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Physical chemistry

General topics: The concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton's atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical

formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidationreduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality

and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der

Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their

relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Waveparticle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom

(qualitative treatment), shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic

number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond;

Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;

Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of

molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal,

tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy,

Hess's law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy;

Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle (effect of

concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility

product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts);

Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its

relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic

conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, Kohlrausch's law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions;

Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, a, b, g),

close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii,

simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult's law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling

point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types,

methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only

definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of a, b and g rays; Kinetics of radioactive

decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief

discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus,

oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and

sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates,

bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron:

diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid

(carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;

Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen

peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;

Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides; Fertilizers:

commercially available (common) NPK type.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities,

colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment;

m. carbylamine reaction. Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron. azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines. Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties. Reimer-Tieman reaction. Grignard reactions. S. silver nitrate. Ba2+. monofunctional and bi-functional compounds). Resonance and hyperconjugation. Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions. phosphorus halides. teflon and PVC. Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation. Carbon reduction method (iron and tin). Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage. Carbohydrates: Classification. conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. Phenols: Acidity. Reduction of alkenes and alkynes. Preparation. silver thiosulphate. Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids. structure and stability of carbocations. Addition reactions of alkynes. magnesium. nylon. Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+. electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation. boiling points and density). Mn2+ and Mg2+). Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes . glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose. Potassium permanganate. cellulose. Pb2+. Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium). Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity. Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections). Fe3+. oxime and hydrazone formation. Oxidation. Perkin reaction. aldol condensation. properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points. haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition). reduction. Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber. ZnCl2/conc. Cannizzaro reaction. Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions. Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone. Cu2+ and Zn2+. Self reduction method (copper and lead). preparation from nitro compounds. Hg2+.Z nomenclature excluded). Alcohols: esterification. properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series. reduction. Nitrate. Al3+. aluminium. physical properties of alkanes (melting points. Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. nucleophilic substitution reactions. HOX and H2O (X=halogen). Oxides.Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N. Acidity of alkynes. Organic Chemistry Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon. Formation. sulphonation.Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. (R. sulphide and sulphite. Effect of o-. Sigma and pi-bonds. dehydration and oxidation. Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides. Structural and geometrical isomerism. Ca2+. halogens). Detection and identification of the . IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons. Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts. acid chlorides and amides.and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes. Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers. tin. Cyanide process (silver and gold). HX. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead. reaction with sodium. density and dipole moments). tetrahedral. Preparation. square planar and octahedral). Combustion and halogenation of alkanes. mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose). nitration and sulphonation). halides (excluding fluoride). ester hydrolysis.-HCl. reaction with nitrous acid.S and E.(excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution). silver oxide. Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds (only combustion method). Carboxylic acids: formation of esters. Kolbe reaction. Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation. cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms. Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines. hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear. Shapes of molecules. Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination). Keto-enol tautomerism. Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded). Metal acetylides. Bi3+. Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2. Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases. nitration. potassium dichromate. Cu2+. lead. copper. carbanions and free radicals. Zn2+. chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+. Cr3+. zinc and silver. sulphate.

Elementary concepts of convection and radiation. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces. Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy. cylinders and spheres. LR and LC circuits with d. moment of inertia. to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. Young's modulus by Searle's method. Ideal gas laws. Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures. Determination of g using simple pendulum. Surface energy and surface tension. Gauss's law and its application in simple cases. Streamline flow. Rolling without slipping of rings. Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation. carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). Pascal's law. Newton's law of cooling. Doppler effect (in sound). Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only). parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. Kirchhoff's law. Lenz's law. Rigid body. Equivalence of heat and work. Biot-Savart law and Ampere's law. Magnification. Thin lenses. Vibration of strings and air columns. Stoke's law. Conservation of angular momentum. Systems of particles. focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method. JEE Physics Syllabus General: Units and dimensions. longitudinal and transverse waves. Torque. capillary rise.following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). Heat conduction in one dimension.c. along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid. sources. Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. Viscosity (Poiseuille's equation excluded). and a. Calorimetry. Acceleration due to gravity. Circular motion (uniform and non-uniform). carboxyl. Pressure in a fluid. First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases). Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics. Equation of continuity. Gravitational potential and field. such as. Linear and angular simple harmonic motions. Equilibrium of rigid bodies.c. ammeter and their conversions. least count. Heating effect of current. Total internal reflection. . Magnetic moment of a current loop. Centre of mass and its motion. Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits. Kinetic and potential energy. Speed of sound in gases. Electric field lines. Verification of Ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter. Electric field and potential. Electric current: Ohm's law. Stefan's law. RC. Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. Hooke's law. Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers. latent heat. projectiles. interference limited to Young's double-slit experiment. Energy stored in a capacitor. Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monatomic and diatomic gases). Work and power. progressive and stationary waves. Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism. dimensional analysis. Young's modulus. Superposition of waves. Impulse. liquids and gases. Wave nature of light: Huygen's principle. Newton's laws of motion. Wien's displacement law. and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer). Capacitance. bulk modulus of gases. voltmeter. Law of gravitation. Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference. Terminal velocity. Electrical Potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field. Flux of electric field. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop. Angular momentum. Self and mutual inductance. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law. Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells. Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light. Relative velocity. Resonance. significant figures. Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter. Buoyancy. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. Moving coil galvanometer. Wave motion (plane waves only). Speed of sound using resonance column. Static and dynamic friction. magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire. Elastic and inelastic collisions. amino and nitro. Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb's law. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses. Beats. Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids. Capacitors in series and parallel.

difference. applications of Rolle's Theorem and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem. geometrical interpretation of the derivative. sine rule. ellipse and hyperbola in standard form. Trigonometry Trigonometric functions. multiplication. inverse of a function. relations between roots and coefficients. formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles. transpose of a matrix. properties of these matrix operations. rational.Determinant of a square matrix of order up to three. trigonometric. Integral calculus Integration as the inverse process of differentiation.een two points. addition. sum. sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. derivatives of polynomial. conjugation. arithmetic. Alpha. incentre and circumcentre of a triangle. solution of homogeneous differential equations. Half-life and mean life. definite integrals and their properties. integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions.Modern physics: Atomic nucleus. inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only). independence of events. parametric equations.Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers. into. exponentialand logarithmic functions.Addition and multiplication rules of probability. derivatives up to order two. addition. application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves. linear first order differential equations. absolute value.Equation of a circle in various forms.Integration by parts. JEE Mathematics Syllabus Algebra Algebra of complex numbers. Characteristic and continuous X-rays. infinite geometric series. product and quotient of two functions. polynomial. intermediate value property of continuous functions. beta and gamma radiations. equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line. difference. Binding energy and its calculation. symmetric functions of roots. l'Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions. diagonal.Locus Problems. increasing and decreasing functions. product and quotient of two functions. section formulae. onto and one-to-one functions. Bohr's theory of hydrogen-like atoms. Vectors Addition of vectors. Permutations and combinations. scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations. polar representation. formation of quadratic equations with given roots. product and quotient of two functions.Arithmetic. solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables. their foci.Quadratic equations with real coefficients. centroid. . limit and continuity of the sum. half-angle formula and the area of a triangle. their periodicity and graphs. inverse of a square matrix of order up to three. Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines.Even and odd functions. Fission and fusion processes. geometric and harmonic means.Formation of ordinary differential equations. geometric and harmonic progressions. addition and subtraction formulae. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index. tangents and normals. application of the Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus. Moseley's law. difference. trigonometric.Parametric equations of a circle. Energy calculation in these processes. composite functions. general solution of trigonometric equations. intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle. computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations. cube roots of unity. geometric interpretations. rational. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle. equations of tangent and normal. inverse trigonometric. sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. indefinite integrals of standard functions. normal and chord. scalar products. orthocentre. angle between two lines. properties of binomial coefficients. equation of a plane. equation of a straight line in space.Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios.Logarithms and their properties. maximum and minimum values of a function. equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines. Differential calculus Real valued functions of a real variable. equations of tangent. conditional probability.Derivative of a function. equality of matrices. exponential and logarithmic functions. distance of a point from a plane. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves. Law of radioactive decay. triangle inequality. Equation of a straight line in various forms. continuity of composite functions. derivative of the sum. properties of modulus and principal argument. cosine rule. directrices and eccentricity.Limit and continuity of a function. Photoelectric effect.concurrency of lines. Analytical geometry Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates. chain rule. distance betw. scalar multiplication.Equations of a parabola. symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties.Derivatives of implicit functions. Decay constant. dot and cross products. shift of origin. variables separable method. multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices. distance of a point from a line.

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