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Topic 7 & 8 Review Questions

Equilibrium/Acids and Bases


1. Which statements are correct for a reaction at equilibrium?
I)
The forward and reverse reactions both continue
II)
The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal
III)
The concentrations of reactants and products are equal
a)
b)
c)
d)

I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and III

2. Which statement is always true for a chemical reaction that


has reached equilibrium?
a) The yield of product(s) is greater than 50%
b) The rate of the forward reaction is greater than the rate of the
reverse reaction.
c) The amounts of reactants and products do not change.
d) Both forward and reverse reactions have stopped.
3. What is the equilibrium constant expression for the following
reaction?
I2(g) + 3Cl2(g) 2ICl3(g)

4. The manufacture of sulfur trioxide can be represented by the


equation below:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
H = -197 kJ/mol
What happens when a catalyst is added to an equilibrium
mixture from
this reaction?

5. What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value


of the equilibrium constant when the temperature is increased
in the following reaction?
Br2(g) + Cl2(g) 2BrCl(g) H = +14 kJ
Position of Equilibrium
A
B

Shifts towards the reactants


Shifts towards the reactants

Value of
Equilibrium
Constant
Decreases
Increases

C
D

Shifts towards the products


Shifts towards the products

Decreases
Increases

6. Which changes will shift the position of equilibrium to the right


in the following reaction?
2CO2(g) 2CO(g) + O2(g)
I)
II)
III)
a)
b)
c)
d)

Adding catalyst
Decreasing the oxygen concentration
Increasing the volume of the container
I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
I, II, and III

7. Which statement(s) is/are true for a mixture of ice and water


at equilibrium?
I)
The rates of melting and freezing are equal.
II)
The amounts of ice and water are equal.
III)
The same position of equilibrium can be reached by cooling
water and heating ice.
a)
b)
c)
d)

I only
I and III only
II only
III only

8. According to the following equation, what temperature and


pressure conditions produce the greatest amount of SO3?
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
H = -200 kJ
A
B
C
D

Temperature
Low
Low
High
High
9. Consider the following equilibrium reaction:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

Pressure
Low
High
High
Low
H = -200 kJ

Using Le Chatliers Principle, state and explain what will happen to


the position of equilibrium if:
a) The temperature increases
b) The pressure increases

10.
Consider the following system at equilibrium:
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)
H = -904.4 kJ
How will each of the following changes affect the position of
equilibrium:
a) Increase [NH3]
b) Increase [H2O]
c) Decrease [O2]
d) Add a catalyst
e) Increase temperature
11.
A closed system initially containing 1.000 x 10-3 M H2
and 2.000 x 10-3 M I2 at 448 C is allowed to reach equilibrium.
Analysis of the equilibrium mixture shows that the
concentration of HI is 1.87 x 10-3 M. Calculate the value of the
equilibrium constant K at 448C for this reaction.
H2(g) + I2(g) 2 HI(g)

12.
Which substance can be dissolved in water to give a 0.1
mol dm-3 solution with a high pH and a high electrical
conductivity?
a) HCl
b) NaCl
c) NH3
d) NaOH
13.
An aqueous solution of which of the following reacts
with magnesium metal?
a) Ammonia
b) Hydrogen Chloride
c) Potassium Hydroxide
d) Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
14.
What will happen if CO2(g) is allowed to escape form the
following reaction mixture at equilibrium?
CO2(g) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)

a)
b)
c)
d)
15.
I.
II.
III.
IV.

The
The
The
The

pH
pH
pH
pH

will
will
will
will

decrease
increase
remain constant
become zero

Four aqueous solutions, I, II, III, and IV, are listed below.
0.100 mol dm-3 HCl
0.0100 mol dm-3 HCl
0.100 mol dm-3 NaOH
0.010 mol dm-3 NaOH

What is the correct order of increasing pH of these solutions?


a) I, II, III, IV
b) I, II, IV, III
c) II, I, III, IV
d) II, I, IV, III
16.
Which of the following is/are formed when a metal oxide
reacts with dilute acid?
I.
a metal salt
II.
water
III.
hydrogen gas
a)
b)
c)
d)

I only
I and II only
II and III only
I, II, and III

17.
The pH of a solution is 2. If its pH is increased to 6,
how many times greater is the [H+] of the original solution?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 1000
d) 10000
18.
The pH of solution X is 1 and that of Y is 2. Which
statement is correct about the hydrogen ion concentrations in
the two solutions?
a) [H+] in X is half that in Y
b) [H+] in X is twice that in Y
c) [H+] in X is one tenth that in Y
d) [H+] in X is ten times that in Y
19.
When the following 1.0 mol dm-3 solutions are listed in
increasing order of pH (lowest first), what is the correct order?
a) HNO3 < H2CO3 < NH3 < Ba(OH)2
b) NH3 < Ba(OH)2 < H2CO3 < HNO3
c) Ba(OH)2 < H2CO3 < NH3 < HNO3

d) HNO3 < H2CO3 < Ba(OH)2 < NH3

20.
In the following equations identify the Lewis base and
Lewis Acid:
Fe3+(aq) + :SCN-(aq) [FeSCN]2+(aq)
Al(OH)3(s) + OH_(aq) Al(OH)4-(aq)

21.
a) Give the conjugate acids of Cl-; PO43-; C5H5N; H3NNH2+; -OOC-COOb) Give the conjugate bases of HNO3; HI; HSO4-; NH4+;
HONH3+
c) From the species listed above, select two species that are
amphiprotic
d) Write the formula of another amphiprotic species and give
its
conjugate base and its conjugate acid.
22.
a) Define the terms strong acid and weak acid. Using
hydrochloric and ethanoic acid as examples, write equations
to show the dissociation of each acid in aqueous solution.
b) i) Calcium carbonate is added to separate solutions of
hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid of the same
concentration. State one similarity and one difference in the
observations you could make.
ii) Write an equation for the reaction between hydrochloric
acid and calcium carbonate.
iii) Determine the volume of 1.50 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid
that would react with exactly 1.25 g of calcium carbonate.
23.
Given the concentration of either hydrogen ion or
hydroxide ion, use the ion product constant of water to
calculate the concentration of the other ion at 298 K.
a) [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-4 M
b) [OH-] = 1.3 x 10-2 M

24.
Calculate the pH at 298 K of solutions having the
following ion concentrations.
a) [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-4 M
b) [OH-] = 1.3 x 10-2 M

25.
Calculate the pOH and pH at 298 K of solutions having
the following ion concentrations.
a) [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-12 M
b) [OH-] = 1.3 x 10-2 M