetition results from bit-by-bit horizontal rotation
that makes neighbors of buildings of different
types.
(I tsuko Hasegawa)

I
r

n
!

:i':

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:I

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Section.

Unit plan; mde: 11200.

Unit plan.

Section; Hale: 11400.

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North elevation; scale: 11600.

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:.--1'

tl-r~-:5~0.:1:~~~. iJO)ft~tl-r~m
B::i:lll/~~~~:V AT J...O)-AI:tU,

:/31 / ~Jl1lc

location: Kummamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture


architects: ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier
client: City of Kumamoto
structural engineers: Umeiawa Structural Engineers
general contractors: JV of Fuji Corporation and Koushin

G.C.

site area: 35,873m 2


building area: 1,077m2 (Phase 1), 955m 2 (Phase 2), 954m2
(Phase 3)
total fklOr area: 3,555m 2 (Phase 1), 2,755m 2 (Phase 2),
3,1 04m 2 (Phase 3)
structure: reinforced concrete rigid frame structure; 4
stories
'
noor area ratio: 80.86%
building coverage: 23.17%
number of housing: 120
projected completion date: March, 1992

'J 'J ~ 1: leW:'' ~0)$


5tl'~~O)ffMO)cl~~-~~fG'9J:?~~Ml, ~
#:I: l HJ:, *-'J!~icJI:bffJ>f-::>@l!lilt~S/;I;c0 71
<fJ 0mB:ll1lBI':'\"EO)ii!i0 A

1'0)tt~-t0::.t~J:"'-r, ~~=~mO)vAr
J...~J'M~lt~.

(:J5l:f:i.IIIJ!T-)

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

55

56

JA 19914 HOUSING

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

57

8 Kumamoto

Artpotis.'!i~;$: 7

-r ;F IJ;;:z

YASUMITSU V1ATSUNAGA/SI<V1 Architects & Plaoners

Takuma Housing Project

li~*m'8'jflffl1llt!l
f.l;ik'ii:'ft/SKM~i:~Htil!ii:j}l:ffl?fi

Elevation; scalt: 11600.

~
;

The housing project master plan, which we helped


to develop together with two other architects, was
proposed as an alternative to the monotonous and
monumental townscapes which are the typical
result of developments based on Modernist urban
theory. In accordance with this master plan, our
housing blocks were conceived so as to introduce a
variety of ideas derived from the indigenous climate
and the traditional life-style of this region.
In order to avoid unnecessary fragmentation of
the limited floor area allowed for these public hous-)
ing units, all of the rooms in each unit-except for
one segregated bedroom space~are laid out in a
manner which allows the rooms to be linked
together, to become a spacious single hall which can
be used for different kinds of occasions. This kind
of space is a tradition still prevalent not only in this
region but also in many other regions of Japan.
Tradition is recalled in yet another way: by means
of the flexible structural system consisting of layers
of horizontal slabs supported by wall-columns,
most of the units are provided with openings along
three sides~imparting the feeling of free-flowing
space which is characteristic ofJapanese traditional

58

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

architecture.
With a diversity of floor plans corresponding to
the complicated program prescribed by the city
government, the unit blocks are simply "stuck
together" at random angles, forming rather irregular elewtions. Deep eaves and balconies extend
around the blocks in response to Kumamoto's climate of heavy rain and high temperature; these projected elements, together with the translucent railing walls, obscure the outlines of the blocks and
deprive them of any hint of monumentality, ir; line
with the spirit of the master plan.
The "fractal" and rather "fuzzy" design of our
blocks was kept amorphous until the last moment
of the design process, spontaneously responding to
the ever-changing outline of the other housing
blocks and the landscape-a process made possible
only by means of CAD. If the resulting townscape
is somehow evocative of the ambiguous and inscrutable structure of traditional towns in the East Asian
monsoon belt where Japan is situated, then we can
regard the project as a successful expression of our
original intent.
(Yasumitsu Matsunaga)

location: Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture


architects: Yasumitsu Matsunaga I SKM Architects &
Planners
client: City of Kumamoto
structural engineers: Matsumoto Structural Design
site area: 35,873m 2
building area: I ,301m2 (building 1), 405m2 (building 4),
637m 2 (building 7),
total floor area: 5,126m2 (building 1), !,688m2 (building
4), 2,564m 1 (building 7)
structure: reinforced concrete wall; 5 stories
floor area ratio: 80.86%
building coverage: 23.170;\J
number of housing: 127
projected completion date: March, 1992 (phase 1), March,
1994

1 BEDROOM
2 DiNING KITCHEN

3 JAPANESE STYLE ROOM

,I

1..

Unit type B; scale: 11200.

7jpicaljloor; scale: 11500.

Unit type C.

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1!i 1v l'ti t:::, f!ll!1Jlt.Jli!lll:f:l'ii 1:: !vi::'?Hfi:fOJ~t..:~i?!'?::
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(~7.k'5(3\:;)

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

59

60

JA 199!-4 HOUSING

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

61

SEJII\J1A Architects &

Saishunkan Seiyaku Women's Dormitory

This dormitory for employees of a local business


enterprise is situated in a provincial city about an
hour and a half by airplane from Tokyo. Since the
:.vomen who inhabit the building, live and study
here for only the fmt year of their employment,
communal living among 80 people instead of comfortable, well-equipped private rooms received
major design emphasis. For instance, providing a
large living zone was considered more important
than slightly
individual living spaces. A
spacious common bathroom was preferred to individual baths. As a result of such considerations,
each room has been designed to accommodate 4
people, but the communal spaces are as large as
possible.
From variations worked out during studies of the
relations between private and communal space, we
selected the ones in which relations between the 2
were closest in terms of physical distance, framework, and quality of completed spaces. The working
plan called for an almost 1 room arrangement in
which each person can feel free to use the entire
building as an extension of her own private space.
2 dormitory wings, 4 meters from the ground, are
positioned on the site long axis. The space between
them serves as a general living room. There is a terrace on either side of this space. The large 2-level
space that includes the living room also houses
entrance hall, manager's office, guest rooms, baths,
and terrace.
Because having them open at 2 ends was desirable, the sleeping-quarters wings use reinforced
concrete wall~posts and void slabs in 1 direction
only. Both sides are partitioned with aluminum
sashes with identical cross sections. The structure of
the large space consists of reinforced-concrete slabs
on which stand round steel posts. These elements
bear vertical loads. Horizontal loads are dealt with
by means of 5 towers rising from the first story.
Toilets are located on the first levels of the towers.
Above the toilets are air-conditioning and ventilation equipment, plumbing for the large space, and
lighting for the spacious outdoor peripheral
zone.
(Kazuyo Sejirna)

Section; scale: 11400.

SectioN.

1 BEDROOM
2 LIVING SPAC
3 HALL
4 BATH ROOM
5 GUESTS. RODM
6 TERRACE
.
7 ENTRANCE
8 CARETAKER'S
9 LOUNGE

(facing page) Night viw of the nor/hem exterior.


(63J() ~tll!ll1-lttl't1:.

62

JA 19914 HOUSING

First floor; scale: 11400.

Section.

'

~J- . .. .
..

64

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

lht' t'ntrrmc, on !be :fr:tOJU/ floor. Tbr: cplindr:r


Cttr!'laka') room.

Vilw /07.{'flrtl.s Jhc: open living sptta scmjiom tlu

(tf.> 2nr.:L/r 7.l1JX6. ::-~;.--_?7'-{Jittirr:tAnr.


t6GHO ::r..:.- ~ 7::-~>t-;.. J li Y t':.-?:A.....;-;;t:,lik~ikit/J(uli'

JL"'

(68 69YO

v t.:":.r f

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1},

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~) tl

l,

.S.

Axonomctric dmwing.

location: Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture


architects; Kazuyo Sejima Architects & Associates
client: Saishunkan Seiyakusho Co., Ltd.
structural engineers: Matsui Gengo + O.R.S
general contractors: [wanaga-Gumi
site area: !,223m~
building area: 851 m~
total floor area: !,254m~
.
structure: reinforced concrete and steel frame; 2 stones
floor area ratio: 102.5%
building coverage: 69.60AJ
date of completion: November, 1991

JA 1991-4

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

71

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

73

BEYOND THE VISIBLE COMMUNITY


Kazunari Sakan1oto

.
I
>;

I. A Mazelike, Disorderly Community


This spring 57 units representing the eastern half of the A2
Zone in "Common city Hoshida", otherwise known as Project
HUL, were completed, and they have since been occupied. The
community center in the middle was fmished this summer, and
construction on the remaining 55 units in the western half of
the site is proceeding with completion expected next spring.
One can now get a fairly good idea of what the community
eventually will be like.
It is not yet clear how the new occupants are responding to
the community since only a scattering of comments has been
received. In April Mr. Mitsttada Kato contributed a sympathetic article, describing the community and his impressions of its
spaces, to the Osaka edition of the newspaper Asahi Shinbtm.
According to him, "a visit to the community is like entering a
maze. Roads and special 'greenways' are arranged in a complex
manner on the north-facing slope, and the overall organization
of the community is diffiCult to grasp, even when one is walking
around. There are no straight roads or long stretches of fence.
Instead, one encounters only walls of aluminum and concrete
painted in pastel colors. These are su~mounted by light, pitched
roofs. Nothing accords with our conventional image of a neighbor hood of detached houses. It is almost as if the townscape had
evolved naturally over an extended period of time. Ambiguous

JL~. 't \.\ Q 1 ~o:>(ti].:

A Community with Many Parts


Modern new towns are typically not disorderly or difficult to
understand. This community is very different from uniformly
textured and clearly organized new towns which are based on
strong, unifying master plans; the typical new town is all of one
thing and does not have different parts into which it might be
analyzed. Mr. Kato states that, although the buildings at
Hoshida are made of contemporary, manmade materials, "the
townscape might almost have evolved naturally over an extended period of time". I understand that there are many other
people to whom this project suggests a traditional community, a

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spaces are generated ... "


The community, being only half complete, certainly must
appear fragmented and mazelike to a visitor, and its overall organization must be difftcult to understand. Depending on one's
viewpoint, the community may even appear disorderly. The
seemingly scattered arrangement of the units and the confusing
pattern of roads and greenways may suggest a lack of coherence.
As I will explain below, no particular effort was made to realize
scenic design, and in that sense, there may well be an absence of
unity. Perhaps one may discover in the wall planes and pitched
roofs an order based on reiteration, but one is not accustomed
to seeing these fmishes and forms in residential areas.

74

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slum settlement, or a community that has evolved without a


plan. Such a community, being a collection of small, frag. mentary parts, is characterized by dispersion rather than unity.
That is probably why people feel that the organization lacks
coherence. Moreover, each building responds to the topography
and to other buildings, and that has given rise to a smooth continuity of environment. Small, precise adjustments have been
made to the buildings and the landscape; as a result, many parts
have been generated in many places, and the environment has
become very articulated. This space does not have as its premise
a unified whole; instead, it is made up of parts, each in its proper
place. The mazelike, disorderly quality some people see in
Hoshida may be a characteristic of communities built up of
many parts, such as towns that have evolved spontaneously, or it
may simply be an image created by the assemblage of such parts.
Is a Community with Many Parts a Mazelike, Disorderly
Community?
I have stated that the community seems maze like and disorderly
because it appears as an assemblage of parts. Certainly contemporary as well as traditional communities that are collages of
fragmentary parts have been known to cause confusion: However, is a community composed of many parts really a mazelike,
disorderly community, and. is a mazelike community a com-

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munity without a structure?


As I stated in the beginning, visitors seem to get their impression of Hoshida from its fragmentary parts and the assemblage
of those parts. Perhaps what those people need in order to
immediately understand the organization of the community is a
bird's eye view. However, are the scenes of this community truly
fragmentary for the people who live in Hoshida or who have
already experienced all of Hoshida? Might not such people see
in the parts not fragments but a reflection of the whole community or relationships to other places in the community?
Recently there have been many instances of image-oriented
buildings in which the overall composition is fmely articulated
in order to break down the scale of large volumes and to give
works a graphic expression. This community, too, is articulated,
resulting in striking images such as the reiteration of roof forms.
However, the articulations in this community were not introduced deliberately to create such graphic images. They were
instead generated by the formative conditions of the community or were the result of steps taken to satisfy the program.
To understand this, it is necessary to examine the organization
of this community. By organization I mean the structure of this
community and the way the diverse situations, to which that
structure has given rise, have been met. To that let us now turn.

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75

here,
will describe below, is one which generat.es "detached houses
that are intended to be assembled".
!Fle fact that the site is a nor~ing slope with a gradient of
approximately 1 to 10 greatly influenced the siting, layouts, and
heights of houses, particularly because of the way it affected the
units' exposure to the sun. It made a smoothly continuous
topographic profile necessary; retaining walls and terraced lots
were avoided in favor of sloping land.

bordered with greenery) that runs diagonally across the site.


This central greenway provides residential areas that lie beyond
this community with a short cut to a railway station. It passes
through the center of the community (and is oriented in the
direction in which the land opens out naturally.). Along it are
located facilities such as an observation deck, the community
center, a central plaza, and an outdoor meeting area. Branching
off this central greenway and following contour lines are many
other greenways and green areas. A number of roads come in
from the periphery of the site, likewise following contour lines
and interlocking with the green ways and green areas, converging at the center of the site. The houses are situated between
roads and greenways. There are three streams; one flows along
the central greenway running di?~,mally across the site, and the
other streams flow east and west. In places the streams are diverted to the periphery of the community. The gradient of the site is
used to create different features including rapids, a waterfall and
shoals.
Thus the overall structure of the town is fairly schematic and
not very complex.

Overall Structure
The overall structure satisfied these conditions and the program.
At the heart of this community is a greenway (i.e. a path

The Smooth Siting of Units and the Generation of the Parts


of the Community
The idea behind the overall structure of the community is, as I

II. Preconditions and Program


The A2 Zone in Common City Hoshida has a clear, simple
structure determined by the preconditions and program of the
community.
The community, 2.6 hectares in area, consists of 112 units of
two-story houses, a community center, roads, greenways, green
areas, and streams. The program of the competition for which
this scheme was originally proposed asked, "To what extent can
houses be attached yet seem detached?" T~~~.r
here would have been impossible with truly detached houses;
(

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have already stated, clear and simple, but since this organization
has been applied to a site with undulations, albeit gentle ones,
the community is not a self-contained or geometrical entity but
rather an organic structure adapted to the natural topography.
The 112 units, flanked by roads and greenways that follow contour lines, do not differ much in size, but each lot has a different
configuration. These lots are not large enough to provide buffer
zones between the houses and the roads and green ways, so
many different plans were needed to respond to different situations. The site confrguration, the direction in which the road lay
relative to the site, and the presence or absence of a slope inevitably made 40 types of unit plans necessary. Furthermore, when
these unit plans were applied to actual sites, the need to assure
suffrcient sunlight exposure for the main rooms and to take into
account the location of the parking space and the extent and
direction of the slope of the lot made it necessary to carry out
fme adjustments oflandscape elements such as roads, greenways
and streams and to develop approximately 50 types of housing
units. (If plans that are mirror images of each other are counted
as the same, there are 30 types.)
The different types of units are not a response to different
lifestyles or different family compositions; they respond to the
different topographical conditions of the lots. This should make
it clear that the program, which required that the buildings be

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well adapted to their respective lots, led to the development of


the many different housing types. Adjustments were made to
provide units with good connections to roads and to assure sunlight exposure, but practically no modifrcations of the
townscape were undertaken for so-called "scenic design"
reasons. This gives the townscape an unexpected appearance.
The arrangement is quite simple and ordinary. Where there is a
succession oflots with similar conditions, the units are the same;
where the conditions are different, the types are also different.
This has given rise to a townscape characterized by diversity.
This community, despite its simple and clear overall structure,
is mazelike and diffrcult to understand because many parts have
been developed for it.
III. To Live in a House is to Live in a Community
It is said that in walking around this community one has a strong
sense of the overlapping of space. This is probably due not just
to the way units situated on sloping land overlap when seen
from a distance but results also from the permeability of the
space; the townscape is always visible beyond roads, greenways,
side paths, streams, and green areas or through carports and
gardens. And perhaps there is an element of cubist overlapping
in the external forms of the buildings themselves. This is the
space that manifests itself in the townscape. It becomes a part of

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Tbt

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the daily life of the resident and reinforces a sense of oneness


with the community.
The unit types that I have mentioned are practically the same
in plan. In principle, each lot faces a public space like a road or a
greenway in the front and back, and the unit is very open in
these two directions; this establishes the basic path of circulation. The L-shaped plan, which takes up much of the lot, leaves a
garden. The wall of the unit next door is used visually to make
the garden courtyard-like. The garden is not open just in one
direction; in addition to being open to a road or greenway, it
leads to the built-in carport and from there to the road on the
opposite side. Thus the garden is spatially continuous with the
public places outside. The main room of the house, which is
very open, is located in principle on the second floor. It opens
directly onto the road or greenway from an elevated level, thus
making the unit, which is small in both site area and total floor
area, seem more spacious and making the townscape appear
more extensive.
The entrance to each unit opens directly onto the road. Even
when the entrance is set back a little, the outdoor space is pulled
in so that the private and public spaces overlap and an overlapping of domains takes place.
In this way, each unit communicates directly with the outside,
and there is a spatial overlapping of private and public domains.

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l*l~111J;i1:>

The Whole Visible in the Parts, The Whole Continuous


with the Parts.
I have stated that to live in a house in this community is to live in
this community. Of course what is perceptible from each unit is
not the whole community but a part of that community. To a
visitor, what is made manifest is fragmentary parts or a collection of such parts. However, to the people who live here and are
familiar with this little community as a whole, the fragmentary
view is continuous with the totality, and it is the whole that he
or she is seeing.
The stream that one sees flowing past him at a given spot has
flowed from the hill toward the south, forming the edge of a

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The unit communicates not with an enclosed, common space


but with a public space which is continuous with the space outside the community. In particular, the main room on the second
floor of each unit communicates spatially with this public place.
Thus the public space is integrated with the streetscape. The
window of the main room in each unit makes it possible for
someone on the second floor to relate in proper measure to
what is outside, i.e. to see the streetscape and the people on the
road and to hear their voices and the sounds of the stream. In
this way the occupant will also sense that he or she is living in
this community.

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79

---------------~----

-------------------------------

linear park which leads into the central greenway, and has then
been split into three smaller streams. One of these streams has
run along a road or greenway and arrived at this spot, from
whence it will flow gently back to the central greenway and,
after becoming a cascade in a northwestern corner, pass out of
this community. Does not one see the fragmentary part of the
stream before one's eyes as a part of the entire course of the
stream? Does not one see this road, even beyond one's range of
immediate perception, gently curving and arriving at the central
greenway in front of the community center? It is an obvious
point, but these places relate to other places as I have explained
and are a part of the overall structure of this community. In a
community composed of parts, each part is a space in which is
recorded the relationship of the part to the whole. However, it is
only the people who are familiar with the community as a whole
that can see each part as such a space. Therefore, a person who
has experienced this community and is familiar with it, and a
person who is merely visiting for the first time, will see different
communities. To the former it is decidedly not disorderly or
mazelike; to such a person the community as a whole and its
organization are apparent in each partial place.
Beyond the Visible Community

The structure of this community as a whole is rather simple and


clear as I have explained. The reason this community appears at
first glance to be complex is that its overall arrangement is
based, not on geometry, but on the natural topography of a
sloping site. That being the basic idea, the units and the
landscape have been treated as being of equal value. Again, as I
have explained, that has resulted in the creation in this community of many parts. The space that is made manifest is one in
which there seems to be no totality. Such a space would be quite
contemporary in feeling, but in fact that is not the real space of
this community. The space of this community consists of many
parts linked together. It is continuous in its flow, from unit to
road, or along a stream. This organization and space are implicit
in each part of the community. That is because this community
is composed of the network of relationships described above.
(translation into English by Hiroshi Watanabe)

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(;::jz!\"(t,: J: ? I.:*Yfl, .l#-ff.4il'BJ3Jiil' ;.l')


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t.:. J:? iJ: ~

**
~

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n n' ~ il' c;, -c;.l5 ~.

KAZUNARI SAKAMOTO StLclio

Common City Hoshida


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J/i;$:-/&iitf~~

The silt is a northfacing slope wi1h a gradient of approximauly ito 10. This program consists of/12 homing units and
fl COllllf11ily CClllCT.

~~lO'ltOJ

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JA 1991-4 HQjjS!NG

61

\\

Site & first floor plan; scale: 11600.

82

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

.---

--~ .

--

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

83

TIN

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\880 txfi!!YHt,ifiliO)ft:PvJ)Ei:-tt.

(89!0

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Eltvaliou.

t't1f.l

sid:-

JmTV!lllf/in,gs. Jiak: 1 l6()U

'

Ji

Eleva/ /On, facmg the central greenway; scale: 11600.

88

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

lootion: KJu::o. Osab


,m:hil:::L<< KJ;:U:l,Hi S,1k,unuto ,StulEu I& K.Ho An.:hi:cu-.

them:

Housing

~tnlctur,il ClH.!inecrs: DAN


,.

Maed<~ Construction

structure: reinforced concrcle ,md Sled frame; 2 stories


1 basement and 2 stOries (meeting room)
,uc,) r.nio: -15.9:o
buildim;
numbe; or'
!12
projec:d
J.ue: FtbruM)', l'l92

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

89

NEXUS WORLD
Producer: Arata Isozaki
Coordinator: Fukuoka Jisho

Model of the Nexus World Project. (Photo: Courtesy of Fukuoka jisho.)

Site; scale: 113,500.

90

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

l OSCAR TUSOUETS BLOCK


2 CHRlSTlAN DE PORTZAMPARC BLOCK
3 OSAMU lSHIYAMA BLOCK
4 MARK MACK BLOCK
5 REM KOOlHAAS BLOCK
6 STEVEN HOLL BLOCK
7 COMMERCIAL BUILDING BY ANDREW MACNAIR
B ARATA ISOZAKI BlOCK
9 FOLLY BY ZAHA HADIO
10 FOlLY BY DANIEL UBESKINO
OVERALL LANDSCAPE DESIGNING, MARTHA SCHWARTZ

:;

The housing development known as Nexus World occupies


about 5 hectares on the sea side of Kashii in the eastern part
the city ofFukuoka, on the southern island ofKyushu. In recent
years, the local population has been dramatically increased by
growing numbers of people who live in Kashii and commute to
work in Fukuoka. To house these people, virtual forests of contextless, medium-rise,
blocks of f1ats have grown up,
creating the kind of personality-less vista typical of Japanese
cities.
The Nexus World project consists of 2 phases, the first of
which has been completed. The f1rst-phase area is an inverted L
adjacent to roads on the east and south. This land accommodates 192 dwellings in low-rise and medium apartment buildings plus 16 stores. The following 6 architects participated in the
project: Oscar Tusquets, of Barcelona; Christian de Portzamparc, of Paris; Mark Mack, of San Francisco; Rem Koolhaas, of
Rotterdam; Steven Holl, of New York, and Osamu Ishiyama, of
Japan. Arata Isozaki was the overall producer.
In the center of the second-phase site will stand Isozaki's Twin
Towers, 2 high-rise apartment buildings. On the east side of the
Steven Holl bu~lding will be a commercial building designed by
Andrew MacNa1r. Overall landscape designing, including that of
a public park, is being handled by Martha Schwartz. Follies
designed by Zaha Hadid and Daniel Libeskind are scheduled to
stand in the park.
At the start of the project, Isozaki proposed 2 questions to
serve as general propositions: "Is true architectural internationalization possible?" "Is a new collective form-that is, urban

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creativity-possible?" Feeling
the rigid, traditional
European master plan has no place in Japanese circumstances,
Isozaki roughly established placements and volumes and left
architectural forms up to the designers' discretion. During
repeated discussions of this practically experimental project, the
architects adjusted and corrected mutual relations emerging
during the intermediate process. While doing this, they evolved
own independent designs.
For a long time, architects had little or nothing to do with the
design of apartment buildings in Japan. And very little noteworthy was forthcoming in the field. Singularly stereotyped box
apartment blocks with fixed-pattern f1oor plans sprouted up
everywhere. In contrast to these developments, Nexus World
sets out to provide diverse residence plans to suit the needs of
various life styles. In other words, its apartment buildings generate the feeling of individual houses. Communal zones and
such circulation spaces as corridors and staircases are plentiful
and varied. Participation in the project by architects from the
West, where the apartment-building tradition is old and established, made it possible to transcend existing Japanese concepts
and provide intensely individualized spaces with
impact. In
this sense, Nexus World can be said to indicate new possibilities
for Japanese apartment buildings of the future. Moreover, the
look of several residences grouped together generates fresh
spaces in a formerly contextless city. It is to be hoped that Nexus
World will stimulate more projects that interpret architecture on
an urban level, thus transforming the Japanese cityscape.

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91

ONexus World Kashli/:j',?-!f.A'J-IW'lil:

STEVEN HOLL Architects

Steven Holl Block


/\7-f-7'/4-iv"*
/\7-(-7'/,;t-1~7-"'i-77"1

28 dwellings are arranged in a comb-shaped plan


around 4 open courts facing south. In the secondstory court on the south side, a pond, the bottom of
which is spread with black gravel, projects a sense of
emptiness. Light reflects into the dwellings from the
surface of the water, which, at the same time mirrors objects and events taking place around it. These
open courts are paired with covered courts on the
first story north. Connected with the central park,
the covered courts provide meeting space and a play
zone for children.
Void spaces like these are one of the main concepts of the project. They function in many ways
both practically and visually. They mitigate visually
between unit interiors and street spaces. As public
zones, they are extensions of the units. Moreover,
they make ii possible for each unit to have openings
in several directions.
Keeping the comings and goings of people always
in mind, the designer planned passages that are
more than mere access: they are venues for diverse
expenences.
The residences are of 5 different types. Their
plans are either L or I shaped. The 2-story maisonettes are designate D for double. There are 5 combinations of plan and elevation (DI and DL) and 18
variations, determined by the location and conditions of the unit within the building. To suggest
spaciousness while maintaining continuity, the
levels of the maisonettes vary by half a story.
Inside the units, the concept of hinged space
modern application to the versatility of the
traditional Japanese fosuma sliding panel. Light,
colorful, wooden walls turn on pivotal hinges, making it possible to combine or isolate spaces according to hour, season, and family makeup.

Unit types.

:I

First floor; scale: !1500.


92

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Fifth floor.

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Fourtb floor.

Third floor.

Second floor.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

93

(pp. 94-95) Exterior view from the south.


(pp. 96-97) Opm courts spaces on/be smtli! side. Sunlight is rej/ectul by the shallow pools.
(above) Vie-& of the north side from the parking lot, showing a series ofcovered court spaces.
Residents approach their apartmmts by stairway.
(facing page) Walkway on the fifth floor.
(94 95Rl iiH!!Wfit
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Third floor.

I COVERED COURT
2 SHOP
3 BEDROOM

4 KITCHEN

5 DINING ROOM
6 tiVING ROOM

Type DJ; scale: 11200.


Second floor.

98

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Section; scale: /1400.

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location: Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture


architects: Steven Holl
client: Fukuoka Jisho
structural engineers: Kusaba Structural Engineers
general contractors: Shimizu Corporation
site area: 2,872m2
building area: 1,529m 1
total floor area: 4,243m1
structure: reinforced concrete; 5 stories
floor area ratio: 147.72%
building coverage: 53230fo
number of housing: 28
date of completion: March, 1991

Section 1hro11gh main access corridor at second floor /.we/.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

99"

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\ ____
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eNexus World Kashii/-i'-71t.A'7-M''i!Hii:

REI\!1 KODLHAAS/Office for Metropolitan Architecture

Rem l(oolhaas Block


t--1..!*7-M,-.A~!l!

:t71 .A7.--; t-oil' 1J:9/ r-:f77r'l'-

The design reflects the architect's long-held interest


in a kind of composite dwelling that is neither a
cooperative nor a collection of single-family houses.
In this instance, 24 independent, 3-story dwellings
are contained, 12 each, in the Rem and Koo!haas
buildings.
From the design stage, the heights of these buildings were restricted. The decision to do this was in
fluenced by Arata Isozaki's futuristic "sockle" foundation concept. Distinctive black-concrete external
walls imitate the massive. stoneworks of Japanese
castles. They create an enclosed plan and ensure privacy by blocking sight lines from the Twin Towers.
Ramps approach each dwelling from the north.
Each is completely isolated from its neighbors by
walls. Rising vertically, the dwelling surrounds its
own inner garden space, which admits light and
breezes into a,n otherwise enclosed environment.
Dwellings are of 2 types: maisonettes with a 3story open zone and apartments with a 2-level terrace. A private rock garden and entrance foyer are
on the first .story, bedrooms are on the second, and
living and dining rooms are on the third. A steep
staircase connecting the 3 stories reveals different
situations at different levels.
The facade is distinguished by strong contrast
between the strongly vertical orientation of glass
and sashes in the first-floor shop section and the
massive upper walls, from which the wavelike forms
of the roof are partly visible. Four kinds of glassclear, frosted, blue, and wire-reinforced-make a
virtual collage of the third-level windows.

Section; scale: 11500.

1 DINING ROOM
2 KITCHEN
3 LIVING ROOM
4 STUDY ROOM
5 ROOF TERRACE
6 BEDROOM

7 BALCONY
B ENTRANCE
9 INNER COURT
10 PARKING
11 SHOP

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Third floor.
Maisonelle type; scale: 11200.
104

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Second floor.

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First jlnor.

I
Second floor.

First floor; scale: 11500.

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

105

(pp. 106-107) Exterior vi,-,;; from soulh, Rem Building left and Koolhaas Bui/di},g
(above) Sew from above, the softglow of !he interior lighting)'ields 1111 impressive
view. (Photo: Courtesy of Fukuoka jisho.)
(facing page) The jtw1de of the Rem Building seen from tl!t" east. Tht apar/mmt cntmnce.; me approached b)' rtllllf'W!IJS.
OD6 l07.CO llit~0JHII.. <i:n'v.t.l;i!. tili'7-iV"-7.lll!.
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iKITl '"""!Jiii:'il!l!!joH,JI.o.

l'lifilll\t<,MtF~HJ:b>lt~.

location: Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture


architects: Rem Koolhaas
client: Fukuoka Jisho
structural engineers: Kusaba Structural Engineers
general contractors: Maeda Corporation
site area: 3,471m 2
building area: 2,055m 2
total floor area: 5,764m 2
structure: reinforced concrete; 3 stories
floor area ratio: 166.620/n
building coverage: 59.20%
number of housing: 24
date of completion: March, 1991

JA 1991-4 HOUSfNG

(pp. I /0-///) Anticipating tbc erection of !Jozaki:< Twin


Towers to the norJb, the living spaces are closed off to that side.
Natural lighting and ventilation are achirocd by means of
inner courts.
(leji) The inner court sm1 from the mtrance. japamse tmdi
tiona/taste is expressed by tbc white gravel and bamboo.
(facing page) Looking up through tbe three story inner court.
(HOllHO

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)A 19914 HOUSING

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

115

8Nexus World

Kashii/1'-:~rtt?-'7-J~f'l!i'!ll:

MARK MACK/MACK Architects

Mark Mack Block


<-7?:;7t!l!
<:;77'-c!f'T?'/

The Mark Mack B!lilding stands at the intersection


of the east-west commercial street and the northsouth residential street. In consideration of this
situation, it consists of a large and a small wing
attuned to the commercial-residential duality of the
surroundings. The two are connected at their corner sections.
The L-plan, low building facing the residential
street is finished in red stucco and is therefore called
the Red Building. Facing a tile-paved public plaza, it
houses shops on the first level and flats on the
upper levels. Conceived on the familiar townhouse
scale, it has no elevators. Wooden window sashes
provide a note of warmth. The nature of a corner
site dominates the plaza, with its small hill fitted
with sprinkler equipment.
The larger Slab Building stands on the commercial street. Its bright yellow walls and aluminum
spandrels contrast sharply with the appearance of
the red building. The Slab Building houses shops on
the first story and 2-story apartment on the upper
levels. There is a court-house rooftop terrace. The
semipublic inner garden on the artificially created
land platform behind the buildings is allotted
among the residents.
Nonstandardized interiors varied to suit residents' life styles offer diverse spatial compositions.
Mark Mack had a hand in designing everything
from furnishings to built-in cupboards. Variations
in composition, materials, and scale individualize
each apartment. Amenities have been diversified to
suit the needs of the inhabitants.

Section.

Section; scale: 11600.

11

Roof.

Sixth floor

116

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

of a unit plan; scale:

11200.

ioc.Hion:
.Hchnects: M.uk
client: Fukuok1 Jisho
structural engineers: Kusaba Structu:-a! Engineers
general
Ando Corpor.ltion
s1te area:

building area: 1,551m2


total floor are.~;
structure: reinforced concrete; 6 stories
floor .uea ratio: 14931%
building
5 L32%
number
28
date of completion: March, 199!

J,

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Tbird floor.

Serom/ Jloor.

(pp. l/8-l/9) View ftom the south-east tillemction of the


commercial street and the residmtia! street. Tbe plaza is situaled in front of the red building.
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JA 19914 HOUSING

117

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123 :

- ------- ----- -- -r

unit
Building
tbt'
dininK T11om ....JII jlaniwr, tks(~u
Mark ,lJr~,k
(j;lcin,g page)
ou
(abwe} View
tbe
/a/ami room seen from tbe
(/!doze) Bedroom.
12-J-!25)

~.I

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OSAMU ISHIYAMA Laboratory, Waseda Univ.

Osamu lshiyama Block


:f:i'lllil~ili:lW.
lf-fillEE7c~:t:illl11~ili;liJf~~

A red building
by Mark Mack is on the
south of this site. On the north are Portzamparc's
golden Tempietto and black Mountain buildings. A
major point in the
of this building was determining the kind of relations it should have with
these and with the many other colors and forms of
Nexus World.
To ensure good natural lighting, the project has
been conceived of as a group of 3 buildings-the
Banana Building, the Pineapple Building, and the
Coconut Palm Tower-dispersed over the site,
which is long in the north-south axis. The Banana
Buildings stands atop an artificially created hill. In
keeping with its name, it has as an arc-shaped plan
partly surrounding an inner garden space. The lowrise Pineapple Building and Coconut Palm Tower
too stand on the
of this garden. !den-

tically formed roofs topping 3 buildings with different forms create a gently ordered skyline. Twisting and leaning, the buildings establish an overall
forestlike relation.
New industrialized building materials have been
minimized, and natural materials like clay tiles and
persimmon-stained wood have been employed to
the maximum extent. The
rejects the
approaches apparent in both standardized public
housing projects and superficially splendid private
apartment buildings in Japan today.
Of the 6 architects participating in Nexus World
project, Jshiyama is the only Japanese. Perhaps for
this very reason, his interiors manifest a Japanese
mood without lapsing into either orienta!ism or the
Japaneseque.

location: Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture


architects: Osamu lshiyama
client: Fukuob Jisho
structural engineers: Moritani Structure Consultant
general contractors: Ando Corporation
site area: 3,298m 2
building "ea: I ,351m 2
total tloor area: 5,55'1m'
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; 8 stories
floor area ratio: 148.200/o
building coverage: 40.98%
number of housing: 40
date of completion: March, 1991

Firu floor; ;wle: 1/600.

128

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Serond jloor.

Sec/ion; scale: 11600.

l KlTCHEN
2 LIVING ROOM
3 DINING ROOM
4 "MAENIWA'
5 BEDROOM
6 BALCONY
7 JAPANESE STYLE R00lv1
8 PARKING
9 SicDIO
<O uCHIJORI"

Second Jloor.

JA 19914 HOUSING

129

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(facing page} The firs/ floor of !he Banana Building, looking


/owards !he "maeniwa "(= fronl yard)from/he "uchi-dori" (=
inner passage}.
(a/Jove} Tjpicalliving room inlhe Banana Building, wilb !he
dining space beyond.
(below} Looking back /owards !he en/ranee from !he "uchi
dori':
l:liW_r,,-r-riJI[, IW.. "i t,p,?" bi, "U.I:h" }j(<iJl:JI.

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Atelier d'Architecture CHIRISTIAN DE POLTZAMPARC

Christian de Portzamparc Block


71).7, 'f'r!/ "'. #Jl---if/1 ~Jl--7t*
ni)I71).J,'f'rf/l";tUt.--if/;~Jl--7

This housing settlement consists of 4 buildings (2


Frame buildings, 1 Mountain building, and 1 Tempietto building) and exterior spaces divided by
waterways. The 2 white Frame buildings are aligned
along a road. They have rectangular plans and face
each other across a courtyard. The first-floor zone
constitutes a kind of partition separating the street
from the site, thus converting the isolated interiors
of the Frames into something like theatrical stages.
Because its black concrete walls are randomly studded with crushed granite tiles, the massive Mountain building serves as a truly mountainous-looking
background. This novel way of dealing with external walls arose from 2 considerations: the concept
of a dark archaeological, organic mass and the idea
of allowing the windows to project beyond the
walls.

The Tempietto building is a small, gold-colored,


metallic tower standing in the garden. Though
alone, it is not self contained but plays a part on the
stages created by the Frame buildings. Its basic
image is one of floating suspension. Consequently,
approaches to the apartments are 3 levels above the
ground. In the 3-story maisonettes, en trance halls
are on the second, living and dining rooms on the
third, and bedrooms and baths on the fourth story.
Windows in 4 direction make these very open
dwelling spaces. On the fifth story, where there is a
/a/ami-floored guest room, a covered-bridge corridor connects with the Mountain building. The circular metallic gold-roofed pavilion on the roof commands a 360-degree view of Nexus World.
Interiors are thought of as organic and harmoni
ous related to exteriors. Each is individualized on

the basis of the building in which it is housed, its


relations with other buildings and the surroundings, lighting, and views.
Gardens and courtyards in these 4 buildings are
important to the whole Portzamparc proposal.
Similar in mood to a traditional French plaza, the
courtyard is decorated with geometric patterns in
white, wash-exposed gravel. Private from the stand
point of nonresidents, this zone is public for the
residents. Japanese gardening principles and perspective govern the design of the garden isolated by
a canal.

A FRAME BUILDING
B MOUNTAIN BUILDii':G
C !EMPIETIO BuiLDING
1 LIVING ROOM
2 DINING ROOM
3 KITCHEN
4 BEDROOM
5 JAPANESESTYLE ROOM
6 ROOF EARACE
7 BALCONY
8 SUNROOM

E253~138

First jlaar; scale: 11500.

138

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

9 ENTRANCE

Tompiello section; scale: 11500.

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Housing unit plans; scale: 11250.

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Mountain Building section; scale: 11500.

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Frame Building section.


Tbird floor.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

139

(pp. 140-141) View from the road on tbe


east. The 11~0 white Frame Buildings are in
the foreground, tbe dark Moumain Building
is at cmter right, aJid tbe gold Tempiello
Building is in the central backgrOJwd.
(left) Exterior detail if I!Je Frame Building.
(facing page) Exterior detail oftlu Mountain
Building. Exuriar waD: black concrete
studded with crushed granite tiles.
(pp. 144-145) Tempiello Building and
Frame Building seen from the north.

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

JU g-;-:,.t'.:t.-, HJI!;s.J:L'7v-

(above) Bridge connecting the Tempiello Building and the


Mountaitl Building at the fifth floor level.
(righlj Canal between the Frame Building and the Mountain
Building in the courtyard. The building by Oscar Tusquets is
visible in the background.

lkl

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146

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

(lift) Bridge leading to tbe Tt:mpiello


Building.
(right) Living room iu the fiftbfloor
homing unit. T/;e fumisbings are original
designs by Porlzamparc.
(belo!i' rigbl) Fiftbfloor }aprmesestyle
room in tbe Tt:mpiello Building.
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location: Fukuob, Fukuoka Prefecture


architects: Christian de Portzarnparc
client: Fukuoka Jisho
structural engineers: Kusaba Structural Engineers
general contractors: Fujita Corporation
site area: 3,627rn 2
building area: l,l47nl
total floor area: 5,968m1
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; 10 stories
floor area ratio: 148.46%
building coverage: 3!.62%
number of housing: 37
date of completion: March, 1991

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

149

CD Nexus World Kashii/:j'.:Jif:J-'7-JL+~!lf

OSCAR TUSOLI ETS / Tusquets, Diaz &Associates

Oscar Tusquets Block


;t?-;1]- h:A-'rfll!
~ry?-Jr=7'o7'?-

& TJ'/I1"J

Located at the northern extremity of the plan site,


the Oscar Tusquets building faces a park on the
south. Because of these site conditions, the 2 wings
of the building are arranged symmetrically along a
street with an entrance arch constituting a passage
to the park. In the plans of the other architects,
block topology, with buildings aligned parallel to
the street, tended to drop from consideration as
time passed. Oscar Tusquets however, adhered to it
to the end.
Owing to the similarity he sees between the climates of Spain and Fukuoka, he employed styles
found in traditional Barcelona group dwellings.

Consequently, a number of features give the exteriors a decidedly Spanish quality: red brick tiles with
white joints, Spanish roofmg tiles, cornice ornaments, window shelves for flowers, stained-glass
windows in the 3-story spaces at staircase landings,
and so on. Out of respect for privacy, no dwellings
are positioned on the first story, which is taken up
with stores and parking spaces. This too is in keeping with Spanish tradition.
Although most of them are flats, the 35 apartments include 2 maisonettes and 5 apartments with
roof terraces. The floor plan of each is symmetrically laid out and, in contrast to the Spanish exte-

First floor; mtle: 11600.

150

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

10

riors, follows familiar, established Japanese arrangements.


Respect for craftsmanship is evident in the interior decoration. Meticulous finishing reflects the
particular concern of Tusquets, who has tried his
hand at industrial design. He proposed designs for
furniture, carpets, and lighting ftxtures and even
designed such small items as name plates, interphones, and mailboxes. Through emphasis on
materials and techniques and a warmth and savor of
a kind that is now on the vdge of oblivion,
Tusquets' architecture suggests new possibilities for
urban housing developments.

Go!!'rrrl
/O!(~I"(!!tJ!ff.

(above) Vi,1ii towards tbe East \1/'mggatejromi!JC inner patio


space. Exterior wall: brick tiles and exposed concrde<11ith paint
finish.
(facing page) The East Wing gate.
(.]:) Jl1? 1 :.- :Yli!W- t l!.iig L. 7H~ : ti!JC::t ''"
ffl,.li.LJ..tn?-7 17.
(J55l'() lj(?;;.. :YO!W- f.

:.- ~

1 ENTRANCE
2 KITCHEN

3 DINiNG ROOM
4 LIVING ROOM

5 BALCONY

unit in the West \v'ing,fiftb floor; scale: 11200.

154

JA !99J.4 HOUSING

Roof

6 MASTER SEDROOM
7 WESTERN-STYLE ROOM
8 TERRACE

(pp. 156-157) Uruwd view of tile \\?est Wi11g mnfrom the


patio.
(above) Rooftop lerraa with pond on the West Wing.
(jaci11g page) East Wi11g seen from the West Wing.
1156 1571'0 i!'i?<

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158

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

159

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{ttbove left) Staircase spttu witb staimd-glass !uim/ows rvbicb


expreH offour semom.
(left) First jloor ball.
(facing p11ge) Living room in /be ft}ib:floor housing lin it oftbe
Wt-51 W'ing. Tbe spiral slaircasc on ibe balcony leads /o /be
roof

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1-l:(.

160

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

location: Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture


architects: Oscar Tusquets
client: Fukuoka Jisho
structural engineers: Kusaba Structural Engineers
general contractors: Hazama Corporation
site area: 3,487m 2
building area: !,676m2
total floor area: 5,776m 2
structure: reinforced concrete; 5 stories
floor area ratio: 148.11/o
building coverage: 48.08%
number of housing: 35
date of completion: March, 1991

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

161

F'UKUOKA, PHENOMENOLOGICAL

Steven Holl + Hideaki Ariizumi

HA: Although the front elevation of the Fukuoka Housing


Project has a strong 6gure which reminds us somehow of"Karl
Marx Hof," Vienna, I want to conftrm that this building is not a
building which has a formalistic composition as its main theme.
Indeed I can't ignore the fact that Formalism has fundamentally
led architectural design especially after Modernism lost its original power.
The facade was the consequence of considering intermediate
spaces, particularly the "void space." As it was noted in the
description, the "void space" could respond to many new, practical and spatial functions for urban housing, such as a "spatial
and visual buffer between inside of the units and street," "sharing the public space as an extension of unit space;' or "giving to
each unit many different directions and long length of
exposure;' and so on. However, these practical functions are one
side of the "void space!' The other side is the spatial quality itself
in relation with the "phenomenological space" which is your
main conceptual context.
I want to start with questions about "water" which is one of
the most important elements of this "void space." Tracing your
former works, I can fmd not a few projects characterized by

7 I./~/ tJ :/t.JJI.-. ..
7..7' 1-7:r *-JH1BiH1fiSJI

water, such as follows.


Sokolov Retreat
1976
(6g.l)
Gymnasium-Bridge
1977
(6g.2)
Pool House
1981
(ftg.3)
Van Zandt House
1983
Milan Project
1986
(ftg.4,5)
Edge of a City-Manhattan
1990
(ftg.6)
Palazzo del Cinema
1991
(ftg.7)
Texas Residence
1991
(6g.8,9)
It seems that water is a very important material for your space.
Do you have some specifte image or memory about water?
What is the role of water in your realized spaces and in your
imaginary spaces?
SH: "Water" plays a central role in many of our projects, and
this is quite intentionaL
Growing up on the edge ofPuget Sound, a huge inland body
of water in Washington State, I have always been moved by how
reflections in water magnify all the natural phenomenon. The
changing color of the sky, the movement of clouds, the wind or
absence of wind in a rolling mirror surface are all amplified by
the body of water. At night I remember sitting for hours by

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:

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Sokolov Retreat 1976

Pool House 1981

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Palazzo del Cinema 1991

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Texas Residence 1991

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162

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1990

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Fig.2 Gymnasium-Bridge, 1977


JA 1991-4 HOUSING

163

fmlight watching the huge yellow moon rise above the bay in
the autumn.
The zipping pinging sound of rain on water gives the calm
expanse scale in the nodal lines of each rain drop.
The "Sokolov Retreat" being a project under water was not
my ftrst project which amplified a connection between water
and architecture. In 1975 when I worked for the Landscape
Architect Lawrence Halplin, I designed a huge public fountain
in the form of a s~bmerged building with water rushing into the
rooms (built in Flint Michigan, 1975). (fig.10)
In the "Gymnasium-Bridge" project the program connects to
the different states of Liquid, Solid (freezing hard for the ice
skating area) and Gas (boiling to steam in the steam rooms).
As our bodies are over 90%water and water covers 3/4 of the
earth, I don't feel I'm doing something unique in intertwining
architectural space and water. Water remains important in its
reflective ability to touch the mind and spirit.
HA: "Light" also seems very important for your spaces in
relation with water as well as itself. Examples can be found in
such projects as;
Berkowitz House
1984
(fJg.l1,12)

Pace Showroom
1986
(fig.13)
Edge of a City- Phoenix
1988
(ftg.14)
I would like to ask the same questions about "sun light."
SH: "Light" and the movement of the sun in the time of a day
are, for me, a central concern for architecture. From the scale of
a room to a city, the quality of light is quite different according
to locale. For example, the long twilight hours in the northern
places like Seattle offer a long caesura between the time of day
and night for recflective transformative thoughts.
In a phenomenological basis for new architecture, light is a
central aspect in the understanding and experience of space.
HA: Both water and light are the elements of nature which
affect the space or building, changing its image, giving it a natural movement. On the other hand, you have several works which
were inspired by literature or verbal fantasies and images, such
as;
Autonomous Artisans' House 1980-84
(fJg.15)
(fJg.16)
Bridge of Houses
1981
Berkowitz House
1984
(ftg.l7 ,18)
Hybrid Building
1981-88

-c, J}:.f;J:C'(J) J: -5 7J'i'~ili!J i: {> "J 't P ~ (J)C'L J; ? i:J'.


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r -rt;J:il:i 9 :;i:i!:lv.

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/l:;l:lt::. (71J/r, ~vti/, 1975). (~Iol
"Gymnasium Bridge"!;:m>'tf;l:f(J)/'o:77Li:Jt, ~{;$:, ~{;$: (71
/\ ;J... 7
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)6:;1: ht.:li'f.~) O)~t;t ~t!U!!H;:~b? H>:;!: T.
J..-f;$:0)90%:th.k-c;O 9, !J!l;&O) 3 I 4 i:l}:.tJ'llh n> ~ J:? r;:, M!:~~ra,
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164

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Berkowitz House
1984 (~11, 12)
Pace Showroom 1986 ([@13)
Edge of a City-Phoenix 1988 (~14)
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Fig.6 Edge of a City-Manhallan, 1990

Fig.8 Tcx,ts Residwce, 1991

Fig.9 Texas Residence, /991


JA 1991-4 HOUSING

165

What is the position of these verbal texts in your design? What


is the relationship with water or light, if it has one?
SH: Words are important in articulating a clear concept
unique to a site and circumstance. As each project is a new
beginning, I do not initially begin with texts, but in some
circumstances they clarify and densify the direction of the
design. In crystallizing the aim, the text is an invisible thread
connecting the architecture in a whole which is greater than any
,of the individual parts.
HA: I also want to mention the important role of diagrammatic thought in your design method.
In the Fukuoka Housing Project, we designed its section with
two different considerations' combination. One can be seen
along the long section of this building. This is the "continuity"
or "repetition," which appears as different sequences when one
walks through the building from east to west or west to east. The
other can be found in the short section. That is "differentiation"
or "relationship" among spaces. Two voids make a set of "void
spaces." One is an open court, using water to create a sense of
calmness on the second floor. The other is a covered court, using
a gravel surface, supporting activity on the ground level. Two

Bridge of Houses 1981

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voids are located side by side in a contradictory relationship.


Three passages are located in totally different positions within
the short section. The second floor level passage is at the bottom
corner of the open court, having a street view over the water
surface, and a park view through the covered court under its
ceiling. The third floor level passage is above the north side of
the covered court, having a horizontal park view. The fifth floor
level passage is beside the top corner of the open court, having a
sky view. In the short section, the spaces are characterized by
the way they are reconnected with the outside world. In the long
section, the spaces are composed with a self-referential spatial
order. The overlapping of these spatial diagrams inhere in these
simple spaces.
When You presented the "Milan Project," you proposed
interesting diagrams which you called "Correlational Charts"
(fJg.19). I think that diagrammatic thought is supporting both
interrelated compositions and clarity in your design.
Meanwhile, when your apartment interior designs were
published, the editor gave them the title "Manhattan BoogieWoogie" (6g.20). In your shop designs and interior designs, you
often strongly keep the rule of Architectural Proportion

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I
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Fig./2 Bakowilz House, 1984 Pbolo: Paul \Varcbol

Fig./4 Edge rif 11 Ci{y-Pbomix, 1988


JA 1991-4 HOUSING

167

(Golden Section) which sometimes makes your designs look


similar to the images by Mondorian or the designs of Gerrit
Rietveld.
From the point of view which considers non-formalistic
design, both diagrammatic thought and the rule of Architectural
Proportion must have an interesting role in your design, since
these methods can able be used for formalistic design by their
direct relationship to forms. What are the roles or the strategies
of these concepts in your design?
SH: I do not begin with "general strategies" in design and in
fact hope to start a new language of elements with each project.
The simple forms allow the phenomenal aspects of light, reflection and spatial overlap in movement to occur as primary
expenences.
HA: Like one of Adolf Loos' trials (Raum plan), we designed
the setting of units in a very complicated way, which is like a
Kumiko Zaiku; wooden toy composed with small pieces combined in complicated ways to figure a simple shape in total). This
complexity made it possible for the units to be independent of
each other, as well as offered varied spaces and vistas within each
unit. In terms of the relationship between the whole and parts,

the image which consists of a simple box with a complicated and


mysterious inside is very interesting.
In your projects, I am very interested in the combination of
the complexity and simplicity. Now, what is your emotion that
makes this competition of complexity and simplicity?
SH: My desire for an outward simplicity in architecture is
perhaps a reactionary stance to today's architecture of Historicist pastiche, and chaotic assemblage.
An urban aspiration in a simple, space-forming architecture
may have intense and interesting interior dimensions. This
material and detail intensity occurs in the spaces that the user
inhabits rather than as elements on an exterior facade.
HA: We had two main concepts in Fukuoka Housing. One is
"void space" which we talked about already. The other is
"Hinged Space" which is a transformable space using "Hinged
Panels." Usually planning tends to give order to the space. On
the contrary, "Hinged Space" is aiming to eliminate the space
which is assigned one stable order. I can fm~ non-formalistic
design again. What do you think about this point?
SH: I am excited by the "participating walls" of the hinged
space concept. Today we see many floor plans full of angles with

Chart"

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168

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

I
i

Fig.19 Correlatimwl C!Jarts

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

169

INTERVIEW ------------------

---------

the argument for an architectue reflecting the "dynamic flux of


our time." Yet, these are static angular walls ftxed by the architect-a frozen chaos imposed on the user. With "hinged space"
the hundreds of angles in the plan are in the hands of the
inhabitant to manipulate. This hinged space, for me, is more
unstable, more in a state of flux than chaotic ftxed plans.
HA: In the Fukuoka Housing Project, we tried to design the
Hinged Panels as a material in between walls ;nd doors. You also
tried the Hinged Panels in several former interior works. These
Hinged Panels were, I think, inbetween doors and cabinets.
Therefore, wall, door and cabinet can be melted into a Hinged
Space System theoretically. The idea of Hinged Space is attacking the conventional categories of wall, door and furniture.
This idea also has an interrelationship with the idea of
"Architectural Proportion" in terms of its sense of scale. One
single system covers both tiny and large scales. Now this can be
also ambivalent. Hinged Panels can transform the space in many
ways, on the other hand, the same idea occupies the space from
the larger scale to the details. What do you think about this
ambivalence?
SH: This "connecting of differet scales" with a concept is what

"1>7 1

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(l'J& IJ ft!t 0 tttd ~~;f,Jv" O)mlJ:&l-t:t I;:J: .:5 PJll~ra,,

I am aiming at in a clear basis for an architectural work. It aspires


to an idea unifying a piece of architecture which exists parallel to
the experience of the spaces. An idea may never be fully
understood by a user, and yet, if the spaces, materials and details
are focused, it can be sensed and appreciated.
HA: In the end, I want to mention about your "Edge of a
City" projects. When we were in Fukuoka for the last check of
the construction, we had a conversation about "what can be the
edge of Fukuoka?" The conversation was really short yet
interesting. (It is true that the conversations we had throughout
the design process Were amazingly short!!) My opinion, at that
time, was that "the clear edge which clariftes city and rural zones
cannot be meaningful in the situation of Japan," "Because the
nature itself was transformed by human agricultural activity,
also nature existing in the context of culture" and that "The only
image I can imagine is that the edge consists of a series of spaces
visually penetrating each other from a close to a farther place,
which we can fmd in the spatial configuration of the Fukuoka
project." After all, we put the Fukuoka project into the exhibition as a member of the "Edge of a City."
From the point of your "phenomenological" design method,

:tt'.
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the Fukuoka project and other "Edge of a City" projects have a


common base, although the configuration of the Edge was still
left in a different condition. What do you think about this point,
considering your main theme of the "Edge of a City" and
probably the Japanese situation as you found it now?
SH: The "Edge of a City" projects made for the Walker Art
Center series "Architecture Tomorrow" were an attempt at posing questions about the future of the landscape in relation to
development. I feel these are unresolved issues and the exhibition posed questions. In that sense, the Fukuoka project is
important here for it accepts your point about the nearly continuous development in Japan, and turns our thesis inside-out.
What is bracketed off in the void courts is the natural world
or its surrogate-with the ponds a phenomenological lens
toward the sky.
(This interview was made in july and August 1991, using a letter
format)

Fig.20 Museum qf Modern Art, Tower Apartment, 1986


Photo: Paul Ward;o/

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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

171

YASLIM ITSU MATSUNAGA/SKM Architects & Planners

Ys Court Nakahara
Y's COURT NAKAHARA
f;}7k'/i'}(;/SKMiim~tf!!l'IH%iiiT

When we were commissioned to design this project,


the client-a developer-defined two primary
objectives: to provide an ideal dormitory environment for his own company's staff, and to create a
design which could serve as a model for this building type, now in high demand among companies in
Japan as a very viable means of attracting the everdecreasing young labor force. For our design team
this kind of project was a continuation of our previous studies in the fteld of collective housing.
Generally speaking, the common perception of
collective housing has had strongly negative connotations in Japan in comparison with individual
dwellings because of the over -exaggerated merits of
privacy and exclusive ownership of land. However,
soaring increases in land prices have forced more
and more people to live collectively, and we have
been involved in a number of housing projects in
search of the more positive merits of living together.
The site is located in a mixed-use area in Kawasaki nicknamed the "Japanese Silicon Valley". The
only requirement prescribed by the client was that
the facility must house approximately 50 unmarried
employees. Within the tight envelope stipulated by
strict zoning regulations, efforts to provide rooms
with maximum exterior exposure resulted in a hollow oval building form with a lofty atrium space at
the center. This atrium space connects all internal
corridors and symbolizes the integration of the residents living on different floors.
Each of the private rooms has its own shower
room, walk-in closet and bakony. In addition there
is a communal dining hall, lounge, sauna, jet-bath,
swimming pool, exercise room, game room, automated parking system and other amenities which
appeal to the life-style image of modern young Japanese. Within this environment the residents here
could imagine themselves staying in a resort hotel;
in this land of sky-high property values, to live in
collective housing may be the only realistic way for
young people to experience and enjoy this kind of
leisure living.
(Yasumitsu Matsunaga)

I J:

172

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

Typictl! floor.

Site; sCilfr: !1800.

I
1 ATRIUM
2 PRIVATE ROOM
3 lOuNGE
4 CORRIDOR
5 DINING HALL
6 KITCHEN
7 CARETAKERS OFFICE

Sectio11; smle: 11400.

8 BREAK ROOM
9 PARKING

10 EXERCISE ROOM
11 SWIMMING POOL

12 SUNKEN GARDEN
13 BATH ROOM
I 4 MACHINE ROOM

15 GAMe ROOM
16 OPEN

Bas;_meill; latle: 11400.


T:ypical room.
Smle: 11200.

Wcstem style room.

japanese style room.


JA 1991-4 HOUSING

173

(ab011C) Exterior view from south.


(facing pflgc) Looking up at the entrance facade.
U.i rliiWH!!.
11110 .:<.;.. f 7:.-~tli..Lrf~.

174

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

JA 1991-4 HOUSING/ 175

ol tht
t'u(ird,:np, J!Jt:
Ud( l 'T ~
( {iJ !' ! ')

IJ 1/ ,;,

h:.

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rltrium,

11/rin;;;.

F.

location: Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture


architects: Yasumitsu Matsunaga/SKM Architects &
Planners
client: Yuraku Real Estate Co., Ltd.
structural engineers: Ichiro Murakami/Structural Engineers
general contractors: Taisei Corporation
site area: !;434m2
building area: 588m 2
total floor area: 3,053m 2
structure: reinforced concrete; 4 stories and 2 basements
floor area ratio: 196.07%
building coverage: 41.04%
number of housing: 48
completion date: March, 1991

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JA 19914 HOUSING

177

donrr.
Cir(/!lt/1'

udn~::, (!Pr'}ii/1/{,.'

(.1/li!/ng.

]A 1991-4 HOUSING

179

CHAii~ES

VV.MOORE and l\lloore Ruble Yudell A.rc 1Nects & Plarmers(Oesrgn


I\IIITSUI Construction Co., Ltd. (Working

Orchid Court, Phase 1


;t-~'\';~f':J-~ill'\ I Jljj
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.::.#tll~'l:(~!Jnmtl

The aim of this development is to provide 290


families with an elegant way of living while making
the best use of the splendid natural setting on
35,000m1 of land in Kobe. The realization of the
aim was entrusted to the well-known American
architect and a landscaping designer, Charles W.
Moore of Moore Ruble Yudell, Architects and
Planners (MRY). The site is on the shore of the
Sumiyoshi River. Behind it rises the Rokko Mountains, and before it stretches the Seto Inland Sea.
The topography is richly varied and graced by a
stream of spring water. After visiting the site in
April, 1988, Charles Moore proposed the following
planning concepts.
(1) From the Mountain to the Sea. (2) Water as a
Unifying Element. (3) Informal Path and Formal
Path: Nature and the City. (4) A Rich Diversity of
Spaces and Places. (5) A Clear Expression of the
Site Topography. (6) Landmark Q.Ialities. (7) A
Richness of Landscape Experiences. (8) A
Richness and Diversity of Housing. (9) Unity and
Diversity.
The subsequently evolved master plan calls for 7
apartment buildings surrounding 7 gardens that are
positioned along the two intersecting axes: an informal (natural) axis and a formal (urban) axis.
MRY was commissioned to produce the master
plan, designs for the facade and lobby interiors, and
landscaping. While this work was being done,Japanese teams developed building and apartment plans
and interior designs.
Beautiful silhouettes (suggestive of mountain
ranges) of apartment buildings, a calming 3-story
composition, and abundantly varied sashes characterize the architectural elevations. A subtle color
scheme too plays an important role. The design
suits diverse needs by ensuring variation in plan and
views for each apartment unit.
One of MRY's major task was harmonizing and
integrating architecture and landscape- houses and
gardens. Some of the devices used to achieve the
desire and include central location of the high-rise
structures, placement of low-rise structures and
spires adjacent to streets and gardens, provision of
corridors and terraces on the first levels of buildings
adjoining garden spaces, and construction of pavilions serving as landscape accents.

(facing page) Detail of lbe soutbwes/ facade.

r:m;>r.

(18110

~~~l<illlilli'i!~l7

180

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

r"'T-

Conceptual sketch by OJarlcs \V. Moore.


1-"'r-17.' t.-i!:l.Ofl!t;'Z:'::::Vr?T,

Site; scale: 1/2,000.

Eixbib{loor.

Sixlb floor.

''

'

Second floor.

scale: 11800.

162

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

'

~:!:..... -!\

Homing Unit I; swle: 11200.

Homi11g Unit 2.

location: Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture


architects: Charles W. Moore and Moore Ruble Yudell
Architects & Planners (design architects) + Mitsui
Construction Co., Ltd. (working design of phase 1)
clients: Mitsui Real Estate Development Co., Ltd.;
Haseko Corporation; Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd.;
and Mitsui & Co., Ltd.
structural engineers: Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd.
general contractors: Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd.;
Haseko Corporation; and Mitsui Harbour arid Urban
CorlStruction Co., Ltd.
site area: 35,586m 2
building area: 2,393m 2 (Phase 1)
total floor area: 14,508m2 (Phase I)
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; I basement, 9 stories (Phase I)
date of completion: March, 1991 (Phase 1)
Soutb elevation.

West elevation; scale: l/800.

]A 1991-4 HOUSING

183

'

184

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

185

(above) First floor entrance hall. The main mtrance is in


the left background.
(facing page, above) Two vic1us ofi ntuiors in a typical housing
unit. Photos: courUsy of Mits11i Construction Co., Ltd.
(facing page, below) View lowardslhe main entrancefrom/he
entrance ball.
U.:l 1 Hi"-" f 7 ;.- ~"'-1>. (diu:lil:iFffii:Y:II!Ji>'IJ 6.
08HU:J ltt"l'l1 ;.- f ~ 7 2 1:<. 1JJW1!!\: :C:Jf!t:1
087rCfl ~;,- ~ 7;,- :u:-,v! 1 ltElaif:l~IJi!I~Ji'~6.

186

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

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FUMIHIKO MAKI/Maki and

Hillside Terrace Complex, Phase 6


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Nearly 25 years have gone by since initial planning


on the first phase of the Hillside Terrace project.
The completion of the present sixth phase in 1992
will mark the passing of a full quarter of a century.
The following is a brief breakdown of the history
of the project.
Phase I Hillside
apartments and shops;
completed in October, 1969; Maki and
Associates
Phase 2 Hillside Terrace, apartments and shops;
completed in May, 1973; Maki and
Associates
Phase 3 Hillside Terrace, apartments and shops;
completed in December, 1977; Maki and
Associates
The Danish Embassy; completed in
October, 1979; Maki and Associates
Phase 4 Hillside Terrace Annex, buildings A and B;
offices and apartments; completed in
December, 1985; Studio Architectural
Planning
Phase 5 Hillside Plaza; completed in June, 1987;
Maki and Associates
Phase 6 Hillside Terrace, apartments and shops;
scheduled for completion in 1992; Maki
and Associates
Unlike its predecessors, all of which are on the
north side, the site of the phase-6 plan is on the
south side of the street. In addition, in April, 1990,
the neighborhood in which the buildings are

188

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

located was redesignated exclusively as a class-2


residential area. Whereas building heights in class-!
residential districts are limited to about !Om,
increased floor-area indexes in class-2 residential
districts plus increased commercial-use areas resulted in the lifting of the 10-m restriction. Stipulations
about facade recession from the site line in upper
levels, however, remain in force. The phase-6 buildings intended to follow the phase 1 to 3 buildings in
scale and style. For example, phase-6 buildings
along the road maintain the 10-m limit, and the
buildings of one or two stories are piled up and
receding from the facade line.
In terms of style, phases 2 and 3 employed ex pressions compatible with their times while remaining
within the general Modernist framework. Phase 6
pursues the optimum nature of Modernism, a topic
in which we are currently interested.
In line with basic planning policies used in earlier
phases of the project, public spaces and shops,
which are naturally varied in nature, are located in
the basement and on the first-floor and mezzanine
levels, with offices and apartments on the levels
above,
A more constructural approach has been adopted
to the assembly of the surface layers than was true
in phases 1 through 3. For instance, the I0-m sky
line (the same as those of the buildings on the north
side of the street} is expressed as sharp eaves, which
serve as the axis for the development of all other

compositional elements. In order to avoid the flatness of the southern facade, framed sunrooms are
installed in every corners (like those in the fmt
phase of the Iwasaki Museum of Art). Perforated
aluminum sheeting on the front of the building,
admits natural illumination while preserving privacy, (which recollects the membrane at TEPIA).
The pervading color image is contrast between
white and the light aluminum color of the sheeting.
Surfaces protected by the overhang of the pent
roofs are painted. Those lacking such protection are
faced with white corona-shaped tiles (5m to a side)
like the ones employed in the Fujisawa Campus of
Keio University and the Tokyo Municipal
Gymnasium.
As the foregoing discussion has indicated, phase
6 at Daikanyarna represents a distinctive, individual
personality, though it is based on an accumulation
of experience with the compositional principles and
materials employed in preceding projects. To preserve the sense of scale found in the other Hillside
facilities, three independent buildings are connected by means of a plaza. This plaza is directly in line
with a private road between the Royal Danish
embassy and phase-3 buildings on the opposite side
of the road. This location opens a new and
vista at right angles to the road along which the
remaining Hillside buildings are aligned.
(Fumihiko Maki)

JA 19914 HOUSING

189

192

JA !991-4 HOUSING

Royai Danish Embas!;J.

Second floor.

First floor; scale: 11600.

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

193

194

]A 1991-4 HOUSING

loc.lliOI;;
\'1/.ml, Tokvo
.:rchitetts:
& Associ.H~~
client: As<1kur.1 Real
Comp.1:1y
structural engineers:
Aoki and Associates
general
Corporoltion
site area:
Mea: 2,263n/ .,
area;

7)95m~

structme: reinforced concrete


numiJer of
houses l9,
projected
chue: March,

l2

Left: Building G; rigbt: Buildi11g F.

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195

RIKEN YAMAMOTO & Field Shop

Ryokuen-toshi Development
Inter-Junction City.
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Site; scale: 112,000.

Ryokuen-toshi is the name of a private-railway station about 15 minutes from the center of Yokohama. This plan encompasses a commercial and
residential district in the vicinity of the station.
Much of the area is vacant lots because of intractable conflicts of interest arising from mixed ownership involving both the railway line and local holders. In the past, the local owners have rejected all of
numerous development proposals. Without exception, these proposals have imposed restrictions on
individual buildings in the name of overall district
uniformity. For instance, some suggested setting all
buildings 2 meters back from the road. Others
insisted on enforcing an all-white color scheme or
making cable roofs obligatory. The reaction of local
landowners has been, "It's my land, and I don't care
about uniformity. If the railway lines want uniformity, they'll have to pay us subsidies:'
Subordinating individual buildings to an overall
plan based on a general urban idea leads to fundamental confrontation. Because I realize this, my
own proposal puts no restrictions on individual

196

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

buildings in the name of uniformity of appearance.


My method is the reverse of ordinary city-planning
methods. The individual building takes precedence
over the city. In other words, the individual building
is the city; the ultimate form of the city is inherent
in the single building.
Believing this, I have established no strict overall
conception. Because the conflicting interests of
various local landowners are knotty, I allow each
owner to build to suit his own circumstances. That
is the nature of my plan.
I have, however, established one simple rule:
build any kind of building you like, but each building and site must be connected with the neighboring building and site by means of an access passage.
In other words, each building must send out a feeler
to its neighbor. The builder of the next building
must establish contact with that feeler and then
send out a feeler of his own to the adjacent site. In
this way, a labyrinth-like pe'destrian deck can generate urban organization.
Each time a building goes up, a passageway is

completed to alter the city. It is, therefore, impossible to say what the ultimate urban form will be
like.
Basically, commercial facilities are on the first 2
stories and residences on stories 3, 4, and 5. A passage way through the commercial facilities on the frrst
and second stories is open to everyone 24 hours a
day. Traversing all the buildings, it connects small
.plazas and sometimes becomes a bridge over open
space. Restaurants are to be situated along this plaza.
A glass-roofed common space will serve the
apartments on the upper 3 stories. In contrast to the
open passageway, this space is for residents only.
Elevators stop at the common space, to which all
apartments have access.
Architectural designs are not uniform. Sites are
different. Owner conditions and costs too differ.
Naturally each building has an individuality of its
own. Nonetheless, I should like materials to be uniform if possible.
(Riken Yamamoto)

198

JA !991-4 HOUSING

)A 1991-4 HOUSING

199

(p.
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(pp. 201, 202, 203) Site
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JA 1991-4 HOUSING

203

!oc,Hion: Yoknh,lm,l, I\.,u1,1~,n:,1 Prefecture


,\rchitcw: RIKEN Yr\iv!A~IOTO & Field Shop
client: Sag.uni R.tilw.1y Co., Ltcl.
(SITE 2)
structural engineers: Jm,Ii Consulting Structurdl Engineer
general contractors: Sotetsu Construction Co., Ltd.
site area: 1,011n/
,
building area: 806m 1 , ..
total floor area: 2,670m
structure: reinforced concrete (p.ntly molded concreteblock be,1ring wall) and steel tiame; 5 stories and 1
basement
floor .uc.1 ratio: 22c!A 0/o
building covcr.1gc: 79.80/o
number of housing: l6
projected completion d.lle: r\pril, 1992
(SITE 7)
structur,II engineers: lm,ti Structur.1l Consulting Engineer
gener.1! contractors: Nishinl.ltsu Construction Co., Ltd.
and Sotetsu Construction Co., Ltd.
site .uea: 844m 1
building area: 670m 2 ,
tot.tl floor area: 2,5l8mstructure: reinforced concrete (partly molded concreteblock bearing wall) and steel frame; 6 stories
floor area ratio: 261.0%
building coverage: 79.4%
number of housing: 9
projected completion date: November, 1992
(SITE ll)
structural engineers: Kozoh Keikaku Plus One
gener.tl contractors: Sotetsu Construction Co., Ltd.
site area: 3,c!43m 2
building area: unfixed
total floor area: unftxed
structure: reinforced concrete (partly molded concreteblock bearing wall) and steel f'r.une; 4 to 6 floors (unfixed)
floor area ratio: unftxed
building coverage: untixed
number of housing: unftxed
projected completion date: October, 1992

204

JA 1991-4 HOUSING

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DETAIL of Shinchi Housing A

RFL ;I:TJ:;~'I-f.'01t
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PHOTO COPYRIGHT
All Photographs except as noted by Photography
Department of JA (Shinkenchikusha)
Chief Photographer
Shigeo Ogawa

I!
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Correction: The "Shinjuku Simulated City"


in the Vol. 3 issue of JA (pp. 50-57) was
the program presented to the students of
the Ito Studio in the Columbia University.

Copyright 1991 Shinkenchikusha


All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, in any form or any means:
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the
publisher.

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THE JAPAN ARCHITECT CO., LTD. 2-31-2, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Japan

The 3rd YOKOHAMA URBAN

DESIGN INTERNATIONAL
COMPETITION
~Theme

''Harmonizing the City


Center and Port''
-Town planning for the Port of Yokohama's birthplace,
the ZO NO HANA district ("Elephant's Trunk")
The ZO NO HANA district and it's surrounding areas

Sponsored:
The City of Yokohama/Yokohama Urban Design Forum Executive Committee

Supported by:
./

Architectural Institute of Jajmn I City Planning Institute of Japan/The Japan Foundation

In Cooperation with:
Shinkcnchiku-sha Co., Ltd.
~Purpose

Urban space in modern cities is being examined in the face of changes in lifestyle,
environmental problems and socio-economic changes. The Yokohama Urban Design
International Competition, an annual "idea competition" focusing on urban spaces in
Yokohama, provides a forum for presenting urban design proposals and considering
how cities should be developed henceforth. In developing an attractive city, it is
necessary for many people to participate and for outstanding designs to be utilized.
Results of this competition will be announced during the Yokohama Urban Design
Forum in March 1992, and winning designs will be used as reference material in future
town planning in Yokohama.

Background
The City of Yokohama has developed
together with its port, which opened more
than 130 years ago in 1859. Today, Yokohama is a thriving metropolis of 3.2 million people which continues to maintain a
close relationship between the port and
the city. This competition concentrates on
the ZO NO HANA ("Elephant's Trunk")
district, where construction first began on
the Port of Yokohama. The name ZO NO
HANA has its origin in the fact that the
shape of breakwater looked like an
elephant's trunk, Although the present
breakwater was constructed at a later
date, it is located in the same place, and
serves as a historical structure which gives
an idea of the port at the time of its
opening.
The ZO NO HANA district is located
alongside Shinko Pier, which has played a
central role in the port functions of Yokohama, and Osanbashi Pier, a passenger
ship terminal for ocean-going liners. Both
of these districts continue to play an important role in Yokohama's port functions. However, as changes take place in
the socio-economic realm and to the port's
own circumstances, it has become necessary to develop a new port which
accommodates commercial, business,
cultural and entertainment functions, To
this end, various redevelopment projects

for the redevelopment of the ZO NO


HANA district. Additionally, propose a
facilities plan for the district.
In your urban design plan, please express the ZO NO HANA district's relation to surrounding areas, and express
pedestrian networks, policies for land usc
and the overall cityscape.
With regard to the facilities plan, current regulations on land use and floor-area
ratios are included in this leat1et for reference, but need not be adhered to. Please
propose plans for necessary facilities in the
district, and express as clearly as possible
their scale, function (s) and design. To this
end, please usc as many visual aids as
possible including plans, photographs of
models and perspective drawings.

arc scheduled to take place. The ZO NO


HANA district is scheduled to be redeveloped together with Shinko Pier as part
of the Minato Mirai 21 plan.
In the vicinity of the ZO NO HANA
district arc unique, historical city areas
such as the area around Yamashita Park,
Nippon Odori Avenue district and Kaigan
Dori Avenue district, which live up to the
image of Yokohama. Additionally, the
ZO NO HANA district is located alongside Minato Mirai 21, a new developing
city center of Yokohama. Being positioned l;etwccn these old and new areas.
the ZO NO HANA district occupies an
important location for linking the areas
together and strengthening the city center.
Historical structures such as the Red
Brick Warehouse and the Yokohama Customs House arc also located in this area.
enabling urban redevelopment to take
place making the most of Yokohama's historical features. Furthermore, the inner
port area surrounding the ZO NO HANA
district is both humanistic and rich in variety, providing much scope for the development of an appealing waterfront
area.

Chief Judge: Fumihiko Maki (Architect)


Judges: Bernard Tschumi
(Architect)
Kei Minohara (Urban Planner)
Ryoko Ueyama
(Landscape Architect)
Shi Yu Chen
(Architectural Producer)
Coordinator: Shozo Baba
(Architectural Critic)

Competition Contents

AWARDS

This competition seeks proposals to


harmonize Yokohama's city center and
port, focusing on the ZO NO HANA district. Please prepare an urban design plan

First Prize (I)


2,000,000
Second Prize (2)
each 500,000
Honorable Mention (10) each 100,000
* All awards arc before tax.

JUDGES

ENTRY DETAILS
Please follow the guidelines set forth in
the application and present your designs
for the site from an urban design viewpoint. Contents, expressive methods and
scales are left to the contestant's discretion.

MATERIALS
Confine total contents to two sheets (600 x
840 rom) of thick drawing paper.
QUESTIONS
No questions will be answered. Matters
not covered in the specifications listed
above are left to the contestant's discretion.
DEADLINE
Registration Deadline:
Monday, 13 January 1992 (Accepted if
postmarked this date)
Design Entry Deadlille:
Monday, 27 January 1992 (Domestic entries accepted if postmarked this date;
Overseas entries must arrive by this date.

Hand-delivered entries must be submitted


to the secretariat by noon on this date.)

REGISTRATION
(l) Domestic Applicants
Applicants from within Japan must register in advance. Please register by sending
a postal card bearing your name, address,
telephone number and place of employment (name of school) to the competition
secretariat. In return, you will be sent a
registration form and reference materials.
(2) Overseas Applicants
Overseas applicants need not register.
However, if you apply to the competition
secretariat with your name, address, telephone and facsimile numbers and place of
employment (name of school), reference
materials will be sent to you.
HOW TO ENTER
Write your name, address, place of employment (name of school) and telephone,
facsimile and telex numbers on the back of
your submission, and mail it to the competition secretariat by the specified deadline.

We deeply apalooize for providing incorrect information on the Area of the Site.(JA magazi~, 199H)
Please note the corrected information on this page,(Area of the Site left aoove)

J
l

Minato Mirai 21 Region


Minato Mirai 21 is an ambitious waterfronl development project in the heart of Yokohama. II is surrounded by the Kannai
lsezakicho district, which has developed as a cily center since the opening of the port. and the Yokohama Slation area. which
has seen rapid development since the end of World War 11. The aim of Minato Mirai 21 is to intergrate these two districts with
international business, cu_lture. and other commercial activities thereby invigorating the tieart of downtown Yokohama, In
addition, related port facllrtres.wrll be strengthened, resulting in a new city center that is surrounded by water and greenery.
Area-186ha; projected work1ng population-190,000; projected residents population-10,000;
Project commencement-1983; Scheduled completion-2,000.

ADDRESS ENTRIES TO
Department of the 3rd Yokohama Urban
Design International Competition,
Voice or Design Incorporated
Horizon-1 Bldg. 3-30-16 Nishi Waseda
Shinjuku-ku Tokyo, Japan 169
Phone: 81-3-5273-0149 Fax: 81-3-5273-0374

COMPETITION RESULTS
The winners will be notified by mail and
the results of the competition will appear
in the April1992 issue of "Shinkenchiku"
and the 2nd quarterly issue of "JA", to be
published on 15 April 1992.
Winning designs will be announced and
displayed at the Yokohama Urban Design
Forum during March 16-19, 1992.
OTHER
~Design

entries must be original.


copyright belongs to the designer, but the competition sponsors reserve the right to make announcements
of winning entries.

~Submissions cannot be returned, so we


suggest you make a copy in advance.
~All entries must be written in either
Japanese or English.
~Design

YOKOHAMA URBAN DESIGN FORUM

Urban Design Office,


Urban Planning Bureau
The City of Yokohama
1-1 Minato-cho, Naka-ku,
Yokohama 231 Japan