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Guidance with

Patience
To

Learn with Passion

PVELITE TRAINING PRESSURE


VESSEL DESIGN

Practice and make


perfect

High structure integrity, safety and


cost optimized static equipment

PVElite Training Basic

Table of Content
Item

Description

Page

1.

Chapter 1: Static equipment, piping and


storage tank. Relevant Code and Standards.
Design Software

2- 3

2.

Chapter 2: Pressure Vessel Design , 2.1


Design by Rules or Formula, 2.2 Design by
Analysis

4-7

3.

Chapter 3: Types of loadings at Pressure


Vessel

4.

Chapter 4: Type of Stresses at Pressure Vessel

5.

Chapter 5: Basic feature and Operation of


PVElite

6.

Chapter 6: Common Design Code for Pressure


Vessel

7.

Tutorial 1: Vertical Pressure

8-11
12-20
21-28
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PVElite Training Basic

Chapter 1 : Types of Equipment and Facilities,


Design codes and Application
software

Chimney

Horizontal
pressure
vessel

Vertical
pressure
vessel
Piping

Process
column

Air fin cooler

Spherical
storage tank

Shell & Tube


Heat

Above round
storage tank

Figure 1: Group of equipment and facilities at oil refinery plant


A process plant ( Oil & Gas refinery, petrochemical, chemical and
others) shall consists of following equipment and facilities.
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PVElite Training Basic

Pressur
e
Vessel

Storag
e Tank

Code &
Standard

Equipment or facilities detail

Recomm
ended
defector
softwar
e

ASME Sec
VIII Div 1 or
Div 2,
PD5500,
EN13445

PVElite ,
Nozzle Pro,
FEpipe

API 650, API


620 ,API630

Heat
Exchan
ger

Piping

TEMA,
PD5500,ASM
E UHX,
ASME
Appendix A

Process Vessels Trayed columns,


reactors, packed columns
Drums and Miscellaneous Vessels
Horizontal and vertical vessels
Storage Vessels Bullet and spheres
tanks

Cone roof tank ( Self supported and


Supported)
Dome roof tank
Flat roof tank
Floating roof tank (not in software yet)

Shell and Tube heat exchanger


(Various configuration )
Hairpin Heat Exchanger
Jacketed Pipe Heat Exchanger

ASME B31.1 ( Power piping)


ASME B31.3 (Process piping)
ASME B31.4 (Pipeline Transportation Systems for
Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids)
ASME B31.5 ( Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer
Components)
ASME B31.8 (Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
Systems)

TANK

Mech PVElite
Thermal &
flowHTRIXist, Xhep
and etc
CAESAR
II

PVElite Training Basic

Chapter 2 : Pressure Vessel Design


There are two types of mechanical design methods for pressure vessel
, namely design by formula (DBF) and design by analysis (DBA).

2.1

Design by Rule or Formula (DBF)

Design formula is governed by mandatory national code and


standards to ensure safety performance. Most the pressure vessels
are designed based on the concept of Design by Formulae (DBF),
which involves relatively simple calculations to achieve the required
component thicknesses via simple formulae or diagrams and by usage
of the concept of the nominal design stress, also termed as allowable
stress, allowable working stress, or limiting stress intensity; pressure
vessel design codes like ASME Div VIII Section 1 and Section 2, PD
5500 and EN 13445 use the principle of thin wall structure membrane
stress for determining the minimum thickness of structure such as
cylindrical shell , conical shell, body flange and dish head thickness
due to various loading conditions. The great benefit of the DBF
approach is still its simplicity, only in the recent past the formulae and
calculations in DBF have become more and more elaborate,
pretending accuracy that is often not there (Josef L. Zeman, 2004).
The basic idea of design by rule is that once the leading scantlings are
fixed in this way the designer simply obeys the rules laid down in the
procedures for specified components such as nozzles, dish head,
shells, etc. The methodology or reasoning behind the rules will not
always be apparent as we shall see. However, this is the most
common approach used in all national design codes.
The design by rule approach has the great advantage of simplicity and
being backed up by the long experience of users in many cases. The
greatest disadvantage is that the approach cannot easily be extended
either to different geometries or additional loadings beyond the
normal pressure cases, elastic plastic and plastic state. For example,
ASME VIII Div 1, the design rules and formulas consider mainly the
loadings due to static internal pressure and external pressure within
elastic limit.

PVElite Training Basic

2.1.1
Design by Rule or Formula (DBF) using
PV Elite
Conventionally, most of the previous design of pressure vessel is done
using spreadsheet like Microsoft Excel to perform structural thickness
calculation and analysis for pressure vessel components.
Nevertheless, this option can save some initial cost compare to
commercial design software like PVElite, but it will be comparatively
non cost effectiveness in the long run. This is obvious, when we
compare PVElite to Microsoft Excel formatted design spreadsheet in
term of the quantity and quality of the performance. Some of the
points below are elaborate for getting better understanding about the
advantages of using PVElite in pressure vessel design.
PVElite is user friendly for both new and experienced user,
where the input menu is ready available in a systematic
arrangement ( if spreadsheet is used, you might enter the
information to the wrong cell at spreadsheet that will cause a
wrong output or even damage the whole program due to your
carelessness ). User just enter the information as stated in the
design datasheet and specification. Furthermore, if the user are
doubt about the input , just press function key f1 to get
technical advice from the help menu with useful statement,
diagram , graph and table relevant to design requirement or
national standard code ( if spreadsheet is used, you have to
refer to the hard copy of design codes which will spent time in
searching for the details .)
PVElite is design oriented, where the features allow the user to
maximize their time to design or re-rating the pressure vessel to
achieve cost- optimum design. That mean, minimize the time
spent in searching, confirming and entering the design
parameters for design calculation. To achieve this, PVElite
performs calculation base on various type of design codes and
corresponding material code with various addendum (ASME Sec
VIII Div 1, Div 2 , PD5500 and EN13445), hence designer will be
able to change and compare the pressure vessel design base on
different standards easily . In addition, user can select various
national codes for external loadings due to wind and/or seismic
forces (ASCE, UBC, NCB ,IS , GB and etc.), nozzle loadings (WRC
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PVElite Training Basic

107 , PD5500 Annex B and etc), and tubesheet design (TEMA,


ASME UHX, BS5500, ASME appendix A) Secondly, PVElite
provides a good traceability for the calculation results where a
negative answer is alerted in red warning , that the designer
has the possibility to understand which are parameters to be
changed in order to get the checking. While, a positive answer
shows the result the degree of possible overdesign, in order to
give the designer the possibly of decreasing excess thickness
when they are not needed.
PVElite interfaces with others popular software packages for
finite element analysis (Nozzle-Pro), heat exchanger design
(HTRI), pressure vessel drafting and material take off (PV
fabricator) and foundation design and drafting. PVElite also
shares a bi-directional link to COADEs CADWorx Equipment
module. The significant benefit of this feature is the designer will
be able to convert the preliminary design into drawings and MTO
for cost estimation and proposal purposes using PV fabricator. In
addition, the changes made in the PVElite in pressure vessel
design will update the engineering drawing and bill of material
correspondently. The mathematical model of the pressure vessel
in the graphic form can be exported to Nozzle-Pro for meshing
and generating finite element model for stress analysis such as
nozzle to shell intersection, dome to shell intersection, skirt to
shell and etc. After the heat and fluid flow analysis of heat
exchanger using HTRI software, some relevant information can
be transfer to PVElite for stress analysis for tubesheet, tube,
tube to tubesheet joint and other components. The nozzle
loading from CAESAR II can be transfer to PVElite for WRC 107 or
annex B local stress analysis.
CodeCalc is an additional programs available within PVElite to
analysis the vessel components separately or things that
havent be included in PVElite . Typical cases would be fulljacketed vessel, non-circular vessel, Lifting lugs and turnion
design, API579 (Fitness For Service), large opening at shell,
floating head and etc.

PVElite Training Basic

2.2 Design by Analysis (DBA)


Design by analysis (DBA) is mainly used to check the design of
pressure vessel which is operated under serve conditions like extreme
high pressure, and extreme high or low temperature where DBF can
not be used due to it limitations in design calculation, data and
coverage (Design by Analysis, 2004). The design by analysis can be
categorized into two: design base on elastic analysis, and design base
on plastic analysis. It is implemented to avoid eight possible failure
modes at pressure vessel by detail stress analysis as stated as in
ASME sec VIII Division 2 and subsequently BS 5500 Appendix A and
EN13445-3 Annex B (Direct Route Method) and EN13445-3 Annex C
(Elastic analysis & stress Categorization). The failure modes considered
are (base on ASME section VIII Div 2, Part 5) : All pressure vessels within the scope of this Division,
irrespective of size or pressure, shall be provided with
protection against overpressure in accordance with the
requirements of this Part.
Protection Against Plastic Collapse these requirements
apply to all components where the thickness and
configuration of the component is established using
design-by-analysis rules.
Protection Against Local Failure these requirements
apply to all components where the thickness and
configuration of the component is established using
design-by-analysis rules. It is not necessary to evaluate
the local strain limit criterion if the component design is in
accordance with Part 4 (i.e. component wall thickness and
weld detail per paragraph 4.2).
Protection Against Collapse From Buckling these
requirements apply to all components where the thickness
and configuration of the component is established using
design-by-analysis rules and the applied loads result in a
compressive stress field.
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PVElite Training Basic

Protection Against Failure From Cyclic Loading these


requirements apply to all components where the thickness
and configuration of the component is established using
design-by-analysis rules and the applied loads are cyclic.
In addition, these requirements can also be used to qualify
a component for cyclic loading where the thickness and
size of the component are established using the designby-rule
Requirements. Part 4.
PVElite can only dealt with requirements that are directly addressed
by the code and for cases where limitations prevent you from
obtaining the necessary result, a viable alternative would be to turn to
FEA (finite element analysis). PVElite does have interfaces with an FEA
program termed Nozzle-Pro and this is beyond the scope of his
manual.

3.0

Type of loadings at Pressure Vessel

All structure include pressure vessel are subjected to two basic types of
loading: Steady or static and unsteady (variable, cyclic or impact). Figure 3.1
shows loadings which are grouped into steady and unsteady loads. Most of
the pressure vessels encounter variable or cyclic loading, may assumed to
be statically load without introducing serious error. This is significantly stated
in the standard ( ASME Section VIII, Division 2, AD-160) that the fatigue
analysis is required provided the conditions of the cyclic loading are exceed
the limits at the fatigue evaluation stage. These limits is depend upon the
number of cycle loads in term of fluctuate operating pressure and
temperature, as well as the degree of the cyclic load which is mainly due to
the gap of maximum and minimum operating pressure or temperature.
Figure 3.2 shows types of general loads and local loads at pressure vessel.
Internal pressure load is common for all the pressure vessel above,
since all the static equipment operates at certain elevated pressure and
temperature due to chemical processes and hydrostatic pressure of storage
content ( ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Part UG20 and UG21, 2007). In
addition, hydrotest pressure load is elevated at 30% from the vessel working
pressure at corroded or new condition as stated in ASME Division 1, Part
UG99.
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PVElite Training Basic


Despite the availability of vacuum valve, the external pressure is
considered for pressure vessel design in vacuum condition where the outlet
nozzle is connected to pump. The atmosphere pressure is sufficient to
compressively deform a pressure vessel due to large volume vessel with
insufficient thickness and/or stiffener, furthermore metallic materials have
relatively low compressive strength compare to its tensile strength (ASME
Section VIII Division 1, Part UG28, 2007).
External load like wind and seismic load is more critical for process
vessels like process columns and reactor. The deflection and vibration
analysis of tall slender column (H/D>15) are commonly checked to ensure
Types of loading

the structural is not over deflected. In conjunction, the stresses induced by


wind and seismic loads are always combined with other stresses (i.e.
longitudinal, circumferential and shear stress) due to internal pressure,
external pressure, and hydro test pressure to ensure the possible combined

Steady load long-term duration, continuous Non steady loadsshort term duration, variable

stresses are not more than allowable stress (ASME Section VIII Division 1,
Part UG22-23, 2007).

Pressure loads Internal or external pressure (design, operating, and hydrostatic


head
of liquid)
Shop and field
hydrotest

Dynamic/ impact load

Dead weight, vessel content

Lifting and erection

Loadings due to attached piping and equipment.


Start up, shut down .

Loadings to and from vessel support

Transportation

Thermal load Head to skirt joint, piping Thermal


expansion
load
at nozzle.
load
short
term during service or testing

Wind load

Earthquake, Vibration

9
Upset, emergency
Constant cyclic pressure or thermal load

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PVElite Training Basic

Categories of loading at pressure vessel

eneral loads Load applied continuously


across
a vessel
section.
Local loads
Load
applied
to a small portion .of the vessel and normally fall off rapidly in d

Figure 3.1: Types of Loading at pressure vessel

s- Internal or external pressure load (design,


operating,
hydrotest,
andand
hydrostatic
or liquid.)
Pressure
radial loadsInternal
external head
pressure
for thick wall pressure vessel.

Shear loads- Longitudinal and circumferential shear at shell, dish head and conical section, where saddle and support
oads- Bending moment due to wind, seismic, erection, transportation and horizontal support.

nsile loads- Due to dead weight, installedTorsional


equipment,
ladders,
platforms,
piping,nozzle
and vessel
content.
loadstorsional
load at vessel
due to
the twist of external piping.

load due to moment at discontinuities, nozzle to shell section.


Thermal loads- Skirt Moment
to head loadsattachment.

10

Thermal loads- Thermal expansion restricted regions likes piping at nozzle connection

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PVElite Training Basic

Figure 3.2: Categories of Loading at pressure vessel

In addition to the above major analysis, nozzle opening reinforcement


at shell is important to avoid mechanical failure due to internal pressure,
external pressure and nozzle loading due to external piping connection and
other equipment likes reboiler due to various forces and moment at nozzle to
shell junctures (K.R.Wichman., A.G. Hoper., J.L.Mersho, 1979). This concept is
applicable to other attachments at the pressure vessel walls which have
rectangular, square or circular cross sectional area.
For horizontal supported pressure vessel, the distributed weight
implement bending load

at the mid span of the pressure vessel and the

saddle support. Furthermore, the concentrated load at the horn of saddle


and the tip of the wear plate. The above loads are significant for large
diameter and long horizontal pressure vessel. ( L.P. Zick, 1951)
Local stresses analysis is important for lifting lugs and turnion to ensure safe
lift during the site installation.
Fatigue analysis is performed for those pressure vessels which have
severe and significant cyclic loadings in the form of fluctuating pressure and
temperature condition. These cyclic loads would decrease the service life of
a pressure vessel as stated in the S-N curve of specific material. ( ASME
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Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 5)
Thermal loads is only concerned for DBF likes ASME Division for tube
sheet design. ASME Division 2, part 5 Design By Analysis Requirements
(2007) checks the stresses induced by cyclic thermal loads, and the
ratcheting for pressure vessel components.

Type of stresses at Pressure Vessel

Generally the design of pressure vessel is to decide the minimum


thickness which will fulfill the design requirement as per design code
through DBF or DBA. The pressure vessel components thickness are
depend upon the stress(es) incurred at the material due to internal
pressure, external pressure and other external forces. It is not
necessary to find every stress but rather to know the governing
stresses and how they related to the pressure vessel and its
respective parts, attachments, and supports. Hence, the basic
understand of the stresses at pressure vessel is importance for design
and they are further elaborated as below. Generally, there are three
types of stresses:-

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- General Primary Stress


- Secondary Stress
- Peak Stress

4.1 General Primary Stress


These stresses act over a full cross section of the vessel and they are
produced by the imposed loading (load-induced) and are necessary to satisfy
the law of equilibrium. In addition, they are the most hazardous of all types
of stress.
The basic characteristic of primary stresses that it is not self limiting
(i.e. they are not reduced magnitude by the deformation they produced).
Hence, the gross distortion or failure of the structure will occur if its value
substantially exceeds the yield stress . In the other word, if a primary stress
exceeds the yield strength of the material through entire thickness, the
prevention of failure is entirely dependent on the strain- hardening
properties of the material or stress distribution. Primary stress are generally
due to internal or external pressure or produced by sustained external forces
and moment.
The primary stress is divided into two subcategories in ASME Sec VIIDiv 2. They are primary general membrane and primary general bending
stresses. Primary general membrane stress ,P m. This stress occurs across the
entire cross section of the vessel. It is remote from discontinuities such as
head-shell intersections, cone-cylinder- intersections, nozzles, and supports.
For instance, circumferential and longitudinal stress due to pressure;
compressive and tensile axial stresses due to wind or seismic; longitudinal
stress due to the bending of the horizontal vessel over the saddles;
membrane stress in the center of the flat head; membrane stress in the
nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to pressure or external
loads and axial compression due to the weight.

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Figure 3.3: General membrane stress at the pressure vessel parts

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Primary general bending stress, Pb. Primary bending stresses are due
to sustained loads and are capable of causing collapse of the vessel. There
are relatively few areas where primary bending occurs. For instance, bending
stress in the center of the flat head or crown of a dished head; bending
stress in a shallow conical head and bending stress in the ligaments of
closely spaced openings.

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Local primary membrane stress, PL. Local It is a combination of two


stresses, primary membrane stress, Pm, plus secondary membrane stress, Q m
which is produced from sustained loads. These have been grouped together
in order to limit the allowable stress for this particular combination to a level
lower than allowed for other primary and secondary stress application. It was
felt that local stress from sustained not self limiting loads presented a great
enough hazard for the combination to be classified as a primary stress.
Examples of primary local membrane stresses are primary membrane stress
plus membrane stresses at local discontinuities (i.e. head to shell juncture
and nozzle to shell juncture), primary stress plus membrane stresses from
local sustained loads (i.e. platform and ladder support; piping and equipment
attached to the nozzle).

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4.2
19

Secondary Stress

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Secondary stress is developed when the deformation of a component due to
the applied loads is restrained by other components. It must satisfy an
imposed strain pattern rather than being equilibrium with an external load.
Secondary stress is self-limiting (i.e. they are reduced magnitude by the
deformation they produced) in that local yielding can be redistribute the
stress to a tolerable magnitude without causing failure.
Secondary mean stresses are developed at the junctions of major
components of a pressure vessel. Secondary mean stresses are also
produced by sustained loads rather than internal or external pressure.
Secondary stresses are strain-induced stresses.
Secondary

stresses

are

divided

into

two

additional

groups,

membranes and bending. Examples of secondary membrane stress are axial


stress at the juncture of the flange and the hub of the nozzle; thermal
stresses due to restricted expansion; membrane stress in the knuckle area of
the head and membrane stress due to local relenting (self-limiting) loads.
Examples of secondary bending stress, Q b are bending stress at a gross
structural discontinuity (i.e. nozzle and lugs); the non uniform portion of the
stress distribution in a thick walled vessel due to internal pressure; the stress
variation of the radial stress due to internal pressure in thick- walled vessels;
discontinuity stresses at stiffening or support rings.

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4.3 Peak Stress


Peak stress is the highest stress in the region under consideration. The basic
characteristic of peak stress is that it causes no significant distortion and is
objectionable mostly as sources of fatigue failure. It applies to both
sustained load and self- limiting load. Peak stress is additive to primary and
secondary stress present in the point of the stress concentration. Peak stress
is only significant in fatigue conditions or brittle materials. It is the sources of
fatigue cracks and applies to membrane, bending, and shear stress. Example
are stress at the corner the discontinuity; thermal stresses in a wall caused
by the sudden change in the surface temperature; thermal stresses in
cladding or weld overlay; stress due to the notch effect .

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5 Basic features and operation of PV Elite


Generally, there are five major input processors in PVElite. There are
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Heading
Design Constraint
General Input
Load Cases
Seismic Data
Wind Data

Figure 4.1: Input Processors for the Pressure Vessel


design

Before the user start to enter the design parameters into the input
processors as stated above , it is important to configure the settings at the
start. The configuration is at the tools option control utility processor as
shown in figure 2.2.

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5.1 Configuration

Figure 4.2 : Configure the settings of PVElite behaves when analyzing a


vessel

It is important to configure the settings at the start. From the tools option
control utility processor, options are given to customize how PVElite behaves
when analyzing a vessel. The settings are related to the pre and post
processing of the design or analysis for pressure vessel. Pre-processing is the
settings of the design requirements before the analysis, likes alternative
rules in design of pressure vessel components (i.e. use ASME Code
case2260/2261, 2286, 2004-A06 Addenda for Division 2, pre-99 Addenda
(Division 1 only) , Eigen solver and use OD as the basis for shell radius for
Zicks analysis) or the setting allowable value such as material database,
graph for determining MDMT and allowable tower deflection. In addition,
post processing involves filter or keep certain results or details to be appear
in the report such as no MDMT, no MAWP calculation, print equation and
substitution. It is important for the user to be familiar to the design
standards, practice and client required specification before perform any
setting in the configuration section.
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5.2

Design/ Analysis Constraints

Figure 4.3: Design constraints for setting general design information


for pressure vessel

5.3
24

Design Data

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The input screen is divided into two areas. They are design data and design
modification. The design data section is related to general design parameter
like internal and external pressure /temperature, hydrotest
type and
position, projection from to/ bottom for UG99-C . This information is very
common seen and indicated in the design data of vessel GA drawing and this
core information for pressure vessel design. The user can specific their
client preferred MAWP, MAPnc and hydrotest pressure, where these values
will overwrite/ replace the calculated values. Others inputs like construction
type, special service, degree of radiography are just for information only, it is
reported in the report echo.
If the user check the box of Use Higher Longitudinal Stresses ?, PVElite will
use higher allowable longitudinal stress for combined stresses analysis . The
ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UG-23(d) allow the allowable
stress for the combination of earthquake loading, or wind loading with other
loadings to be increased by a factor of 1.2.
If the user check the box of Consider Vortex Shedding ?, PVElite will
compute fatigue stresses based on loads generated by wind flutter. In
addition, the program will compute the number of hours of safe operation
remaining under the wind vibration conditions. This section is suitable for
high column design with h/d (overall high over the vessel diameter) equal or
more than 15. For low vertical vessel like drum, it is advisable not to check
the box because the program will generate extreme non logical high value
which will cause overdesign for the structure.
If the user check the box of Is This a Heat Exchanger ?, PVElite will write
out an ASCII text file that contains the geometry and loading information for
this particular vessel design.
If user check the box of Hydrotest allowable is 90% yield, PVElite will
consider 90% of the material yield stress for the hydrostatic test allowable.
This will generate higher allowable stress for hydrotest than the normal
value which is 1.3 time the material minimum allowable stress. ( This applies
only for Division 1 vessel design).
If user is designing a cylindrical ASME stack steel stack and wish to have
PVElite analyze allowable and stress combinations per ASME STS-2003(a),
then check this box. (This applies for Division 1 vessel design).
The 2009 version do not allow any modification of design code in this input
screen, but it is shown at the column for information. The reason of this new
feature is to remind the designer to select the design code at the earlier
stage (Refer to figure 2.4).

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Figure 4.4: Selection of design code at New column and pull down menu

Any modification at design data will affect design of the whole pressure
vessel and it components. For example, the change of internal design
pressure and temperature at this section will generate global change for all
the components of the pressure vessel at general input processor. In
addition, the change of design code for whole vessel is done by reselecting
the required design code at pull down menu. However, the user needs to
reselect the material before running the analysis.

5.4

Design Modification

Design modification provides the user with the option to intelligently design
the vessel whenever a specific section fails the code. The program will
prompt a thickness that will be suitable for use or a location (s) of stiffening
rings so that the code requirement can be met. For the stiffening rings, the
program will allocation the ring(s) after run the analysis, where the program
will ask for user permission before the changes take place.
(Note: For most Advance users, the options included are usually not used.)

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5.5

Load Cases

Figure 4.5: Load cases for stress combination at pressure vessel

5.5.1

Stress Combination Load Cases

This input processor is used to deal with various combinations of loads


that contribute toward the membrane stress of the vessel at
longitudinal direction. The calculated maximum principle stresses
based on different combination of loads will be compared with the
corresponding allowable stress.

There can be as many as twenty cases, combining pressure loads,


weight loads, and moments in various ways. Generally, the load cases
stated are more than adequate to deal with all the combinations that
the user are likely to encounter in both operational and hydrotesting
conditions.
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A fairly complete set of load cases is included as a default:

The difference between wind loads and hydrotest wind loads is simply
a ratio (percentage) defined by the user. This percentage is specified
in the Wind Data definition of Global Data - usually about 33% (thus
setting the hydrotest wind load at 33% of the operating wind load).
Likewise, the hydrotest earthquake load is a percentage of the
earthquake load; this percentage is defined in the Seismic Data
definition of Global Data. Some steps that are not applicable for
horizontal vessels, such as natural frequency, will not be printed. Also,
if a vessel has no supports, then there will be no calculations that
involve wind or seismic loads.

5.5.2

Nozzle Design Options

The nozzle design option dealt with the design criteria that determine
the selection of nozzle wall thickness and reinforcement pad. The top
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deals with design pressure that is used to calculate the thickness


(nozzle or clip) base on MAWP+ Static head to Bottom Element,
Design Pressure + Static head, Overall MAWP + Static head
(governing Element), MAWP + Static head to Nozzle (note: user must
select either one for their vessels nozzle design). The least of the
boxes is optional for vessel design.
If the user checks the box of Consider MAPnc in Analysis , PVElite
will check to see if the nozzle is reinforced adequately using MAPnc
generated during the internal pressure calculation. When the area of
replacement calculations are made for this case, cold allowable
stresses are used and the corrosion allowance is set to 0. Designing
nozzles for this case helps the vessel to comply with UG99 or
appropriate (hydrotest) requirements.
If the user check the box of Modify Tr based on the Maximum Stress
Ratio, PVElite will looks at all of the defined load cases (combined
stresses) and select the highest stress ratio (actual stress/ allowable
stress). It will then use this number as a multiplier on the shell
thickness. Thus the nozzle design is based on the precise loading at
the bottom of that shell course. The reason for the above work is to
comply with ASME Section VIII Division 1 paragraph UG-22 that deals
with supplemental loadings. One factor in ASME nozzle design is the
required thickness of the shell (tr). Usually internal pressure (hoop
stress) governs. In some cases, such as when a nozzle is located on a
shell course at the bottom of a tall tower, longitudinal stresses will
govern. In this case the shell required thickness must be based on
longitudinal stresses and not the hoop stress.

6 Common design Code for Pressure Vessel


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ASME Section VIII Div 1, Ed 2007, Ad 09


ASME Div 1 is the most common use standard for pressure vessel
design, the following are some of the common consideration in
pressure vessel design.

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PVElite Training Basic

Tutorial (1) :
32

Design for vertical pressure vessel

33

PVElite Training Basic

Tasks to be complete :

To determine the structural thicknesses of cylindrical shell and semi


ellipse head due to internal and hydrostatic pressure conditions.
Check shell thickness against hydrotest pressure.
MDMT checking for all pressure vessel components.
To determine the allowable external pressure of the structure and
compare to the actual external pressure load due to vacuum
condition at pressure vessel.
Design skirt support and base ring design for vertical pressure
vessel due to wind and seismic load. (refer to PVElite database or
handbook data if possible).
Nozzle reinforcement at dome shell due to shell opening, Nozzle
minimum thickness.
Installation of internals trays and packing, platform and ladder,
longitudinal. After that determine the combined stresses condition
at bottom structure. Do the necessary correction, if there is a
need.
Perform rigging analysis to check the shear stress and bending
stress of the vertical vessel during critical lifting position.

Learning Outcome:
After completion of this topic, student will be able to use PVelite for :
Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the
design parameter accordingly.

Obtaining an cost optimize design for pressure vessel components


due to internal pressure, external pressure, nozzle reinforcement ,
external loadings and skirt support. (target :+-10% greater than
actual load/stress/deflection rate)
(Note: Indicate the results with yellow highlight for printed
copy and save a PVE. file in CD for further evaluation)

33

34

PVElite Training Basic


Tutorial (1) : Vertical pressure vessel
Design Parameter
1) Vessel name / number
2) Design Code & Addenda
3) Operating Pressure & Temperature
4) Vessel Design Pressure &
Temperature
5) Minimum Metal design Temperature

Variable
Distillation column / WRG-100
ASME Section VIII Division 1, Addendum
2007
10 bar (internal), 300oC / -1 bar
(vacuum), 300oC
15 bar (internal), 300oC/ -1 bar
(vacuum), 300oC
MDMT = -25oC

6) Vessel dimension ( Inside Diameter


(ID) x Length tangent to tangent
(L))
Conical sectional height (L)
7) Design Liquid Level /
content specific gravity
8) MAWP / MAP(N &C)

3500 mm (diameter) x 30,000 mm (L)


2500 mm (diameter ) x 10,000 mm (L)
1500 mm (L)

9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/field)

UG99(b), Shop (
)
2
N/mm
( Applicable/ Not Applicable0
Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam
( spot RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam
(spot RT)
circumferential seam
( spot RT)
3 mm for all parts

10)
11)

Heat treatment
Joint Efficiency

11) Corrosion Allowance


12) Material
- Cylindrical shell
- Dome end
- Nozzle
- Nozzle flange
- Bolting
- Skirt
13) Weights

3500 mm from bottom TL / 0.85


(

SA 516 GR70
SA 516 GR70
SA 106 GR B
SA 105
SA193/ SA194
SA283 GRC
Fabrication : (
Empty:
(
Operating:
(
Test:

14) Wind load

15) Seismic load

34

) N/mm2

) tones
) tones
) tones
(

) tones

Wind Design Code: ASCE-93


Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor: 1
Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%

35

PVElite Training Basic


Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.2
Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1

N1

2:1 Semielliptical Head,


SF=50mm, min thk (
) mm,
Nominal thk (
)mm.

(Indicate the shell


thickness of the shell
section)

2,500
mm

10,000m
m

1,500mm

Tray space =400mm,


QTY = 10 trays ,
Holding height = 50 mm
4500 mm from 6th
Platform
0o to
180o

Cage ladder , appx


10kg/m

4500 mm from 5th


Platform
180o to
o
0

ID =3,500
mm

4500 mm from 4th


Platform
0o to
180o

30,000m
m

rd

4500 mm from 3
Platform
180o to
0o

CS ratchet ring
45lb/ft3
Volume = 43.3 m3

4500 mm from 2nd


Platform
0o to
180o
st

4500 mm from 1
Platform
180o to
0o
M1

5500 mm from
ground
oo to
180o
2:1 Semielliptical Head,
SF=50mm, min thk (
) mm,
Nominal thk (
)mm.

35

Platform used open


lattice
(lightest
option).
PL width = 1000 mm
PL Height = 1200 mm
Clearance = 4

Packing support
Height =50mm , weight =585 kg
Elevation =6000 mm from lower
TL.. percentage of holding liquid
=65%

5,000mm
N2

36

PVElite Training Basic

Nozzle Detail
No
1.

Nozzle
Description
Inlet ( N1)

3.

Outlet (N2)

4.

Manhole (M1)

36

Dia x Sch X L
18 x sch 40 x
200L
20 x sch 10 x
250L
24 x 12thk x
300L

Pound
rating (#)
ANSI, WNRF
,300#
ANSI,
WNRF,f150
#
ANSI,
WNRF 150#

Orientati
on
600 from
CL (120o)
CL
0o

Elevation from
lower SF
Top dish head
Bottom dish
head
5000 mm

37

PVElite Training Basic

Tutorial (2): Design for horizontal pressure vessel


Tasks to be complete :

Internal pressure, hydrotest , external pressure calculation as practical


1.
Nozzle opening and reinforcement , Nozzle loading WRC 107 checking.
Longitudinal stresses at horizontal supported pressure vessel at the mid
span and saddle support during the operation and hydrotest
respectively. Tangential stress at the shell at
saddle support, Circumferential compression at bottom of shell and in
plane of saddle
and circumferential bending at horn of saddle. Corrective methods in
reducing the stress at horn of saddle add wear plate, increase
the contact angle and support width, move saddle toward the
head, add stiffer ring at the saddle, add the saddle support(s).
Design for the saddle support, base plate, rib plate, wed plate.

Learning Outcome:
After completion of this topic, student will be able to use PVelite for :
Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the design
parameter accordingly.

Obtaining an cost optimize design for pressure vessel components due to


internal pressure, external pressure, horizontal supported conditions,
nozzle reinforcement , nozzle loading, external loadings and saddle
support. (target :+-10% greater than actual load/stress/deflection
rate)
(Note: Indicate the results with yellow highlight for printed copy
and save a PVE. file in CD for further evaluation)

1) Vessel name / number


2) Design Code & Addenda
3) Operating Pressure &
Temperature
4) Vessel Design Pressure &
Temperature
5) Minimum Metal design
Temperature
6) Vessel dimension ( Inside
Diameter (ID) x Length
tangent to tangent (L))
7) Design Liquid Level / content
specific gravity
37

Slug Catcher
ASME Section VIII Division 1, latest
Addendum
3.5 bar (internal), 120oC / 1 bar
(external),60oC
5.5 bar (internal), 120oC/ 1 bar
(external), 60oC
MDMT = -35oC
4200 mm (diameter) x 18,000 mm (L)
3800 mm from bottom / 1

38

11) Corrosion Allowance

PVElite Training Basic


(
) N/mm 2
UG99(c), Shop (
)
2
N/mm
( Applicable/ Not Applicable0
Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam
( spot RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam
(spot RT)
circumferential seam
( spot RT)
0

12) Material
- Cylindrical shell
- Dome end
- Nozzle
- Nozzle flange
- Bolting
- Saddle

SA 240 SS304
SA 240 SS304
SA 312 TP304
SA 182 F304
SA320 B8 with SA-194 B
SA283 GRC

8) MAWP / MAP(N &C)


9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/filed)
10)
11)

Heat treatment
Joint Efficiency

13) Weights

Fabrication : (
Empty:
(
Operating:
(
Test:

14) Wind load

) tones
) tones
) tones

) tones

Wind Design Code: ASCE-93


Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea
level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor:
1
Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%

15) Seismic load

Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.2


Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1
Tutorial (2) : Horizontal pressure vessel

Nozzle Detail
No
1.

Nozzle
Description
Inlet ( N1)

3.

Drain pipe (N2)

4.

Boot (B1)
38

Dia x Sch X L
20 x sch 10 x
200L
3 x sch 10 x
250L
30 x 12thk x

Pound
rating (#)
ANSI, WNRF
,150#
ANSI,
WNRF,150#
ANSI,

Orientati
on
0O

distance from
left SF
4500 mm

CL

Boot dish head

0o

12,000 mm

39

PVElite Training Basic


3000L

WNRF 150#

N1

18,000

4,200

3600 mm

500 mm
B1

User
estimated
the size,
thickness of
the saddle
and its
components.
The distance
from saddle
centre line to

12,000
2:1 Semielliptical Head,
SF=50mm, min thk (
) mm,
Nominal thk (
)mm.

N2

(Indicate the shell thickness of the shell section)


Nozzle Loading (WRC 107)
Dead Weight
No

Nozzle
Description
1. Inlet ( N1)
3. Drain pipe (N2)
4. Boot (B1)
Thermal

P (N)

No

P (N)

800
300
NA

1.

Nozzle
Description
Inlet ( N1)

3.

Drain pipe (N2)

750

4.

Boot (B1)

NA

1,800

VL
(N)
1200
500
NA

Vc (N)

Mt(N/m)

ML(N/m)

Mc(N/m)

1200
500
NA

120
50
NA

150
60
NA

150
60
NA

VL
(N)
2,40
0
1,00
0
NA

Vc (N)

Mt(N/m)

ML(N/m)

Mc(N/m)

2,400

2,600

3,000

3,000

1,000

1,115

1,300

1,300

NA

NA

NA

NA

Topic (3): Design of high wall thickness pressure vessel (t >


100 mm)
Sub-topic:

39

Dish head selection for high pressure operation.

40

PVElite Training Basic

Code case 2260 Alternative design rules for Ellipsoidal and Torispherical

formed heads.
Saddle type nozzle/ insert plate for nozzle opening reinforcement, Support
lugs design.

LOC:

After completion of this topic, student will be able to


Input all the design parameters to the correct input cursor.
Run the analysis and correct the design error by adjusting the design
parameter accordingly.
Obtaining a cost optimize design for pressure vessel components due to high
pressure operation.

Contents
1.0 Design of high wall thickness pressure vessel (t > 100 mm) ( Division 1 , 2 and
PD5500)
3.1 Dish head selection for high pressure operation - semi
ellipse, torispherical, hemispherical formed head.
3.2 Nozzle design for thick wall pressure vessel.
3.2.1 Self- reinforcement nozzle design.
3.2.2 Saddle nozzle or insert plate design.
3.3 Change the previous design of ASME Div 1 to ASME Div
2 and PD 5500. Material nominal strength/ allowable
stress calculation - PD 5500 Annex K. ASME Section
VIII Div 1 and Div 2.
3.4 Support lugs design and local stress calculation
(WRC 107).

1) Vessel name / number

Inlet Gas Separator

2) Design Code & Addenda

ASME Section VIII Division 1,


Addendum 2007

40

41
3) Operating Pressure &
Temperature

PVElite Training Basic


125 bar (internal), 120oC /
NA(external)

4) Vessel Design Pressure &


Temperature
5) Minimum Metal design
Temperature
6) Vessel dimension ( Inside
Diameter (ID) x Length
tangent to tangent (L))
7) Design Liquid Level / content
specific gravity

138 bar (internal), 120oC/ NA


(external)
MDMT = -15oC

8) MAWP / MAP(N &C)


9) Hydrotest pressure (shop/filed)
10)
Heat treatment
11)
Joint Efficiency

11) Corrosion Allowance

TBA
TBA
As per ASME code
Dome end : meridoinal seam (Full RT)
circumferential seam
(Full RT)
Cylindrical shell : meridoinal seam
(Full RT)
circumferential seam
( Full RT)
0

12) Material
- Cylindrical shell
- Dome end
- Nozzle
- Nozzle flange
- Bolting
- Support Lugs

SA 516 GR70N
SA 516 GR 70N
SA 105
SA 105
SA 193
SA283 GRC

13) Weights

2760 mm (diameter) x 7600 mm (L)


2000 mm from bottom / 0.85

Fabrication :
Empty:
Operating:
Test:

14) Wind load

15) Seismic load

Tutorial (3): Heavy wall pressure vessel

41

tones
tones
tones
tones

Wind Design Code: ASCE-93


Wind for Hydrotest: 33%
Design Wind Speed: 120 km/hr
Base Elevation : 3 meters from sea
level
Important factor: 1, Roughness factor:
1
Seismic Design Code: ASCE-93
Seismic for Hydrotest: 0%
Seismic Coefficient Av: 0.15
Seismic Coefficient Cc: 2
Performance Factor: 1