Heat Transfer Coefficients of Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers

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Heat Transfer Coefficients of Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs

M.R. Salimpour *

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 6 February 2007

Received in revised form 28 July 2008

Accepted 31 July 2008

Keywords:

Empirical

Shell and coiled tube

Heat exchanger

Experimental

Correlation

a b s t r a c t

In the present study, the heat transfer coefcients of shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers were

investigated experimentally. Three heat exchangers with different coil pitches were selected as test section for both parallel-ow and counter-ow congurations. All the required parameters like inlet and

outlet temperatures of tube-side and shell-side uids, ow rate of uids, etc. were measured using appropriate instruments. Totally, 75 test runs were performed from which the tube-side and shell-side heat

transfer coefcients were calculated. Empirical correlations were proposed for shell-side and tube-side.

The calculated heat transfer coefcients of tube-side were also compared to the existing correlations

for other boundary conditions and a reasonable agreement was observed.

2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Heat exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications

including power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and airconditioning systems, automotive industries, heat recovery systems, chemical processing, and food industries [13]. Besides

the performance of the heat exchanger being improved, the heat

transfer enhancement enables the size of the heat exchanger to

be considerably decreased. In general, the enhancement techniques can be divided into two groups: active and passive techniques. The active techniques require external forces like uid

vibration, electric eld, and surface vibration. The passive techniques require special surface geometries or uid additives like

various tube inserts. Both techniques have been widely used to

improve heat transfer performance of heat exchangers. Due to

their compact structure and high heat transfer coefcient, helically coiled tubes have been introduced as one of the passive heat

transfer enhancement techniques and are widely used in various

industrial applications.

Several studies have indicated that helically coiled tubes are

superior to straight tubes when employed in heat transfer applications [4,5]. The centrifugal force due to the curvature of the tube

results in the secondary ow development which enhances the

heat transfer rate. This phenomenon can be benecial especially

in laminar ow regime. Thermal performance and pressure drop

of a shell and helically coiled tube heat exchanger with and without helical crimped ns have been investigated by Naphon [6].

* Tel.: +98 311 391 5210; fax: +98 311 391 2628.

E-mail addresses: salimpour@cc.iut.ac.ir, m_salimpour@yahoo.com.

0894-1777/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.expthermusci.2008.07.015

transfer and ow characteristics of single-phase and two-phase

ow in curved tubes including helically coiled tubes and spirally

coiled tubes.

The majority of the studies related to helically coiled tubes

and heat exchangers have dealt with two major boundary conditions, i.e. constant heat ux and constant wall temperature

[8,9]. However, these boundary conditions are not encountered

in most single-phase heat exchangers. Rennie [10] studied the

double-pipe helical heat exchangers numerically and experimentally neglecting the effect of coiled tube pitch. Though the

boundary condition of his work was different from the conventional boundary conditions of constant wall temperature and

constant heat ux, however, it is obvious that the geometry of

the double-pipe coiled tube heat exchanger is completely different from that of shell and coiled tube heat exchanger of the

present work.

Kumar et al. [11] studied a tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger for turbulent ow regime numerically.

Numerical investigations were done to understand forced laminar uid ow in rectangular coiled pipes with circular cross-section by Conte and Peng [12]. Their focus was addressed on

exploring the ow pattern and temperature distribution through

the pipe.

One of the most frequent uses of helically coiled tubes is in shell

and coiled tube heat exchangers. Going through the existing literature, it was revealed that there are a few investigations on the

heat transfer coefcients of this kind of heat exchangers considering the geometrical effects like coil pitch. Also, this scarcity is more

prominent for shell-side heat transfer coefcients.

204

Nomenclature

surface of coiled tube, m2

coil pitch, m

constant of Eq. (2)

Prandtl number, = lCP/k

curvature radius, m

unknown constants

coiled tube diameter, m

shell diameter, m

shell-side hydraulic diameter, m

Dean number, = Re(d/2Rc)0.5

averaged convective heat transfer coefcient, W/m2 K

Helical number, = De/(1 + c2)0.5

thermal conductivity, W/m2 K

heat exchanger length, m

exponent in Eq. (2)

N

Nu

Re

U

v

Greek letters

d

curvature ratio, = d/2Rc

c

dimensionless pitch, = b/2pRc

l

viscosity, kg/m s

q

density, kg/m3

Subscripts

i

inside condition

o

outside condition

the tube-side is cooled by a cold water stream owing in the

shell-side. The main parts of the cycle are coiled tube heat exchanger (1), centrifugal pump (2), storage tank (3), and

heater (4).

The heat exchangers include a copper coiled tube and an insulated shell. The dimensions of the heat exchangers are depicted

in Table 1. The water of storage tank is heated using an electric

heater. Reaching to a prescribed temperature, pump is started to

circulate the hot water in the cycle. A ball valve and a globe valve

are used to control the ow rate of coolant water and hot water,

respectively. To measure the ow rate of the cold stream a rotameter with the accuracy of 2.78 104 kg/s is installed upstream of

the heat exchanger while for the hot stream a measuring pot with

the accuracy of 3.3 103 kg/s is used. The inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold water were recorded manually using 4

RTD thermocouples inserted in the small holes made in the inlet

and outlet tubes of each heat exchanger and sealed to prevent

any leakage. Also, all the pipes and connections between the temperature measuring stations and heat exchanger were duly insulated. All the temperatures were measured three times with

accuracy of 0.1 C in the time steps of 10 min, and the average values were used for further analysis. Appropriate arrangements were

provided to measure the pressure loss of both tube-side and shellside streams. All the tube- and shell-side uids properties were assessed at the mean temperature of the uids (average of inlet and

outlet temperatures).

A typical shell and coiled tube heat exchanger is shown in Fig. 1.

In this gure, d is the diameter of the coiled tube, Rc is the curvature

radius of the coil, D is the inner diameter of shell, and b is the coil

pitch. The curvature ratio, d, is dened as the coil-to-tube diameter

ratio, d/2Rc, and the non-dimensional pitch, c, is dened as b/2pRc.

The other four important dimensionless parameters of coiled tube

namely, Reynolds number (Rei), Nusselt number (Nui), Dean number (De), and Helical number (He) are dened as follow:

Nui hi di =k;

0:5

He De=1 c2 0:5

De Rei di =2Rc ;

coefcient of coiled tube, respectively.

Shell-side Reynolds number, Reo, and Nusselt number, Nuo, are

dened as

where vo, ho and Dh

Nuo ho Dh =k

D2 2pRc d2o c1

D2pRc do c1

Nusselt number

Reynolds number

overall heat transfer coefcient, W/m2 K

uid average velocity, m/s

respectively.

3. Experimental set-up

The schematic diagram of experimental set-up is shown in

Fig. 2. The set-up is a well instrumented single-phase heat

2Rc

Fig. 1. Schematic view of a typical shell and coiled tube heat exchanger.

A

b

C

Pr

Rc

C1,. . .,C4

d

D

Dh

De

h

He

k

L

n

205

related to the inner and outer heat transfer coefcients by the following equation [14]:

Table 1

Characteristic dimensions of shell and coiled tube heat exchangers

Heat exchanger

di, mm

do, mm

D, mm

b, mm

L, mm

1

2

3

9

12

12

12

16

16

120

120

120

17.0

21.4

26.7

0.113

0.157

0.157

230

225

280

The range of operating parameters is given in Table 2. As is seen

from this table, a wide range of ow rates both in the tube-side and

shell-side is covered for counter-ow congurations. The tests

were performed for all three coiled tube heat exchangers which resulted in a total 75 test runs.

Heat transfer coefcients for the shell-side, ho, and for the coiled

tube-side, hi, were calculated using Wilson plots as described by

Rose [13]. Using Wilson plots, the heat transfer coefcients can be

calculated based on the overall temperature difference and the rate

of heat transfer. As there is no need for measuring the tube wall

temperature in this method, it was chosen to avoid the disturbance

of ow patterns and heat transfer while attempting to measure

wall temperatures. In this work, the ow in the coiled tube was

kept constant and the ow in the shell-side was varied for the ve

different ow rates. The overall heat transfer coefcient can be

1

Ao

Ao lndo =di 1

U o Ai hi

2pkL

ho

where di and do are inner and outer diameters of the tube, respectively; k is the thermal conductivity of the wall; and L is the length

of the heat exchanger. After calculating the overall heat transfer

coefcients, the only unknown variables in Eq. (1) are the heat

transfer coefcients. By keeping the mass ow rate in the inner tube

constant, it is then assumed that the inner heat transfer coefcient

is constant. The outer heat transfer coefcient is assumed to behave

in the following manner with the uid velocity in the shell, vo:

ho Cvno

Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1), the values for the constant, C, and

the exponent, n, were determined through curve tting. The inner

and outer heat transfer coefcients could then be calculated. This

procedure was repeated for each inner ow rate, coil size, and conguration. This resulted in 15 Wilson plots, and 15 inner heat transfer coefcients. For each Wilson plot, ve outer heat transfer

coefcients were calculated, i.e. totally 75 outer heat transfer coefcients were calculated.

The uncertainty analysis was performed by the method proposed by Schultz and Cole [15] for all experiments, and it was

found that the expected experimental error was within 8% for

all the runs.

Table 2

Range of operating parameters

Parameters

Range

Shell-side water ow rate

Tube inlet temperature

Tube outlet temperature

Shell inlet temperature

Shell outlet temperature

0.0160.113 kg/s

0.0190.136 kg/s

33.453.2 C

23.544.9 C

10.919.2 C

14.637.3 C

number for shell and coiled tube heat exchangers with different

coil pitches. This gure also illustrates a comparison between the

results of this study and the empirical correlations proposed in

[8] for boundary conditions of constant heat ux and constant wall

temperature. In this gure, correlations for constant wall temperature and constant heat ux boundary conditions proposed by

206

Also, it appears that the increase of coiled tube pitch leads to higher values of shell-side Nusselt number. This may be explained as in

smaller coil pitches, the coolant water is conned in the space between the successive coil rounds and a semi-dead zone is formed.

As in this region, the ow of shell-side uid is decelerated; heat

transfer coefcients will be descended. Also, it can be easily seen

that the difference among the coils with different geometries are

more severe in high Reynolds number region; i.e. when the shellside Reynolds number is increased choosing the appropriate coiled

tube geometry becomes more critical.

80

70

60

Nui

50

40

30

20

10

Nusselt numbers

coil 1

coil 2

coil 3

ref. 8, case I

ref. 8, case II

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

De

Fig. 3. Variation of coiled tube Nusselt number with Dean number.

Manlapaz and Churchill [8] are indicated by case I, and case II and

illustrated by solid lines and dash lines, respectively.

From this gure, it is seen that increasing the coiled tube pitch

will decrease the inner Nusselt number. This matter can be justied as the higher values of coil pitches correspond to the lower

values of Helical number or loose-coiling conditions. Therefore,

the heat transfer coefcients of these coiled tubes are closer to

those of the straight pipes expectedly. A comparison of the present

data with the previous correlations revealed that when coil pitches

are negligible, in low Dean numbers (De < 3000), the correlation of

constant temperature boundary condition predicts the present

data quite well; however, in high Dean numbers (De > 3000), this

correlation overestimates heat transfer coefcients. Also, the correlation pertained to constant heat ux boundary condition overestimates all the data of the present study.

Fig. 4 represents the variations of shell-side Nusselt number

with shell-side Reynolds number which was calculated based on

hydraulic diameter of the shell. From this gure, it is observed that

for estimation of heat transfer coefcients of helical coils with constant temperature boundary condition do not conform to the results of the present study, thus a new correlation was developed

to predict the inner Nusselt number. Based on the experimental results, a correlation between the tube-side Nusselt number and

Dean number, Prandtl number, and dimensionless coil pitch is obtained using least square analysis. For this purpose, the following

functional relationship is assumed:

Nui C 1 DeC 2 Pr C 3 cC 4

Taking logarithm of Eq. (3), and introducing the data of Nui and the

corresponding De, Pr and c into it, an error function can be obtained

as

EC 1 ; C 2 ; C 3 ; C 4

N n

h

io 2

X

lnNui j ln C 1 C 2 ln Dej C 3 ln Pr j C 4 ln cj

j1

the following correlation was found with average error of 0.91%:

Fig. 5 shows the comparison between the predicted Nusselt numbers by the proposed correlation, Eq. (5), and the experimental Nusselt numbers.

70

70

60

60

Nuo

50

40

30

shell 1

shell 2

shell 3

20

10

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

200

300

400

500

Reo

Fig. 4. Variation of shell-side Nusselt number with Reynolds number.

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Fig. 5. Comparison of tube-side experimental Nusselt number with predicted

Nusselt number.

tested for counter-ow conguration. It was revealed that the

empirical correlation for constant temperature boundary condition

is quite in agreement with the present data in low Dean number

region. From the results of the present study, it was found out that

the shell-side heat transfer coefcients of the coils with larger

pitches are higher than those for smaller pitches. Finally, based

on the results of this study, two correlations were developed to

predict the inner and outer heat transfer coefcients of the coiled

tube heat exchangers.

70

60

207

50

40

30

References

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Fig. 6. Comparison of shell-side experimental Nusselt number with predicted

Nusselt number.

Investigating the literature, no correlation was found to evaluate the shell-side heat transfer coefcients of helically coiled tube

heat exchangers. Therefore, in the present study, one correlation

was developed to predict the shell-side Nusselt number as well.

To predict the shell-side Nusselt numbers of coiled tube heat

exchangers, a similar treatment to the inner Nusselt numbers

was done for the outer Nusselt numbers which led to the following

correlation with average error of 1.19%:

Nuo 19:64Re0:513

Pr0:129 c0:938

o

proposed correlation, Eq. (6), and the experimental Nusselt numbers, is presented in Fig. 6.

From Figs. 5 and 6, it is evident that the proposed correlations

are in good agreement with the present data.

7. Conclusions

An experimental investigation was carried out to study heat

transfer coefcients of the shell and helically coiled tube heat

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