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Physical chemistry

General topics: The concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton's atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical

formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidationreduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality

and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der

Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their

relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Waveparticle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom

(qualitative treatment), shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic

number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond;

Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;

Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of

molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal,

tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy,

Hess's law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy;

Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle (effect of

concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility

product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts);

Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its

relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic

conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, Kohlrausch's law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions;

Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, a, b, g),

close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii,

simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult's law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling

point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types,

methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only

definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of a, b and g rays; Kinetics of radioactive

decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief

discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus,

oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and

sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates,

bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron:

diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid

(carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;

Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen

peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;

Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides; Fertilizers:

commercially available (common) NPK type.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities,

colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment;

reaction with nitrous acid.Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Cyanide process (silver and gold). m. Metal acetylides. Acidity of alkynes. dehydration and oxidation. Ba2+. Grignard reactions. Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage. aluminium. S. Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron. Organic Chemistry Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon. Shapes of molecules. Pb2+. Preparation. oxime and hydrazone formation. nylon. physical properties of alkanes (melting points. potassium dichromate. Cannizzaro reaction. carbanions and free radicals. magnesium. square planar and octahedral). Detection and identification of the . Addition reactions of alkynes. Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds (only combustion method). Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes . Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination). Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2. Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections). Reduction of alkenes and alkynes. Carbohydrates: Classification. (R. chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+. Cr3+. cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms. zinc and silver. Phenols: Acidity. tetrahedral. Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium). Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases. monofunctional and bi-functional compounds). Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions. preparation from nitro compounds. mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose).-HCl. Resonance and hyperconjugation. phosphorus halides.Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N. Bi3+. lead. sulphate. silver thiosulphate. HX. IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons. glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose. Nitrate. nitration and sulphonation). sulphide and sulphite. nucleophilic substitution reactions. Fe3+. Zn2+. HOX and H2O (X=halogen). Ca2+. Structural and geometrical isomerism. Oxides. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead. Oxidation. Carbon reduction method (iron and tin). Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation. nitration. Preparation. density and dipole moments). silver oxide. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition). Al3+.(excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution). electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation. azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines. Alcohols: esterification. Potassium permanganate. Cu2+. Kolbe reaction. sulphonation. reduction. properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series. properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points. silver nitrate. Reimer-Tieman reaction. Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity. ester hydrolysis. Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded). Keto-enol tautomerism.S and E. Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+. Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions. conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones. teflon and PVC. Hg2+. Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation. cellulose. Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines. Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. halogens). acid chlorides and amides. Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties. Carboxylic acids: formation of esters. halides (excluding fluoride). Mn2+ and Mg2+). Effect of o-. hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear. Formation. Perkin reaction. ZnCl2/conc. Sigma and pi-bonds. Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides. Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber. boiling points and density). Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts. Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers. copper. reduction. reaction with sodium. tin. Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone. Cu2+ and Zn2+. Combustion and halogenation of alkanes. Self reduction method (copper and lead). carbylamine reaction.Z nomenclature excluded).and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes. structure and stability of carbocations. aldol condensation.

moment of inertia. Capacitors in series and parallel. Angular momentum. Young's modulus by Searle's method. First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases). magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire. to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics. significant figures. Moving coil galvanometer. Stefan's law. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law. Flux of electric field. Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures. Speed of sound using resonance column. Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only). Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses. Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. Stoke's law. Heating effect of current. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. voltmeter. Work and power. Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells. Newton's law of cooling. Kirchhoff's law. Thin lenses. Impulse. Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy. Speed of sound in gases. Heat conduction in one dimension. Beats. Vibration of strings and air columns. capillary rise. Energy stored in a capacitor. Gravitational potential and field.following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). Electric field and potential. Static and dynamic friction. Biot-Savart law and Ampere's law. Wave motion (plane waves only). latent heat. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces. Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference. longitudinal and transverse waves. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. JEE Physics Syllabus General: Units and dimensions. Electric current: Ohm's law. Resonance. carboxyl. . sources. Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monatomic and diatomic gases). Superposition of waves. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Relative velocity. Electrical Potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop. Buoyancy. Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter. Newton's laws of motion. Rolling without slipping of rings. and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box.c. Kinetic and potential energy. Equation of continuity. such as. Streamline flow. Gauss's law and its application in simple cases. dimensional analysis. Systems of particles. Elementary concepts of convection and radiation. Lenz's law. Acceleration due to gravity. Terminal velocity. RC. Magnification. Torque. Pascal's law. Wien's displacement law. Total internal reflection. Self and mutual inductance. carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). progressive and stationary waves. Young's modulus. and a. Circular motion (uniform and non-uniform). LR and LC circuits with d. projectiles. Calorimetry. Capacitance. cylinders and spheres. Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer). Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation. Ideal gas laws. bulk modulus of gases.c. least count. Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb's law. Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids. amino and nitro. Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers. parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Verification of Ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter. liquids and gases. Wave nature of light: Huygen's principle. Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits. moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. ammeter and their conversions. Centre of mass and its motion. Rigid body. Pressure in a fluid. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies. Determination of g using simple pendulum. Equivalence of heat and work. Electric field lines. Conservation of angular momentum. Magnetic moment of a current loop. focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method. Linear and angular simple harmonic motions. Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism. Viscosity (Poiseuille's equation excluded). Law of gravitation. Equilibrium of rigid bodies. interference limited to Young's double-slit experiment. Surface energy and surface tension. Doppler effect (in sound). Hooke's law. Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light. along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid.

Vectors Addition of vectors. formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles. continuity of composite functions. increasing and decreasing functions. Alpha. inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only). integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions. exponential and logarithmic functions. derivatives up to order two. polynomial.Logarithms and their properties. cube roots of unity. geometric and harmonic means. rational. definite integrals and their properties. Fission and fusion processes. product and quotient of two functions. sine rule. inverse of a function. their foci.Formation of ordinary differential equations. into. conditional probability. limit and continuity of the sum. absolute value. scalar multiplication. infinite geometric series. exponentialand logarithmic functions. arithmetic. intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle. independence of events. normal and chord.Locus Problems. distance betw. half-angle formula and the area of a triangle. incentre and circumcentre of a triangle. difference. directrices and eccentricity. equations of tangent and normal. equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines. Differential calculus Real valued functions of a real variable. Decay constant. multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices. shift of origin. difference. geometric interpretations. triangle inequality. Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines. properties of modulus and principal argument. Analytical geometry Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates. general solution of trigonometric equations. Equation of a straight line in various forms. chain rule. section formulae.Quadratic equations with real coefficients. properties of these matrix operations. Integral calculus Integration as the inverse process of differentiation. beta and gamma radiations. . rational. multiplication. dot and cross products. solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables. scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations. sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. solution of homogeneous differential equations. application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves. variables separable method. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves. their periodicity and graphs. Binding energy and its calculation. distance of a point from a plane. Moseley's law.Derivatives of implicit functions. Permutations and combinations. distance of a point from a line. addition. properties of binomial coefficients. trigonometric. JEE Mathematics Syllabus Algebra Algebra of complex numbers.Parametric equations of a circle.Limit and continuity of a function. transpose of a matrix. l'Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions. equality of matrices. symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties. tangents and normals. computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios. linear first order differential equations. Photoelectric effect. addition. inverse trigonometric. sum. trigonometric.Determinant of a square matrix of order up to three.Equation of a circle in various forms. onto and one-to-one functions. orthocentre. maximum and minimum values of a function. product and quotient of two functions.Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers.Integration by parts. composite functions.Derivative of a function. angle between two lines.Addition and multiplication rules of probability.een two points. formation of quadratic equations with given roots. indefinite integrals of standard functions. geometrical interpretation of the derivative. equation of a straight line in space. polar representation. equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line. Bohr's theory of hydrogen-like atoms.Arithmetic. Half-life and mean life. symmetric functions of roots. derivative of the sum. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle. Law of radioactive decay. equation of a plane. intermediate value property of continuous functions. conjugation. geometric and harmonic progressions. addition and subtraction formulae. cosine rule.concurrency of lines.Modern physics: Atomic nucleus.Equations of a parabola. derivatives of polynomial.Even and odd functions. inverse of a square matrix of order up to three. application of the Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus. centroid. relations between roots and coefficients. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index. Characteristic and continuous X-rays. Energy calculation in these processes. sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. product and quotient of two functions. applications of Rolle's Theorem and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem. equations of tangent. scalar products. diagonal. Trigonometry Trigonometric functions. difference. parametric equations. ellipse and hyperbola in standard form.

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