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# PHYSICS 3 (GENERAL PHYSICS I)

## Centripetal Force and Newtons Law of

Gravitation

Centripetal Force

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Centripetal

## Force is a force that tends to keep object

in moving around a circular arc or path
The magnitude of the centripetal force is the product
of an objects mass and its centripetal acceleration as
it moves around the circular path
The direction of the centripetal force is always
directed towards the center of the circle.

## RECALL: Centripetal acceleration

An object traveling in a
circle, even though it moves
with a constant speed, will
have an acceleration (since
velocity changes direction)
This acceleration is called
centripetal (centerseeking).
The acceleration is directed
toward the center of the
circle of motion

velocity
The

## angular velocity and the linear

velocity are related (v = r)
The centripetal acceleration can
also be related to the angular
velocity
Similar triangles
v r
Lengths of the sides v r
v r
v

v r , since
v
r
r
v
a
t

v r
a
r t

Thus:

v2
aC
r

or aC 2 r

Newtons

## Second Law says that the

centripetal acceleration is accompanied
by a force
2
v
F maC m r

## stands for any force that keeps an

object following a circular path
Force of friction (level
Tension in a string
Gravity

## and banked curves)

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Net inward force to provide centripetal
acceleration
Due to contact and/or gravitational forces
F
F

F
F

Direction:
towards the center

SOME EXAMPLES
For an object sitting on a rotating turntable, the
centripetal force is friction.
For a rock whirled on the end of a string, the
centripetal force is the force of tension in the string.

## For the motion of the Earth around the Sun, the

centripetal force is gravity.

Example

## A small object of mass m is suspended from a

string of length L. The object revolves with constant
speed v in a horizontal circle of radius r. Find an
expression for v.

Example a:
Given:
String length: L

## 1. Draw a free body diagram,

introduce coordinate frame and
consider vertical and horizontal
projections

Find:
1.

v=?

T cos v 2
v2
T sin
T sin m
g r
r

rgT sin
v2
T cos

rg (tan v

Newtons Law of
Gravitation

## For the motion of the Earth around the

Sun, the centripetal force is gravity.
1.

2.

3.

## Why are planets, moons and the

sun all nearly spherical?
Why do some of the earth
satellites circle the earth in 90
minutes while the moon takes 27
days for the trip?
Why dont satellites fall back the
earth?

## Phenomenon of attraction between objects.

Modern physics describes gravitation using
Einsteins general theory of relativity, but the
much simpler Newtons Laws of Universal
gravitation provides an excellent
approximation in many cases.

## If two objects interact, the force F12 exerted by

object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted
by object 2 on object 1.

exist

## Example: Newtons Third Law

Consider collision of
two spheres
F12 may be called the
action force and F21 the
reaction force

## Actually, either force can

be the action or the
reaction force

## The action and

reaction forces act on
different objects

## Every particle in the Universe attracts every other

particle with a force that is directly proportional
to the product of the masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between them.

m1m 2
F G 2
r

This

## is an example of an inverse square law

Gravitation Constant

Determined experimentally

Henry Cavendish
1798

the motion

GRAVITATION

## The reason for the very existence of most

macroscopic objects in the universe
1. Heavenly Bodies Kept in Orbit

## 2. Heating the interiors of forming stars and planes

to very high temperatures
3. Tides
4. Rising of Hot Air/Sinking of Cold Air
(Convection) and other similar phenomenon
5. Keeping us in our toes!!!

JUMBO JUMBO

## Find the gravitational force exerted by the Sun on the

Earth.
Me=6.0x1024kg;
Ms=2x1030 kg;
Res=1.5x108m;
G = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2

Ans.3.56 x1028 N

## Applications of Universal Gravitation :

Mass of the Earth

## Use an example of an object

close to the surface of the
earth

r ~ RE

Gme m1
Fg
m1 g
2
re

GM E m1
m1 g
RE 2
2
E

gR
ME
G

Assumption:
RE + h RE

Gravitational Acceleration

Assumption:

Re + h Re

re
Fg

Gme m
re

mg

me

Fg

Gme m
re
g

mg

Gme
re

## Applications of Universal Gravitation:

Acceleration Due to Gravity

mM E
ME
F G 2 mG 2
r
r

mg

ME
g G 2
r

Thus:

object

Weight

Weight

## The magnitude of the gravitational force acting

on an object of mass m near the Earths
surface is called the weight w of the object

Gravitation

## Applications of Universal Gravitation:

Motion of Satellite

## The path of a satellite is an ellipse.

Circle is an ellipse with equal length of semi-major
and semi- minor axis.
Fg

Gme m
re

v2
ma m
r

Gme
v
r

Escape Speed

## The escape speed is the speed needed for an

object to soar off into space and not return

vesc

2GM E

RE

## For the earth, vesc is about 11.2 km/s

Note, v is independent of the mass of the object

## Newtons Law of Universal

Gravitation
Every particle in the universe
attracts every other particle with a
force that is directly proportional
to the product of the masses of the
particles and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance
between them.

Example
Question: Calculate gravitational attraction between two
students 1 meter apart. Assume the student 1 has a mass of
70 kg while the other one has a mass of 90 kg.
2
m1m2
N
m
70kg 90kg
11
F G
6.67 10
2
2
r
kg 2
1 m

F 4.2 10 N
Extremely small
compared to the
weight (F = mg).