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INCINERATOR

Piringan bergerak
Salah satu jenis insinerator adalah piringan bergerak (moving grate).Insinerator jenis ini
memungkinkan pemindahan sampah ke ruang pembakaran dan memindahkan sisa hasil
pembakaran tanpa mematikan api. Satu wadah piringan bergerak dapat membakar 35 metrik ton
sampah perjam. Jenis insinerator ini dapat bergerak ribuan jam pertahun dengan hanya satu kali
berhenti, yaitu pada saat inspeksi dan perawatan.
Sampah diintroduksi ke "mulut" insinerator, dan pada lubang di ujung lainnya sisa hasil
pembakaran dikeluarkan. Udara yang dipakai dalam proses pembakaran disuplai melalui celah
piringan. Aliran udara ini juga bertujuan untuk mendinginkan piringan tersebut. Beberapa jenis
insinerator piringan bergerak juga memiliki sistem air pendingin di dalamnya.
Suplai udara pembakaran sekunder dilakukan dengan memompa udara menuju bagian
atas piringan. Jika dilakukan dengan kecepatan tinggi, hal ini dapat memicu turbulensi yang
memastikan terjadinya pembakaran yang lebih baik dan surplus oksigen. Turbulensi ini juga
penting untuk pengolahan gas sisa hasil pembakaran sampah.
Fasilitas insinerasi harus didesain untuk memastikan bahwa gas sisa hasil pembakaran
mencapai temperatur 850oC selama dua detik untuk memecah racun kimia organik. Untuk lebih
memastikan hal tersebut, biasanya diperlengkapi dengan pembakar yang pada umumnya
memakai bahan bakar minyak, yang lalu dibakar ke insinerasi untuk mendapatkan panas yang
memadai.
Gas sisa hasil pembakaran lalu didinginkan. Panas yang ada ditransfer menjadi uap
dengan memaparkannya pada sistem pompa air. Uap ini lalu digunakan untuk menggerakkan
turbin. Gas yang telah melalui pendinginan dipompakan ke fasilitas sistem pembersihan.

Piringan tidak bergerak


Ini adalah tipe yang lebih tua dan sederhana. Piringan tetap yang tidak bergerak berada di
bagian bawah insinerator dengan bukaan pada bagian atas atau samping untuk memasukan
sampah dan bukaan lainnya untuk memindahkan bahan yang tidak terbakar (abu, logam, dan
sebagainya).

Rotary kiln
Tipe ini cocok untuk menginsinerasi limbah sludge ex WWT atau limbah yang
mempunyai kandungan air (water content) yang cukup tinggi dan volumenya cukup besar.
System incinerator ini berputar pada bagian Primary Chamber, dengan tujuan untuk
mendapatkan pembakaran limbah yang merata keseluruh bagian.
Proses pembakarannya sama dengan type static, terjadi dua kali pembakaran dalam
Ruang Bakar 1 (Primary Chamber) untuk limbah dan Ruang Bakar 2 (Seacondary Chamber
untuk sisa-sisa gas yang belum sempurna terbakar dalam Primary Chamber.

Fluidized bed
Fluidized bed adalah teknologi pembakaran yang digunakan dalam pembangkit listrik.
Fluidized bed menangguhkan bahan bakar padat di atas jet-meniup udara selama proses
pembakaran. Hasilnya adalah pencampuran turbulen gas dan padatan. Aksi berjatuhan, seperti
cairan menggelegak, memberikan reaksi kimia yang lebih efektif dan transfer panas. Tanaman
FBC lebih fleksibel dibandingkan tanaman konvensional yang mereka dapat dipecat pada
batubara

dan

biomassa,

antara

bahan

bakar

lainnya.

Sistem pembakaran bahan bakar padat untuk


Fluidized bed mengurangi jumlah belerang yang dipancarkan dalam bentuk emisi SOx.
Kapur digunakan untuk mengendap sulfat selama pembakaran, yang juga memungkinkan
transfer panas lebih efisien dari boiler ke peralatan yang digunakan untuk menangkap energi
panas (biasanya tabung air). Endapan dipanaskan datang di kontak langsung dengan tabung
(pemanasan dengan konduksi) meningkatkan efisiensi. Karena ini memungkinkan tanaman
batubara untuk membakar pada suhu dingin, kurang NOx juga dipancarkan. Namun, pembakaran
pada suhu rendah juga menyebabkan emisi hidrokarbon aromatik polisiklik meningkat. FBC
boiler dapat membakar bahan bakar lain selain batubara, dan suhu pembakaran yang lebih rendah
(800 C / 1500 F) memiliki manfaat tambahan lainnya juga.

Incineration (continued)
The following are types of incinerators:

ROTARY KILN

FLUIDIZED BED

LIQUID INJECTION

MULTIPLE HEARTH

CATALYTIC COMBUSTION

WASTE-GAS FLARE

DIRECT-FLAME

Of these, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection are the most, prevalent in industry
because of their applicability to large scale use and their versatility. Consequently, these three
kinds will be emphasized.
ROTARY KILN CHARACTERISTICS:

ROTATE WASTES IN CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER, ENABLING THOROUGH


MIXING WITH AIR

OPERATING TEMPS. FROM 1500-3000 F ( 800 - 1650 C )

HAS GREATEST RESISTANCE TO HIGH TEMPS.

CAN HANDLE LIQUID, SLUDGE, SOLID, OR GASES IN VERY LARGE


QUANTITIES

CAN OPERATE IN BATCH MODE, ALLOWING MORE FLEXIBILITY THAN


CONTINUOUS MODE

CAN BE MOBILE TO ALLOW ONSITE TREATMENT

CAN ACCEPT ENTIRE DRUMS OF WASTE, A UNIQUE FEATURE

FLUIDIZED BED CHARACTERISTICS:

vessel contains inert granular material that expands and acts theoretically as a fluid when
gases are injected up through the material bed from nozzles

OPERATING TEMPS FROM 1400-1800 F ( 750 -1000 C )

CAN HANDLE LIQUID, SLUDGE, SOLID, OR GASES

WASTE ENTERS THROUGH NOZZLES

OFFERS NEARLY ISOTHERMAL OPERATION

CAN'T HANDLE WASTES THAT MELT AND SLAG, DISRUPTING FLUIDIZATION

LIQUID INJECTION CHARACTERISTICS:

WASTES ARE SENT THROUGH NOZZLES AND ATOMIZED INTO SMALL


DROPLETS TO ALLOW FOR THE GREATEST POSSIBLE MIXING WITH AIR

OPERATING TEMPS. FROM 1200-3000 F

FEED MUST ACT AS A LIQUID HAVING A VISCOCITY LESS THAN 10,000 SSU

SOLIDS ARE OKAY IF THEY CAN BE MELTED AND PUMPED

CAN COMPLETELY COMBUST NONCOMBUSTIBLES LIKE CONTAMINATED


WATER, ALONG WITH ORGANIC COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL

HAS A HORIZ. OR VERT. CONFIGURATION

A SUSPENSION BURNER, THAT IS THE MOST LABORFREE AND FLEXIBLE


KIND OF INCINERATOR

One other characteristic that all three types of incinerators (rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid
injection) share is that they can all be operated in a pyrolysis or oxygen starved mode. Wastes
with high caloric value that are capable of releasing great heat content are most appropriate for
this kind of operation. The other types of incinerators are described as follows.
Multiple hearth incinerators consist of vertically shaped hearths, and are Primarily used for
sewage sludge. They are operated from 1400-1800 F ( 750 - 1000 C ). Catalytic combustion,
waste-gas flare and direct flame incinerators are all for gases. Catalytic combustors use a catalyst
and are designed for low organic concentration wastes. Waste-gas flares are used for nonhazardous waste that has high organic content. Direct flame incinerators operate from 1000-1500
f and are used when waste gas contains particles.
On a final note, one very controversial form of incineration that presently has been banned in the
United States, but is used in Europe is ocean incineration. For this,two incinerators are mounted
on a huge ship that carries the wastes out to the middle of the ocean and burns them out there.the
ideal wastes for this kind of disposal are toxic and hazardous wastes such as chlorinated matter,
pcb's,and organometallics. Ocean incineration is perfect for these wastes because the acids
produced can be neutralized by the huge buffering capacity of the ocean. This eliminates the
need for scrubbers and other secondary treatment to detoxify the combustion products and make
them more environmentally acceptable.

COMBUSTION INCINERATORS-OXYGEN USING SYSTEMS


KEY FEATURES OF A COMBUSTION INCINERATOR:

WASTE STORAGE AND HANDLING

WASTE FEEDING

COMBUSTION

STEAM AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

ASH RESIDUE HANDLING

COMBUSTION STAGES

(1)DRYING-MOISTURE IS EVAPORATED

(2)DEVOLATILIZATION-COMBUSTIBLE VOLATILES ARE RELEASED

(3)IGNITION-VOLATILES ARE IGNITED IN THE PRESENCE OF O2

(4)COMBUSTION OF FIXED CARBON-VOLATILE MATTER IS COMPLETELY


COMBUSTED AND FIXED CARBON IS OXIDIZED TO CO2

TYPES OF COMBUSTION INCINERATORS


1. MASS BURN-MOST COMMON

Minimal preprocessing required (not much sizing, shredding, etc.). Mass burn Incinerators vary
in size. They range from 100 to 1000 tons of waste per day. Use a grate system to mix and agitate
the waste as it travels through the Furnace to provide complete combustion. Air for combustion
is supplied by fans or blowers under and over the grates.
THREE TYPES OF MASS BURN INCINERATORS (BASED ON ENERGY RECOVERY
METHOD)
(A)WATER WALL FURNACE

ENERGY IS RECOVERED BY STEEL TUBES FILLED WITH WATER WHICH LINE


THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

(B)REFRACTORY FURNACE

ENERGY IS RECOVERED BY A WASTE HEAT BOILER LOCATED AFTER THE


COMBUSTION CHAMBER

(C)ROTARY KILN FURNACE

SIMILAR

TO

A REFRACTORY

FURNACE,

BUT

USES

A ROTATING

COMBUSTION CHAMBER 2. MODUAL COMBUSTOR


o TYPICALLY SMALLER THAN MASS BURN INCINERATORS
o 25 TO 120 TONS/DAY
o VERY LITTLE PREPROCESSING INVOLVED
o WASTE IS FED INTO FURNACE BY A HORIZONTAL, HYDRAULIC RAM

3. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTOR


o LIMITED EXPERIENCE WITH MIXED SOLID WASTE
o PREHEATED AIR, UNDER PRESSURE, IS FORCED THROUGH A BED OF
SAND, CAUSING THE SAND TO EXPAND.
o MIXED SOLID WASTE IS FED ONTO THE SAND BED, WHERE
COMBUSTION TAKES PLACE

NON-COMBUSTION TECHNIQUES-OXYGEN DEFICIENT


(LIMITED USE IN THE US)
1. BIOGASIFICATION
Mixed solid waste is placed into an anaerobic digestor to reduce its Volume and to
produce methane. The process involves:
o (A)preprocessing-the organic material is separated from the waste stream,
shredded, and placed into a slurry
o (B) decomposition-the slurry is placed in an anerobic digestor for 5-30 days
o (C) gas collection-methane gas is collected and refined for combustion
o (D) less voluminous digested product for disposal

2. PYROLYSIS

Uses heat to decompose the mixed solid waste in an O2-deficit or O2-free Environment.
The products of pyrolysis include combustible gases and Various solids that are difficult
to manage.
COMBUSTION FUNDAMENTALS
The following reactions take place for combustion of fuels containing C, H, and S (in
order of occurrence):
o H2 + H2 + O2 --> H2O + H2O
o 2C+ O2 --> CO + CO
o CO + CO + O2 --> CO2 + CO2
o S + O2 --> SO2

The optimal temperature for combustion of mixed solid waste is in the range from 14001600 degrees f.
AIR REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBUSTION:
Stoichiometric amount of air or o2 is the amount of air or o2 required based On
stoichiometry. Sometimes, extra air or o2 is required for complete Combustion. This is
expressed as excess air or o2. Typical excess air Requirements are 80-50% of the
theoretical or stoichiometric demand. On The average, 6-10 pounds of air are required to
combust one pound of waste.
The amount of theoretical oxygen needed can be found by balancing the Chemical
reaction. An easy-to-use formula has been developed to determine Volume of theoretical
O2 needed to combust a fuel or waste which contains C, H, S, and O:
O2 (CUBIC FT.)/LB OF FUEL = 395((C/12) + (H/4) + (S/32) - (O/32))

C, H, S, and O are the decimal fractions of that element in one pound of The fuel (dry
weight). In new york state, incineration with energy recovery comes right after recyclind
and before landfilling on its solid waste management hierarchy list. Used properly and
safely, incineration can be an effective way to dispose of our waste while producing a
valuable form of energy.
The main purpose of incineration is to reduce the volume of solid waste, but There are
more specific incinerators that burn off dangerous organic Pollutants or hospital wastes.
There is also the possibility of energy Recovery with the addition of a boiler. Incineration
itself is a Controversial topic these days. Here are some of the pros and cons:
PROS:
o WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION
o DESTRUCTION OF COMBUSTIBLE TOXINS
o DESTRUCTION OF PATHOGENICALLY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL
o ENERGY RECOVERY
CONS:
o AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS
o ASH MUST BE LANDFILLED AND MAY BE HAZARDOUS
o HIGH CAPITAL AND OPERATION COSTS
o WASTEWATER PROBLEMS
:
COMMERCIAL OR INDUSTRIAL INCINERATORS-

o USUALLY SPECIFIC OR 'TAILOR-MADE'


o MORE CONSISTANT WASTE STREAM
o HIGHER TEMPERATURES MAY BE NECESSARY
o STANDARDS FOR DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE ARE SET AT
THOSE THAT WILL DESTROY PCB'S (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENOLS).
MUNICIPAL INCINERATORSo MORE COMMON
o LESS CONSISTENT WASTE STREAM
o PRE-TREATMENT

(SHREDDING,

DRYING,

NECESSARY
o BATCH OR CONTINUOUSLY LOADED

ETC.)

IS

USUALLY