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Physical chemistry

General topics: The concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton's atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical

formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidationreduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality

and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der

Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their

relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Waveparticle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom

(qualitative treatment), shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic

number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond;

Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;

Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of

molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal,

tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy,

Hess's law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy;

Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle (effect of

concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility

product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts);

Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its

relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic

conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, Kohlrausch's law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions;

Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, a, b, g),

close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii,

simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult's law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling

point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types,

methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only

definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of a, b and g rays; Kinetics of radioactive

decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief

discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus,

oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and

sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates,

bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron:

diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid

(carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;

Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen

peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;

Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides; Fertilizers:

commercially available (common) NPK type.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities,

colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment;

silver thiosulphate. physical properties of alkanes (melting points. Preparation. silver nitrate. Al3+. Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination). Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties. Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium). dehydration and oxidation. Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation. copper. teflon and PVC. HX. structure and stability of carbocations. hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear. mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose). Oxidation. Cu2+. HOX and H2O (X=halogen). Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers. halogens). reduction. glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose. Detection and identification of the . Cyanide process (silver and gold).S and E. halides (excluding fluoride). Ca2+. Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron. oxime and hydrazone formation. nucleophilic substitution reactions. Perkin reaction. Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Ba2+. properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points. aluminium. Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation. chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+. reaction with sodium. square planar and octahedral). ester hydrolysis. haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition). Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+. Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity. sulphide and sulphite. Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions. Zn2+. Reimer-Tieman reaction. Cu2+ and Zn2+. nitration. (R. Phenols: Acidity. Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions. carbanions and free radicals. boiling points and density). Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded). Combustion and halogenation of alkanes. Cannizzaro reaction. magnesium. Shapes of molecules.-HCl. sulphate.Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N. density and dipole moments). Self reduction method (copper and lead). IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons. Metal acetylides. Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds (only combustion method). Acidity of alkynes. nylon. phosphorus halides.Z nomenclature excluded). Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases. Structural and geometrical isomerism. Cr3+. aldol condensation. azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines. Formation. Hg2+. carbylamine reaction. Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. Preparation. silver oxide. Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2. preparation from nitro compounds. nitration and sulphonation). ZnCl2/conc. Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes . lead. Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone. Nitrate. Carbohydrates: Classification. Sigma and pi-bonds. Addition reactions of alkynes.(excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution). Resonance and hyperconjugation. conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones. electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation. Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts. monofunctional and bi-functional compounds). Carboxylic acids: formation of esters. Grignard reactions. cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms. Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber. cellulose. Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides. Keto-enol tautomerism. Kolbe reaction. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. Fe3+. Reduction of alkenes and alkynes. properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series. tetrahedral. Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage. Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections). zinc and silver. sulphonation. Organic Chemistry Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon. acid chlorides and amides. Pb2+. Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines. Oxides. Bi3+. tin. S. potassium dichromate. Effect of o-. Mn2+ and Mg2+). reduction. m. reaction with nitrous acid.and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes. Carbon reduction method (iron and tin). Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead.Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Alcohols: esterification. Potassium permanganate.

sources. RC. Lenz's law. along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid. Electrical Potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field. Terminal velocity.c. Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics. Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb's law. Determination of g using simple pendulum. Circular motion (uniform and non-uniform). Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures. Calorimetry. Wien's displacement law. Magnification. Thin lenses. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies. Newton's laws of motion. amino and nitro. parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Flux of electric field. Equilibrium of rigid bodies. Impulse. Energy stored in a capacitor. Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monatomic and diatomic gases). Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. carboxyl. Gauss's law and its application in simple cases.c. interference limited to Young's double-slit experiment. Vibration of strings and air columns. Pressure in a fluid. Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells. Hooke's law. Buoyancy.following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only). Electric current: Ohm's law. Capacitors in series and parallel. Gravitational potential and field. and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box. Speed of sound in gases. Total internal reflection. Work and power. Magnetic moment of a current loop. focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method. JEE Physics Syllabus General: Units and dimensions. progressive and stationary waves. Linear and angular simple harmonic motions. Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation. Systems of particles. Elastic and inelastic collisions. significant figures. Relative velocity. . Kirchhoff's law. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Young's modulus by Searle's method. Angular momentum. Electric field lines. Ideal gas laws. Doppler effect (in sound). Electric field and potential. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law. Resonance. Wave nature of light: Huygen's principle. Stefan's law. Superposition of waves. such as. First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases). Law of gravitation. magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire. Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers. Capacitance. Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. ammeter and their conversions. Heat conduction in one dimension. Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids. moment of inertia. Young's modulus. latent heat. projectiles. voltmeter. to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. liquids and gases. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces. Static and dynamic friction. Rigid body. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop. moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses. Surface energy and surface tension. Pascal's law. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Self and mutual inductance. Torque. Biot-Savart law and Ampere's law. Wave motion (plane waves only). cylinders and spheres. Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism. Speed of sound using resonance column. Conservation of angular momentum. Rolling without slipping of rings. LR and LC circuits with d. longitudinal and transverse waves. Viscosity (Poiseuille's equation excluded). capillary rise. Beats. Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light. Verification of Ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter. dimensional analysis. bulk modulus of gases. Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer). carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). Equivalence of heat and work. Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy. Elementary concepts of convection and radiation. Streamline flow. Kinetic and potential energy. Acceleration due to gravity. Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter. Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference. Equation of continuity. Stoke's law. and a. Heating effect of current. Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits. least count. Newton's law of cooling. Centre of mass and its motion. Moving coil galvanometer.

Bohr's theory of hydrogen-like atoms. normal and chord. infinite geometric series. parametric equations. product and quotient of two functions. triangle inequality.Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers. general solution of trigonometric equations. integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions. Alpha. rational. sum. addition. ellipse and hyperbola in standard form. indefinite integrals of standard functions. equality of matrices. cosine rule. rational. equations of tangent. Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines. Binding energy and its calculation. difference.Limit and continuity of a function.Addition and multiplication rules of probability. Half-life and mean life. application of the Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus. tangents and normals. geometric and harmonic progressions. arithmetic.concurrency of lines.Determinant of a square matrix of order up to three. onto and one-to-one functions. geometric interpretations. diagonal. product and quotient of two functions. absolute value. exponentialand logarithmic functions. Integral calculus Integration as the inverse process of differentiation.Even and odd functions. distance of a point from a line. computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations. directrices and eccentricity. equations of tangent and normal. inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only). conjugation. equation of a straight line in space. beta and gamma radiations. l'Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions. into. linear first order differential equations. properties of modulus and principal argument. conditional probability. limit and continuity of the sum. derivative of the sum.een two points. definite integrals and their properties.Integration by parts. polynomial. trigonometric. symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties. . solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables. transpose of a matrix.Equations of a parabola. formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles. derivatives up to order two. relations between roots and coefficients. Permutations and combinations. derivatives of polynomial. increasing and decreasing functions. distance of a point from a plane. dot and cross products. exponential and logarithmic functions. Characteristic and continuous X-rays. Energy calculation in these processes. Photoelectric effect. Equation of a straight line in various forms.Locus Problems. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index. equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines. sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. inverse of a function. centroid. sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. section formulae. half-angle formula and the area of a triangle. addition and subtraction formulae. geometric and harmonic means. applications of Rolle's Theorem and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem.Formation of ordinary differential equations. formation of quadratic equations with given roots.Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios. Moseley's law. Differential calculus Real valued functions of a real variable. independence of events. inverse of a square matrix of order up to three. equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line. Law of radioactive decay. equation of a plane. application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves. angle between two lines. continuity of composite functions. cube roots of unity.Equation of a circle in various forms. product and quotient of two functions. orthocentre. scalar products. composite functions. maximum and minimum values of a function. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle. Decay constant. addition. geometrical interpretation of the derivative.Parametric equations of a circle. multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices. distance betw. incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.Derivative of a function. JEE Mathematics Syllabus Algebra Algebra of complex numbers. Vectors Addition of vectors. their periodicity and graphs.Quadratic equations with real coefficients. their foci. variables separable method. scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.Modern physics: Atomic nucleus. shift of origin. multiplication. intermediate value property of continuous functions. Trigonometry Trigonometric functions. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves. symmetric functions of roots. Analytical geometry Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates.Derivatives of implicit functions.Arithmetic. inverse trigonometric. solution of homogeneous differential equations. chain rule. intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle.Logarithms and their properties. trigonometric. sine rule. scalar multiplication. properties of these matrix operations. difference. properties of binomial coefficients. Fission and fusion processes. polar representation. difference.

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