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Tile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Tile (disambiguation).


It has been suggested that Glazed tile be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December
2014.

Mid-16th-century decorative tilework on the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or


even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as
tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials
such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically used for wall and ceiling applications. In another
sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing
games (see tile-based game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from
the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay.
Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to
complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made of ceramic, typically glazed for internal uses and
unglazed for roofing, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, cork, concrete and
other composite materials, and stone. Tiling stone is typically marble, onyx, granite or slate. Thinner
tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist
impacts.
Contents
[hide]

1 Ceramics for tiles

2 Roof tiles
o

2.1 History

3 Floor tiles

4 Decorative tilework and coloured brick


o

4.1 Islamic tiles

4.2 Western tilework

5 Pebble tile

6 Ceiling tiles

7 Digital printed tiles

8 Diamond etched tiles

9 Mathematics of tiling

10 Further reading

11 See also

12 References

Ceramics for tiles[edit]


Ceramics for tiles include earthenware (terracotta), stoneware or porcelain. Stoneware is harder and
more durable than earthenware, and so more suitable for floors, but there is a slight difference
between porcelain and ceramic tiles. Terracotta is traditionally used for roof tiles, but other
manufactured materials including types of concrete may now be used.

Roof tiles[edit]

Roofs with "beaver tail" tiles inDinkelsbhl, Germany

"Spanish" style ceramic tile roof in Texas

Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available
materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used
and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. A large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles
have evolved. These include:

Flat tiles the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping
rows. An example of this is the clay-made "beaver-tail" tile
(GermanBiberschwanz), common in Southern Germany. Flat roof
tiles are usually made of clay but also may be made of stone, wood,
plastic, concrete, or solar cells.

Imbrex and tegula an ancient Roman pattern of curved and flat


tiles that make rain channels on a roof.

Roman tiles flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end at
a convex curve at the other, to allow interlocking.

Pantiles with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to


interlock. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed
field. An example of this is the "double Roman" tile, dating from the
late 19th century in England and USA.

Mission or barrel tiles semi-cylindrical tiles laid in alternating


columns of convex and concave tiles. Originally they were made by
forming clay around a curved surface, often a log or the
maker's thigh. Today barrel tiles are mass-produced from clay,
metal, concrete or plastic.

Interlocking roof tiles similar to pantiles with side and top


locking to improve protection from water and wind.

Antefixes vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of a


tiled roof.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. The tiles are usually hung
in parallel rows, with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the
nails that hold the row below. There are also roof tiles for special positions, particularly where the
planes of the several pitches meet. They include ridge, hip and valley tiles. These can either be
bedded and pointed in cement mortar or mechanically fixed.

Similarly to roof tiling, tiling has been used to provide a protective weather envelope to the sides of
timber frame buildings. These are hung on laths nailed to wall timbers, with tiles specially moulded to
cover corners and jambs. Often these tiles are shaped at the exposed end to give a decorative
effect. Another form of this is the so-called mathematical tile, which was hung on laths, nailed and
then grouted. This form of tiling gives an imitation of brickwork and was developed to give the
appearance of brick, but avoided the brick taxes of the 18th century.[1]
Slate roof tiles were traditional in some areas near sources of supply, and gave thin and light tiles
when the slate was split into its natural layers. It is no longer a cheap material, however, and is now
less common.

History[edit]

Ancient Greek roof tiles

Roof fragment of Roman bath inBath, Somerset, England

Roman roof tile fragment (78 mm wide by 97 mm high) found in York, UK, with the impression of a kitten's paw

Fired roof tiles are found as early as the 3rd millennium BC in the Early Helladic House of the
tilesin Lerna, Greece.[2][3] Debris found at the site contained thousands of terracotta tiles having fallen
from the roof.[4] In the Mycenaean period, roofs tiles are documented for Gla and Midea.[5]

The earliest finds of roof tiles in archaic Greece are documented from a very restricted area
around Corinth, where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at two temples
of Apollo andPoseidon between 700 and 650 BC.[6] Spreading rapidly, roof tiles were within fifty years
in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, including Mainland
Greece, Western Asia Minor, and Southern and Central Italy.[7] Early roof tiles showed an S-shape,
with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. They were rather bulky affairs, weighing around 30 kg
apiece.[8] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch, their introduction has
been explained by their greatly enhanced fire resistance, which gave desired protection to the costly
temples.[9]
The spread of the roof tile technique has to be viewed in connection with the simultaneous rise of
monumental architecture in ancient Greece. Only the newly appearing stone walls, which were
replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls, were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled
roof.[10] As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in
the end of 'Chinese roof' (Knickdach) construction in Greek architecture, as they made the need for
an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete. [11]
Production of dutch roof tiles started in the 14th century when city rulers required the use of fireproof
materials. At the time, most houses were made of wood and had thatch roofing, which would often
cause fires to quickly spread. To satisfy demand, many small roof tile makers began to produce roof
tiles by hand. Many of these small factories were built near rivers where there was a ready source of
clay and cheap transport.

Floor tiles[edit]

Making mosaic tiles

The elaborate floor pattern of the Sydney Queen Victoria Building

Floor tile in Karpas, northeasternCyprus

6"x6" porcelain floor tiles

Patio with stone tile, Hawaii, 1960

These are commonly made of ceramic or stone, although recent technological advances have
resulted in rubber or glass tiles for floors as well. Ceramic tiles may be painted and glazed. Small
mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting

ofsand, cement and often a latex additive for extra adhesion. The spaces between the tiles are
nowadays filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.
Natural stone tiles can be beautiful but as a natural product they are less uniform in color and
pattern, and require more planning for use and installation. Mass-produced stone tiles are uniform in
width and length. Granite or marble tiles are sawn on both sides and then polished or finished on the
facing up side, so that they have a uniform thickness. Other natural stone tiles such as slate are
typically "riven" (split) on the facing up side so that the thickness of the tile varies slightly from one
spot on the tile to another and from one tile to another. Variations in tile thickness can be handled by
adjusting the amount of mortar under each part of the tile, by using wide grout lines that "ramp"
between different thicknesses, or by using a cold chisel to knock off high spots.
Some stone tiles such as polished granite, marble, and travertine are very slippery when wet. Stone
tiles with a riven (split) surface such as slate or with a sawn and then sandblasted or honed surface
will be more slip resistant. Ceramic tiles for use in wet areas can be made more slip resistant either
by using very small tiles so that the grout lines acts as grooves or by imprinting a contour pattern
onto the face of the tile.
The hardness of natural stone tiles varies such that some of the softer stone (e.g. limestone) tiles
are not suitable for very heavy traffic floor areas. On the other hand, ceramic tiles typically have a
glazed upper surface and when that becomes scratched or pitted the floor looks worn, whereas the
same amount of wear on natural stone tiles will not show, or will be less noticeable.
Natural stone tiles can be stained by spilled liquids; they must be sealed and periodically resealed
with a sealant in contrast to ceramic tiles which only need their grout lines sealed. However, because
of the complex, non repeating patterns in natural stone, small amounts of dirt on many natural stone
floor tiles do not show.
The tendency of floor tiles to stain depends not only on a sealant being applied, and periodically reapplied, but also on their porosity or how porous the stone is. Slate is an example of a less porous
stone while limestone is an example of a more porous stone. Different granites and marbles have
different porosities with the less porous ones being more valued and more expensive.
Most vendors of stone tiles emphasize that there will be variation in color and pattern from one batch
of tiles to another of the same description and variation within the same batch. Stone floor tiles tend
to be heavier than ceramic tiles and somewhat more prone to breakage during shipment.
Rubber floor tiles have a variety of uses, both in residential and commercial settings. They are
especially useful in situations where it is desired to have high-traction floors or protection for an
easily breakable floor. Some common uses include flooring of garage, workshops, patios, swimming
pool decks, sport courts, gyms, and dance floors.
Plastic floor tiles including interlocking floor tiles that can be installed without adhesive or glue are a
recent innovation and are suitable for areas subject to heavy traffic, wet areas and floors that are
subject to movement, damp or contamination from oil, grease or other substances that may prevent
adhesion to the substrate. Common uses include old factory floors, garages, gyms and sports
complexes, schools and shops.

Decorative tilework and coloured brick[edit]

Blue Turkish tiles

Imam Mosque in Iran

Topkapi Palace

Topkapi Palace

Topkapi Palace

Decorative tilework should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of
tiny irregularly positioned tesserae in a single colour, usually of glass or sometimes ceramic.
The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple
at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and coloured bricks were used to make low
reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon (ca. 575 BC), now partly
reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the
palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis.
Tiling was widespread in the time of the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and
polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for
tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles. [citation needed]Tiling
from this period can be seen Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura.

Islamic tiles[edit]

Phoenix on the portal of Nadir Divan-Beghi Madrasah, Bukhara,Uzbekistan

Early Islamic mosaics in Persia consist mainly of geometric decorations in mosques and
mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century
and is used mostly for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyed Mosque in Isfahan (1122 AD),
Dome of Maraqeh (1147 AD) and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad (1212 AD) are among the finest
examples.[12] The dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is also dated to this period.
The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. Single color tiles
were cut into small pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening,
these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings. But the mosaic was not limited to flat
areas. Jame Mosque in Yazd (1324-1365 AD) and Goharshad Mosque (1418 AD) are prominent
examples of brick and tile mosaics of interiors and external surfaces of domes. [12] Islamic buildings in
Bukhara (16th-17th century) also exhibit very sophisticated floral ornaments.
Mihrabs, being focus points of mosques, were usually the places where most sophisticated tilework
was placed. The 14th century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of

aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament. The pointed arch,
framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an.[13]
One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the
17th century. Its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the
finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. Wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in
order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns. The result was a
technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament. [13]
During the Safavid period mosaic ornaments were often replaced by a haft rang (seven colors)
technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles, glazed and fired afterwards. Besides
economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less timeconsuming. It was popular until Qajar period when the palette of colors was extended by yellow and
orange.[12]
The Persianate tradition continued and spread to much of the Islamic world, notably the znik
pottery of Turkey under the Ottoman Empirein the 16th and 17th centuries. Palaces, public
buildings, mosques and trbe mausoleums were heavily decorated with large brightly coloured
patterns, typically with floral motifs, and friezes of astonishing complexity, including floral motifs and
calligraphy as well as geometric patterns.
The zellige tradition of Arabic North Africa uses small coloured tiles of various shapes to make very
complex geometric patterns. It is halfway to mosaic, but as the different shapes must be fitted
precisely together, falls under tiling.

Western tilework[edit]

17th century Delft blue and white tile with seamonster

Azulejos by Willem van der Kloet (1708) in the transept of theChurch of Nossa Senhora da Nazar; Nazar, Portugal

Medieval Europe made considerable use of painted tiles, sometimes producing very elaborate
schemes, of which few have survived. Religious and secular stories were depicted. The imaginary
tiles with Old testament scenes shown on the floor in Jan van Eyck's 1434 Annunciation in
Washington are an example. The 14th century "Tring tiles" in the British Museum show childhood
scenes from the Life of Christ, possibly for a wall rather than a floor,[14] while their 13th century
"Chertsey Tiles", though from an abbey, show scenes of Richard the Lionheart battling
with Saladin in very high-quality work.[15] Medieval letter tiles were used to
create Christian inscriptions on church floors.
Transmitted via Islamic Spain, a new tradition of azulejos developed in Spain and
especially Portugal, which by the Baroque period produced extremely large painted scenes on tiles,
usually in blue and white, for walls rather than floors. Delftware wall tiles, typically with a painted
design covering only one (rather small) blue and white tile, were ubiquitous in Holland and widely
exported over Northern Europe from the 16th century on, replacing many local industries. Several
18th century royal palaces had porcelain rooms with the walls entirely covered in porcelain in tiles or
panels. Surviving examples include ones at Capodimonte, Naples, the Royal Palace of Madrid and
the nearby Royal Palace of Aranjuez.
There are several other types of traditional tiles that remain in manufacture, for example the small,
almost mosaic, brightly coloured zellige tiles of Morocco and the surrounding countries. With
exceptions, notably the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, decorated tiles or glazed bricks do not feature
largely in East Asian ceramics.

William de Morgan, fantastic ducks on 6-inch tile with lustre highlights, Fulham period

The Victorian period saw a great revival in tilework, largely as part of the Gothic Revival, but also
theArts and Crafts Movement. Patterned tiles, or tiles making up patterns, were now mass-produced
by machine and reliably level for floors and cheap to produce, especially for churches, schools and
public buildings, but also for domestic hallways and bathrooms. For many uses the
tougher encaustic tile was used. Wall tiles in various styles also revived; the rise of the bathroom
contributing greatly to this, as well as greater appreciation of the benefit of hygiene in
kitchens. William De Morgan was the leading English designer working in tiles, strongly influenced
by Islamic designs.
Since the Victorian period tiles have remained standard for kitchens and bathrooms, and many types
of public area. Portugal and So Lus continue their tradition of azulejo tilework today. Notable
among American tilemakers of the 1920s and 1930s were Ernest A. Batchelder and Pewabic
Pottery.

Pebble tile[edit]
Similar to mosaics or other patterned tiles, pebble tiles are tiles made up of small pebbles attached
to a backing. The tile is generally designed in an interlocking pattern so that final installations fit of
multiple tiles fit together to have a seamless appearance. A relatively new tile design, pebble tiles
were originally developed in Indonesia using pebbles found in various locations in the country.
Today, pebble tiles feature all types of stones and pebbles from around the world.

Ceiling tiles[edit]
Ceiling tiles are lightweight tiles used in the interior of buildings. They are placed in an aluminium
grid and they provide little thermal insulation but are generally designed to improve the acoustics of
a room. Mineral fibre tiles are fabricated from a range of products; wet felt tiles can be manufactured
from perlite, mineral wool, and fibers from recycled paper, stonewool tiles are created by combining
molten stone and binders which is then spun to create the tile, or gypsum tiles which are based on
the soft mineral and then finished with vinyl, paper or a decorative face.

Two panels of earthenware tiles painted with polychrome glazesover a white glaze. (Iran 19thC)

Ceiling tiles very often have patterns on the front face; these are there in most circumstances to aid
with the tiles ability to improve acoustics.
Ceiling tiles also provide a barrier to the spread of smoke and fire. Breaking, displacing, or removing
ceiling tiles enables hot gases and smoke from a fire to rise and accumulate above detectors and
sprinklers. Doing so delays their activation, enabling fires to grow more rapidly.[16]
Ceiling tiles, especially in old Mediterranean houses were made of terracotta and were placed on top
of the wooden ceiling beams and upon those were placed the roof tiles. They were then plastered or
painted, but nowadays are usually left bare for decorative purposes.
Modern-day tile ceilings may be flush mounted (nail up or glue up) or installed as dropped ceilings.

Digital printed tiles[edit]

Medieval encaustic tiles at Cleeve Abbey, England

Printing techniques and digital manipulation of art and photography are used in what is known as
"custom tile printing". Dye sublimation printers, inkjet printers and ceramic inks and toners permit
printing on a variety of tile types yielding photographic-quality reproduction. [17]Using digital image
capture via scanning or digital cameras, bitmap/raster images can be prepared in photo editing
software programs. Specialized custom-tile printing techniques permit transfer under heat and
pressure or the use of high temperature kilns to fuse the picture to the tile substrate. This has
become a method of producing custom tile murals for kitchens, showers, and commercial decoration
in restaurants, hotels, and corporate lobbies.

Diamond etched tiles[edit]


A method for custom tile printing involving a diamond-tipped drill controlled by a computer.
Compared with the laser engravings, diamond etching is in almost every circumstance more
permanent.[citation needed]

Mathematics of tiling[edit]
Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps.
These shapes are said totessellate (from the Latin tessella, 'tile') and such a tiling is called
a tessellation.

Further reading[edit]

Carboni, S. & Masuya, T. (1993). Persian tiles. New York: The


Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Marilyn Y. Goldberg, Greek Temples and Chinese


Roofs, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (Jul.,
1983), pp. 305310

rjan Wikander, Archaic Roof Tiles the First


Generations, Hesperia, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Jan.Mar., 1990), pp. 285
290

William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, The Reproduction of


Rooftiles for the Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia,
Greece, Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (Summer,
1981), pp. 211227

Michel Kornmann and CTTB, "Clay bricks and roof tiles,


manufacturing and properties", Soc. Industrie Minerale, Paris
(2007) ISBN 2-9517765-6-X

E-book on the The Manufacture of Roofing Tiles in the United


States from 1910.

See also[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Tiles.

Building integrated photovoltaics

Dimension stone

Dropped Ceiling

Glass tile

Marble

Porcelain tile

Quarry tile

Roof shingle

Tile mural

Vitrified tile

Faux ceiling tiles

References[edit]
1. Jump up^ RW Brunskill, Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular
Architecture (1970:58-61)
2. Jump up^ Joseph W. Shaw, The Early Helladic II Corridor House:
Development and Form, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 91,
No. 1. (Jan. 1987), pp. 5979 (59)
3. Jump up^ John C. Overbeck, Greek Towns of the Early Bronze
Age, The Classical Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1. (Oct. 1969), pp. 17 (5)
4. Jump up^ J. L. Caskey, "Lerna in the Early Bronze
Age", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 72, No. 4. (Oct.
1968), pp. 313-316 (314)
5. Jump up^ Ione Mylonas Shear, "Excavations on the Acropolis of
Midea: Results of the Greek-Swedish Excavations under the
Direction of Katie Demakopoulou and Paul strm", American
Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 104, No. 1. (Jan. 2000), pp. 133134
6. Jump up^ rjan Wikander, p. 285
7. Jump up^ rjan Wikander, p. 286
8. Jump up^ William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, p. 212
9. Jump up^ rjan Wikander, p. 289
10. Jump up^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p. 309
11. Jump up^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p. 305

12. ^ Jump up to:a b c Iran: Visual Arts: history of Iranian Tile, Iran
Chamber Society
13. ^ Jump up to:a b Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through The Ages,
A Global History. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-495-41059-1.
14. Jump up^ Tring Tiles British Museum
15. Jump up^ Chertsey Tiles, British Museum
16. Jump up^ Missing Ceiling Tiles. Washington, D.C.: United States
Congress Office of Compliance, 2008.
17. Jump up^ "Inkjet Decoration of Ceramic Tiles". digitalfire.com.
Retrieved July 28, 2010.
Look up tile in Wiktionary,
the free dictionary.

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A]: What are Tiles? What are different types & kinds of Tiles?
Monday, September 05, 2011 ||| POST TAGS ==> Design Ideas , Q and A , TechTalk
||| FEEDBACK ==> 1 ||| LEAVE YOUR COMMENT

|||||

Neha Kulkarni, an architect by profession and a non-resident Indian (NRI) presently putting up in California, Unites States of
America, asked us on our BricksnMortar Edesk entity on Facebook...

Neha asked:

1.

What are Tiles?

2.

What are the different types & kinds of Tiles?

3.

What are 'Homogenous Vitrified Tiles'?

4.

What makes them different from other normal tiles, viz., Vitrified tiles/ Ceramic tiles/ Glazed tiles/ Composite tiles/
Stone tiles?

BricksnMortar Edesk (Team Bricks-n-Mortar) answers:


Dear Ms. Neha,
Considering the number of your queries you have asked, allow us to break the posts and answer your queries in at least 2parts. Hereby, publishing PART 1 of 2 of the post...

WHAT ARE 'TILES'?

To begin with, let us first briefly tell you and our readers for the sake of sharing basic know-how as what essentially is meant
by the building product called - 'TILES'.

In simplest of words-- "A tile is a natural or manufactured piece of hard-wearing material that could generally be used
for covering, protection and/or decorating finished or unfinished surfaces like roofs, floors, walls, ceilings, facades,
slabs, etc. etc."

The word 'TILE' is believed to be derived from the French word 'TUILE', which in turn is believed to have been derived from
the Latin word 'TEGULA' which means a roof covering piece composed of fired clay.

DIFFERENT KINDS & TYPES OF TILES

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TILES COMMONLY USED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

The most common kind & types of tiles that are used worldwide, and which are either available naturally or are
manufactured in factories are described in brief herein below:

Earthenware tiles -These are the tiles that comprise of fired /baked tiles made from mud, clay & earth (soil). These tiles are quite
porous in nature and are often used indoors. Ancient (earlier) types of such tiles were also called Terracotta tiles.

Stoneware tiles -These are the tiles which are essentially cut-to-shape products made by cutting & shaping from

processed rocks, boulders, stones, etc. Sandstones, slates, granites, marbles, etc. are a few examples. Porosity
of such tiles depend largely upon the source rock.

Porcelain tiles -These are the tiles that are made by artificially processing of special porcelain mud/ clay along with minerals like
quartz, feldspar and other fluxes under very high pressure and heat. These tiles are very less porous as well as
sturdy due to which these are used in external surfaces also.

Glass tiles -As the name suggests, these are the tiles made from molten silica glassy content or by cutting larger glass slabs.
Usually, these are used as decorative coverings also allowing the natural or artificial light to pass through for either
natural lighting or enhanced visual appeal. Of course, these are fragile in nature and must be handled with care.

Metal tiles -Again as the name suggests, these are the tiles made from metals, alloys and/or composite materials like colored
aluminum tiles, galvanized iron sheet tiles, stainless steel tiles, etc. These tiles are either snap-fit type or are
riveted or tack welded to the parent frame. These are mostly used as decorative-cum-functional false ceilings and
wall claddings.

Wooden tiles -These are made out of original (raw) wood, manufactured ply boards, artificial wood, etc. and are used for all kind
of ceilings, floors, claddings, etc.

Cement / Concrete tiles -These are the tiles that are made from cement mortar and/or cement concrete along with certain admixtures,
coloring agents and patterns. Most commonly used cement tiles are the checkered & pattern tiles that are used to
furnish the walkways, driveways, parking, open public areas and the likes. These tiles are used for heavy public
traffic areas due to their higher ruggedness.

Insulating / Anti-static tiles -These tiles are made with composite soundproofing compounds like asbestos, gypsum, mineral wool boards, PVC,
rubber, etc. and are usually used to insulate closed spaces from intruding sounds & heat. Such tiles are used as
false ceilings, partition panels, in-fills, and even under floors.

Ceramic tiles, Glazed tiles, Vitrified tiles, Homogenous vitrified tiles -Ceramic, Glazed, Vitrified, Homogenous vitrified tiles are nothing but modified, modern, composite and bettered

forms of Earthenware, Stoneware and Porcelain tiles, all put together.


The inner core of these tiles are made from baked & burnt earthen material that are processed under high heat,
pressure and special techniques so as to flux them with minerals, alloys and suitable composite materials that
provide a hard wear-proof coating surface on one side, having glossy or matt finish.

Hope Ms. Neha and other readers of this blog and post shall now become more familiar with this ordinary sounding, but yet
so very important building product, called TILES