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Experiment # 1

Fabrication of Elastomeric Profile Using Conveying Extruder.

Apparatus

Conveying extruder
Rubber sheet
Die
Burner
Oven
Cutter

Procedure

Take the uncured natural rubber sheet.


Cut into sheet into long strips.
Switch on the extruder.
Put the strips into the extruder hopper one by one.
Heat the die with burner flame.
The feed becomes soft and come out of the die with specific profile.
Put the uncured natural rubber profile in the oven.
Set the temperature at 140 C and wait for 40 minutes.
After this cured natural rubber profile is obtained.

Precautions

Do not heat the die as much that the elastomeric get cured in the die.
Temperature in the oven is not above the degradation temperature of
natural rubber.

Observations
Before curing the rubber sheet is flexible, soft and stretchable but after
curing, rubber become hard and less stretchable.

Experiment # 2
Curing of Elastomer Using Electric Press.

Apparatus

Electric press
Mold
Cutter
Uncured rubber sheet
Safety gloves

Procedure

Select the suitable mold.


Cut the rubber sheet in to small pieces.
Place in the mold cavity.
Place the mold between plates of electric press.
Before placing the mold in electric press, set the desire temperature,
290 F (143 C) for upper Plate and 284 F (140 C) for lower plate and
wait until temperature is reached.
close the gates of electric press and wait for 10 minutes. At start
pressure is atmospheric.
Now increase the pressure gradually with time.
After 40 minutes, remove the mold from electric press and open the
mold and wait until it cools down.
Take the sample out and observe the properties.

Observations
Before curing, the natural rubber is soft, shiny and stretchable but after
curing in the electric press, the rubber become hard and less stretchable.

Experiment # 3
Make a Blend Of two different Elastomers using Twin Blade Melt Mixer.

Formulation
Ingredients
Chloroprene
Styrene Butadiene
Silica
ZnO
Stearic Acid
MBTS
TMTD
Sulphur
Processing Aid
Antidegradent

Amount
(phr)
30
70
30
2
1
2
1
1.5
5
2

Conversion Factor for phr into grams = 0.19

Procedure

First set the temperature of the melt mixer at 50 C and rpm as 45


revolutions per minutes.
Then take styrene butadiene rubber and put it into the mixer and mix
for 2 minutes.
And Chloroprene and mix for 2 minutes.
After this add silica and wait for 7 minutes and then add all other
ingredients.
And mix it for 10 minutes and take the blend out of the mixer.

Observations
Before blending the chloroprene is in light brown color and SBR in light grey.
Chloroprene is in the form of flakes and less stretchable. And SBR is relatively
stretchable and shiny. After blending, the blend is in dark gray color and has
bouncy effect due to pre mature curing.

Experiment # 4
Compounding of an Elastomer using Two Roll Mill.

Formulation
Ingredients
Natural Rubber
Carbon Black
Silica
Sulphur
MBTS
TMTD
Antidegradent
ZnO
Stearic Acid
Processing Oil

Amount
(phr)
100
60
50
2
2
2
1
2
1
10

Conversion Factor for phr into grams


=5

Procedure

Put the natural rubber in


between the two rollers of two
roll mill and wrap the rubber
on roller for 10 minutes.
Add silica and carbon black
gradually and mix it for 15

minutes.
Then take all the other ingredients and sprinkle them on the rubber
and mix for 10 minutes.
After this elastomeric sheet is formed.
Cover the rubber sheet in plastic sheet and put it in the freezer so that
the curing does not start.
Water is circulated from the rollers to maintain the temperature of the
rollers.

Observations
The color of the compounded material is black due to carbon black. Mixing is
good if carbon black does not stick to the hands on touching. The surface of
the sheet is also shiny.

Experiment # 5
Blending of Thermoplastic and Elastomer using twin blade melt mixer.

Formulation
Ingredients
Polypropylene
Polychloroprene
Silica
Sulphur
MBTS
TMTD
ZnO
Stearic Acid
Processing Oil

Amount
(phr)
60
40
25
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.8
0.4
4

Conversion Factor for phr into grams = 0.22

Procedure

First set the temperature of the heaters of melt mixer at 160 C and
rpm as 45 revolutions per minutes.
Then take polypropylene and put it into the mixer and mix for 1
minute.
And polychloroprene and mix for 1 minute.
After this add silica and wait for 5 minutes and then add all other
ingredients.
And mix it for further 2 minutes and take the blend out of the mixer.

Observations
Before blending the polypropylene is in the form of grains and white it color.
And polychloroprene is in the form of flakes and brown in color and its
stretching is less. The blend was burnt due to high temperature. The color of
the blend is dark brown.

Experiment # 6
To get the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Sample Using Universal Testing
Machine (UTM).

Material

Polypropylene sample (dogbone shape)

Material Dimensions

Specimen length = 119mm using vernier calliper


Gauge length = 30 mm
Width = 6 mm
Thickness = 3.2 mm

ASTM D638
ASTM D638 is used for the tensile testing of polymer sample. The type of test
is used for sample having thickness less than 14 mm. if not then reduce the
thickness by machining. The sample given is of type IV so strain rate for
which is 1.5 mm/mm.min and the speed of testing is 50 mm/min.

Procedure

First take all the dimensions as shown above.


Set the thickness, gauge length and width in the computer software of
UTM.
Now set the Strain rate and speed of testing for the sample.
After this place the sample in the jaws of UTM.
Now start the test. The machine apply the force and break the sample.
Record the load extension curve and obtain the properties from the
graph.

Results
The properties that are obtained from the graph are yield stress, fracture
stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), toughness (Strain energy function).
Yield Stress = 1MPa
Fracture Stress = 3.5 MPa
UTS = 4.8 MPa
Modulus = 166.7 MPa
Toughness (Strain Energy Function) = 117.9 J

Experiment # 7
Make the formulations of Different Products.

Formulation of Tire tread (For Light Truck)


Ingredients
Natural Rubber
Carbon Black
TESPT
Oil
ZnO
Stearic Acid
2,2,4- trimethyl1,2dihydroquinoline
Wax
TBBS
Sulphur

Amount
(phr)
100
60
2
2.5
5
3
1.5

1.5
1.5
2

Formulation of Natural Rubber Base Adhesives


Ingredients

Amount

Natural Rubber
(g)
Toluene (ml)
Phenol
Formaldehyde (g)

5
30
5

Procedure

Take 5 g of natural rubber and dissolve it in 30 ml of Toluene (as


solvent).
Keep the rubber solution in conditioned room for 24 hours.
Add 5 g phenol formaldehyde (as a resin) for 100 phr of rubber
solution.
After addition of resin constantly stir the rubber solution with glass rod
until homogenous adhesive is formed.
After this left the adhesive for 3 hours.

Formulation of Polyurethane Shoe Sole


Ingredients
Polyurethane
Carbon Black
Polyisocyanate
ZnO
Stearic Acid
MBTS
Azodicarbonamide
Benzophenone

Amount
(phr)
100
50
2
20
1
2
1.5
2

Formulation of Plasticized PVC Tubing


Ingredients
PVC
DOP
Calcium Carbonate
Tin
Stearic Acid

Amount
(phr)
100
15
40
2
10

Experiment # 8
Determine the Bound Rubber Contents and Crosslink Density of a rubber.

Procedure

First take the small piece of cured natural rubber 1x1 inch.
Weight the sample in weight balance.
Put the sample in 35 ml of toluene in a glass jar. So that the sample is
completely dipped in the toluene.
After 3 hours, take the sample out of the glass jar, clean it with tissue
paper, weight the sample and note the reading.
Put the sample back in the jar and place it for one day.
Take the weight of sample as discussed above.
Repeat the procedure every day until weight of the sample become
constant.
After this place the sample in the oven for one day at 85 C.
Draw the graph between time and weight of the sample.
Calculate the bound rubber contents and cross link density by the
formulae given below.

Crosslink Density
=

1
ln ( 1Vr )+Vr + XV r 2
Vs
1

V r 3 0.5Vr
Where, is the no. of crosslink per unit volume, Vs is the molar volume of
swelling solvent, Vr is the volume fraction of rubber in the swollen gel and
is the polymer/rubber solvent interaction parameter.

Bound Rubber Contents


When an elastomer and reinforcing fillers are mixed, strong interactions
occur in such a way that at room temperature, a good solvent can extract
only a free rubber portion, leaving a highly swollen rubber filler gel. Bound
rubber contents are by definition is given by formula.

( mfmf+ mr )
mr
Wt (
mf + mr )

100WfgWt
Rb =

Where, Rb is the rubber bound content, Wfg is the weight of filler and gel, Wt is
the weight of the sample, mf is the fraction of filler in the compound and mr
is the fraction of rubber in the compound.

Result
The graph between time and Weight of the sample as shown below,

Weight of sample (g) Vs Time (hr)


35
30
25
20

Weight of Sample (g) 15


10
5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Time (hr)

Bound rubber contents are calculated as,

( mfmf+ mr )
mr
Wt (
mf + mr )

100WfgWt
Rb =

Where,
Wfg = 5.01 g, Wt = 4.96 g, Mf = 0.4673, Mr = 0.4032
Rb % = 78.9 %
Crosslink density is calculated as,

1
ln ( 1Vr )+Vr + XV r 2
Vs
1

V r 3 0.5Vr
Where,

Vs = 50 cm3, Vr = 0.301 cm3, = 0.44


= 0.0014 g/cm3