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Istilah

Quadriparesis - Weakness of all four limbs. [Click Here To Return To List]


Quadriplegia - Paralysis of all four limbs (from the neck down). British
authors often use the prefix "tetra" to mean four, so they may describe a
patient as having tetraplegia. [Click Here To Return To List]
Quality of Life - A rating of what kind of existence a person experiences. In
estimating the quality of life the following items are usually considered:
1) mobility and activities of daily life;
2) living arrangements;
3) social relationships;
4) work and leisure activities;
5) present satisfaction; and
6) future prospects. [Click Here To Return To List]
Random Movement - An action or process of moving without obvious aim,
purpose, or reason. [Click Here To Return To List]
Range of Motion (ROM) - Refers to movement of a joint (important to
prevent contractures). [Click Here To Return To List]
Range of Motion, Active - The muscles around the joint do the work to move
it. [Click Here To Return To List]
Range of Motion, Passive - Movement of a joint by means other than
contraction of the muscles around that joint; e.g., someone else moves the
joint. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Abstract - Mode of thinking in which the individual recognizes a
phrase that has multiple meanings and selects the meaning most appropriate to
a given situation. The term "abstract" typically refers to concepts not readily
apparent from the physical attributes of an object or situation. [Click Here To
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Reasoning, Association - A skill dependent on a person's ability to determine


the relationship between objects and concepts. A patient with impairment may

touch a hot stove, failing to realize that pain is associated with touching a
heated burner. Similarly, a patient given a knife, spoon, fork, and baseball may
not be able to discriminate which of the objects "does not belong." [Click Here
To Return To List]

Reasoning, Categorization - The ability to sort or group objects and concepts


based on the shared attribute(s) and apply a label depicting the attribute(s).
Task difficulty is greater in circumstances requiring formulation of new
categories. Impaired patients may have difficulty sorting clothes or choosing
items for a balanced meal. Categorization is similar to association in that
patients must understand the relationship between objects or concepts.
However, categorization requires an extra step; the ability to provide a label
describing the group of objects or concepts. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Cause and Effect - The ability to perceive and anticipate the
consequences of a given action or statement. For example, a patient may sit
for a long period in a darkened room without realizing that flipping a light
switch will cause the light to turn on. A patient may turn the oven up to make
a cake cook faster, not realizing that the increased heat will simply cause the
food to burn. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Concrete - The ability to understand the literal meaning of a
phrase. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Deductive - Drawing conclusions based upon premises or general
principles in a step-by-step manner. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Generalization - The ability to take information, rules and
strategies learned about one situation and apply them appropriately to other,
similar situations. For example, a patient who learns to lock his/her
wheelchair brakes in physical therapy may not lock the brakes while sitting in
his/her room. [Click Here To Return To List]
Reasoning, Inductive - Awareness of one's behavior and the accuracy or
appropriateness of one's performance. Usually automatic and on-going. [Click
Here To Return To List]

Reasoning, Organization - The ability to arrange or group information in a


manner which improves task efficiency. Persons who lack organizational skills
often demonstrate a sense of purposelessness and have difficulty effectively
utilizing nonstructured time. They have difficulty completing a puzzle or
arranging materials to cook or shower. [Click Here To Return To List]

Reasoning, Problem-Solving - The ability to analyze information related to a


given situation and generate appropriate response options. Problem-solving is
a sequential process that typically proceeds as follows: identification of
problem; generation of response options; evaluation of response option
appropriateness; selection and testing of first option; analysis as to whether
solution has been reached. A patient/client may discontinue making a cup of
coffee because the sugar bowl is empty, even though sugar is readily available
in a nearby cabinet. A patient/client may easily navigate his way into a room
crowded with furniture, but request staff assistance to navigate his way out.
[Click Here To Return To List]

Reasoning, Sequencing - The ability to organize information or objects


according to specified rules, or the ability to arrange information or objects in
a logical, progressive manner. Nearly every activity, including work and
leisure tasks, requires sequencing. For example, in cooking certain foods it is
important that ingredients be added and mixed in a specified order; in
dressing, undergarments must be put on prior to outer garments. [Click Here To
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Recreation Therapist - Individual within the facility responsible for


developing a program to assist persons with disabilities plan and manage their
leisure activities; may also schedule specific activities and coordinate the
program with existing community resources. [Click Here To Return To List]
Referral - The process of directing a client to an agency for services. [Click
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Referral Data - Data about the client obtained from other specialists, persons,
and agencies that are obtained verbally or through such documents as
psychometrics, terminal reports, medical reports, intake, and social service
reports. [Click Here To Return To List]
Referral Source - That person or facility sending a client for services. This
includes, but is not limited to, service agencies such as vocational
rehabilitation, physicians, industry, insurance companies, employment
agencies, community action groups, and potential clients themselves. [Click
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Referring Agency - The agency which sends or directs the client for services.
[Click Here To Return To List]

Refrig Bag - Device used to help keep males dry when they are incontinent. It
is a small plastic bag filled with absorbent tissue that is secured around the
penis. [Click Here To Return To List]

Registry - A clinical or service-oriented system used to:


1) identify patients eligible for services,
2) evaluate treatment methods, and
3) monitor patient outcomes. [Click Here To Return To List]
Rehabilitation - Comprehensive program to reduce/overcome deficits
following injury or illness, and to assist the individual to attain the optimal
level of mental and physical ability. [Click Here To Return To List]
Rehabilitation Counselor - Also called Vocational Counselor. A specialist in
social and vocational issues who helps the patient develop the skills and
aptitudes necessary for return to productive activity and the community. [Click
Here To Return To List]

Rehabilitation Engineering - Use of technical advances, physics, computer


science and other scientific devices to aid in improving the quality of life for
the person with a disability, e.g., computerized communication boards,
mechanically-assisted wheelchairs. [Click Here To Return To List]
Rehabilitation Facility - Agency of multiple, coordinated services designed
to minimize for the individual the disabling effects of one's physical, mental,
social, and/or vocational difficulties and to help realize individual potential.
[Click Here To Return To List]

Rehabilitation Nurse - A nurse specializing in rehabilitation techniques as


well as basic nursing care. Nurses assist the patient and family in acquiring
new information, developing skills, achieving competence and exhibiting
behaviors that contribute to the attainment of a healthy state. [Click Here To
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Rehabilitation Objective - A goal of the comprehensive restoration of an


individual to the best possible level of functioning following a physical,
mental, or emotional disorder. [Click Here To Return To List]
Rehabilitation Process - A planned, orderly sequence of services related to
the total needs of the person with a disability and designed to assist one to
realize maximum potential for useful and productive activity. [Click Here To
Return To List]

Rehabilitation Team - An organized group of health care specialists, who


focus on providing a logical, practical and complete rehabilitation plan for the

patient. Upon admission to the rehabilitation hospital, the patient is evaluated


by each team member who defines both short-term and long-term goals for the
patient's rehabilitation. Meetings of the rehabilitation team (sometimes called
"rounds") are held regularly to discuss the patient's progress and, if necessary,
to redefine the goals. Additional family conferences may also be scheduled.
[Click Here To Return To List]

Remediation - The process of decreasing a disability by challenging the


individual to improve deficient skills. [Click Here To Return To List]
Report-Vocational Evaluation - A well planned, carefully written means of
communicating vital vocational information about a client. It is a studied,
permanent record of significant vocational data observed as a client and an
evaluator interact in various types of work or work-like situations. It puts the
plan, action, findings, logic, and interpretation of the evaluation in writing. It
usually includes a description of the client's work traits and how they compare
to minimal requirements of selected jobs or work areas, physical capacities,
learning ability, personal characteristics, social competence, other vocational
factors, and recommendation for further services. It may also provide a
prescriptive-descriptive sequence of experiences which are aimed at
maximizing an individual's vocational potential. [Click Here To Return To List]
Respirator/Ventilator - A machine that does the breathing work for the
unresponsive patient. It serves to deliver air in the appropriate percentage of
oxygen and at the appropriate rate. The air is also humidified by the ventilator.
Although these two terms are often used interchangeably, a respirator is a
device used in workplaces to filter out particles whereas a ventilator is used
for assistance with breathing. [Click Here To Return To List]
Respite Care - A means of taking over the care of a patient temporarily (a few
hours up to a few days) to provide a period of relief for the primary caregiver.
[Click Here To Return To List]

Response Control - Development of the ability to recognize and suppress


abnormal behaviors in one's self. Two behaviors fall within this category:
impulse control, and perseveration. [Click Here To Return To List]
Respiratory Therapist - Also known as a respiratory care practitioner. In
most states now the respiratory care practitioner is licensed to practice in
his/her field. In today's medical environment, the respiratory care practitioner
performs many functions. They not only monitor the ventilator, but also in
some hospitals perform ventilatory management based upon a set of protocols
developed by the hospital and based upon Clinical Practice Guidelines set up
by the American Association of Respiratory Care (AARC). The respiratory

care practitioner draws and analyzes arterial blood gases and provides
breathing treatments to improve ventilation. In some hospitals, the RCP also
performs more advanced duties such as monitoring of the swan ganz catheters
and insertion of intravenous lines, nasogastric tubes, chest tubes, etc. [Click
Here To Return To List]

Retrograde Amnesia - Inability to recall events that occurred prior to the


accident; may be a specific span of time or type of information. [Click Here To
Return To List]

RCP - See Respiratory Therapist. [Click Here To Return To List]


"Road Trip" - Although not a specific medical term it may be one that the
family of a TBI patient might hear. This is often meant by the medical
personnel as meaning a trip from the ICU to the radiology department or other
departments to perform testing, diagnostic workup or treatment to the patient.
Because of the amount of equipment often needed by the patient, it takes
substantial coordination to transport the patient to other areas of the hospital
when necessary and therefore this is often referred to by the personnel as
planning for a "road trip". [Click Here To Return To List]
R.T. - See Respiratory Therapist. [Click Here To Return To List]
Isu
rikaz jedinog unosa.
Poruka br. 1
Oldi je napisao/laMaj 31, 2009 u 7:53 poslije podne
Jakarta Mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan Univeristas
Indonesia pada hari Rabu, 27 Mei 2009 melakukan kunjungan untuk audiensi ke DPR
RI. Kunjungan yang ditujukan langsung ke Fraksi Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (FPKS) itu
diikuti oleh 32 orang dari kelas Kekhususan Kepemimpinan dan Manajemen
Keperawatan.
Rombongan datang di Gedung DPR RI sekitar pukul 12.30 WIB langsung menuju
Gedung Nusantara I lantai 3, lokasi dimana Ruang Pleno FPKS berada. Rombongan
diterima langsung oleh staf dari FPKS, sementara Zuber Safawi yang sedianya akan
menemui rombongan masih mengikuti sidang Paripurna DPR. Audiensi kemudian
dimulai tepat pukul 13.00 setelah rombongan melakukan sholat Dhuhur dan makan
siang, dipimpin langsung oleh Zuber Safawi, SHI, anggota DPR RI dari Fraksi Partai
Keadilan Sejahtera (FPKS) periode 2004-2009 yang kini terpilih lagi untuk periode
2009-2014 yang duduk dalam Komisi IX yang membidangi salah satunya tentang
Kesehatan.
Acara dimulai dan dipimpin langsung oleh Zuber, diawali dengan perkenalan dari tim
FPKS dan rombongan diwakili oleh Edy Wuryanto, sekretaris PPBI Jawa Tengah,

kemudian dialnjutkan diskusi dan dialog. Audiensi dilakukan dalam rangka mengikuti
dan menyalurkan aspirasi terkait perkembangan pengesahan RUU Keperawatan yang
sudah masuk di Prolegnas (Program Legislasi Nasional) dengan urutan ke-26 pada
prioritas tahun 2009. Menurut Zuber sekarang ini komisi IX sedang menggodok 4 RUU
terkait kesehatan yg tak kalah pentingnya dengan RUU Keperawatan. Diantaranya
adalah RUU tentang Kesehatan, RUU tentang Rumah Sakit, RUU tentang
Kependudukan, dan RUU tentang Psikotropika. RUU itu telah lebih lama digodok dan
menjadi prioritas oleh Komisi IX, sementara RUU Keperawatan baru intensif di godok
di Komisi ini pada pertengahan tahun 2008. Isu Kesra kadang sering menjadi isu
belakangan setelah ekonomi dan politik yang menjadi prioritas pembahasan di anggota
DPR.
Oleh karena itu RUU Keperawatan walaupun sudah masuk Prolegnas menurut Zuber
akan kalah prioritas dengan RUU lain yang ada di Komisi IX, hal ini dikarenakan
berbagai faktor diantaranya adalah adanya masa transisi pergantian anggota dewan pada
bulan Oktober, ditambah perubahan komposisi Komisi IX yang tinggal 8 orang yang
kembali menjadi anggota Dewan untuk periode mendatang. Namun Zuber akan terus
memperjuangankan tersahkannya RUU Keperawatan itu pada tahun ini melalui Komisi
dia di Komisi IX maupun melalui FPKS. Kalaupun tidak sampai tersahkan beliau
sendiri mentargetkan minimal terbentuk Panitia Khusus (Pansus) atau Kelompok Kerja
(Pokja) untuk mengawal pengesahan RUU Keperawatan ini di DPR RI. Disampaikan
juga bahwa jika sampai tahun 2009 belum disahkan, maka akan diusahakan ada pasalpasal pokok yang menjadi landasan untuk penyusunan UU Keperawatan yang
disisipkan pada UU tentang Kesehatan.
Menurut Zuber dengan berlakunya AFTA (Asia Free Trade Area) dan ditandatanganinya
Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRA) oleh presiden maka keberadaan UU
Keperawatan sangat urgent untuk menjadi payung hukum pengelolaan tenaga
keperawatan di Indonesia dan dari luar negeri yang masuk ke Indonesia. Kesepakatan
yang akan berlaku sejak tanggal 1 Januari 2010 itu memaksa Indonesia harus memiliki
Konsil Keperawatan yang akan mengatur registrasi, lisensi, dan sertifikasi seluruh
tenaga keperawatan yang bekerja di Indonesia baik dari dalam negeri sendiri maupun
perawat dari luar negeri yang akan bekerja di Indonesia. Namun karena RUU
Keperawatan ini belum disahkan maka keberadaaan Konsil Keperawatan Indonesia
belum dapat diwujudkan. Selain itu Zuber juga menyatakan bahwa keberadaan UU
Keperawatan ini sangat penting untuk melindungi tenaga keperawatan Indonesia dan
keselamatan pasien yang menjadi mitra langsung para perawat dalam memberikan
pelayanan keperawatan. Termasuk juga terkait pengaturan peluang kerja dan
kesejahteraab perawat Indonesia. Karena dengan adanya UU Keperawatan dan
kelengkapan pelaksanaannya, maka seluruh kompetensi tenaga keperawatan akan dapat
distandarisasi, diregistrasi, diberi lisensi dan serfitikasi.
Selanjutnya Zuber juga memaparkan bahwa pengguliran isu tentang RUU Keperawatan
ini tergolong terlambat. Masyarakat Umum, Pemerintah dan Anggota DPR pun
khususnya Komisi IX merasa terkejut. Kenapa isu itu baru sekarang dimunculkan saat
terjadi aksi simpatik perawat Indonesia di Gedung DPR/MPR RI saat Hari Perawat
Sedunia pada tanggal 12 Mei 2008. Dimana masa jabatan anggota dewan yang tinggal 1
tahun lagi. Zuber juga menyampaikan telah dan sedang melakukan lobi-lobi dengan
berbagai stakeholder termasuk PPNI yang menjadi motor pada pengawalan pengesahan
RUU ini. FPKS menyatakan telah melakukan serangkaian kegiatan agar RUU
Keperawatan menjadi prioritas, oleh karena itu agar tidak berbelit jika melalui jalur

formal dari pemerintah, maka diusahakan RUU ini harus menjadi inisiatif DPR. FPKS
menyatakan telah melakukan advokasi mengingat pentingnya RUU ini agar digodok
tidak melalui fraksi atau komisi melainkan melalui Badan Legislasi (Baleg) DPR, dan
akhirnya ditindaklanjuti oleh pimpinan DPR untuk langsung diteruskan ke Baleg DPR.
Zuber juga mengapresiasi tentang beberapa kasus yang menimpa perawat setelah
terbitnya UU Praktek Kedokteran, beliau menyampaikan tentang salah satu pentingnya
UU Keperawatan ini adalah pada kasus perlindungan pada tindakan medis yang
dilakukan oleh perawat di daerah pelosok dan terpencil yang tidak ada tenaga dokter
dengan alasan darurat.
Di akhir audiensi Zuber memberikan dorongan dan harapan pada seluruh komunitas
perawat Indonesia, baik dari PPNI, Rumah sakit da berbagai stake holder keperawatan
termasuk juga Instansi pendidikan keperawatan harus bekerja ekstra keras untuk
mengawal RUU Keperawatan ini. Mengingat begitu rumit dan panjangnya proses
penggodokan dan pengesahan sebuah RUU di DPR RI. Menurut beliau sebuah RUU
dapat diajukan melalui beberapa jalur. Diantarnya dari masyarakat melalui beberapa
anggota dewan langsung, ke komisi, fraksi, atau alat kelengkapan dewan yang lain. Atau
RUU diusulkan langsung oleh pemerintah. Perkembangan RUU Keperawatan selama
ini tidak mendapat support penuh dari pemerintah dalam hal ini adalah Departemen
Kesehatan, sehingga progresivitasnya mengalami stagnan. Sehingga perlu dilakukan
terobosan baru yaitu melalui inisiatif DPR langsung atau melalui Badan Legislasi DPR.
Terkait masalah tersebut Zuber memberikan beberapa alternatif pemecahan masalah
pada proses pengawalan RUU itu:
1. Aksi Simpatik
2. Pengawalan Isu dan Tren RUU Keperawatan di Media Massa dan Elektronik dengan
melakukan penerbitan dan kegiatan ilmiah (press release, artikel, seminar, workshop,
dll)
3. Lobi-lobi Politik ke berbagai Stakeholder khususnya Departemen Kesehatan
4. Penokohan Tokoh Keperawatan secara kontinu dan berkesinambungan
Kegiatan-kegiatan dimaksudkan untuk menghangatkan isu tentang UU keperawatan di
kalangan publik. Selanjutnya Zuber juga menyarankan agar ada tokoh-tokoh perawat
yang terjun pada tataran politik praktis sebagai politisi untuk melakukan proses
pengawalan pada profesi perawat itu sendiri, karena beliau menyampaikan bahwa tidak
ada kehidupan bernegara dan bermasyarakat itu yang terlepas dari urusan politik sekecil
apapun itu.
Staf ahli Zuber Safawi yang hadir pada audiensi tersebut juga menyampaikan bahwa
salah satu stakeholder terkait selain Departemen Kesehatan adalah Departemen Tenaga
Kerja, hal ini karena kebutuhan tenaga profesional perawat juga menjadi area dari
Depnaker, sehingga perlu ada pengawalan juga. Sebagai kasus kebutuhan tenaga
perawat di Jepang yang masih belum memadai termasuk masalah kompetensi dan
sertifikasi, karena selama ini tenaga kerja yang dikirim ke luar negeri kebanyakan
adalah tenaga non profesional yaitu tenaga kerja perusahaan atau bahkan TKI dan TKW
yang menjadi pembantu rumah tangga.