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Aspen MUSE

Reference Guide

Copyright
Version Number: V7.3 March 2011
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Introduction

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Related Documentation
In addition to online help systems available via the product applications, a
number of printable documents are provided to help users learn and use the
HTFS family of products:
Title

Content

HTFS Installation Guide.pdf

Describes the installation routine

HTFS User Guide.pdf

Provides an overview of the HTFS


family of products

ACOL Reference Guide.pdf

User instructions for the ACOL product

ACOL Getting Started Guide.pdf


APLE Reference Guide.pdf

User instructions for the APLE product

APLE Getting Started Guide.pdf


MUSE Reference Guide.pdf
MUSE Getting Started Guide.pdf
FIHR Reference Guide.pdf

User instructions for the MUSE


product
User instructions for the FIHR product

FIHR Getting Started Guide.pdf


FRAN Reference Guide.pdf

User instructions for the FRAN product

FRAN Getting Started Guide.pdf


PIPE Reference Guide.pdf

User instructions for the PIPE product

PIPE Getting Started Guide.pdf


TASC Thermal Reference Guide.pdf
TASC Thermal Getting Started Guide.pdf
TASC Mechanical Reference Guide.pdf
TASC Mechanical Getting Started Guide.pdf

User instructions for the TASC


Thermal product
User instructions for the TASC
Mechanical product

Introduction

Table of Contents
1

Introduction................................................................ 1-1
1.1

Overview..............................................................................1-3

1.2

MUSE, MULE, MUSC and PFIN .........................................1-4

1.3

Exchanger Geometries........................................................1-5

1.4

Design Calculations.............................................................1-6

1.5

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop .......................................1-6

1.6

Property Data Sources ........................................................1-7

1.7

Thermosyphons...................................................................1-7

1.8

Output Options ....................................................................1-8

1.9

Documentation ....................................................................1-8

Using MUSE ................................................................ 2-1


2.1

Overview..............................................................................2-3

2.2

The Start up View ................................................................2-5

2.3

Running MUSE....................................................................2-6

2.4

MUSE Icons.........................................................................2-7

Data Input................................................................... 3-1


3.1

Overview..............................................................................3-3

3.2

Input Views ..........................................................................3-4

3.3

Process Data Input ..............................................................3-6

3.4

Geometry Data Input ...........................................................3-7

3.5

Other Data Input ..................................................................3-8

3.6

Input Units ...........................................................................3-8

3.7

Using Help .........................................................................3-10

3.8

Finding Input Items ............................................................3-11

3.9

The Input File.....................................................................3-12

3.10 Default Input Data File.......................................................3-13


3.11 Input Errors and Warnings.................................................3-14

iii

Output......................................................................... 4-1
4.1

Overview..............................................................................4-3

4.2

Output Views .......................................................................4-3

4.3

Output Files .........................................................................4-6

4.4

Error / Warning Message Log..............................................4-8

4.5

Other Output........................................................................4-8

Physical Properties .................................................... 5-1


5.1

Overview..............................................................................5-3

5.2

Properties Input ...................................................................5-6

5.3

Properties Data Input (Old Style).......................................5-10

5.4

Mixture Calculations (Old Style) ........................................5-14

5.5

Property Databanks...........................................................5-17

5.6

Importing Properties & Process Data ................................5-19

5.7

Importing from HYSYS ......................................................5-21

5.8

Importing from a Properties Package ................................5-23

5.9

Properties Output ..............................................................5-24

5.10 Pressure Dependence.......................................................5-25


6

Other Facilities........................................................... 6-1


6.1

Overview..............................................................................6-3

6.2

User Fin Databank...............................................................6-3

6.3

Project File Structure ...........................................................6-4

Examples .................................................................... 7-1


7.1

Overview..............................................................................7-3

7.2

Case 1 Design .....................................................................7-4

7.3

Case 1 Simulation .............................................................7-11

7.4

Case 1, Layer by Layer Calculations (MULE) ...................7-17

7.5

The Zig-zag .......................................................................7-22

Index............................................................................I-1

iv

Introduction

1-1

1 Introduction
1.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
1.2 MUSE, MULE, MUSC and PFIN .......................................................4
1.3 Exchanger Geometries....................................................................5
1.4 Design Calculations ........................................................................6
1.5 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop...................................................6
1.6 Property Data Sources ....................................................................7
1.7 Thermosyphons...............................................................................7
1.8 Output Options ................................................................................8
1.9 Documentation.................................................................................8

1-1

1-2

1-2

Introduction

Introduction

1-3

1.1 Overview
MUSE can perform a range of calculations on plate-fin heat exchangers,
either simple two-stream exchangers, or complex ones with multiple
streams. The basic calculation options are:
MUSE Calculation Modes
Simulation

This determines the heat load, pressure changes, and


outlet conditions for each stream in the exchanger, based
on an exchanger you specify, and given stream inlet
conditions.

Layer by Layer
Simulation

Same as normal simulation, but on a layer by layer rather


than stream by stream basis. This option lets you assess
the stacking pattern in which layers of the various streams
are arranged.

Thermosyphon

This determines the performance of an exchanger, with a


geometry you specify, with one stream operating as a
thermosyphon. The exchanger can either be internal to
the column or outside it and connected via pipework. You
can specify either the head of liquid driving the
thermosyphon flow, or the thermosyphon stream flowrate,
leaving the program to calculate the one you do not
specify.

Design

This will produce a first shot design of a heat exchanger


to meet a heat load duty and pressure drop limits, which
you specify for each stream. This should be a useful
indication of what a specialist manufacturer would
provide. A final design of a plate-fin exchanger must,
however, come from a manufacturer, who can use
proprietary finning and specialist design and
manufacturing techniques.

Crossflow Exchanger

For single or multi-pass, or thermosyphon.

MUSEs User Interface presents a structured approach to data input.


The software can run at various levels of detail, and is extensively
supported by Help Text. A range of outputs are produced, in both
tabular and graphical form. There is an Exchanger Diagram, available in
the input for performance calculations, so that you can check that the
data you have provided is correct, or in the output from design
calculations.

1-3

1-4

MUSE, MULE, MUSC and PFIN

1.2 MUSE, MULE, MUSC and PFIN


Historically HTFS has had four separate programs for plate fin heat
exchangers.
Program

Use

MUSE

For general purpose performance simulation and thermosyphons.

MULE

For general purpose performance simulation and thermosyphons.

MUSC

For simulating special crossflow designs of plate fin exchangers


(including crossflow reboilers).

PFIN

For first-shot design.

These programs are now termed Calculation Engines and are gathered
together under the generic title MUSE, which is used throughout this
manual. There is one User Interface, with the individual programs
appearing as calculation options. The input data required for these
options varies slightly, but there are no incompatibilities. The output
formats are all very similar. The initial release of MUSE for Windows
(1997) contained only the original MUSE. The design option (PFIN) and
layer-by-layer option (MULE) were incorporated in version 3.00, the first
release with this User Guide. The crossflow option (MUSC) was
incorporated in version 3.10.
The Help Text for MUSE often refers to individual program names. For
example it refers to the design option (PFIN), or crossflow exchangers
(MUSC) to help distinguish between the various calculation options.

1-4

Introduction

1-5

1.3 Exchanger Geometries


MUSE allows for the following aspects of plate-fin exchanger geometry:
Exchanger Geometries
Overall
Geometry

Stream entry and exit at any point along the exchanger.


Inlet and outlet distributors.
Internal re-distribution into otherwise empty layers.
Partial draw-off of a stream.
Nozzles.
Change of main fin type at points along the exchanger length.
Exchangers in parallel.
Exchangers in series (in Design, if needed).
Internal and external thermosyphon reboilers.
Layer patterns, including allowance for double or triple banking.
Empty layers.
Performance evaluation with some streams switched off.

Distributors

End entry/exit - Full end, central end, at side.


Side entry/exit - Diagonal, mitred, indirect.
Hardway.
Single- or twin-headed distributors.

Finning

Plain.
Perforated.
Serrated (lanced or multi-entry).
Wavy (herringbone).
Unfinned.
Correlations for fin performance.
Option to supply manufacturers performance data.

1-5

1-6

Design Calculations

1.4 Design Calculations


The PFIN calculation engine in MUSE offers a first shot design
capability. It will produce a design based purely on the required inlet
and outlet process conditions for each stream, or you can specify certain
aspects of the exchanger, for example the fins or distributors to be used,
and leave the program to complete the design.
While this first shot approach should in many cases give a reasonable
approximation to what a plate fin manufacturer might suggest, you
should be aware that sometimes there may be significant differences.
For a more realistic design, you would need to select proprietary fins
and use proprietary fin performance data from a manufacturer. For
complex multi-stream exchangers, specifying the distributor types and
constraining the number of layers for certain streams can also lead to
improvements on the design produced by PFIN unaided.

1.5 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop


MUSE can perform heat transfer and pressure drop calculations on
single or two-phase streams, involving sensible heating or cooling,
boiling or condensation, or any combination of these. Streams can be
either pure components, or multi-component mixtures.
Facilities are provided whereby you can modify the heat transfer
coefficients and pressure gradients calculated by MUSE, either by
scaling them, or replacing them with specified values.
MUSE calculates fin efficiencies, allowing for local thermal conduction
along the fin metal to the parting sheet. It can also allow for longitudinal
thermal conduction in the parting sheets and sidebars, transferring heat
from the hot to the cold end of the exchanger.

1-6

Introduction

1-7

1.6 Property Data Sources


MUSE offers a range of options for providing the physical property
information needed for heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. If
you have stream property information available, this can be input
directly, or imported provided it is in the correct format. If the stream is
a mixture of known composition, MUSE can perform vapour liquid
equilibrium and mixture calculations to determine the stream
properties. This can be done using the COMThermo package which has
data for over 1000 components, or the smaller NEL40 package.
See Chapter 5 - Physical Properties for more information on the various
properties options and methods.

1.7 Thermosyphons
For thermosyphons, MUSE has methods for calculating both frictional
and gravitational pressure changes in the inlet and outlet pipework
connecting the exchanger to the column. You can simplify each line to
an equivalent length, allowing for bends, diameter changes, and
generalised flow restrictions.
MUSE will either determine the thermosyphon stream flowrate,
consistent with the driving pressure head you specify, or evaluate the
head needed to drive a particular flowrate. It will tabulate the pressure
changes in all the components of the circuit, as well as provide full
information about exchanger performance.
For the condensing stream in a thermosyphon, you can specify a
number of options, with either its flow, inlet pressure, or exit quality
(vapour mass fraction) adjusting to conform to the calculated heat load.
In a cryogenic flow driven by a turbine, the condensing stream operating
pressure usually adjusts itself to give complete condensation in
supplying the required heat load.

1-7

1-8

Output Options

1.8 Output Options


MUSE produces a number of different types of output information.
Some are in the form of output views, consist of information that can be
tabulated, plotted, and printed out. Other information is available as
output files, which you can examine via the User Interface. The Find
facility helps to locate text within these files. You can control the amount
of information they contain using flags in the program input.
MUSE also includes an extensive set of error and warning messages, to
provide clear information on what is required, if you omit vital data, or
provide unusual or inconsistent input.
Chapter 4 - Output gives more detailed information on the program
output.

1.9 Documentation
HTFS supplies the following manuals on the Software CD:

HTFS User Guide


HTFS Installation Guide
(these two are generic to all programs)
MUSE Getting Started
MUSE Reference Guide

This Reference Guide provides basic information on using the program,


its capabilities, the required input data (see Chapter 3 - Data Input), and
the results (see Chapter 4 - Output). Chapter 5 - Physical Properties
covers the range of options for providing the information needed to run
the program.
Also contained in this manual is a set of standard examples (see Chapter
7 - Examples) for you to work through. These examples illustrate a range
of exchanger calculations that can be performed using MUSE, and show
you the various methods of inputting the relevant data.
When appropriate, this manual includes the MUSE input and output
views to help with explanations. Since MUSE is being continuously
developed, there may be minor discrepancies between what you see on
1-8

Introduction

1-9

your computer, and the views shown in this manual. The discrepancies
may relate to layout, or to numerical values, but should not be taken as
indicating any problem.
See the MUSE Getting Started for information on the set of QA data that
is included with the program. The QA data are input data sets to help
ensure that MUSE is functioning properly. These sets should be run in
MUSE and then checked that the results are the same (within the limits
of computer accuracy) as the corresponding output files, which are also
provided.

To load the Help Text when


you are not running MUSE,
double-click on MUSE.HLP in
the main MUSE directory.

The Help Text is the most extensive documentation available for MUSE.
It is available whenever you are running the program, or can be loaded
separately. There are direct links to appropriate Help topics for every
input item, and from many other places in the program.
The technical methods used in MUSE are proprietary, and full details
are available only to companies who are members of HTFS. These
methods are described in HTFS Design Reports DR50, DR62 and in a
range of HTFS Research Reports. These are produced each year, and
compare method predictions with the results of the continuing HTFS
experimental program on plate-fin heat exchangers.

1-9

1-10

1-10

Documentation

Using MUSE

2-1

2 Using MUSE
2.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
2.2 The Start up View.............................................................................5
2.3 Running MUSE.................................................................................6
2.4 MUSE Icons ......................................................................................7

2-1

2-2

2-2

Using MUSE

Using MUSE

2-3

2.1 Overview
The normal procedure when running MUSE is to set up input data
representing a particular case, to run the case, and to examine the
results. If you come back to a case, which you have run previously, you
can examine the results without needing to run the program again. You
can very easily make changes to a case and re-run it. After making
changes, you can decide whether to save them for future reference, or
simply to Run the changed case, see what the results are, and then
decide whether to save it. You can also save a case part way through
providing input, so you can come back later and complete it.
Facilities are provided for you to provide a descriptive title for each run,
to number a run, and to add a number of lines of comments giving
further information.
Further information on the data input is provided in Chapter 3 - Data
Input of this guide, and on output in Chapter 4 - Output. Extensive Help
Text is available when running the program. This covers not only the
details of input and output, but also the use of the User Interface and on
plate-fin exchangers in general.
Figure 2.1

2-3

2-4

Overview

The Welcome view appears, which contains a list of recently used input
files, and gives you the option of opening an Existing file, or starting a
New one. Select the New button, and you will be taken to the Start up
view where you can begin inputting data for a new example.
You can save an example at any point during data input, or after you
have run it. When you next start MUSE, you will see it in the list of
recently used files, and can double-click on it to select it. If you want to
find a previous input file which does not appear in the recently used list,
click on Open. When you open an input file, MUSE will also open all the
associated output files, if any, produced by a previous run.
When you have your MUSE file loaded, you can start a (different) new
case, using the New command under the File menu. Selecting New will
clear any existing data and set up default data. Return to a different
existing case by using the Open command under the File menu.
You can also use the key SHIFT
F1 to return to the Start up
view.

View Geometry Diagram icon

2-4

Regardless of the method you choose to begin a new case, the view
available is the Start up view, shown in Figure 2.2. You can return to that
view at any point by selecting Start up under the Input menu.
When you start an existing case, you will not be taken to the Start up
view, but for a simulation case you will be shown the Exchanger
Diagram, (Geometry Preview view), if available, while for a design case
you will be shown the Process Data input views. You will also see the
Run Title, to remind you of the case you have selected. The Exchanger
Diagram can also be access at any time from the View menu or by
clicking on the appropriate toolbar icon. For the diagram to be available,
you must have provided the basic information on where each stream
enters and leaves the exchanger. It will also show information on main
fin number and distributor and nozzle layout, provided you have
supplied the relevant input information.

Using MUSE

2-5

2.2 The Start up View


Figure 2.2

The Start up view is important because it ensures that you are shown a
set of input options consistent with what you want to do. You must set
the items on the Start up view, or accept the defaults, and click on OK
before you can enter any other data.
The most important item is the Calculation Mode. The default is
Simulation - MUSE, but you can reset it to Design - PFIN or
Thermosyphon - MUSE, or Layer-by-Layer - MULE, or Crossflow MUSC. As with all input items, press F1 to see the Help Text, if you are
not sure what the options mean or what you should do.
It is always important to specify the number of streams in the exchanger.
The Number of Fins to be Directly Input should be set if you are going to
provide information on fin geometry or performance in the input. It can
be left blank if you are doing a simple design (when MUSE will select all
the fin information), or if you are going to get all your fin data from a fin
databank.
Basic Input Mode is a facility which limits the number of input items
you can see. If you are a new user, setting it may help you get an
overview of the most important items and options in the MUSE input. If
2-5

2-6

Running MUSE

you set it, you can return to the Start up view at any time and unset it, to
gain access to the full range of input. If you save your data while using
Basic Mode and then reopen the case later, it will again be displayed in
Basic Mode.
The Equipment Item Number and the Job Title are optional input, but it
is recommended that you provide them for future reference.
Click on OK to gain access to the input views for your new case.

2.3 Running MUSE


When you have prepared your data input (see Chapter 3 - Data Input)
you must Run one of the calculation engines to generate results. You can
run the calculation engine corresponding to the calculation type you
specified either by:

Run icon

Clicking on the Run icon.


Selecting Calculate All under the Run menu.
Pressing F4 on the keyboard.

The Run menu also lets you run calculation engines other than the one
you specified under Calculation Mode on the Start up view. You will be
asked for confirmation first.
A view will appear detailing the progress made as the calculation is run.
See Figure 2.3.
Figure 2.3

2-6

Using MUSE

2-7

Sometimes this will be too rapid to follow in detail, but it can be useful
for MUSE cases that take more than a few seconds to run. A message
appears when the calculation is complete, and the Results Summary
view, and/or the Error/Warning Log appears. See the Chapter 4 Output for more details.
MUSE 3.30 and subsequent releases will work with Windows 2000 and
XP.

The Run Progress view records the file that is being run. If the extension
is .MUI, you are running the case you just opened, without having made
any changes to it. If the file extension is .MUA, you are running the
edited copy of your original input file, having made changes to it.

2.4 MUSE Icons


Figure 2.4

MUSE has a toolbar containing a number of icons, which can be clicked


on as short-cuts to the frequently performed program operations. The
meaning of each icon appears as a ToolTip after the cursor has been left
positioned on it for a second or two. When toolbar icons are referenced
in this manual, an image of the icon will often appear in the margin
adjacent to the relevant paragraph. The following table gives a brief
description of each of the available icons.
Name

Icon

Function

New

Create a new case.

Open

Locate and open an existing case.

Save

Save the active case.

Preview Input
File

View the input data file.

2-7

2-8

MUSE Icons

Name

Icon

Function

Find Input Item

Open the Find Item view.

Geometry

Open the Geometry input form.

Advanced
Geometry

Open the Advanced Geometry input form.

Process

Open the Process Data input form.

Fins

Opens the Fin Geometry and Performance Data input


form. Only accessible if Numbers of Fins specified on the
Start up view is greater than zero.

Options

Opens the Options input form.

Physical
Properties

Open the Physical Properties input form.

Run

Run the MUSE calculations.

View Geometry
Diagram

View the Geometry Diagram.

Help

Open the MUSE Help Text.

Exit

Exit MUSE.

The Help Text provides more information on all the operations


described above.

2-8

Data Input

3-1

3 Data Input
3.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
3.2 Input Views.......................................................................................4
3.3 Process Data Input ..........................................................................6
3.4 Geometry Data Input .......................................................................7
3.5 Other Data Input...............................................................................8
3.6 Input Units ........................................................................................8
3.7 Using Help ......................................................................................10
3.8 Finding Input Items........................................................................11
3.9 The Input File .................................................................................12
3.10 Default Input Data File.................................................................13
3.11 Input Errors and Warnings..........................................................14

3-1

3-2

3-2

Data Input

Data Input

3-3

3.1 Overview
MUSE has a number of data input forms (views), each comprising
several tabbed pages. These are found under the Input menu. The
contents of each page vary slightly according to the Calculation Type
(Design, Simulation or Thermosyphon etc.) you have specified.
Data is input either by typing in values, or selecting from a drop-down
list. You do not need to fill in all the data input items, only those that
sufficiently describe the case under consideration. If you are only
interested in thermal performance, you can omit information on
distributors and nozzles, but you should remember that the calculated
pressure drop will not then allow for these items. All the items
controlling the details of the calculation, or outputs can be omitted.
Program defaults will then be used.
An asterisk (*) adjacent to an input item indicates that it is normally
necessary to supply this item.

If you are unsure what a data item means, position the cursor on that
item and press F1. You will be shown the Help Text on that item, which
can show diagrams, define defaults, and let you explore other relevant
information. It can point you to assumptions made by the program, and
to what use is made of an input item during MUSE calculations.
For a full description of each item, and a listing of all possible items, use
the Help Text. For more information on Physical Properties, both input
and output, see Chapter 5 - Physical Properties.
Some input items have checks on them to prevent you from inputting
inappropriate values. For simulation cases, use the Exchanger Diagram
(View menu) to ensure you have specified the exchanger layout
correctly. A complete and systematic check on input is made when you
run MUSE calculations. You will be shown a list of any errors and
warnings produced.

3-3

3-4

Input Views

3.2 Input Views


Under the Input menu you will see a list of input views, each of which
consists of a set of tabbed pages. The views and their tabbed pages are as
follows.
Views

Tabbed Pages

Geometry

Basic Geometry.
Layer Pattern.
Layer Definition.
Thermosyphons.
Stream Geometry.
Distributors and Nozzles.
Pass Lengths.

Advanced Geometry

Extra Main Fins.


Redistributors.
Substreams.
Layer Flow Distribution.
Inter-pass Details.

Process

Process.
Process Constraints.
Process - Exchanger.

Fins

Fin Geometry.
Fin Performance.

Options

Comments to go on Output.
Output Options.
Calculation Options.

Physical Properties

3-4

These views have a different layout from the other views,


and are described in Chapter 5 - Physical Properties.

Data Input

3-5

Figure 3.1 shows a typical example of an input view.


Figure 3.1

Some views/tabbed pages are only used for certain Calculation Modes.
They sometimes have a different set of items on them, depending on the
Calculation Mode. In the Basic Input option, a reduced set of views,
with a reduced set of input items on them appears. This may make it
easier for you to find your way around the input, if you are unfamiliar
with the program.

3-5

3-6

Process Data Input

3.3 Process Data Input


Some information on the Process tabbed pages must always be
provided, but many of the items on the forms may be optional or
alternatives. In Design Mode, MUSE needs sufficient information to be
able to work out both inlet and required outlet conditions for each
stream. In performance modes, only the inlet conditions are needed,
but it is valuable also to supply estimated outlet conditions, since the
program can then compare calculated outlet conditions with your
expectations.
Figure 3.2

An example of alternative inputs might be the inlet conditions for a


multi-component stream with two phase entry. These can be defined
either by the inlet temperature, or by the inlet quality (vapour mass
fraction). Other alternatives apply primarily in Design mode. Stream
heat loads can either be supplied explicitly, or derived from the mass
flowrate and inlet and outlet conditions. In Design mode, if you provide
more data than necessary for a stream, MUSE will undertake
consistency checks, and warn you of any discrepancies.
Discrepancies tend to arise when the sources of your process and
property data are different. For example, if you get your properties data
from NEL40, then there may be minor discrepancies from values for the

3-6

Data Input

3-7

same substance from other sources. This applies particularly to T-h-x


(temperature-enthalpy-quality) properties data. Though the
discrepancies are often equivalent to less than a degree in temperature,
this may be comparable with stream to stream temperature differences,
and can significantly affect predicted exchanger performance.
Discrepancies may sometimes be circumvented by appropriate input.
For example, for a stream which must condense completely, it may be
best to specify the Outlet Quality (= 0.0) rather than the outlet
temperature, which may not correspond exactly to the bubble point
temperature from internal VLE and NEL40 calculations.
The best method of preventing discrepancies is to obtain process and
properties data from the same source.

Process data can also be


imported, along with
Properties data, from a PSF
file. See Chapter 5 - Physical
Properties.

The Process Constraints and Process - Exchanger views only need input
if you want to make special modifications to the calculations performed.

3.4 Geometry Data Input


A significant number of input views relate to the geometric
configuration of the exchanger and related equipment. Several are only
required in special circumstances. The Thermosyphon view is only
required for thermosyphon calculations. Distributor information is
usually only needed in performance modes if you want distributor
pressure losses to be calculated.
Layer pattern information must be supplied for Layer by Layer
simulations (MULE), but is optional for Stream by Stream simulations
(MUSE, etc.), and is not used in Design (PFIN) calculations.
The main difference in geometry input is between Design mode
calculation, and the other modes. In the other modes, you should
generally specify as much information as you have available to describe
the exchanger, both its size and layout.
In Design mode, all the geometry information can be omitted. You can,
however, supply partial geometry information, and the program will
determine the remainder, consistent with the part you have supplied.
For example, you could specify distributor types and orientations,
leaving the program to determine their size and location. You could

3-7

3-8

Other Data Input

specify that certain fin types be used (plain, serrated etc.) or even that
certain specific fins be used, for some or all of the streams.

3.5 Other Data Input


Properties information must always be provided. This is described in
Chapter 5 - Physical Properties.
Options input can normally be left set to default values, unless you want
to modify the basis of the calculations, or suppress or switch on certain
outputs. A special option in Design mode lets you ignore some or all of
the geometry data input. This can be useful if you have an exchanger
geometry defined, but want to explore the effects of a redesign to new
process conditions

3.6 Input Units


The various parts of MUSE input can each be in one of five sets of units.
The three basic ones are:

SI (mm, C, kJ/kg etc.)


British/US customary (inches, F, BTU/lb etc.)
Metric (mm, C, kCal/kg etc.)

There are then variants on the SI and Metric sets, in which absolute
temperatures (K) are used instead of C.
The units can be defined separately for the Geometry, Process and Fin
data. Properties data can be defined separately for every individual
stream.

3-8

Data Input

3-9

When a new file is created, it uses a single unit set for all data, which you
can preset (the default setting is SI units). You can change the units via
the Preferences option under the File menu. Alternatively, you can click
on the Units field at the bottom of any input view, to get to the
Preferences (Units) view. If you click on the Change Input Units
Together checkbox, a single change sets the units of all components of
the input to a consistent set. There is also an option to define the
Default units for any New file you subsequently initiate.
Figure 3.3

When you change the units, you can decide whether or not any values
you have already input should have their units converted to the new
system. None of the pre-set input defaults have units, so you do not
need to select the Convert option if you have not yet supplied any data.
If you are using a default input file set up by your company, however,
this may contain pre-set values which need converting, should you
change the units.
The units of the program output will be deduced from the input units,
though you can explicitly specify one of the various sets under the
Options input.

3-9

3-10

Using Help

3.7 Using Help


The Help Text in MUSE is the definitive source of information on
Program Input, and on other aspects of the program. The Help Text is
kept fully up to date with every release.
Manuals, as supplied on the Software CD, give an overview of facilities
and options, and full information on installation. For specific
information on how to use the program facilities, use the Help text.

MUSE Help can be access at any point using the Help menu, or during
input, you can press F1 to go directly to help on the item where the
cursor currently points.
The Help Text provides information on data input, how to use the User
Interface, the program output, and on errors and warnings. There is also
general information on plate-fin heat exchangers, and the reasons for
choosing particular design features.
Figure 3.4

3-10

Data Input

3-11

You will also find information on MUSE capabilities, new features in the
latest version, and contact points for user support.

3.8 Finding Input Items


If you need to specify information on some aspect of a MUSE case, and
do not know where to find the relevant input view, then look up the item
in the Help Text index using the Search facility. Try alternative
descriptions if you cannot at first find what you expect.
When you have found the Help Text relevant to the particular input
item, you will see that there is an input item identifier at the bottom of
the Help view. This takes the form of a Line number and Item number in
the input file. For example Inlet Temperature is 204.1, meaning item 1
one line 204 (there can be up to 6 items on a line). See Figure 3.5
Figure 3.5

To find a particular item, use the Find Item command under the View
menu. When you type in a line number, you will be shown the list of
items on that line. If you click on a particular item, you will either be
taken to the input view where it occurs, or get an indication that it is
only visible with some other Calculation Type setting. For Physical
Properties input, you will just be taken to the main properties view, and
may need to investigate subsidiary views yourself.
Some Error and Warning messages give line and item numbers. You can
use the Find Item facility to identify the item more fully, and go to the
input view where you can amend it.
3-11

3-12

The Input File

3.9 The Input File


When you provide MUSE input, it is used to generate an input file,
which has a simple layout, and contains all the information you have
provided. The file consists of a set of lines, each identified by a number
occupying the first three characters, and followed by up to six items of
data. When only some of the items on a line are present, asterisks (*) are
used to indicate omitted items.
The data lines are gathered together into blocks, with a related set of
line numbers. The following table lists the data type and their respective
number ranges.
Data Type

Range

Program Options

001-099

Geometry

101-199

Process

201-299

Stream Properties

301-399

Component Properties

401-499

Fin

701-799

The first line in each block identifies the block, and the units of the input
data. Some data blocks are repeated, for example there is a Process
block, and at least one Properties block, for each stream.
A full listing of all possible input data items is given in the Help Text. The
Help Text on individual items indicates the line number (and position
on the line).
You can preview the Input data file, before it is run, under the View
menu.
The User Interface normally holds an internal version of the input file,
which is modified in response to changes you make in the input, and
which is used when you ask for MUSE calculations to be Run. You have
the option of saving this internal version of the input file, at any stage.
You will be explicitly offered the option of saving it, for example on Exit
from the program. If you do not save it, any initial version of your input
file will be left unaltered.

3-12

Data Input

3-13

Both the saved input file and the current internal version may contain
data which is not relevant to the current calculation mode. No data are
lost when you change the Calculation Mode.

3.10 Default Input Data File


You can set up a default input data file, which is called up whenever you
ask for a New input data file. This can contain any amount of pre-set
input data. You can set up several such files, and have the option of
selecting from among them when you run MUSE.
To set up such a default file, create a partial input data file in the usual
way, and save it with an appropriate name. Then select Preferences,
under the File menu, and select the Files tabbed page. Select your
default file under the Default File option.
When you use such a default input file, you should be careful to do a
Save As (under the File menu) to give an appropriate name to your new
datafile, different from the name of your default file. To select a different
default input data file, go the File menu, then Preferences and Files and
make your selection. Then select File menu, then New, to initiate a new
data file based on your new default.

3-13

3-14

Input Errors and Warnings

3.11 Input Errors and Warnings


If some mal-operation occurs when you are using the MUSE User
Interface, or if you have provided data, which the Interface cannot
interpret, then an information message view will appear. You will need
to click on this, and take appropriate action before you can continue.
In some circumstances, some of these input warnings from the User
Interface may appear to be repeated, as you make use of various
different parts of the User Interface. This can be annoying, if the
message relates to something you judge not to be relevant, or to
something you plan to correct shortly. To prevent such warnings being
displayed, select the File menu, then Preferences, and choose the
General tabbed page. This lets you switch off various categories of
warning messages from the Interface. See Figure 3.6.
Figure 3.6

It should be emphasised that this facility does not affect the more
stringent checks performed when you Run the MUSE calculations.
Error and Warning messages on running cannot be suppressed, and are
always sent to a special message log, as well as being incorporated in the
main lineprinter output. Chapter 4 - Output.

3-14

Output

4-1

4 Output
4.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
4.2 Output Views....................................................................................3
4.3 Output Files......................................................................................6
4.4 Error / Warning Message Log .........................................................8
4.5 Other Output ....................................................................................8

4-1

4-2

4-2

Output

Output

4-3

4.1 Overview
Running the MUSE calculations produces a number of different types of
output. These can be viewed using the Output menu. When you stop
working on an example, all the key output files remain in place, so you
can view the output again, once you re-enter a case you have previously
worked on.
This chapter gives an overview of the various outputs you can inspect, to
help you find particular details you may be interested in. A more
detailed description of all the outputs is available in the Help Text. See
Output in the Help Text contents view.

4.2 Output Views


You can select from a set of output views, which contain the main results
and information used to generate them.

Results Summary.
Full Results.
Specified Duty.
Temperature Profiles.
Other Profiles.
Stream Details.
Thermosyphon Details.
Geometry - Overall.
Geometry - Streams.
Geometry - Distributors.
Exchanger Diagram.
Zig-zag Diagram.
Fin Geometry.
Fin Performance.
Alternative Designs.

Not all these outputs will be available. For example the Zig-zag is only
produced if you have supplied a layer pattern input, Alternative Designs
and Specified Duty are only shown in Design mode.

4-3

4-4

Output Views

There are also views where you can review, in tabular or graphical form,
the physical property data used for each stream.

Stream Properties.
T-h-x.
Stream Compositions.

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1 shows the Results Summary view, which appears


automatically at the end of a run, providing that the initial input
checking has been successful.
If any warning or related messages have been produced, the Error/
Message Log will be written on top of the Results Summary, so you
should read this first, to check that there are no problems with the data
used to generate the Results.
The contents of the Results Summary view depend on the calculation
mode. In Design mode, this is geometric information on the best design
found. In Simulation and Thermosyphon modes, the key results are
process data, particularly the calculated outlet conditions, and for
Thermosyphons, the flowrates.
The Results Summary view also records the number of error and
warning messages, and most importantly, whether a design met various
design constraints, or whether a simulation calculation converged.

4-4

Output

4-5

The Full Results output uses Internet Explorer, or your equivalent


HTML viewer, and has Topic Headings to give you direct access to
various parts of the results. The information shown is that in the
Lineprinter output file, the most comprehensive output.
Figure 4.2

4-5

4-6

Output Files

4.3 Output Files


Some of the MUSE output is directed to files. The User Interface has a
File View facility when you select these outputs under the Output menu.
This applies to the following files.

The Brief Output.


The Lineprinter Output.
The 80-column Output.
The Physical Properties Output.

The Lineprinter output is the most comprehensive set of results from


MUSE. It is up to 132 characters wide. When you run the MUSE
calculations from the User Interface, by default all the possible
components of the Lineprinter output are produced. See Figure 4.3 for
an example of this output.
Figure 4.3

4-6

Output

4-7

If you would like a more limited version, go to the Input menu, then
Options, then Output Options to switch off any parts you do not want.
Then re-run the program to generate the reduced file.
In some cases, there are also Output Options for various output tables to
be extended, or repeated, but these are rarely of interest after a
successful run.
The 80-column output is usually a more restricted version of the
Lineprinter output, but after design calculations, it can contain a record
of why various design choices were made. The Brief Output contains
similar information to the Results Summary view.
For each of the above, you will see an option for printing out the file. You
can also select part of a file - click and drag with the mouse - and then
copy this to the clipboard. You can paste the clipboard contents into a
text viewer/editor such as Notepad, or a word processor application,
and then print the selected text from there.
One of the most useful features of the File View facility is a Find button.
If you want more information on some aspect of an exchanger, for
example, nozzles, vibration checks, clearances, baffles, just click on
Find, then type the relevant word. Use Find Next if the first occurrence is
not what you want. The Find is not case sensitive.

4-7

4-8

Error / Warning Message Log

4.4 Error / Warning Message Log


When you run MUSE calculations, an extensive set of checks is
performed on the data you have provided, and then further checks are
made as the program continues its operation. These checks result in
Error and Warning messages, which are collected together in a file and
which also appear in the main record of the run, the Lineprinter output.
The messages file will often be the first thing you see when you have run
MUSE.
Errors are normally fatal, in that MUSE has identified some
fundamental inconsistency in your data, or a lack of vital data, which
means that it cannot continue further with its calculations.
Warnings occur if a value you have supplied is outside an expected
range. For example an Inlet Temperature of 20K, which is not
impossible, but unlikely. Warnings also occur if there is an inconsistency
in your data, for example if you specify an inlet quality, which is different
from that deduced from your inlet temperature. They also occur if your
exchanger has some unexpected feature, such as triple banking in the
layer pattern.
With any such warnings, you should check the input data, to confirm
that it is as you intended, and amend it if necessary.

4.5 Other Output


When MUSE calculations are run, a file called the INTOUT file is
produced. Its extension is .MUF and it contains all the data needed by
the Output views. You cant view this file from the Interface, or suppress
its output.
After a Design calculation, you can go to the File menu, and click on
Create Simulation Case, to be given the option of creating a MUSE input
file for a Stream-by Stream Simulation. You will be asked for a name for
the new file (by default based on the current name, but terminating in
s) and have the option of selecting from the Alternative Designs table
for the design of interest.

4-8

Physical Properties

5-1

5 Physical Properties
5.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
5.1.1 Properties Data Input ...............................................................4
5.1.2 Properties Used .......................................................................5
5.2 Properties Input ...............................................................................6
5.2.1 Setting a Data Source ..............................................................7
5.2.2 Get Properties ..........................................................................8
5.2.3 Rules for Direct Property Input .................................................9
5.3 Properties Data Input (Old Style) .................................................10
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

Input Directly ..........................................................................11


User Databank .......................................................................12
Single Component Stream from NEL40 .................................13
Components: Calculation of the Properties of a Mixture........13

5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style)...................................................14


5.5 Property Databanks.......................................................................17
5.6 Importing Properties & Process Data ..........................................19
5.6.1 Importing PSF Files................................................................19
5.7 Importing from HYSYS ..................................................................21
5.8 Importing from a Properties Package ..........................................23
5.9 Properties Output ..........................................................................24
5.10 Pressure Dependence .................................................................25

5-1

5-2

5-2

Physical

Physical Properties

5-3

5.1 Overview
A wide range of options are provided for providing the physical property
data needed by this program. The user interface contains the HTFS
COMThermo package, which contains data for over 1000 substances
and a range of methods for determining vapour liquid equilibrium and
mixture properties, and can be used to set up tables of property data for
each stream.
The calculation engine contains the HTFS Physical Properties Package
(PPP), which contains facilities for checking and interpolating the tables
of property data. PPP also contains a small properties databank
(NEL40), and methods for setting up property data tables as the
calculation is run. This facility is useful for pure components, but for
mixtures, use of the COMThermo package is more flexible.
Physical Properties Options are common to most HTFS programs.
Examples in this section are based on a two stream heat exchanger, but
the description applies also to HTFS programs where the number of
streams is one (e.g. PIPE) or more than two (e.g. MUSE, FIHR).

5-3

5-4

Overview

5.1.1 Properties Data Input


There are two separate properties options under the Input menu:

Physical Properties
This lets you define a stream data source (components and methods) for
the COMThermo databank, and then calculate a table of stream
properties, which can be used as program input. It also lets you directly
input property data tables, or modify those just calculated. Section 5.2 Properties Input gives more details.

Physical Properties (Old Style)


This gives you access to all the facilities which were in HTFS programs
before the COMThermo databank was included. These include a second
facility to directly input data tables, an option to import pre-set data
from a databank at run time, and options to specify streams as single or
multiple components from the NEL40 databank, or elsewhere. Section
5.3 - Properties Data Input (Old Style) gives more details.
Use of the newer style input, with the COMThermo package gives you
more control. This lets you set up, check and if necessary revise
properties data before running the program. Except for the special case
when you provide direct input, the old style input only sets up the
properties data tables data when the program is run.

5-4

Physical Properties

5-5

5.1.2 Properties Used


A set of Property Data comprises liquid properties, vapour properties and T-h-x
data as appropriate. The data required are as follows:
Property Data
Liquid

Temperature for liquid properties.


Liquid Density.
Liquid Specific Heat.
Liquid Viscosity.
Liquid Thermal Conductivity.
Surface Tension (for two-phase streams, optional).

Vapour

Temperature for vapour properties.


Vapour Density.
Vapour Specific Heat.
Vapour Viscosity.
Vapour Thermal Conductivity.

T-h-x Data

Temperature for T-h-x.


Specific Enthalpy [h].
Quality (vapour mass fraction) [x].

Sets of 1-24 liquid data points, 1-24 vapour data points and 2-26 T-h-x
points are used. Although separate sets of temperatures can in principle
be used for each of the three subsets, when COMThermo is used the
liquid and vapour temperatures are identical with the relevant ones for
T-h-x.
The properties need not relate explicitly to the process conditions in the
equipment through which the system flows in any way. Data can be
extrapolated as well as interpolated if necessary. It is, however, clearly
sensible that the properties cover a broadly similar temperature range to
that in the equipment, as major extrapolations are likely to be less
accurate than interpolations.

5-5

5-6

Properties Input

5.2 Properties Input


Properties input using COMThermo normally involves:

Setting up one or more data Sources.


Selecting a data source for each stream, then defining the
composition, temperatures and pressures for the properties data
tables.
Generating the property data tables, using Get Properties.

There are, however, four special data sources also provided:


See Section 5.2.1 - Setting a
Data Source below.

See Section 5.3 - Properties


Data Input (Old Style).

Direct Input - you type the numbers in yourself, copy them from a
spreadsheet, or modify values already calculated by
COMThermo.
Not set here - meaning that one of the options under Physical
Properties (old style) is used.
Air or Water from NEL40 - a special setting under which air or
water data are obtained from the NEL40 package at run time. No
further settings for the stream are necessary.

The data source options, and calculated property tables are shown in
the main Physical properties view.
Figure 5.1

5-6

Physical Properties

5-7

5.2.1 Setting a Data Source


A Data Source defines the components in a stream, and the VLE and
properties methods to be used. For a new case you will normally first
click on Add to set up a new Data Source. You can then select a set of
components from the master list, and add them to the list for the Data
Source. A Search facility lets you find components in the list more easily,
searching on either name or formula. Many components can be
identified under a variety of synonyms. The form *abc can be searched
on, to find the string abc preceded by other characters.
Figure 5.2

To define a data source, it is necessary to select property calculation


methods, (the Property Package) as well as a set of components.
If you selected a Stream Type on the main properties input form, then a
default Property Package will be selected. You can, however, change the
package used, from a selection including Peng Robinson, SRK, NRTL,
and variants on these. A brief description of each is given on screen.

5-7

5-8

Properties Input

When both components and Property Package are set, the status bar at
the bottom right turns green and reads Ready. You can then close this
view, and on the main Properties input view, the new Data Source is
available to be selected for any stream.

5.2.2 Get Properties


Get Properties calculates properties at one or more pressure levels,
using a set of temperature points. Using the Options facility lets you
either define a temperature range and a number of points (from which
the temperature points are determined automatically) or you can
choose to specify the temperatures to be used explicitly. A temperature
range and set of pressures are initialised from any process information
you provide where possible.
Get Properties causes the spreadsheet of property data to be filled in
automatically. If a stream is two phase within or near the range of
defined temperatures, property data at the bubble and dew point are
added in.
After properties have been calculated you can delete individual data
points (data columns). You can explore the effect of changing the
Property Package, used using Edit to revise the Data Source.
Once data has been generated, you can change the Data Source to
Direct Input and edit individual property values, though this is not
recommended.

5-8

Physical Properties

5-9

5.2.3 Rules for Direct Property Input


Data for Two Phase streams must always contain the dew and bubble
points, if these points are within the range of data you supply. If they are
outside the range of data provided, they will be estimated by
extrapolation of T-h-x data. When data are provided, the highest
Enthalpy point with Quality 0 is assumed to be the bubble point, and
the lowest Enthalpy point with Quality 1 is assumed to be the dew point.
Points need not be provided in any particular order, but are sorted into
order of increasing enthalpy by the PPP when the calculation is Run.
The facility to supply the specific enthalpy and molecular weight of
individual phases is available via the Show Phase Enthalpies and
Molecular Weights checkbox, on the Options view. These are always
optional inputs.
For Single Phase streams data need only be input for one phase. Specific
enthalpy data are optional, as they can be found by integrating specific
heats.
A set of Stream Properties data you specify should all relate to the same
pressure, typically some mean pressure within the exchanger. You can
supply a second set of stream data at a different pressure, permitting the
program to allow for the pressure dependence of properties. Such
dependence is sometimes significant, particularly for thermosyphons,
or if there is a very close temperature approach between streams. For
the PIPE program, pressure dependence is mandatory. See Section 5.10
- Pressure Dependence for more information.

5-9

5-10

Properties Data Input (Old Style)

5.3 Properties Data Input (Old Style)


Figure 5.3

The Old Style physical properties input gives access to all the facilities
that were present before HTFS programs included the COMThermo.
Many of these facilities are associated with the fact that, unlike
COMThermo options, with many old-style options you cannot see the
properties until you have run the Calculation Engine.
The master view for old style input is shown in Figure 5.3. Using this,
Physical Property information can be supplied in a number of ways.
You can:

5-10

Input Stream Properties directly. You can either type them, or


import them from a PSF file. See Section 5.6 - Importing
Properties & Process Data.
Identify data from a User Databank. The calculation engine will
read data from this databank when it runs.
For a single component stream, get the data directly from the
NEL40 Databank supplied with the program.
Tell the program the stream components and composition, and
get it to calculate the properties.

Physical Properties

5-11

The Data Source item on the main Physical Properties input view
allows you to select the various options. You should also set the Phase
before supplying further data. A two-phase stream means that it can be
either single phase or two phase, depending on the temperature.
If you have previously set up properties data using COMThermo, or the
corresponding direct input (see Section 5.2 - Properties Input), you will
see the Data Source set to Approximately. You can change the Data
Source to Direct Input, and view and edit the properties data, but you
will not be able to access it again using the main Properties Input.

5.3.1 Input Directly


If you set the Data Source to Input Directly, you can then click on the
Property Table button to open a view, shown in Figure 5.4, where you
can enter the properties.
Figure 5.4

If you have previously imported data from a PSF file, you will be able to
see what you have imported.

5-11

5-12

Properties Data Input (Old Style)

You need to specify the properties indicated above for one or both
phases. For Two-phase streams you also supply T-h-x data. Although
you can supply data at up to 24 temperature points, this is potentially
tedious if you are typing the data in, and you are most likely to use this
method when you have only one or two data points available, for
example at an exchanger inlet and outlet.
You can use different sets of temperatures for the Liquid, Two-phase
(Enthalpy + Quality) and Vapour Properties. You should normally fill in
the data tables from the left, without leaving gaps, though this is not
strictly necessary.
For Single Phase streams, T-h-x data are not usually input, as they can
be found by integrating specific heats. If, however, you do want to input
Enthalpies for a Single Phase stream, click on Show T-h-x, and that T-hx part of the input table will become available.
Heat Load data, rather than Specific Enthalpies, can be specified. If you
supply a heat load, you must also specify the flowrate to which it relates.
You can supply Compressibilities instead of Vapour densities. Use the
radio button to specify this option.
The rules for direct property input are as defined in Section 5.2.3 - Rules
for Direct Property Input. The additional facilities available under Old
Style input are as follows.

5.3.2 User Databank


If you have previously set up data in a user databank, then when you set
Data Source to User Databank, you will see a list of the datasets in this
bank under the Code drop-down list. All you need to do is select which
of them you want. See Section 5.5 - Property Databanks.

5-12

Physical Properties

5-13

5.3.3 Single Component Stream from NEL40


HTFS programs come with a 40-component databank called NEL40. If
your stream is a single component in this bank, all you have to do is
identify the component in the Code drop-down list. For more
information on NEL40, see Section 5.5 - Property Databanks.

5.3.4 Components: Calculation of the Properties


of a Mixture
You must specify the Mixture Composition (mass or molar) and identify
the Components. The program will calculate a full set of Stream
Properties. The methods used are not as advanced as in Process
Simulators or specialist properties software packages. See Section 5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style) for more information.
In summary, when using Old Style input:

If the stream is a pure Component: use the NEL40 databank if


possible.
If someone has prepared the properties in electronic form (PSF
File or User Databank), use that.
If the properties have been calculated, input the data.
Failing any of these, if you know the Composition, get the
program to calculate the Properties of the mixture.

5-13

5-14

Mixture Calculations (Old Style)

5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style)


Mixture calculations determine the properties of a stream given its
components and composition. If the stream is two phase, then VLE
(vapour liquid equilibrium) calculations must be performed to
determine the bubble and dew point temperatures and the
compositions of the individual phases at intermediate temperatures.
Given the phase compositions, mixing rules can be applied to
determine each stream property from the corresponding component
properties.
With the Old Style input, mixture calculations are performed when the
calculation engines run.
From the main Properties input view, set the Data Source for the stream
concerned to Components, and then click on the Specify Mixture
button. The Specify Mixture view, Figure 5.7, lets you define the
temperature range over which mixture properties should be calculated,
or amend the calculation methods or results.
Figure 5.5

5-14

Physical Properties

5-15

For a Two Phase stream, you can select the method to be used for VLE
calculations, SRK or Ideal. There is also a facility called T-h-x Override,
whereby you can control the results of the VLE calculations. At the basic
level, you can simply specify all the temperatures at which you want the
calculations performed. You can also request that any calculated bubble
and dew points (temperatures and optionally enthalpies), be modified
to conform to pre-set values. More information on all these options is
given in the Help Text, accessible by using the Help button at the bottom
of the page.
All the inputs on the Specify Mixture view are optional, but you must
use it to access the Define Components and Define Compositions
views, via the appropriate buttons.
From the Define Components view, Figure 5.6, you can identify each
component, and where data for it is to be obtained. Click on Add
Component until the correct number are identified. The number should
be the total number of components in all such mixtures. If the same
component occurs in more than one stream, it need only be counted
once. There is no need to include those components which only occur in
pure component streams.
Figure 5.6

5-15

5-16

Mixture Calculations (Old Style)

If your components are in NEL40, select this as the component Data


Source, and identify the component in the Code drop-down list. If you
have the DIPPR databank, you can select from this similarly.
You can also select from a User Databank of component data (if you
have set one up previously), or you can choose to Input Directly.
Selecting Input Directly as the Data Source enables the Property Table
button. If clicked the view for direct input of component properties is
opened. The properties needed for each component are similar to those
required for a stream, but the Liquid Properties are saturation line
values, and the Vapour Properties are ideal gas values, that is values in
the low pressure limit.
Each component can be identified as Liquid only, Vapour only, or Two
Phase. It is normally safe to leave the components set to Two Phase, but
if a stream is Single Phase, you can obviate the need for VLE calculations
by specifying all the components to be Single Phase as well. For a Two
Phase stream you can specify some of the components (incondensibles)
as Vapour-only, but not as Liquid-only. With the SRK method, (see later)
it is best to leave all components set as Two Phase.
When you have defined components, click on the Specify Composition
button on the Define Components view or back on the Specify Mixture
view. On the Compositions view, see Figure 5.7, enter the compositions,
as fractions, flows or percentages. Identify whether you are supplying
Mass or Molar values.
Figure 5.7

5-16

Physical Properties

5-17

5.5 Property Databanks


The program contains two databanks for physical properties
COMThermo and NEL40.
The COMThermo databank contains data for over 1000 substances, and
is accessible via the User Interface to set up tables of Physical Properties
data as part of the program input. To see the list of substances in
COMThermo, go to the Physical Properties input view, and click on Add
in the Data Source box.
The NEL40 databank contains data for 40 commonly used compounds,
and is part of the calculation engine. The input file used by the
calculation engine is given the stream components and composition,
but properties are not generated until the calculation engine is run. To
see the list of substances in NEL40, go to the Physical Properties (old
style) input view, set the Data Source to single component from NEL40
and look in the Code drop-down list.
The COMThermo databank includes software for performing vapour
liquid equilibrium (VLE) and mixture calculations, using a variety of
methods. This includes interaction parameters appropriate to each of
the methods offered. In principle the COMThermo package can be
linked to a variety of Properties databanks, but as supplied with HTFS
programs, only the Hyprotech databank is available.
The NEL40 databank does not in itself contain any methods for VLE
calculations, though it does do mixture calculations when phase
compositions are known. A VLE facility for use with NEL40 is provided
within the HTFS Physical Properties Package (PPP), but it is not as
extensive as the facilities offered with COMThermo.
Properties from COMThermo will depend on the equation of state used
in the properties method selected, even for pure components.
Differences in properties of a few percent may be found between
COMThermo and NEL40 in comparisons for compounds which are in
both. This may reflect uncertainties in known values of properties, or
differences in the equations of state used.

5-17

5-18

Property Databanks

For viscosities and thermal conductivities NEL40 can be more accurate


for pure components. For two phase mixtures this advantage may be
offset with the superior phase composition accuracy achievable with
COMThermo.
One case where NEL40 may be more reliable than COMThermo is for
water, since NEL40 contains an accurate water/steam package.
Differences are only likely to be significant at high pressures. The HTFS
interface to COMThermo therefore contains a facility for Water from
NEL40, which may be used instead of setting a Data Source for water
from COMThermo itself.
There is a similar facility for air, which appears in NEL40, but is not
conveniently available in COMThermo.
The DIPPR databank (which you may have purchased separately)
contains the properties of over 1000 substances. It does not contain
mixing rules. It can be used for components, which are liquids or
vapours. It contains data on some solids as well, but the available HTFS
mixing rules cannot predict the properties of solutions of these solids.
You can set up a User Databank with the properties of any components,
which you may frequently need to access, but which are not in NEL40.
The structure of the databank is very similar to that of the Component
blocks of an Input file. The Help Text gives full details.
You can also set up a User Databank containing the properties of
streams. The User Interface lets you add the properties of any stream to
such a databank. Use the Output to Databank checkbox on the
Properties Output Options view (via the main Properties input view).
You are advised to run the program first without this checkbox set, to
ensure that the stream properties produced are acceptable. Then re-run
the program with the checkbox set. Make sure that the stream has a
meaningful name you will recognise in future. When you have put one
or more sets of stream data in the userbank, on subsequent runs you can
select User Databank as the Data Source on the main Properties input
view using the Code drop-down list, select from among the previously
established data.
The User Databanks of stream and component data are files. Specify
their location by selecting Preferences, under the File menu on the Files
tab, specify the appropriate tab.

5-18

Physical Properties

5-19

5.6 Importing Properties & Process


Data
There are three ways you can import properties and process data into
the case you are running:

Import a PSF file (set up by a Process Simulator).


Import from HYSYS (if this is available).
Generate and Import a PSF setup using your companys own
physical properties software while you are using this HTFS
program (if an interface has been written).

5.6.1 Importing PSF Files


PSF files are files containing process and/or property information for
one or more streams. They can be generated by Process Simulators, and
have the file extension .PSF. It is normally best to import PSF data before
entering any other process or properties data.
The data from a PSF file go directly into your input file. The import
facility can be access via either the Input or the File menus. The first step
is to identify the particular PSF file from which you want to import data.
You will then be taken to the Import PSF Data view.
Figure 5.8

5-19

5-20

Importing Properties & Process Data

If the PSF file has been prepared specifically for the exchanger you are
interested in, you may simply be able to click on OK. You can, however,
use the Import PSF Data view to direct only part of the information
from a PSF file into the input file.
You can:

View the stream Names, Number and Inlet/Outlet


Temperatures in the file.
Import data for some streams but not others.
Import Process data, or only Property data, or both.
Import data at any selection of pressure levels (PSF files often
contain properties data at the Inlet, Outlet and Mean Pressures in
the exchanger).
Change the stream Number when you import data.

The Import facility shows you the stream names and inlet/outlet
temperatures in the PSF file. The temperature units of the display can be
reset by clicking on the Units field in the top right corner.
The PSF file itself is largely in basic SI units, and when imported to the
input file the data can be viewed in whatever units have been set for
process and property data.

The Import To column shows the Stream Number to which data will be
imported. This is initially set to the Stream Number from the PSF file,
but you can reset it to a different number if you want, or if it is necessary
for the program. You can set it to ignore, enabling you to import data for
only one stream (or fewer than all the streams for multi-stream
exchangers). You cannot set two stream numbers to be the same.
The Use Properties column lets you select which pressure levels in a PSF
file to use for Properties data. If there are data for three pressure levels,
you can select two (upper and lower), one (middle level), or you can opt
for a special selection.
If you want to import the properties data but not the process data, click
on Separate Process and Properties, and you will see that the Import To
column is divided in two. The left part relates to Process data, the right
part to Properties. You can set either one to Ignore, so that only the
other is imported.

5-20

Physical Properties

PSF file layout and contents


are defined in the Help Text.

5-21

Normally, when you import Process and/or Properties data for a stream,
any data you have already entered for that stream is overwritten. You
can however, cause the Properties data to be added to any data
currently present, provided that it relates to a different pressure. Use the
Merge with Existing Data checkbox.
Click on OK to transfer the Process/Properties data selected from the
PSF file to the input file. Select Process or Properties (old style) under
the Input menu to see what has been imported.

5.7 Importing from HYSYS


If you can run the HYSYS Process simulator on your computer, you can
select an exchanger in a HYSYS case, and import the data directly into
your HTFS program. The exchanger can also be a HYSYS LNG block,
when appropriate.
Though this facility is available within most HTFS programs, it is clearly
only directly useful when the HTFS program is for equipment
corresponding to a HYSYS exchanger.

Select Import from HYSYS under either the Input or File menu and you
will be presented with a view to select an existing HYSYS case.
HYSYS will then be started, load the chosen case and the import
interface will generate a list of all heat exchangers within that case. You
can select an exchanger, and for each stream in that exchanger, the
temperatures and pressures will be shown.

5-21

5-22

Importing from HYSYS

Figure 5.9

You can revise the temperatures and pressures. If you then select OK,
HYSYS will perform the flashes needed to generate the data for a PSF
file. You can then review and select from the data as for a normal PSF
import.

5-22

Physical Properties

5-23

5.8 Importing from a Properties


Package
There is an option for importing properties and process data by
accessing your companys own physical properties software while you
are running an HTFS program. If this facility has been made available,
the Import from Other Package command under the File menu will be
active.
When you select this option, you are asked to provide input on stream
inlet/outlet conditions, stream compositions and components, and
possibly also on the methods to be used, and the temperature/pressure
range of data to be set up. When you have supplied the necessary
information, a PSF file will be generated, and you will be taken to the
PSF import facility, where you can opt to import the data you have
created into the input file of your HTFS program.
To set up a facility to import data from your companys own physical
properties software you must write an interface to this property package
and register it so that your HTFS program will recognise it. You
must create an executable with project name Properties Package and a
class name PSFFileGen.
The Help Text provides detailed information on the structure of the
interface, and on the contents of the PSF file it must generate.

5-23

5-24

Properties Output

5.9 Properties Output


The Physical Properties Package can be used to generate two types of
output. The first is in file format, the second in Windows format. All the
output relates to tables of property values which are set up at the
beginning of the program, and subsequently interpolated during heat
transfer and pressure drop calculations.
The first type of output can be either held in a separate file, or directed
to the main Lineprinter file. The separate file is the default. If you want it
in the main Lineprinter output, or turned off, select this on the Output
Options view, using the Options command under the Input menu.
Putting the Physical Properties output in the Lineprinter file means
that you will be able to see it in the Full Results output, in programs with
this facility.
The contents of the file format Physical Properties output can be set via
the Properties Output Options view, accessible from the main Physical
Properties (old style) input view. The output is in four parts:

For more information


regarding properties
databank, refer to Section
5.5 - Property Databanks.

Input data for each stream/pressure level.


Table of properties for each stream/pressure level.
Stream/phase compositions for each stream/pressure level.
Table of properties for each component.

The third and fourth items are only relevant where mixture calculations
have been performed. Only the second item is produced by default. See
the Help Text for more information on the contents of the various parts
of the output. A further option, accessible via Output, lets you output
stream data to a stream properties databank ().
The second type of Physical Properties Package output, in Windows
format, is not yet available in all HTFS programs. When it is available,
you will see Stream Properties and T-h-x as Output menu items.
Stream Properties gives the properties of each phase in both tabular
and graphical forms. The graphical form has a range of options. The
default is to plot all properties relative to their maximum value, so you
can immediately see if any property does not have a smooth variation.
This can be very useful for identifying typographical errors if you have
input the properties data yourself.

5-24

Physical Properties

5-25

T-h-x gives tabular or graphical presentations of the temperature,


specific enthalpy and quality (vapour mass fraction) for each stream.
The graphical version also shows a set of interpolated points, so that you
can see the way properties data (input or calculated) is interpreted when
it is interpolated during heat transfer calculations.

5.10 Pressure Dependence


The effect of pressure on properties is most likely to be significant in the
changes it produces in vapour density, and in dew and bubble points,
which may be important when there is a close temperature approach
between streams. Allowing for pressure dependence is optional in most
HTFS programs (it is mandatory in PIPE).
The normal way of ensuring pressure dependence is allowed for is to
provide properties data at two pressure levels.
If you are using the program to calculate stream properties for a mixture
of known composition, then it is very simple to define two pressure
levels in the properties input. This normally happens by default when
you are using COMThermo. If you are using Physical Properties (old
style) input you will need to use the Add Pressure key. You must then
specify the pressure for each level (if you only have one level, you can
use a default pressure). You should select the pressures to span the range
expected in the exchanger.
You can specify data at more than two pressure levels for a stream if you
want. This is unlikely to be necessary if the stream pressure change is
less than 30% of the (absolute) inlet pressure.
When data are available at only one pressure, the PPP can, if specified,
estimate an allowance for pressure dependence, using the Clausius
Clapeyron equation. This will be less accurate for wide boiling range
mixtures. To allow for pressure dependence in such cases, use the
checkbox on the main Physical Properties (old style) input view.
If you are supplying pre-calculated properties data at two pressures, you
should use specific enthalpies, not heat loads, and ensure that the
enthalpies have a consistent zero.

5-25

5-26

Pressure Dependence

If the properties data you have available are not isobaric data, but
contain some inherent pressure dependence, for example from inlet to
outlet, then in many cases you can use this data with relatively minor
inaccuracies. You should not select Pressure Dependence in such cases.
Data with an inherent pressure dependence are, however, not
acceptable for two-phase streams that are pure substances, or
azeotropes, or for which the change in saturation temperature due to
pressure changes is comparable with, or larger than, the isobaric boiling
range.

5-26

Other Facilities

6-1

6 Other Facilities
6.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
6.2 User Fin Databank ...........................................................................3
6.3 Project File Structure ......................................................................4

6-1

6-2

6-2

Other Facilities

Other Facilities

6-3

6.1 Overview
This chapter introduces you to some of the other facilities, which are
available with MUSE.

6.2 User Fin Databank


You can set up a databank containing fin geometry and performance
information for any fins where you have this information, both
distributor fins and main fins. Each fin is identified by a number in the
range 100 to 9999. To identify that a particular fin is used in some part of
an exchanger it is simply necessary to specify its number at the
appropriate place in the input data, as an alternative to lower numbered
fins (1 upwards) for which data must be provided in the main input.
The Fin Databank is a text file. Its layout is essentially the same as that of
the fin data within the input data file. The Help Text gives more
information. When you create a fin databank file, you should name it
FINDAT, without any file extension, and place it in the program
directory

6-3

6-4

Project File Structure

6.3 Project File Structure


A MUSE project is initially set up as an input file. The various files are
outlined in the following table.
File Name

Description

name.MUI

MUSE input file, where name is the name of the project. After you
have run the project, some or all of the following files will also have
been set up.

name.MUF

The so-called INTOUT file, containing all the main input and results.
The format of this file is described in a document on the Program
CD. All the MUSE result Windows, which you can view under
Output, take data from this file. You can use this file as a source of
information for in-house software.

name.MUL

The Lineprinter output file.

name.MUT

The 80-column output file.

name.MUE

The Error/Warning Messages file.

name.MUV

The Brief Summary output file.

name.MUP

The Physical Properties output file.

When you run calculations from the User Interface, all these output files
are set up by default. You can switch off most of the other files if
required. Click on the Input menu, select Options, then the Output
Options tabbed page, and you will see drop-down lists controlling these
outputs.
You cannot switch off the .MUF file, which is needed for the main output
views, or the Error/Warning Log.
The file extension .MUA is used for an edited copy of the input data. This
is the version stored internally by the User Interface, which you can run
without saving. If you save the file, the main input, name.MUI is
updated. The .MUA file is not preserved when MUSE is shut down.

6-4

Examples

7-1

7 Examples
7.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
7.2 Case 1 Design ..................................................................................4
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5

Start Up ....................................................................................5
Process Data............................................................................5
Stream Definition......................................................................6
Running the Design..................................................................8
Results from Design (PFIN) .....................................................9

7.3 Case 1 Simulation..........................................................................11


7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5

Creating a Simulation Case....................................................11


Input Geometry For Simulation ..............................................12
The Input Exchanger Diagram ...............................................13
Other Input For Simulation .....................................................13
Results from a MUSE Simulation ...........................................14

7.4 Case 1, Layer by Layer Calculations (MULE) ..............................17


7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4

Layer Patterns ........................................................................17


Running the Calculation Engines ...........................................19
Double Banking ......................................................................19
Results from MULE Layer by Layer Calculations ...................20

7.5 The Zig-zag.....................................................................................22


7.5.1 What is a Zig-zag? .................................................................22
7.5.2 Zig-zag Options ......................................................................23
7.5.3 Zig-zag Assessments .............................................................23

7-1

7-2

7-2

Examples

Examples

7-3

7.1 Overview
The following examples will guide you through the various ways in
which MUSE can help you with assessing or designing plate fin heat
exchangers. The examples concentrate on a relatively simple case for a
notional cryogenic duty with three streams. Plate-fin exchangers, of
course, very often have a much larger number of streams, but once you
understand what is needed for each stream, it is no more difficult to
supply it for many streams. You are shown first how to produce a first
shot design, then how to undertake a basic MUSE Simulation, and
finally how to perform a more detailed layer by layer calculation.
The other simplification in the examples is that stream physical
property data are obtained using the internal NEL40 databank. In reality
it is often critically important to get accurate property information for
cryogenic processes using plate-fin exchangers, so it is best to generate
these properties outside of MUSE, and set up tables of property data in
the input file, either directly, or by importing via a PSF File. Because of
the large amounts of data involved, none of the examples use these
methods. More information on importing data is given in the Help Text.
All the examples relate to brazed aluminium exchangers. MUSE can
simulate plate-fin type exchangers made of stainless steel or other
materials, but the design facility should not be used for such exchangers
unless you are aware of the very different manufacturing constraints,
which apply.

7-3

7-4

Case 1 Design

7.2 Case 1 Design


The first example is a simple gas-gas exchanger in which an air stream is
cooled in succession by two cold nitrogen streams. It is required to
design a plate fin exchanger for this duty. The stream conditions are as
follows:
Stream

Air (1)

Nitrogen (2)

Nitrogen (3)

Total mass flow

kg/h

15000

12000

Inlet temperature

300

120

210

Outlet temperature

125

200

290

Inlet pressure

bar

10

2.5

Allowed pressure drop

bar

0.5

0.3

0.3

Start up MUSE (see introduction). Select the New button on the


Welcome view, and the Start up view will appear.
Figure 7.1

7-4

Examples

7-5

7.2.1 Start Up
1.

Set the Calculation Mode to Design-PFIN, and set the Number of


Streams to 3. Leave the fins set to 0, since you do not need to specify
any input about fins in simple design cases.

2.

Click on the Basic Mode checkbox, since this is a simple example,


with no need for any less common inputs.

3.

Fill in a Job Title, such as Simple Example Number One, and an


Equipment Item Number such as Ex1, then click on OK.

7.2.2 Process Data


The Process Data Input view will appear. The first thing to observe is the
units, which are set to SI/deg C. The information supplied has
temperatures in Kelvin, so the units must be changed.
1.

Click on the Units field, and you will see a form where the units for
all the various sections of input can be specified. (This view can also
be access via Preferences under the File menu).

2.

Change the Process & Properties data units to SI/deg. K. None of


the other input sections are relevant to this example, so their units
need not be changed.

When you change units, you are offered the option of converting the
existing inputs. Since no data have yet been provided, answering either
Yes or No is acceptable.
3.

Clicking on OK on the units takes you back to the Process data view.

4.

Enter the information for the streams 1 to 3, using the values in the
table at the beginning of the example.
The flow of air has not been specified, but this is not a problem, since it
will be evaluated via a heat balance when the program is run. Similarly,
no heat loads need be input, since they will be evaluated from flowrates
and input and outlet temperatures.

Since plate-fin exchangers normally handle clean fluids, fouling


resistances are assumed to be zero.
5.

Click on OK to save the Process data.

7-5

7-6

Case 1 Design

7.2.3 Stream Definition


Having specified the process conditions, it is next necessary to define
the streams. This can be done in various ways, using either the NEL40 or
the COMThermo databanks. Using just NEL40 is simplest in this
instance, so is recommended, but the more usual procedure using
COMThermo is also described.
The method using NEL40 is as follows:
1.

Click on Physical Properties (old style), under the Input menu. You
will see tabbed pages for three streams. Go through these in turn,
and set the Data Source to Single Component from NEL40, and
from the Code drop-down list, select Air for stream 1, and Nitrogen
for streams 2 and 3.

2.

You can, if required, change the stream names from Stream 1,


Stream 2 and Stream 3 to something more descriptive.

You will see that there is a Phase drop-down list, which is by default set
to Two-phase. You could set this to Single Phase Vapour, but it is not
necessary, as the program knows that the streams concerned are
vapours over the temperature range of interest.
If the air was condensing, it would be unwise to select it as a NEL40
component, since it is treated as an equivalent pure substance, with no
boiling range.

3.

Click on OK to save the Properties data

The other method of setting properties uses the COMhermo databank.


With item 2 - air and water are
treated as special substances,
requiring only this simple
setting.

7-6

1.

Under the Input menu, click on Physical Properties.

2.

For stream 1 click on Air<NEL40> as the Stream Data Source.

3.

Click on the tab for stream 2. Set the stream name to N2/stream 2,
and the Stream Type to Air/Other Gas.

4.

Click on Add to set a new data source and you will be taken to the
Data Source view.

5.

You will see a list of components. Begin typing Nitrogen in the


Match field and you will see the list of components reduce. When
Nitrogen is visible, click on it then click Add, to move the list of
components on the right side of the view.

Examples

6.

You should see the status bar at the lower right of the view turn
green and display Ready. If you click on the Property Package tab,
you will see that a default has been set appropriate to the stream
type you entered. Close the Data Source view.

7.

On the main Properties view, click on the data source Gas 1 that you
have just set. You will see that a composition of 1.0 is set
automatically, as this is a single component view.

8.

Click on Get Properties. Pressure Level and Temperature Range


information is required before properties can be calculated. These
should have been set by default. You could set/revise them if
required. They should cover the range relevant to the stream, but
need not match inlet or outlet conditions exactly. You should see the
Properties Table filled with data for stream 2. You should see that
two pressure levels have been set up by default. Clicking on either
one shows the data at that level.

9.

Click on the table for stream 3. Select the same data source as for
stream 2 (both streams are nitrogen). Check the pressure levels and
temperature range (click on Options) are correct for stream 3. Revise
them if necessary. Click on Get Properties to generate tables of
property data as before.

7-7

10. Close the Physical Properties view, retaining the property data you
have generated.

7-7

7-8

Case 1 Design

7.2.4 Running the Design


Sufficient information has now been provided for a design to be done.
1.

Run icon

Click on the Run icon, or under the Run menu, click on either
Calculate All or Run PFIN.

You will be asked to save the changes to the input file, and will need to
give a filename, for example EXCH1. The file extension .MUI will be
added automatically to show that it is a MUSE input file.
As the program runs, you will see a Status view, which initially says
Preparing Input File, and then records the various stages of the
calculation. When the calculation is complete, the Results view appears.
If any problems or unusual features had been encountered, a messages
file would be displayed as well.
Figure 7.2

7-8

Examples

7-9

7.2.5 Results from Design (PFIN)


The Results view gives overall information about the exchanger that has
been designed. You should also see the Number of Errors and Number
of Warnings both set to zero, indicating that there were no problems
with the input provided. The Design OK message indicates that all the
design constraints were met.
For a slightly more detailed record of the exchanger that has been
designed, select Brief Output under the Output menu. This summarises
the process conditions (including a value for the air stream flowrate that
has now been evaluated) and also gives details of the internal structure
of the exchanger for example:

The number of layers for each stream.


The fins used.
The type and size of inlet and outlet distributors.

There is also a record of how much of the available pressure drop has
been used for each stream, and how much margin there is on the design.
A target overall design margin of 1.1 (that is ten percent oversurface) is
used by default.
To see what the exchanger looks like, click on Output menu and select
Exchanger Diagram. Alternatively, you can click on the View Geometry
icon.

View Geometry icon

7-9

7-10

Case 1 Design

You will see that in this simple example, stream 1 is cooled by stream 2 in
the top part of the exchanger, and by stream 3 in the bottom part. In the
middle of the exchanger is a distributor region, where stream 3 exits, and
stream 2 enters.
Figure 7.3

When you view the diagram, an additional menu, Diagram, becomes


available. Under this, you can click on Stream 1 Distributor, etc, to see
the internal structure of the distributors. Although the exchanger design
has been done in considerable detail, you should remember that it is
only a First Shot design, and has used typical fins and fin performance
data, and simplified assumptions about mechanical design constraints.
A plate-fin exchanger manufacturer would be able to use proprietary
fins and fin performance data, and could well propose a slightly
different design. For more complex designs, with large numbers of
streams, the differences could well be more significant.

7-10

Examples

7-11

7.3 Case 1 Simulation


7.3.1 Creating a Simulation Case
Having performed a design for example 1, it is of interest to see what
performance is predicted when the performance of the exchanger is
simulated. Simplifying assumptions are made during the design
process, and it is of interest to check these out with a somewhat more
rigorous simulation calculations. Differences would not be expected to
be large, but for plate-fin exchangers small differences in performance
can be crucial, so checking out a design via Simulation is always
advisable.
After a design has been performed, it is straightforward to generate a
Simulation case.
1.

Select Create Simulation Case under the File menu.

You will first be required to provide a filename for the Simulation case,
and by default will be offered your current filename (or a contraction of
it) with an S on the end.
2.

Click on Save, and you will be shown the table of Alternative


Designs to select from. In this case, and very often, there is only one
design shown, so click on OK, and your current case will be closed,
and the Simulation Case opened.

3.

Go to the Start up view, under the Input menu, and you will see that
the Calculation Type is set to Simulation-MUSE. Check also that the
Basic Mode checkbox is not checked, unset it if it is. This will ensure
that you can see all the possible input items.

7-11

7-12

Case 1 Simulation

7.3.2 Input Geometry For Simulation


Examine the Geometry Input views for the simulation case. You will see
that values have been filled in from the results of the design calculation.
If you wanted to simulate an existing exchanger, these are the values you
would need to supply.
Figure 7.4

Look particularly at the Stream Geometry and Distributors and Nozzles


views. On Stream Geometry you will see that the Number of Layers,
Main Fin Number, Length of Main Fin and Distance to Main Fin are set
for each stream. These are fundamental items, which must always be
set. Check also that it is specified that Stream 3 is in the Same Layers as
Stream 2.
Under Distributors and Nozzles you will see that dimensions,
distributor types and fins used are specified for the inlet and outlet
distributor for each stream. If you are unsure what any of the input
items mean, position your cursor on that item and press F1. This will
take you to the Help Text for that item, from which you can where
necessary find a diagram, for example for Distributor Type.
If you are supplying input for an existing exchanger, information on
distributors and nozzles is optional. MUSE will simulate the thermal
performance of an exchanger, without simulating the distributors. You
should, however, remember that the reported pressure drop will not

7-12

Examples

7-13

include the distributor and nozzle losses if the relevant input


information is not provided.

7.3.3 The Input Exchanger Diagram


When you open a Simulation Case, you will usually see an Exchanger
Geometry Preview (Input) Diagram, and will observe that this is based
on the data you have provided. MUSE has two diagrams, one derived
from the Input data, and one derived from the calculated results. When
looking at a Simulation case derived from a previous Design
calculation, the Input diagram should be essentially the same as the
Results diagram from the previous design. When you are supplying
geometric data from an existing exchanger, the Input diagram is a very
valuable check that the information you have specified is correct,
particularly with relation to the location of streams along the exchanger
length, and the layout of headers around the exchanger.

7.3.4 Other Input For Simulation


You will observe that even when input has been supplied from the
results of a previous design calculation, many input items are blank
because they relate to optional information. The Layer Pattern input,
for example, is optional in MUSE simulation, and is not predicted by the
Design. The Layer Pattern, or Stacking Pattern, defines the sequence in
which the layers of the various types are arranged. The Layer
Definitions input defines each Layer Type in terms of the sequence of
streams it contains.
The assumption is made in both the Design, and in this form of
Simulation, that there is a good layer pattern, with a high degree of
intermingling of hot and cold layers.
Finally, look at the Fins data under the Input menu. You will see data for
just two fins are required for this simple example, a serrated fin for the
heat transfer region and a low frequency perforated fin for the
distributor region. If you are simulating an existing exchanger, Fin
Geometry information must be supplied. Fin Performance information
is optional, since the MUSE calculation engines contain correlations,
which are used by default.
7-13

7-14

Case 1 Simulation

7.3.5 Results from a MUSE Simulation


Run icon

It is always good practice to look through the completed input data. You
can then click on the Run icon to run the MUSE Simulation. You will see
the status view appear, to be replaced by the Results Summary view
and/or Messages Viewer once the calculation is complete. The main
results for a Simulation are the calculated heat loads, outlet
temperatures and pressure changes, but the results view also records
other key process data supplied, such as flowrates, inlet temperatures,
qualities and fouling resistances, to give an overall picture of exchanger
performance.
Figure 7.5

7-14

Examples

7-15

If you select Brief Output, under the Output menu, you will find similar
information, but accompanied by a record, in parentheses (), of any
initial estimates you provided for outlet conditions, heat loads or
pressure changes. From this, you can rapidly compare whether key
aspects of the exchanger performance are as required.
Figure 7.6

For a more comprehensive overview of the specified input data and


calculated results, click on Full Results.

7-15

7-16

Case 1 Simulation

When you run a Simulation case generated after a Design calculation,


you would expect the calculated results to be in good agreement with
the estimated values. In practice, there will normally be small
discrepancies because:

7-16

The Design calculation uses a design margin (defaulted to 1.1),


while the simulation calculation ignores this, so calculated heat
loads will in general be slightly bigger than estimates based on
design requirements.
In a multi-stream exchanger, even if the total overall hot-to-cold
stream heat load were correct, individual streams may be
responsible for slightly more or slightly less of this heat load than
expected.
In a Design calculation, not all of the available pressure drop for a
stream may be used. This applies particularly for streams present
in only a small number of layers.
Pressure changes in Simulation include gravitational effects,
while for design purposes only frictional changes are normally
considered.

Examples

7-17

7.4 Case 1, Layer by Layer


Calculations (MULE)
7.4.1 Layer Patterns
The basic Simulation-MUSE option assumes that there is a good layer
pattern, so that all the layers of any stream behave in the same way. In
other words the simulation is done on a stream-by-stream basis.
However, it is sometimes important to check how good this assumption
is. To do this the layer pattern must be input, and the Layer by Layer
calculation engine, MULE, must be run.
Deciding on a layer pattern is normally the province of the exchanger
manufacturer, and selecting the best layout from a very wide range of
possible options is not easy, particularly for complex exchangers with
large numbers of streams.
The guiding principle for determining layer patterns is that the various
types of hot and cold layer should be distributed as evenly as possible
throughout the pattern, so that there is no local excess of either hot duty
or cold duty in any part of the pattern. One way of doing this is to gather
sets of layers together into groups, each of which either have a balanced
set of hot and cold layers, or are close to balance. These groups can then
be uniformly distributed across the exchanger. Having symmetry about
the centre of the pattern is also desirable, since this will minimise any
thermal stresses across the exchanger.
In this example, there are 18 hot layers, containing stream 1 and 31 cold
layers, containing stream 2 at one end, and stream 3 at the other. There
are thus two types of layer, which can be desingated A (hot) and B (cold).
Layer Type A will be identified as containing stream 1 and Layer Type B
as containing streams 2 and 3.
Since there are significantly more cold layers than hot, it is clear that
there must be some pairs of adjacent cold layers in the layer pattern.
Looking at the numbers of layers, it can be seen that they could be
divided into six groups, each with three hot layers and five cold layers.
7-17

7-18

Case 1, Layer by Layer Calculations

This would leave one cold layer over, which could go in the middle of the
pattern. The groups of three plus five could be BABBABBA.
When specifying the Layer Pattern input, there is a simplified way of
defining repeated groups, by putting the group in parentheses, and
including an oblique followed by a number indicating how many times
the pattern occurs. The layer pattern could then be specified as
(BABABBA/3) B M.
where the M indicted there is mirror symmetry in the pattern, about a
single central layer 1.
It would also have been possible to designate the pattern as
BABBABBA BABBABBA BABBABBA B M
or
BABBABBA BABBABBA BABBABBA B ABBABBAB ABBABBAB
ABBABBAB.
Specifying the full pattern, rather than identifying the symmetry will
approximately double the number of calculations performed by MULE,
but should not affect the results. Spaces may be left at any point. They
are ignored by the program input, but can be useful in checking that
your input is correct.
The Layer Pattern and Layer Types are the only additional inputs
required by MULE. For MUSE they are optional. In either case, if you
supply both the number of layers per stream, and the layer pattern, a
check for consistency will be performed when the program is run, and a
warning message produced if necessary.

Run icon

7-18

1.

Enter the Layer Pattern in either of the first two forms.

2.

Go to Layer Types and set Type A with stream 1 and Type B with
streams 2 and 3.

3.

Go to the Start up view under the Input menu, and change the
Calculation type to Layer-by-layer - MULE.

4.

Click on the Run icon.

Examples

7-19

7.4.2 Running the Calculation Engines


You may observe that changing the Calculation Type changes (slightly)
the data items which you see. Any data items entered with a previous
setting remain present. It also changes the default calculation engine,
which is initiated by the Run icon. If you go to the Run menu, you will
see that in addition to Calculate All (default calculation item), you have
the ability to Run any of the Calculation Engines (MUSE, MULE, PFIN
etc) at any time. If it is not the default engine, you will be asked to
confirm your choice. Of course, a Run will only be successful if you have
provided appropriate input data.
When MULE runs, you will see the Status view followed by a Results
view, in a very similar way to the MUSE Simulation, but you will notice
two differences:

The MULE run takes longer because it is doing more


calculations.
Two warning messages about double banking are produced.

7.4.3 Double Banking


MULE (layer-by-layer) calculations do not need information on double
banking fractions, since explicit calculations are performed for every
layer. You are therefore reminded by a Warning message that any values
you have input will be ignored.
Double Banking fraction is the fraction of stream 2 layer that occurs in
double banked pairs. You will see in the example that there are 12 pairs
(24 layers), five layers which have a 1 layer on either side, and 2 layers at
the extremes of the pattern, which are counted as double banked since
they are adjacent to only one hot stream. 26 of the 31 layers are thus
effectively double banked.
The Double Banking fraction is important in defining the effective
amount of heat transfer area for each stream. When you run a MUSE
Simulation without a layer pattern supplied, it is important to know the
double banking fraction, though in simple cases, it can be omitted from
the input and MUSE will estimate it. You may have noticed that the
MUSE input generated by Create Simulation Case, after you have done
a design, contains double banking fractions, as used in the design. If you
7-19

7-20

Case 1, Layer by Layer Calculations

were to Run MUSE now you have supplied a layer pattern (try it later)
you might find warnings after checks that your values corresponded to
the true values from the pattern.

7.4.4 Results from MULE Layer by Layer


Calculations
You will see that the form of results from the MULE Layer-by-Layer
calculation is identical with those from MUSE, and that (in this case) the
numerical values differ only very slightly, since you have input a good
layer pattern. Many of the results from MULE are based on integrating
values for all the layers in a stream, so that you have mixed mean values,
which may be compared with the predictions of MUSE Simulations.
To see the differences between the outputs from MUSE Simulation and
MULE Layer-by-Layer calculations, you will have to look in the detail,
using Full Results, under the Output menu. There are sections in which
the temperature variation along the exchanger, and the pressure change
in every layer is identified. There is also a lineprinter graphic showing
the variation of metal temperatures throughout the stacking pattern, at
three points, end A, end B and the middle (M) of the exchanger. The
more uniform these temperatures the better, because the smaller the
temperature range at each point, the smaller the lateral thermal stresses.

7-20

Examples

7-21

Figure 7.7

7-21

7-22

The Zig-zag

7.5 The Zig-zag


7.5.1 What is a Zig-zag?
The Zig-zag, found under the Output menu, provides a graphical
method of assessing how good a layer pattern is. It is produced after
either a MUSE Simulation or MULE Layer-by-Layer run, when a layer
pattern has been provided. This is a relatively advanced use of the
program, and you may want to ignore this section on a first reading.
Technically the Zig-zag is a plot, at each parting sheet in the stacking
pattern, of the cumulative heat load from the beginning of the pattern to
that point. The graph goes up every time there is another cold layer
(positive load) and down every time there is another hot layer. Hence, it
zig-zags up and down.
Figure 7.8

The basic zig-zag is determined on the assumption that the total heat
load for a stream is spread evenly among its layers. A good layer pattern
will produce a zig-zag which oscillates uniformly about zero. A bad
pattern will be significantly displaced from zero, because of local
excesses of hot or cold load.

7-22

Examples

7-23

7.5.2 Zig-zag Options


Look at the Zig-Zag produced by the MULE run on Example 1. You will
see that it is reasonably uniformly distributed about zero, because the
layer pattern is good.
1.

Click on Details, and you will be able to see a set of four zig-zags,
evaluated for four separate regions along the exchanger length. In
this simple example they are virtually identical, but in exchangers
that are more complex, they may draw your attention to imbalances
at certain points along the length.

2.

Returning to the main Zig-Zag, (click on Whole Exchanger) you will


see after a MULE run that you can click on the Actual Layer Based
button.

This displays an alternative zig-zag based on the actual heat loads per
layer, rather than the mean heat loads per layer. You will usually see that
the zig-zag is slightly less pronounced, showing that the exchanger is
compensating for imperfections in the layer pattern by conducting heat
through the fins between non-adjacent layers.

7.5.3 Zig-zag Assessments


Two numerical measures are provided on the Zig-Zag of how good it is.
The first is the Fraction of Zero Crossings, that is the fraction of the up
and down lines forming the zig-zag which cross zero. This number
should be equal to unity, or in very complex exchangers, as close as
possible to unity.
The second measure is termed the Deviation from Ideal, and is a
measure of how close, on average, the centre of each up or down line in a
layer is to zero. This number should be small. Numerical information on
the Zig-Zag, and some additional measures of how good it is, are
included in the MUSE and MULE Lineprinter outputs. It is difficult to
give general guidelines on values to be expected, as such parameters
have not previously been widely calculated. You may however be able to
build up a body of experience as to enable you to judge new cases.

7-23

7-24

The Zig-zag

You should in any case remember that the Zig-Zag is a simple facility
developed before the capability of Layer by Layer calculations was
widely available. The results of the Layer by Layer calculation should
give a better basis for judging a layer pattern than a zig-zag.

7-24

Index
Numerics
80-column Output 4-6
A
Advanced Geometry 3-4
Alternative Designs 4-3
B
Basic Input Mode 2-5
Brief Output 4-6
C
Calculation Engines
MULE 1-4
MUSC 1-4
MUSE 1-4
PFIN 1-4
Calculation Modes
Design 1-3
Layer by Layer Simulation 1-3
Simulation 1-3
Thermosyphon 1-3
Components
Calculation of the Properties of a Mixture 5-13
D
Data Input 3-1, 3-8
Databank 5-12
Default Input Data File 3-13
Design 1-3
Design Calculations 1-6
DIPPR 5-18
Distributors 1-5
Documentation 1-8
E
Equipment Item Number 2-6
Error / Warning Message Log 4-8
Errors and Warnings 3-14
Examples 7-1
Exchanger Diagram 1-3, 4-3
Exchanger Geometries 1-5
Distributors 1-5
Finning 1-5
Overall Geometry 1-5
F
Fin Geometry 4-3

Fin Performance 4-3


Find 1-8
Finding Input Items 3-11
Finning 1-5
Fins 3-4
Full Results 4-3
G
Geometry 3-4
Geometry - Distributors 4-3
Geometry - Overall 4-3
Geometry - Streams 4-3
Geometry Data Input 3-7
H
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop 1-6
Help Text 1-9, 3-10
HYSYS 5-21
I
Importing from a Properties Package 5-23
Importing from HYSYS 5-21
Importing Properties and Process Data 5-19
Importing PSF Files 5-19
Input Directly 5-11
Input Errors and Warnings 3-14
Input File 3-12
Input Items - Finding 3-11
Input Units 3-8
Input Views
Advanced Geometry 3-4
Exchanger Geometry 3-4
Fins 3-4
Options 3-4
Physical Properties Data 3-4
Process 3-4
Introduction 1-1
J
Job Title 2-6
L
Layer by Layer Simulation 1-3
Lineprinter Output 4-6
M
Mixture Calculations 5-14
Mixture Calculations (Old Style) 5-14

I-1

I-2

Index

MUSE Icons 2-7

Results Summary 4-34-4


Run 2-6
Running MUSE 2-6

NEL40 5-13
Number of Fins to be Directly Input 2-5
O
Options 3-4
Other Facilities 6-1
Output 4-1
Output - Other 4-8
Output Files
80-column Output 4-6
Brief Output 4-6
Lineprinter Output 4-6
Physical Properties Output 4-6
Output Options 1-8
Output Views 4-3
Overall Geometry 1-5
Overview 1-3
P
Physical Properties 3-4, 5-1, 5-4
Physical Properties (Old Style) 5-4
Physical Properties Output 4-6
Preferences 3-9
Pressure Dependence 5-25
Process 3-4
Process Data Input 3-6
Profiles - Other 4-3
Project File Structure 6-4
Properties Data Input 5-4, 5-10
Properties Data Input (Old Style) 5-10
Properties Input 5-6
Properties Output 5-24
Properties Package - Importing 5-23
Properties Used 5-5
Property Data
Liquid 5-5
T-h-x Data 5-5
Vapour 5-5
Property Data Sources 1-7
Property Databanks 5-17
DIPPR 5-18
NEL40 5-18
PSF Files 5-19

I-2

S
Simulation 1-3
Single Component Stream from NEL40 5-13
Specified Duty 4-3
Start up View 2-5
Stream Compositions 4-4
Stream Details 4-3
Stream Properties 4-4
T
Temperature Profiles 4-3
Thermosyphon 1-3
Thermosyphon Details 4-3
Thermosyphons 1-7
T-h-x 4-4
U
User Databank 5-12
User Fin Databank 6-3
User Interface 1-3, 1-8
Using MUSE 2-1
V
View Geometry Diagram 2-4
W
Warning Messages 3-14
Welcome View 2-4
Z
Zig-zag Diagram 4-3