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PHYSICS 3 (GENERAL PHYSICS I)

Centripetal Force and Newtons Law of


Gravitation

Centripetal Force

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Centripetal

Force is a force that tends to keep object


in moving around a circular arc or path
The magnitude of the centripetal force is the product
of an objects mass and its centripetal acceleration as
it moves around the circular path
The direction of the centripetal force is always
directed towards the center of the circle.

RECALL: Centripetal acceleration

An object traveling in a
circle, even though it moves
with a constant speed, will
have an acceleration (since
velocity changes direction)
This acceleration is called
centripetal (centerseeking).
The acceleration is directed
toward the center of the
circle of motion

Centripetal acceleration and the angular


velocity
The

angular velocity and the linear


velocity are related (v = r)
The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular
velocity
Similar triangles
v r
Lengths of the sides v r
v r
v

v r , since
v
r
r
v
a
t

v r
a
r t

Thus:

v2
aC
r

or aC 2 r

Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration


Newtons

Second Law says that the


centripetal acceleration is accompanied
by a force
2
v
F maC m r

stands for any force that keeps an


object following a circular path
Force of friction (level
Tension in a string
Gravity

and banked curves)

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Net inward force to provide centripetal
acceleration
Due to contact and/or gravitational forces
F
F

F
F

Direction:
towards the center

SOME EXAMPLES
For an object sitting on a rotating turntable, the
centripetal force is friction.
For a rock whirled on the end of a string, the
centripetal force is the force of tension in the string.

For the motion of the Earth around the Sun, the


centripetal force is gravity.

Example

A small object of mass m is suspended from a


string of length L. The object revolves with constant
speed v in a horizontal circle of radius r. Find an
expression for v.

Example a:
Given:
String length: L
radius: r

1. Draw a free body diagram,


introduce coordinate frame and
consider vertical and horizontal
projections

Find:
1.

v=?

T cos v 2
v2
T sin
T sin m
g r
r

rgT sin
v2
T cos

rg (tan v

Newtons Law of
Gravitation

For the motion of the Earth around the


Sun, the centripetal force is gravity.
1.

2.

3.

Why are planets, moons and the


sun all nearly spherical?
Why do some of the earth
satellites circle the earth in 90
minutes while the moon takes 27
days for the trip?
Why dont satellites fall back the
earth?

Phenomenon of attraction between objects.


Modern physics describes gravitation using
Einsteins general theory of relativity, but the
much simpler Newtons Laws of Universal
gravitation provides an excellent
approximation in many cases.

RECALL : Newtons Third Law

If two objects interact, the force F12 exerted by


object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted
by object 2 on object 1.

Equivalent to saying a single isolated force cannot


exist

Example: Newtons Third Law

Consider collision of
two spheres
F12 may be called the
action force and F21 the
reaction force

Actually, either force can


be the action or the
reaction force

The action and


reaction forces act on
different objects

Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

Every particle in the Universe attracts every other


particle with a force that is directly proportional
to the product of the masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between them.

m1m 2
F G 2
r

G is the universal gravitational constant

G = 6.673 x 10-11 N m /kg

This

is an example of an inverse square law

Gravitation Constant

Determined experimentally

Henry Cavendish
1798

The light beam and mirror serve to amplify


the motion

GRAVITATION

The reason for the very existence of most


macroscopic objects in the universe
1. Heavenly Bodies Kept in Orbit

2. Heating the interiors of forming stars and planes


to very high temperatures
3. Tides
4. Rising of Hot Air/Sinking of Cold Air
(Convection) and other similar phenomenon
5. Keeping us in our toes!!!

JUMBO JUMBO

Find the gravitational force exerted by the Sun on the


Earth.
Me=6.0x1024kg;
Ms=2x1030 kg;
Res=1.5x108m;
G = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2

Ans.3.56 x1028 N

Applications of Universal Gravitation :


Mass of the Earth

Use an example of an object


close to the surface of the
earth

r ~ RE

Gme m1
Fg
m1 g
2
re

GM E m1
m1 g
RE 2
2
E

gR
ME
G

Assumption:
RE + h RE

Gravitational Acceleration

Assumption:

Re + h Re

re
Fg

Gme m
re

mg

me

Fg

Gme m
re
g

mg

Gme
re

Applications of Universal Gravitation:


Acceleration Due to Gravity

g will vary with altitude

mM E
ME
F G 2 mG 2
r
r

mg

ME
g G 2
r

Thus:

Weight is not an inherent property of an


object

mass is an inherent property

Weight

depends upon location

Weight

The magnitude of the gravitational force acting


on an object of mass m near the Earths
surface is called the weight w of the object

w = m g is a special case of Newtons Second Law

g can also be found from the Law of Universal


Gravitation

Applications of Universal Gravitation:


Motion of Satellite

The path of a satellite is an ellipse.


Circle is an ellipse with equal length of semi-major
and semi- minor axis.
Fg

Gme m
re

v2
ma m
r

Gme
v
r

Escape Speed

The escape speed is the speed needed for an


object to soar off into space and not return

vesc

2GM E

RE

For the earth, vesc is about 11.2 km/s


Note, v is independent of the mass of the object

Newtons Law of Universal


Gravitation
Every particle in the universe
attracts every other particle with a
force that is directly proportional
to the product of the masses of the
particles and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance
between them.

Example
Question: Calculate gravitational attraction between two
students 1 meter apart. Assume the student 1 has a mass of
70 kg while the other one has a mass of 90 kg.
2
m1m2
N
m
70kg 90kg
11
F G
6.67 10
2
2
r
kg 2
1 m

F 4.2 10 N
Extremely small
compared to the
weight (F = mg).