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T E H T U RZRO

TN I N G
IN
E PI I H E B M ROT U R R TUZEI N S
G r e g gM o r r i s o n , 0 o n gG u o g i ,S u D h a sJha i r t h

l
\

KLONDIKE
EITLORATIONSERVICES

TEIITURR
T NING
ZO
IN
EPITHEEMRTOURRTZUEI NS
6 r e g g M o r r i s o n ,O o n gG u o U iS
, ubhash
Jairsth

KLONDIKE

@Kimdite ExploFtior Snices


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INIRODUCI'ION

CLASSIFICAT]ON
O! QVARTZTEXTURES

THE ORIGINOFSOIG QUARTZTEXTURES


lriney emwthtextuEs
Redystalistion textres
Replacenent
rcxtuFs

OTHERMINERATS
TI]E TEXTUREZONINGMODEL

ORIGINOFTEX'|URAL ZONES

Rtrrysbllisatio.bd rp]rei@r

12
14
t5
16

DISTRIBUTIONOFGOLDCRADE

17

APILICABILTTYOFTHEZONINGMODEL

18

REFERENCES

18

PL"{TES

21

INTRODUCTION
Most recentexplootion of epithemrl
veins has utilhed thc analogt wnh
geothemralsy$ehs ro interjrretfluid
condidons
andposiiionwithinthestslem
(e.g.Henley&Ellis,1983).Inranicular,
laboratory
studies
on samples
of *allrock
have been used ro ldentify rlteration
nrinenl assenbhseswhich have nren
beenconpued wnh assenblasesin active
seothemalsy$ens (e.e.Lelch, 198?).
Thc difficully wirh rhh aFprdr.his ihat
thetrcldgeologist
cannorrcdily idcndfy
mant ol thc crnlcil nindals so thrt there
n a tnne Iag betweeDmappnrgor .orc
losging andinierrreiarionof drealrefttion
tuineralogy. Our expe.ience wirh
xtlontion of a vide.!oge olvein rypes
in norih Qucenslandis thrt the tex!{es of
vein quanzoffei lhc ncld g.olotist nor
only a r!pid reconnaissance
tool to
cvaldalcthe chlracterol mineralisinE
cnvironments but aho a means of
ide.rifyingnineralisedIocii \rithin vein
synens(DoslinS& nlorison, 1990).
Recenrreconnaissad.e.
.outrled \rith
detailedwork on selectedoccunences
srgeeis there N a consisrenrsure of
texiuEsthatcharacteise
Dary elldi.m
veins.Fomal definitionoi rhesetexrDr.s
providesa rra.re of Eferencelor thc
systenatic description ol samplcs.
Pei.ologi. Fo.k has allored
inte.pdarioi of theonsinol rany ol lhe
texturesand the definnionof lcdctic
groups*ithin the cksnicaton.

In sidple veins there is a conshtnt


prttern ol dhribution ol tcxruresand
consistentassemblages
of rexiurcsthat
canbe usedb definea leni.xl txrural
zoDingDodel. Such a model can be
rarionalised
in ternsol fllid evolutionin
boiling georhernxlsy$eds and hence
diredly conrparedwirh the nodel of
Duchanan(1981) to defi.e position
wnhin the systcn and ihe mos likely
locusof gold. In addition,an empirical
evaluation
hxsbecnnade ofa numberol
sy$eN with siEnificantasry data to
dete.mineyhich textDralassenblages
Do$ comnonly have siSninca.t gold
minerahedsimpleveinsthee
Crades.In
rc specifictexturalassemblages
rhat
catry grade. In conplex nultiphase
sysens,orc shoorsmay contamseverd
textunl ascnblags dat aE disdnctliom
rhe asemblagesin thc adjacentbaren
lodeandhavetheir oen inrernalzoning
parcrn.Thusthequartznrodelshouldbc
crpxblcor detemininsvenicalposition
*ithh a boiliig epithemalvein syiem
and prcdicting rhe locus ol gold

In practice,dev.lopmeotof a texroral
zoning model inr a prospect.eqniEs
caeful and syeenaricobseNltionson
broken sudacematerial,drill core or
chips.While recogninonof all rextrml
typespEsentis impoiant. rhe relative
abundance
of 'exM tyFcs and their
timing relarionshi!s are ssentialto
e$.blishins texrurala$.nblages. The
texrml assemblage
concptis rhesmreas
iLar tor netamorphi. faciesor alFration

2
nineral asenblages.While individual
sahtles can be a$ignen to a txturalane
the
blscd on their texruralasscmblage
bounddjesbctwen 4nes re gradaiional
or overlrpping so that iudgehent s
rcquired in defining zo.es rhal *ill
disingulsh inreFah of difiercnl onein o.

The lDrpose or this guideis 10provide an


illuslrated refrence
texturesin edthcmal veins, to provide !
s.ale nodel fd tnedisfiibution or textordl
lein and
a$enblages*irlin anidealiscd
io identily the txturs andextdral zones
thar nrost conmonly host gold

textures inro those characreristicof


cryptociy*aLline quartz (nassive
and
chalccdonic,banddchaLcedonic
of
collolom) a.d thosecharacterlstic
conb,
crystallinequutz (sxccharcjdal,
zoned crystals). The membe.s of these
rcxnral 8&ups co'monry dcur together
and in sone casesthe.e aie gradarions
from onc texrure to another.
Recrysallisationtextures ieflect rhe
silica or
hnsfomation ol amorphoDs
chalcedonyio quanz. ThcY are most
commonly associatedwirh crypro
crystallinequdz texiues and may pdly
is
obscuEthen vhere recrystallisxrion
extensive.
Replacementrextuesrcpresent
or
panial or conplete pseudomorphs
orherDineralsby silicaniner.ls *ithin

CL.\SSIFICATION OF QUARTZ
TEXTURES
of cpithennalquartz
The classification
texrureshas been dcvelopedfrcn a
rcview ol textures describedin the
eraturc and ron an evaluation or od
sdple coll4tions. The texnresdescnbed
are those rcadily identilied in handspecihen Ma.y also have disrinctive
fea$rs in rhin'section whlch have ben
i.corporated in the delinition vhere
appro!.iate(Table l).The basisof the
dsdlprive classificationis the narule of
crylal ageregalesbft rhe textules have
beeneroupedinto three najor clasFs to
aid intertretarior of lhei. origin a|d
environmentol fomahon (Table 1, Plates
l-22). Prinry rrowih tcxiurs repEsent
lnnial openspacelein fill. Thereis a
natunl subdivjsionof the Primary growth

The lorm ol individDal Enins rather rhan


aggregates can also be a useful
clasificanonroor Wnhin an epithemal
vein thee is a.onplete sradationfrcn
amoryhoussili.a to cryptocrystalline to
cry$alline qudz with a vdieiy ol crysal
habns Gable 2). Sone textural clases
such as massive chalcedo.ic or
s&chmidal ae definedasconsistineof
only one grain form. Orher lexrural
classes,
laniculely crusdfdm textur,
haveconbinarionsof Coi. roms For
rh.s rexrures,estimrtes ol the Elative
prcportionsof diffcicnt Sirainlbms ae a
useful guide to posnion vithin a textual
dne. Tho ovdall progession ls to 6oF
crystallinequdtz and to more equmt

,t ^Bf,E I:
C1.\SS]NCATIONOFQU
PRIi\IARYCNOWTH Tf,XTURES
M.\6a ettate?danic @tat t.2J
sdhdea.hak.hti.

tasde) e\at s r,4)

sAccHAroDAr (Pb$ 5.6)

(Frrr 3)

ToNED cRYsrrS

hxbn) ripinr or charc.dory


il cruniformbr.ds.
(Prabsr0,rD
CRUSTTFORT{
Co(cntric cnriroa. brnds suroun

MrcRoPLUr{osE
(Prar.
1t

i r '
rdrir.6rd.d

a,a,o\.f

(Prars17,l3l

,t.,

l ' ' ]' | { 3n," ' ' { o| ,.' ' o

ch,r ,rad.d (Prsres


19.10)

!:" r " 9r."

Pt ttetblad.d e\xB1l,17)

11:l, rr:"i "

/ur Lr idin!_ oi mDrlr\

TABLE 2: FORMSOF SILICAAND OUARTZ

AMORPIIOUSSLICA
Silicaihatlacls otsrsllhe strnctued a chdeerisric ddd

fm.

CRYPTOCRYSTAIIINE
Crrstarsthat@ loo snall to bdistinsuisned
undd thddl.ary ni(l1M!e
NEEDLE
N*dre shaped
d aciculddysiils widra c-dis ro a-dis rariog@le. dran10:1PRISMATIC
Crtstalsyith onedimnsion nekedly longerrhm rheorhd two.
tnng Prish: dystal with a edis to a-di5 ratioof 5 ro 10|1
N(ml Piisn: dtsur vith a c dis lo a uis niio of 2 b 5:1
Squatlrisn: -y$al snn cdis to a ujs ntio lesslhm 2 io I
EQUANT
Crystalswitn dE sme d netr1ytheene diderd in aI diEcrions.
All dial raiioslessthM I 5:l

Forthepurpose
oflhe classilicarioo,
ooly
texNres wirhin leins hale been
considered.
Ahered,panicula.lysilicified
*allro.k *hi.h is a commonc.osniNert
of nby eprhemallodesd.esn.r exhibit
a r..!e of rxtutususeful for clasri
fication and so is rreatedas pan ol
wallro.k alterrtion.Brecciasehich aE
.ommo. io bolh lodesand venr, need
aho to be teared separdely.Tecronic
bec.i$ dominrred
by qrllrsk lragnrens
andvriably over!fintedby hldro(hennxl
xlr.ralior crdnot be !durted lron the
poifr of !ic* of quadz textu.es.Hoq
e!er, IrfdJothcrnrrlbrc.ias developed
s i t h i n v e i n s o r b y o v e r p r i n t i o go l
ex,$!,g !eins do cornnio.lt hrvc infill
'tldiz textuestlratcor becompdcdBi(h
rheclx$ir,calion.ln derign!rinC
rexruEs
o. rexnml asemblagcsio be.oirs a
dirrincrioois nxde bclwconclr!s and
ntt'x, nnd symbols are addrd to
desiEnarcarcxs enhin lodes or renrs
wherebecciasdc prsent.Theclas and
mrnx texnml assenblag.s
.rn nomully
be conpdcd eith rhoseiD dE hos v.in
sonrd rhedcerccol.h$.rovemenr a
ftehnngof hy&olhemral
bE.ciarioncdr

'rItE oRI(;IN
OF SO}tlj QUARTZ
TEXTURES
Thconlin ofqudz textures
cM plnly be
explrincd by ituerprerarionof rhe
behaviourof quaiiz, chal.edoil ,od
anorlhous silica in htdrorbemll
solLtions.As Nnmafted by Fouraier

(1985a),
qodlz is rhemo$ ixble lom or
silicr tn hydrothemalsysers. Facererl
'turiz.rystals genenlly aro* in
solLtrions*hich a.e sliChrly supcr
satunted vnh resp4t ro qud4 i 0di.arin8
relaivelr' sl.*ly changingcoidirions.
Wherequa.tzlecipiiaresin opcnsprce
dire.tly iron hydrcrhermalsollrion, it
exhibns.rlnrl facesaDdlocally wirh
growrhzoncsofinclusionstud all. lxes
of qudz reroughll,perpendiculd
lo de
strrfte upon which !ro*1h initialll'

Chal.edooymry lorn eirh- by d;ecr


precipihtunfom h]'drcthernalsolu on
or by txnsromxtionofuroryhotrs\ilila
rocry$allinenxrnal Inrernrediar
sili.a
suFrlaruranonwrh resFectto qudz {
rcqlired lor chalcedon!to tEcipirare
dtr..lly fom soldion,a n atpea.sro
tbrm md te(isr only ar rcnperatu.es

Thc detosirion of aho{rhors sili.a


requtes a high degreeof riLica
$'peNarunri..wirhErpectro quanz ln
d e r a i l , w b t c t h e d e E r e eo f s i l i c a
!'perratunlon 'n respeor
ro anoryhous
silicr relches a fx.1or of about 2.5,
lDniogeneous
nucleario.is likel),rooccur
rltroLghouta sol ion (we.es er dr..
1982).Silicr polynresgro* pricrnicd
nu.lcos sze, aod liially corgnlareor
fl occuhte,producing!cladrousmnrerial
$hich lareris ranslormcdto amoryhous
silica, The anrorpho!s silica whi.h
lorh.d rhroughrhis Fo.edrE usullly

6
containsa ldge anount of Yard ud
soneddes exnibits slheroidal ge1
sEuctue. r de8reesof supdsaturaron
ac not gear noughto aUot the
fornation of colloidal lanicles, the
ol mo.phos silid talesllace
deposltion
dnectly on pie-existins solid surfaces
ftom aqneoussolutions.The resulting
naenal is de.se, viFeoussilica which
@rhi,! mnchles waterthe tharinitially
mtedaldcposirdnDmgetaiinous

is sfiCndysupersatunted
with !specrro
quda but udeNhrated wirh rcslectro
(Founid, 1985a).Tiis slgnt
chal@dony
snicasupeerurarionk lo$ibly brcugnr
abourby slowcoolingor thesyst n ed
unifom growlh from mulriple nucleii

zoned r$als imply nildly fluctuatlng


environnentsdunng crystal g1opth
na*ed by encs or riuid and/or slid

Primary grorvtht.$urs
M-q$:relbalcedo4ete{@ r@s under
conditionsol intemediatesilica sulersatuation wnn rcspectto quanz. Lrv
renpenhr (belowabour180'c) duing
andalts depositionis eryonsiblefor lhe
low cryslallinitymainiainedin this

quanz)
4g4! (6bousbeded charcedonic
is fomed by crystallisatio. fron an
iniiially Dnifom rD6! of snicagel wh.n
differntiatioh(or self-orgeisaiio.) is
we[ dwelopdduins d crysallisation.
Ar low temperalures,becauseof the
qfrene slownessof nuclearionnres of
s i@ binenls, high degres of silica
snpdsaruationcd bmainlainedin the
soludonfor quitc long periodsof tihe.
Tnis favous tne develolfenr of
oscilatory diff@ntiatio. of gelatinous
marsi,L f(ming agarebmding.
rexha i6 qTicallyfomedin opm
60@a hydrclhsn l solutionwtu(h

Collof(m rdtue in cnat donicquM is


inheriredflon orieinol silica gel. The
strongsu"f4e te.sion of rhsilica sel is
Espdsible for thercu.dedor tidney lile

CrNtif{m te$w is F comon thatit is


consideredr diagnosticf.atuc or
epithemal veins (Buchanan,1981).
Repetldve
beds of dilTcMt @nlosition
or rerture @flect fluciuating concensationsof eleme.tsin solutionand
nuctuaringflnid conditionsdu.ing
precipirarion.
Thesefluctuationsare
omonly asdib.d to pciiodicboilingof

Reoysiallisationtertures
All silica ninerals excepr qurtz @
merastable.
Aft! dposirion,
rheyhavea
tendency
lo Fesfom to qudz. Thesia
ed gendalappemce of qudz f@cd
aier anorphons silica @ chalcedony
dep.d;npor tmy facroaincludingthe

nrclertio. nechanism, inni


*arer
contenror ano.lh ous silica, renpcrarue,
and composnionof the pore soluriod.
Tide. high remperatun,high pH, hiEh
sdinnyandrhepresence
ofdissolved
Mg
have all been found ro lavou. ihe
tansfomarion ol amorphoussilica ro
chalcedony
or quartz(Fournier,1985a).
Anorphous silica rhat h dcpositedar
depthis likelyto conveti.lrtiv.ll, npidly
to .hdcedonyor qudtz, owidg ro high

M o s s r c r r u r ot r e s e N e sa r . r i g i o ! i
spheroidal gel texlure duriig re
cryiallisation ro chalcedon!or quarz.
'lhe
spheroidrl gel sncrure may be
lomredcnhcrbyrhyrhnricdcFosnion
ol
silrca ecl a.ourd a nuclcussuch as a
tbreientdicle, or anedll, silitupi{ricle,
or by sc.ondrrydilfnsio. duing drying
ot $ater-nchgelairous na@nrl. Very
high dcgreesol silica supersarmrion,
trhich lcad o the lonnarionol highly
viscoos
hllenal aDdrclarively
eelannous
hiSh te.rperarures,vhich larour re
crysrallhation, are rcquired lor rhc
tomrationof mossrexrure.
I,licr.plrmosercxrureh6 beeonoredby
Adans (1920),*ho callcdit learhered
or'tlanboyanr', andconsidered
ir to be
re*ricted to $trficial cnvironments.
Sanderd dr (1988)illLNraredsamptes
frod someepirhemalveins,whi.h shov
plumoseextincrionin rhe rnn ol conb
qudtz w'rh a cleu clhedralcore.They
sugges ths iexrurecould .esult lrcn

eirh.rirecry$allisarion
of chalcedony
o.
qhich
amorphoussilica
lomed a coatins
or euhcdJalqudzi or by accumnladonof
domalns
of qu.nzcry$ahes whichgEw
individuailyb o!n spaceberorebeinE
.oated.The nsr loi (Ecry$dlisadon)
perhaps is also rpplicable ro rhose
samtles which show welt developed
plunose extin.tin throughourqrdrz
crriah and scaiteredrandonly $nhin
ganular.lDdz aggregares
In this cxse,
n,cro prumose
Gxnrreperhaps
repsenr
e ' r h e r a n i n r e . n r e d i a r es t a s e o l
r.cry$auhation or rhe producr ol
interfecr FryMllisarion.
Rcplacementtertu.es
From rhe c.nrarison of noDhological
ae ures berpeenquadz and possible
rrory ninerals(like.dbon e, $lrare.
elc ) Ne suggest
tharmos tar ce bladed
iextoF r.sults honr rellacenent of bladed
cmonatc by 'iudz. Thc exEenerhnrnc$
of blldes, lanellar paiings, .honbohodral cleavage and wcdee tike
rernnaton aE cheactenyics ot lrimary
bladed.arbonate.Thc rranslordarion
appeus to r.volve overgrcwrhof rhe
b)adeby line.omb lite qDdtzsranNas
well xs conb like Erowlhalongtameltar
paftineswithin rhe bllde, presunrbly
dunngft dissolLlion
(Platel8).
h ehon blndcdtexhre rhebladeforn h
only deliled by concentarions of
Lnturties retalnedftom rhe orisinal
nnrcol du.ing replacenenrby quanz

(Plate l9). The replacins quutz is


granular and interlocldns and not
influencedi. gni. roft o. dislributionby
the onshal bladedtexr@ (Plac 20).
Peallel bladedten!, could rsult fmn
rellacme.r of grelld calcite by qudz
6rong.epearedlameuf pdlng planes.
The lamelld lding, which is pdalel to
lhe basalpildoid ol cdbonatecrystals,is
the mosi proninant or aU norrhologic
fealures of carbonatein epirhernal
enyironmenh.Replacementproceeds
alongtheseplmes nde elsily thanalong
rhonbohednl clavageplanes,as nored
by Adams (1920). This selecriv
replacenenl yields a sel of panllel
stuctureswithin bladedpseudonorphs
which de displayedunderrheniqosole
eithd by di|felent grain si4 of qudz, bt
prefded onenkrion of qufiz snins o.
by difierent content of impuiiries (Plate
22). The or;ntation of cleavageplanesol
individual bladesis the sane wnhln each
Erolpi which indicates ihar each grout
lelrsenls a sirgle cdbonar crysral.
OTHER MINERALS
Mindals otier thtu qudz de como. in
elithemal velns. Then distrlbution md
a useful ald to the
interpreiation of textural zones in

Aduldla h a vdiert or ( fldsptr wnh a


weakly ticlinic ciysral strncture and a
pseudo-orthorhonbicoysul fom. It is

mosl commonln epithrmalvei.s as


while or pinL rhonbic crysals lining
codb qualtz veins or i. tustifom bands
(Pl es25, 34). Ii has orsobeenobsewsi
as mossaggregatesassciated witn noss
quartz and chdcedony in crusrifom
bands (Plate 32) and as ass!gatsof
nedres f@ins disftd @stif(m buds
(Pla& 23). h many exanples, the
aduldia is vdiably eplaced by kaolinile

Anethvst is a despdent to rrestucenl


tuTle to paleviolet vdiery of crystanine
quanz. Its colou is genqauy imeIlrered
to result from rhe !.esnce of Fe. It is
commonin epi&emar veins,pdicularly
ln crustifom bands rhere crbonate is
presentand in bladedreplaceneniof
(Plate19).Howevd, it is not
carbonare
consistendyprt of o. limird to lbese
aNocraions and h.nce has nor been a
very usefulgnideto texturalzones.
Carbonateminerals are common in
epithe@l veinsmd exhibit a pide trge
of compositionsMd texr@s lhat cs be
used to mrdpret rexrural zones. In
addition,mod crbonale minenls may be
dissolved and rellaced by qudz lnder
eprthmal conditjonsso that rhee is ale
a rangeor quM rellaceme.r re{ws lhat
aid interpEtationof xtulal zones.Some
othd relatively solubleninerals such as
sulrates,nuoddesmd z@lites also@cur
in epnhmal veins@d fiey aln dhibir a
range of prinary and reptacenent
rexNes. However.tneyd not c@mon

enoughfor thei. full textural variation ro

For cubonares,crystallineandsraruld
(Plare28)
assrecates,
bladcdaggEsates
andno$ aegegatesre nos connon.
Crystalline ca.bonatelorms frassive
zonesr$ociatedyirh chal.edony
in some
veins.lt is.ommonlyEplacedbypaallel
bladcdquartz.MoE discFrecrystah nxy

ealenalrc nosr comnonly asociared


Fith crysalline qnutz in na$ive or
cnrsntbm ager$tes (Plare2?)
THD TEXTURE ZONING MODEL
A synenraticevalultion of the venicaldd
honzonraldisribudon of rexrucs within a
nmber of epnhcmalveinshasled to the

be dispcaedthroushchalcedony(Plate
16) or Eroe in .ru$iform bands or
ovrriesassociared
sirh cry$allinequdz
(Plare36).B ladedcdbonaFoccusonns
own (Plate 28) in asociation wirh
nassive chalcedonic
quanz whe.en h
vanably retl&ed by qudrz (Plates17,
18,29)or 'n ctunifom bondswher it is
0ko va.irbly replacedlPlarcs19, 20).
Fine eranuh and nros .arbonareis
a s s o c i a r c dw i t h n o s s q u a r t z i n
.rusirom collofom bands.

deyelopnenr
ola rexturalnodel (!ig. t).
scventexruralzoneshavebeendefined
lrom the recognnion ol iextural
asemblagesandrheschavebengrouped
inro threesuperzones.
Tte $Derzones
represenr fundamenral changes ln
pEdonxrer rcxtureswhcreasthe zoncs
virhin each superzonede definedby
.hangesLn subsidiaryminerah or rhe
relanveproportioisol Exturalrypes.No
textureN necessanlyexcluded
ftonr any
of rhezonesbut rheanes tre nanedfor
$e pndominantrexrus.

S u l l i d e m i ! e r a 1 sd c r i n e a d i s r i n c t
ninenlogi.al andchemicalzoningpasem
that is $ in(e$al par of Buchanan!
epnhemalvein nrodel(Fig. l) Ar hand

The ChrlcedonicSuperzone(CH) is
dominatedby chalcedonicqulrz. The
threezoneswithin it ae d.fined by the
rerarrve protonlons of !ssociared

specrmcnscalerlrerearc o.ly general


textural va.iarions. Fine grains ol
diseninatedpyriteoccrin samples
*ith
oassive.halcedoaic,bladedaid Doss
quutz. Delicatebandsand
saccharcidal
parchesor ve.y fine gmined sulfides,
sultusaltsand selenidesm lssociared
pirh collofom cru$ifonn bandedqudz
(llate 26, 32, 34). Dis.rcre, euhedral
g.ains of simple sulfides (Pyrne,

catuonare
or bladedpseudonoryhs
afier
carbonarc.
The uppemon o. Carbonar
Zq! Ias not often becnobservedand
nay be obscureln onrcropbecauseor
weathedng of ca.bonate.The zone
consis of massivecrysklline or granulr
carbonatewith bands or nasses ot
.halcedony.weathedngpns or nolds
attercuboiate cry$ds nay be presen(
(Plate16) i. rhe chalccdonyand nay

dsenopyite, chal.olyrire, sphaierirc,

include sone pnrallel bladed qudrz

10

i f

* !

. J 5: :
i i
i :

: E :

E;
: i

E iE
E EE

= I I
3 E i

Ei

!
E

ai"

iE

qi
a:
9i

9l

EJ
3

.E::,

i, qo
:le,i
=iji:
!:1-!

Fi"!E

iEEI

! ii!sirii3c:E#i$

3F3
l;!

iFi;
;i:E
i = i BE

='l:+
E

E;

E:ii
:H!i

qEs"i
r6Et
F;Ei
9

rormed by prinary or seco.dary


@pl&enentof thecdbonare.Theovenll
textu@ls ma$ive lo fudely bdded.
The Bladed Zone Eradesflon the
CarbonateZone by an incPasein rhe
Eladv !rcponion ol bladed ro massive
pseudonoryhs.
carbonate
andassociated
The mosl conooD fom is massive
.har.edonicqu6E *nh patches
o. cnde
(Plare29). Clear
bandsDf latrice'blades
crynalline quadz or anerhy$ nay be
present between blades (Plare 29).
Toward the CarbonareZone bladed
cubonate, molds after bladed carbonate
or plnially replacedbladesmay ocur.
Tow.rd $e Massile Chalcedoniczonetle
pbpordon of lari.e blades!c chllcedony
d*reases and rhc bladsare generally
sm.ller a.d moro confinedto bands.
l n t h e M a s s i v o C h a l c e d o n i cz o n e
chalcedony
doni.ates.ln handspecimen
dre chalcedo.yappeusma$ive but on
poli shedsurfa.es an iregular syirling or
crudelybanded.hldcier is definedby
colour.h,nees (Plarel0l. In the npper
pd or de zonesomeof rhe bandsnay be
latticebladed.In the lo*er lan or rhe
zonebandinsmay be nore regrld dd
he.cc moro like agate.Ehewheredre
chalcedonynay have nos textuF in

The CnNtiforn C.lloforn Superzone


lee) is narked by the developmentor
consistentbanding.
Thereis a widerange
of texrdres and ninerab snhin drc

Supezone but rhey re arnost endely


dhposedwithin bands.Tlr Supeuoneis
someehararbitully divided inro iwo
zonesbasedon the Elative prcponionsol
ba.ds wnh chalcedo.icmd nNs lexruEs
as opposedro crysnlline(saccbmi&I.
comb andzonedcrystal) teatures.
Th6
u..er hne has chalcedonlcand moss
bandsdoninant over clysrallinebands
dd hasassociatedmossaduldia, blrded
cubonare,larice bladesmd fine gralned
(PlaF31,32).Collorom
bandedsuhdcs
bandins is betd dcreloped in this zone
bectuseol the abundanceof chalcedony.
The lower zone has crystaUinebands
donrnant over chalcodonicand moss
bands and has associated needle
crlnalline adulRriaand disseninated
crtnalli.e sulfidesas vtl as sullide
b a n d s ( P l a r e s1 3 , 3 4 ) . W l t h i n r h e
Crustifom Collofom Sutezone thereis
noi only a chang lron doninant
chalcedonicto doninmt crysralli.e qum
bu1aho a changeln dominanrqDaiz
cry$dl form from sacchroidal to zoned
crysralsro clee codb (pnsmatic)crynals

T h e C r t r s r a l l i n e S u p e r z o n ej s
cha.acterisedby the associarionof
crysEumequdz vi$ .rysulline aduldia,
sulfides and calbonate.Chalcedonic,
collofom, nos md bladed extuEs ffi
virruauyabsenr,
burctustifon bandsm
codmon. The crtnalline quarrz is
dodinantly cler andpnsnatic but zoned
crynals and sac.haroidalquarrz are
presentlocally. Withln the Supezone

12
there is a Cereral decreasein the
propoiions of suifides and adulda and
incrasin the prcponion or crystalline
crbonat intdsdnal to oyst lline qudz

known zo.es, or adjustedusing rhe


equadonprovldedby Bu.hmm (1981)
vhere fluid incLusion dara allows
irterpretation of salinny for rhe

going downPad- The breal to doninant


inrdstiriai cdbonaleis nsedto distinguish
theca$allineoudrz + adularia+ sullide
md cry$slline qudz +crbonate zones.
The Exrural nodel (Fis. l) can be
conpared with rhe ahelation,ore and
gansue zonins nodel proposed by
Buchanan(1981).Enpirically thereis
good coopanson beNn the seneral
sequenceof ninerls ud dxturs dd lhis
allows cros-checkingvhen tyirg ro
e$ablnh vnical position within a
sy$en. Mos ocuences represnt only
a pofrion of rhe iddnen nodel ed mos
well nineralised occurrenceshave
additional conllexnies lelared to
bMcixtion bd multiphaseoverprinr
In usiDslhe overalt nodel the fu$ sep is
to establisha spadal and paragenetic
zo.ing seqlcnccror the depositbeing
evaluated.Whft good vodi..l exposure
or dJii inf(mation is availablea venical
scalecan be assigndto the zo.es and
conpared with the scale a$isned by
Buchanan(Fig. 1). The scalecalculaled
(r981)assunesboilingor a
by Buchanan
fluid with an i.itial 2.84veight per.enr
NaCl, fiis is an averacefor lne deposns
ror vhich Buchanmcompileddatatud
henceis a sensibleb ubnary rcfftnce.
In evaluatinsGcuftnces the scalecanbe
adjustdro reflct the aciual posilion or

ln nos eell nineralisdoc.u@nces,


particularly bonanza veins, ore ls
developedin dGmte sh@h widin lord
srade or bmn veins or lodes. From
expedenceto date, ore shoots are
charadensedby assemblagesof texture
thatdistinslishthemfmm the adjacent
veins. The ore shoo* rend to be
domi.aied by rextures iroo the
Crutiloin-Collofom Sulerzone and
oie. conrai. brcciN wnh clastsand
narix whosetexrres aho Epresentthis
Superzone.The adjaceil vein may
rpresentany or the tex$ral anes bur is
Eenerallylinired in rems of the nunber
of zonespEsenrmd rhe.dgc of teatms
within erh zo.e. Many b@n lodesa1s
consist of variably silicified and
brecciatedwallro.k and this needsto be
dhtincuhhd flon chalcedonico. otber
vein qudz befoe a texruralevaluaiionis

ORIGIN OF TEXTURAL ZONES


TheBuchanmnodel (Fig.l)ls scaledas
a sinsle pa$ boiline sy$en and fie
zoningpattens e inerpetd in tud or
rhebehavio!. of fluid undelgoingboiling.
Sinlluly the textural nodel can be
interlreredin lelaiion to boiling, The
Cry$alline Superzoncrepresdt the

13
tonion ol the model bclow the level
whe.e boifirg r.Lcs place.The Cru$i,
romr Collofom Superzoncrcpresentsfte
tlo phaseor boilins inteNxl and the
ChalcedonicSupe.zonerelrcscntsthe
interal in whichstem dcriledfrom lhe
boilinginteNalcondenscs
ornixes wirh

The zoningol qDdz (and.alcne) rextuEs


in genenlshoulddepcndon thesolubihy
or and lre kinericsol drsoluiion and
pfeciFnadonof variouslorns of sili.a
and cal.ilc. AlrhoughtheE is enough
intirlnadonod thesolubililyofsilicaand
calcft nr hydJothcmrlfluidslFounier.
1985r)iherearevery limir.d dataon rhe
kircticsof dhsolutionandpFciFnarion
of
rhesenincrals{Rimnidr& Bdnes,1980;
Brady & waxher, 1990jDove & crer.r,

ExperiDredallt
d.teftined sohbihricsof
commonsilicaninerlls in pnrewarc.ar
vaF. pressurc
FeratuE.Ar ea.hrenpedrureamoehous
sili.a is moresolLrble
dft chllcedoDy
ud
.halcedonynore rhadquinz (Fournicr,
1985a).At 2s'C in.rersedpE$ure hrs
litdeeffecionthesolubil,ry
olsilicabnrar
highcr temperarures (>l00oC) dre
solubiliiyrapidlyincrcases
$ith presur.
Below300'C no{dnsolved salrsexccFl
NlzSOa causea slighrdecrease
in rhe
solubiliryof ano.phoussitica Addnion
o f N a 2 S O 4i r c r c a s e st h e s o l u b i l i l y
atldenrly thrcughrhefomrarionofsilica
sulraie conplex.s (Fournier, 1895a).
Above 300'C rlE solubilityolquxiz is

xno*n to rncEasewnh incFrse in lhc


sdinity of fluids (Fournie.,1985a).As
HiSiol renains rhe dominantforft of
dissolvcd
silicain acidicroneurrallluids.
the solubility remxins independenr
of
chanCes
in pH. ObseNltions
basedon rhe
gcorhemalflnids h.ve shown rhat a1
rcnperatures> 200'C quarz conb\ the
silicr saturationin fluids. Chal.cdoiy
*hich hashiehersolubilitythanqMnz,
$ans conrrollingthe silicasantration
!t
lorver lenpe.atures(Foumier, l98sa).
Thus deposirionof ano+hous silica,
wh'ch r a condon pEcipihre in these
environnenG,requireshigh leveh of
silica supersarurarion
wnh rcsFectto
quanz. This can be a.hieved undcr
specilic conditionsin rho epirhemral

ln conra$ ro sili.r, ihe solubili(yof


cabnc (rnd orherctrb.naF, n a funcrion
ol noronlyT, F burlsoof rhesolubiliry
olCOz i. the flnidsandlarrid prsure
of COI At tempenrures
>l t5oc Henrys
law connxnt(KH: Rxriooffugaciryof
CO2and(henole ftacion orCOzin thc
fluid) increases
wnh Lrl in renrperxrdre
indicaring
ihrt on coolin! CO2panidons
in iavour of rhe gaseousFhase.Beloy
l?5'C, KH lalls wirhaallingrcbperaturc
rhereby
rcvc^ingrhetuend&d COzsMs
tivouring the fluid lhase (EIh &
Golding. 1963). The expedmenra]ly
dermined solubnnyorcatciEdecrcases
wrh in.rease in renleraruE (rehgrade
solLrbihy)andincFass wnh norhernal
increasein the salinnt andlanial pEssre
of COr (Ellis, 1959t1963).At a lixed

&mpentue tne solubilily of calcite in a


fluid in eqnlibnm wirb its valos phase
indeaseswith incre$e in the ptnial
pressE of CO2 until mcoz= 1 nole^g

gases.Purc sat r at 250'C will strn


boill.g at a hydrcstatic dpdr of 460 n
whdeas 10 M % .q Naq ndd wiu boil
at a sh.llDwer dpth ol 390 m (Haas.

(segnn e, al, 1962).At a l*ed tor6l


pressur, d isolhemal inc@as. in th.
concent.atjonof CO2 increases the
solubility of calcite nntil sco2 = 1

1971). In conran, warer comairi.g


dissolved CO2 sill sht boning erlid
i.e. ar Iteate! depths.In rh epithmal
environnent, the composilion of
successlvebatchesof fluids bovins
upYdds is not expated 10changnuch
although lower teoperatu.es of these
fluids night movethe anes of successiye
boilingupwtrds.Additionally,selective
ed pdial sealingdue to silicincadon of
rccks a1rhe shalloNerlevelsvill also
nov the boiling bne upPdds.

mole/kg and decrass st higher


concenrrarions of CO2 (Sharp &
Kenftdy, 1965).These$udies shos ttat
loss of CO2 and dilution are 1henain
f&tds controlling depositionof calcite,
{heras cooll.g of fluids makes thc
nuids nndersaturated
wnn respectto
calcne causing dissoLurionof earlier

Tr?ical epithemal fluid is a CO2 bedins,


pE neutral fluid rith d avehge salinity
of < i
7' eq NaCl (Eedenquist &
tlenley, 1985). Such a fluid, Phile
movingupwardsalongde channelyay,
Dndrg@sreversible expanslon and at
sone polnt, when lbe valour pressue of
de Jruidexceedithe hyd&$atic p6su,
stuts boillng (jreversible adiabatic
expansion).Along the channelway,
dpnding on the shapes of th
chdnlway (consricrionsed bdget lne
fluid can undergo lss vigorous
iftv6ible expmsionknown 4 thetding
(Bdlon & Toulnin, 1963).The deprhat
which the ascendins fluid undergoes
boiling dep$ds on ihe renperature,
salinity andthe concentationof di$olved

Below the imediate boilins zone,wheE


the fluid cools sradually by Evelsible
xpansion,lelarively sloq condnionsof
precipitation dominare and rhe silica
saturation is contolld by quartz.
Threfore this zone is expected to be
characterisedby the deposnio. of
crystalline qudlz (supezone x) shich
could be acconpaniedby basm.tal

In the zone of boiling miLed by iapid


los of volatiles,increaseid pII and
cooling, the condnionsol deposition r
m!.h nore .apid. Rapid ioss of COz
causespecipilationof calcne,wh@as
lncrede in pE Esults in de fomaiio. of
potashfeldspd. Sisnilicant cmling due
to adiabatlcqpdsion cm ruke de flnid
sup.rsaruraledvith respecrto chalcedony
and amorphous silica and cause

1 5
amorrhous(sel) silica ro precipnate.
Rapid raresof cryshllisarionre aho
rer]eqedi. rhe typeof potashleldspd
(aduldla) chaiacte.isedby a hish deEe
ol disorder in the oystal symmetry.
Zonesof crustifom+collofom banded
quaitz very commonin the Superzone
CC,Giiect Epeatedepisodes
of boiling.
Brccciaveinswith aragmensof edlirroined banded quartz also indicarc
successive
boilineevens.
If theadiabaiic
expansion
is inrensi!ebd
thefluid .ools whilerapidlyascending
ro
rhcsurface.ltcanb4ome supesarumred
enh respecito anoDhous sili.x and
dcposngel silicair rhelorn oasinrcaor
sili.ify ihetoou\ groundwate.ichrock
genrati.g rhe silica cap connonly
obsded in nany epnhemaldcposirs.
Experimenral$udies on rhe .ryixl
Erowth of calcite have indicaredthar
calcitc groving in fluids nuted by fdl in
thc acdvnyof carbonote
ionshaveacute
rhombohedrll shapes (Kirov cr al.,
1970).Thererore
calciEdeposiring
dueo
bollingand los of COr anda$ociaEd
drop i. rhc activiiy of roralcdbonare&d
,ncreasein rhe acrivityol calciur arc
expeciedro lbrn massive eranulRr
aggregates
raihe. rha! rxbula.(bladed)
foms. Rxrid deposniorfollowingrapid
nucleadonpill alsoassisrin rhefomarion
of nne-grain d lmnular aggregates.

In geothernalsyiens shallo! levelse


ndked by a Rell-dcvelopedzone of
mixing.ln a largenumbe.ofepnhemal
detosnsnixhg bctweenvo difercnt
lluids has been indicated by fluid
inclusion !.d $able notope *ldies
(Eayba er ,1.. 1985: Iledenquist &
Henley, 1985), Within georherdal
sy$ems,rhreeendDemberfluids have
beenrccognned(Hedenquisr
& Henley,
1985):COr beannschloridenuids (he
naln ore-.ftying fluid)r icrn he.red
nereoric nuids or acid suuate-bicdbonare
compositioni and nixed oxidising

rn d'e cpnhemalenlimndntrheinitill
nixidg of nearneural chto.idefluids
nsing ratidly afrerboiling and cooting
canlcadro the formarionofa silicacnp
dueto silicificailon of n\e ncronc rareF
rich aquiferrcck.liis silicacap,dneto
hiSh porosiryand fra.turins mainrains
mxss and heat ransld bet*een rhc
mcreoncandnedrEuhl chloridelluids
in the earlier nages or ns fomarion.
subscquent
boiling e!entsresulrin rhe
condensarion
ofrbe acidicEascs
in ro rhe
cooler,oxidiscdmeieo.iclluidsc&sing
argillicand advan.edsgillic alrerarion.
ExFenmentaliudies have shoen drar
qlafiz (and amorphoussilica) in acid
nuids at 2000io 350'C dissolvesand
precrpnaresvery slowly (Fournler,
1985a).
Theprese.ce
ofH+ ionsin acidic
fluidsaho inhibnsthepolymcr(arionof

dissolved sil;c!. Theiefore n is posslble


$ai the acid sullale bicrbonate fluids
keepsilica dissolved,the oncenedon of
which in the rilids nisht additionally
teep on inoeasing due lo a.gillic
afterationof silicales.causi.g exrFne
supersatrralion witb rspect to
morrhous silica.The fomation of silica
mightbee addnional
sulfatecomplexes
lactorincEasing silicajupcnatuation of
rheflnids.Mixing ofthcse acidicfluids
with near-.e!tral chlodde fluids (pH
ncuralisins)wilLprecipitacano.phous
silica, recry$allising into massive
chalcedony(SupezoneCH).
Swe-one CH is chdacterised by large
quaflzbladesFplacing carbonate.
Thc
precipirationofcalcite sh.llow lerels is
very problenatic, ddnly due to rhe
retrogdde nature or ns solDbnny. It h
rossible tharnixing of CO2releaseddue
10boiling ol fluids ar deeler leveh vnh
cooler meteoiic flDids nighr cause
prcipitiaiio. oacatne dueb anincEase
in thc roralcrbo.ate concentation rDthe
lluids. At loser tenpentures nost of rhe
ptrritioning of CO2 soes in favou. of lhe
fluid phase.Theelore CO? dissolves
noE readily to give F2COr vhich at
lower tempenluresdnsoclarcsnore
intensively,leading
to an lndcascin the
activitiesof HCq and COI 2 ions.Ir
thishtue, thenrheexpenmennlstudies
ol 0<nov d al., 19t0) sussestravourable
condnions for tbe fomalion of bladed
aggrcgatesof calcite. Ir is po$ible that
bubbling of hotrer plunresol CO2 in the

merenc lluids withln rhe aquifer mjghr


causethesefluids to becomesa$rared
Nith respect lo calcite becausethe
solubility of calcite decreaseswith
i.crease in iempe.ature, If the
grou.dwareraquiferG epresentedby
calcdoDsrocks, nixins of the neteonc
riuids with hor fluids moving upwa.ds
arongrhchmnelvay could inducecalciF

Overprinring by later, more silica


saturaredacid sulfatefluids vill stan
dhsolving carciEandreplacingthen wi$
into
amor?hous
sih.a.laterrc.rysbllising
chalcedonyor fine-grdnedcry$alline
qudz. The pEsenceofamerhy$in thn
zonecan aho berela&d 10mixing wheie
Fe+3 dueto nde oxldisingcondnio.s,
dopessilica givlng it a puryle .olorr
(Folrnier, 1985a).The brmtdown of
non beanngcdbonatescan serueas a

Recrlstallisation and rplacment


ReFla.em.nr
rcxruiesconmonlyseenin
ganAuominerls of epitnemal deposns
d mostlt relaied to de replacemenrof
cakne (crbonateo by qudu. Catne 0d
all othercdbonarescan beeasiLyreplaced
bt silicadneb rheirEtosmde sohbiiny.
Thus overpnnring by cooler fluids sill
dl$olvc cdbonxtelrecipiraredetrlir ud
nplee n Nirh si]i.a. The lrge amonnrs
or CO2eleased &on boiling nuids nove
fasG. ihan the resldual fllid due lo their
highervolatility.Thosechbnelsof CO2

17
gas will eadily dissolvea.y cdbonate
becauselhe isothernal solubility ol
crbonate in-eases wnh increasein lhe

Moss and nicropldnose textues fomed


by rc.rystallisarion
of anorphoussili.a
in rhe massive
chalcedonic
andmos chalcedonic
zones.
Expenmetalstudieshaveindica'eddrar
line, hish emperature,hish pH, high
saliniriydd thelEsen.eof dissolved
Mg
lavor rccry*llisation of morphous sili.!
(Four.ier, l98sa). The Fludes of hot
vapoDr,snh COr and HzS releaseddue
to boilins,passingthJoughrhe colunns
ol earlierprccipiratedsilicacould be a
good sourceof high lenperaturc needed
for .ec.ystallisarion.ln addnion, 'he
residualfluid which is Elatively more
salineand has a higherpH .oDld a\o

DTSTRIBUTION OF COLD
GRADD
In lhe Buchanan
nrodelrherede specinc
inteNals lhat hod basemd preciousncr.l
mineralisation(Fis. l). In rhe rextural
model the precious netal inteNal
essentiallycorespondsto lhe Crustifom!
Colloforh iextural Superzoneand the
basenetaliDtewalove.lilpsrhe crysElline
> noss + chalcedoniczone and the
crysrallinequanz + adularia+ sulfLde
zone (Flg. 1). In practice rhis
gencallsation holds very sell. Mos
importa.dy,the Chalcedonic
Supenone

which is !m!ly nineialned overlies dre


weil mi.eralised Crustifom Collofom
Superzo.e.In mineralisedsystemsrhe
eenenl experie.ceis thal sdples fiom
lhe Chalcedonic Superzone carry
gold gradeswhdeassamples
anomalous
fron rhe ChalcdonicSuperzonein
p@rly mineralisedsys.d de barcn.
Poor assays of samlLes fron 1he
crustlrom Colloforn Sup.rzone are
generallydis.ouragingfor rhe sy$cn asa
whole, but orc shoot characrerisrics,
laniculrly vein breccias,should be
cmfuUy cneck.d.wnhin the Cn$ifomColloforn Superzone, subsidiary
textures,paiicuhny sunde b.nds and
moss or needleadnldia, r shongly
associatedwnh hish gmdesin a nudbe.
of studiedsystens. The ideal samplefo.
g.ade haswell developed@stifom and
collofom bands,wnh or wldout bracia
rexture,but wnh good suuide bands,
mossor needleadulria Md s&chdoidal

Assaying of .haracter samples has


denonsrratedrhar within individual
deposnsrhde is a consisrenrgrxderanee
lor each lexture assemblage.For
cxanple, at Wool8ar the Nsenblage
bladedcubonare+ bladedpseudonorphs
+ nasivc chalcedonicwhich characterisesrhesurf&e exposue ol the ln$
World vein rftly has grad better rhan
0.7 eh Au. ln condast,the asemblase
ctustifom + @Iofom + zonedc.ystals+
mos aduldia + sulfide bandsintersecren
in drill co.e in rb sdmevein typically
asrays bette. ihan 4 g,/t Au. Chra.ter

satutlingof rhn ryFecan be usedto


model$ar s
enablisha gr&lcdisbibtrrion
unrc{cdvclnsor
usefulfor evdluaridg
pafisolveiosvithinthsanesyscn.

txMal model noE apprcprixteto rhese


sv$enNneedsto bee$xblhhed.

APPLICABILITYOF THE
Z O N T N CM O D E L

Adams,S.F.,1920.A ni.ros.opic study


ofrein qnafiz:Econ Ceol.,v. 15,p.

M.s of rhc eradplcs usedto e$lblish


both Buchanml (1981)hodel and thc
texturalnodel preseoted
herewouldbe
cla$iliedasdlldia scncrcrypcveinsin
rlreschenre
ol Ha-r,ba
4 dl {1985) F.r
rhemi'eralnatun(
acidnnfarcdeposirs
moreco.rmonlyhosledin silicasullide
Eplxcemenrbodiesand inegularlodes
thanin dkretc simpleleins. The reins
thai are preseoitennlly hrv. onl! a
hniled raneeol ftxturesco.rprnble io
rhoseiir Ihe lower hall ol rhe nrodel.
Sinrilarll thcr. dc a nu b.r ol nddicd
vein distric$ in the Phililpines,
Iod.ncsiqFili andColomdd*h.r theft
is r tredamio)nce of cry$rlline aod
sx.charcid!l quatz, nore carbonare
sultulesan{l !ulfidesio crusifon aod
cockadetextuEs,les adulnia and l.s
chnlcedorlc,bladcdand noss tcxturs.
The co'nnroreeoloCiclearuresof th.se
occuFefces n a seiiinE ir atrdesiric
$rarovoicanoes and/ora closc!c. cti. Iink
betweenveins
andintennediare
to alkali.
inlrusions.It is vell doc0nrenred
rhrr
dany geoihemralsysenN hosed $
ardcsilic smtovolcanics are hiEher
rente(ntre, hale a Sreaternagmalc
fluid corponent and havc a diffe.nl
htd(nogic reainrecompdedynh |hen
couoreDafisrn rhyolnic .aldcras(e g.
Henley& Ellis, 1983)Thesedifferences
aE reilecred
r dr lcxruEbd mine'rlogy
of th rssocirledepirheflml venx. A

REFERENCES

B d o i . P B . l r . & T o u l m i nP, . , 1 9 6 1 .
Sone nechuisrs for cooling
hrdmnremalfluids:U. S.Cological
Sovey, P(fessional Plper, 424 D.
Bradr, P. v., & Walther,J. V., 1990.
K,d.ri.s.f qlartz dhsolurionrt low
rempeftttresChen. Ceol.,v. 32, t.
251 254.
BnchxDm,L. J.. 1931.Pre.iousnreial
depois associated*ith volcanic
envtroohents in .he sourhwen:
Arizona6eol.So..Digcst.v 1,1,p.
231 261.
Dovc. P. Nl. & Cerlr D. 4., lr90
Krtre!cs of quaiz dissolLiion in
electrolrre solurions using a
hrdrorh.rdal hixed flow reador:
Ceochnn.Cosnrochin.Acra, v. 54.
Dowling,K. & Mornon, G.lV., 1990.
Applicnriooofqudz texruresro rhc
classitrcarion
of gold dposirsusing
\oih
Q u e e n s l a n de x s m p l c s :
EcoD.Ceol.Moroenph 6. tp 342
355.
l l l i s , A . 1 . , 1 9 5 9 .T h e s o l L b i h y o f
calcitein carbondnJxidesol,ri..\:
A n . J . S c i v. . 2 5 ? ,p . 3 5 4 3 6 5 .
lll(, A. t., 1963. The solDbilny of
calcitenr soditrdchldndesolnion\ ar
hightempenius:Ad.J.Sci..v 261,
p.259-261
Ell(, A. J & Golding,R. M., 1963.Thc
solLrbiliryof .arbor dioxide above
1 0 0 " C i n w a ( e ra n d i n s o d i u n r
chlondesolutions:An.J.Sci.,v261,

t9
FoDmld,R. O.,1985a.Thebehaliourof
silica in hydrorhemalsolftions:i.
Berser,B. R. & Berhke,P. M. (edt
Ceology and geochemisry of
epnhmal syiens. Revlewsin Econ.
C e o l .v . 2 , ! . , 1 5 5 1 .
Fournier, R. O., 1985b. Carbonate
rin\nort dnd d.tusiron n rhe
e p r h c n r l e n \ r o n m e ni rr l e r r e r B
R.& Berhko,P. M. eds.Ceolosyand
g c o . h r m i s no f e n i r h e m s r ! e m s :
R e v i e w s , nE l o n C e o l \ . ) - o . 6 l
Haas.t. L., Jr., l9?1. The fied of
salinity o. the mrxinnm (hrnal
gradien*of r hydrcthemrlsrsremxt
hydrostaicpressuft:Econ.Ceot..v.
Hayba,D. O., Berhke,P. }'l., & Folev.
N ( . . l 9 9 i C e o l o q t rm
. nemroqic
A n dg e o ! h e n 1 l c h d r i . r ejr ! s o t
volcanj.-hosted
epirhchal Dre.ious
ncr,ldeoonA nBercer.A R ,!
B e r h k eP, M . . ( e d t a e o t o r J , n d
8eo!henikrry f epirhemr \1sem5
S o c i r r yo f E . o n o me C e o o c r n s .
Reviewsid Econoni. Ceotog!.y.2
p.129168.
Ited.nqui$, J, W., & llentey. R. tV.
r98s- The.inrpoflanceoi COz on
reeang porni neasur.nenrsof nuid
inclusions: Evldences fr.n
geothemd sysens andinrpli.ations
Io. epirhernatoE deposnion.
Econ
Ceol.,v. 80, p. 11791406.
H.dey, R. lv., & Elln, A. J., 19E3.
ceothermar systens, ancient a.d
nrodern:Eanh Sci.ncesRe!te*.. v
1 9 .p . l - 5 0
K i r o v , G K . , Y e s s c l i n o r ,L , &
Chcrnova.2.. 1972.Condnionr.f
fomrationof calcirecry$ah or hbdr
and acute rhonbohedral tabia:
Knnal and Technik.v ?. D. 49?

5nq

Leach. T.M.. 198?. Petrotosical


evaluadon
of thc coldenPlat,;,nn
Cent.l Exrendatwtite Eooe
- reas ot
the Cracow Minins Recion:
Unrub.reportfor Cosaln Ausiralia

Lrd., by ChaneredMi.cratosicat
Mo6c. I. W.. 1983 The kineticsof
calciun carbonatedissotutionand
f r e c i p i ' a r i . ni n R c e d e rR t , ( e d . )
c:rbonare\ mincrlloev Jnd
chcoistrr, Rcviewsin Mine;losv. y.
11,p.221-261.
Rlniidt, J. D., & Bmes, It. L., t980.
Thekinericsol silica-*atdErctions:
C e o c h r mC o s m o c h r m
A!n, \ 44.
p 1 6 8 11 6 9 9
Sander,M.v., 1988.Crysaltisationand
recrysrall isarionof solrh zonedvein
quaflz cry$als f.on epirhe.mal
st$ens - ibplication for fluid
n c l u \o n \ h r d i e \ E l o n . C c o, v 8 t .
rl1052-lr16)
S e g n i t ,E . R . , H o l t a n d ,H . D . . &
Biscrdi, C. J., 1962.The solubiliry
oi carcte'n aqucous
solDrionsI.The
solubihy of calcire in vater berween
7 5 ' l n d 2 u 0 o ci r C O ) t f e s u i e \ ! p
ro 6rr zrm Ceochm Co\nochrm
acta, v. 26,p l30t 1330.
shup, w. E., & Kcnnedy,6. C.. 1965.
ThesysemCaOCq.H2Oin rherwo
phasereeion cllcite a.d aqueous
\ o l u r i or . I o u r .o t C . o l o e \ .\ . 7 1 . o
l9l 401
WeEs, O., Yee, A., & Tsao,L., 1982.
Equniois Jnd ryne cu^cs for
p r e d , c r n Sr h e p o t l , m e r i s i r i ooi I
amorphous sili.a in eeothernal
brines:Soc.Petrot
Eng.Jo_u..
D 9 16.

T-20

--

21

PLATES

PRIMARY TEXTURES
PIATE1. MASSIW CIIAL@DOMC
CryF@rystalinequanz(chalcedony)wlh a nasslve fom, tylical wdy
luste andconchoidal
fretue, Binurr. NonhQueenslId.
Plat 2.

MASSI\aECEArcEDONIC
Ddse hedmEmDusagEEgateof crr?looy$alline quarE vlth locd sphencal
or bandeddomiN ed codsd (@ystallised?) patches.Qndz Hill, Nd6
Queenslffd,oosed polr.. f.ld of\re$ 5.4m.

PIATE3. BANDED CHArcEDONIC


Delicalely coloui bandedcnalcedony(agate)with lodl @[ofm bandsud
doss'cutting cryshllire (conb) qufz veins- Fraemenrin vei. bMcia,
Qn@ sin. Nonn Quensldd
Plate 4. BANDED CSALCEDONIC
Fibrous intmal habit with fibres onentedorlhogonal lo band frdgins and
opdcal continuity of fibres botwcensDbbmds.Typic.l chmcter of bandcd
&d somemassivecnaledony. Sm sdple as Plate 3, Qudtz Eill, Nonn
Queensland;cDss lolds, field of vier 5.4 .fr.
PI'tC 5. SACCI{AROIDAL
Massive fine exainedcrystaUinequanz aggrcgateeith the appeance of
sDgd. Crain sizc is vriable and is nig igntd by the corser teminared
crystalsin the caviti$. Antanok Mine, Bagdo disFict, Phnillirs.
Plate 6. SACCHAROIDAL
Inlerl@ki.s subhedralsnins ol n* unifon smin sirc. rncal find EEined
aggregalqs&t d .ucleii to cruderosettesof elong$e 6ystals- Sde spciren
asPIaE 5t m$ed nicols, field of viev 5.4 nm

PRIMARY TEXTT'RES

coMB

ce& b gi"y qrrn/ odrd co1\nrrg oi righ.) p&k@ subpm tel slrd s
o n e r i e op e r p e n d q i r r o d e b a r ds d ' s j r o s r j e a p p . t u t c e o r a a o n b .
LD .E \ r. ( ef,henJ"lrtm mLio-s d or cr d only rborbn .ide of ra. band)
msurm.!orb.m
brdrd veil wir chalc.donic
md ^ombquuz tidds,
H
Nm
vuflz
,
uueenslan4
ZONED CRYSTAIJ
E u h d d l q u d . c r y $ J " . w . ra
h l r e m a r i nc st e , . d d n , U r Jz o r , p a r l t eb,
n
e
c
r
y
,
a
r
l
c
e
s
[ 4 r l x Ju o n e " y e c r o * d . d
srcv
* i . f t r d i 1 l u " . o n \\.o E
oe pde-pLlreIm.r\!:n{
nno !f ot rheD,d ud rherFdce rhaDed
dtnab r(med by cmdeddol rd $af LF.-*1ao,orrn"5,.ati pd;f a
'
msuromqumvejn. QudD HiU.NodhQu*n ndir
COLLOFORMBANDS
fnebMdedchJledonywir , boEyodalrom ir crcs-$.rion @ a Ldre!
pan \rd e lnL.\ rheN? cattomo"chalfdonJ in.turotom
5e
buoi
vum Hxr,Nd Qu4nnMd.

',"9';;r*!m""'xyliH:i'itr:Jgy:
i'mt*rft

PIAT TO. CRUSTIFORMBANDS

mdety budedwnhmqs mdcoru q",,c. s"ot rot", pi;t"s. M;", N;;ii

CRUST]FORMCOLIOFORA4BANDS
clas-.! *holA or$e -tu.'rom,d remaDlC,ro aUotom , boryo
dal)
Mds.onnd- enchddcErisd.o"eoii-ndt \; n. BtLedrdqrureba;dsft
crdc4oly_ gF\ Md pllpt. brnds.onbqu&u r.ocatq/on"d cry.D .J
and
ftmj
yeltDqbdndsadu-drir.Cno.a1M;e..a\a. Sa;pte cof.sJ ot D
J

COCIGDE
C a i r f o r b r d . o f c o n b q u d / c h e d o n yM d s L t n o e oi v ^ , c r o q r r g
wo ock.ru orhs vein rraenenL Tr"ica ot v.,n bF
a $ v m r e dq r r h t u . j r o - ! o | o l m L c1 , .T e n e \ e l . C . 6 | n n & r r r e , 6J a

RECRYSTALLISATIONTEXTURES

Massiveto crudel,v
bandedaEgregate
of sphroidal grains vnh an overall
appedance
simild romo$ retetation.Pajingo,NonhQueensland,
dill hole
J M D l 7 l a t2 7 . r .
Plate 14. MOSS
_ edDJo.r'.:o1.o.
G r , p " t. .
. a " ' . o s p \ e r o d; ,, "
r p r n i e . l r . . \ -o s f ' . r h e p l . . l c p
{J reo-cosra,r , r l . " ' ! o , . e db ) . . - " r . - y , l l
qr ' / L I prrtr rT.ene. oriEinalsphcroidir
rextuE.Pajiirso,
r-oih eueensland,
aitl hoicJMD 173at
d 6 i o r T D orl - d g .
o \e.)ar'.
Pl,te 15. MICROPLUNIOSE
Fertheryappeencein doflains*ilhin qudz crtnds elaredto fomdion ot
crysallircsdo ng recryialtisarionof .hrlcedony.Crand Cenfial Vein.
woolEuNonh Qdc.ndrnd;cossednicots,fi.ld of view5.,1nm.
REPLACEITDNT TExTtTRES
t l J r c 1 6 , MOLDS
v d . i \ - . l J " J o 1 / , ' . p ol e o . , t . . \ i
.trbor-'loab.fl.-r?. .1, .^..e n.\b"rrJor o,p,r\
r'Fer. .r trorbJ.J
n/ogdFrn.d e'ofv&od-.n
procescsLo$ Worldvein. woolsrr Nor Otre.nnand.

.t.eo

LATTICE I]L{DED
A net*ork ol i asdi.g btldes$irh polyhedralcalnics tanly tinedby
ei'hddimr peudondFhsor o.icinjt
ludz cry$\ ThisExruErcFr4ents
\J.drdborr-o'Df,. ep.n-'" orra.ive r' t1e!-N,Jrr.,s
c - . \ , g " ' r L . r p . , - o o . - o b r . , . o t, . . o r o l
remJin,ngcdLonrrBimuna Noflh Qlccn\l Lnd.
LAMCE BLADED
A net*ork ofinrersecrinsbladeswhereeachbladeconsi$sota senesot
p s , " - . e 0 . . ,- J o / . J n ! ^ L
r y .o t r e \ 1 e c D . . a l.., o

,,)slilrF\ d
..L1s1'-r
'l/.bo....
.1
r\.n q. e .r,d-..I
k
B.mLr'.\
11O_-

ddo-?pno,.l'd,.o
. J. -os{n,o..

l'

REPI-ACEMENTTEXIURES
CI]OSTBTNDED
u"a,p*i'.m
iiJ"i ia"'mJi'

bv coicntationsof idllntier nthd $m

qq,1tl:
iiiri* ".Jlidl,""n"1 ti,d:: qaq*':
iilii'iii :ip.l.J
re\tinc-{
tom andh_gt'!I,F:sl:
tv'",,"'. prcssrs a bladd
Li"J*"

'
( ur"d
$ i $ ( o n c e n m u oon' r e da . d ) e l l o { o n o r r o ' s K e p r emenr
bdtawh:cl

#,i,-. i: .-i"i .ivra t"a:onor rheio.actnrcN'fom


1"" ':nsme} nr'marfd,o 'r'lsw@'ed NonnQLans'drd

' "' -'

PISI 20. GEOSTBLADM

,li;i'j
33fff
"u:rsrHfl
l:lng;'ll:':"1:.:l:l;,q:1";.1
ried ol
n'ors
\onrco,red
Qrrnian..
c;;; a;;;i v.:' woorgd
vlee 5.4 lm

?ARALLELDLADED

i i " u a u , a * o r q ' * " e , " ' . e idr s r c D { ' h r l r s d ' a c e r ' c r onur Fpr' dh d t 5
d l n q " n r o n P n . " d o , B a d e sr p E * 1 r e p l a c e r " ! a l o l g t r L r L p k

o r d r es d r ' L a n e l l s i"1 h '


i l i " i . " " L * " " ' t . . ' t r * l t o / s e .' ;e' b
s
v
a 8rer o i n s e ' e r r r s s e 6 r a ' d
(
e
d
i
a
l
i*roi_'.0e " uor i.tot
ui,,ipioii'J L.* p..tl.t . ' Bl,d" 8rc!p, derrnerte onsinal'ode
Fausor m6silc.dbonde Bimum.NonhQUeeniano
PAR,{LLE!-BLADED
e"**"i"ra**
r t ^ , 1 " . n sD r l e r d o n e n a u onl o d d l l erl' s r t
rdduEneoireortrr' *ts'en t6 Pming"onespordro basdorlron
ilii','e.i" i*b".:"
e."i", d h"sbren\ompeFlvFpl&edbv qJanT
iri...iircs"p. .t .*i . "ple A Plde2l BiUm Nor\ Quee'slrd:
fieldofvLew5 a m
so$ed nicols.
"'''. n",n+o e rir"'. rvirieird(sts nsm{dom
I9,**,"*-,"
ler m h g\lic\redb) g'ndrngpo$der
.ol-o.oi d;dad ,rddz cavrries
q
d/
ald {dorrre ' cg*dns rhevE!Erd $mi rlld
;ii;;on
r'Jrlgo
wedndd adLlr'ia needre.d".onginJlv gE$ i ' rxe bud"d oldu
Mine, Ndrh Queensland.

MOLD
o elolsdefine
ii-* *. *. -a p*"e. l.- 18bolnose'o asd-ecarA
radse q 'drz
rtrzone(
rn.Ll\:or
d
lined
qL@ CrdnsoFd
tFseFeo
qre
sd8as
rm ni.e andrrt sr'n' ls
iui.. ?u' 'o.. toi.l r "onro:"
"n
q' ru-ard-od'ual

i#"1iG;,!;;";0,."
f,F;;;;J

ii;;

;p.*..;.

oiaddrdian.@," bv

. ".,h-rinc o -nailine .dd dir b' m r -rie


6o$ed nicors

;;pLe aJPbb 23, Pljingo Mine, Nolih Queensland;

O T H E RM I N E R A L S
ADI,'L-ARIA
r!( ri om Dalds$irh ch'i'edonv 'orb
-,t-a:
!,r,i- o*ov"l".
MLrhpn^ebec.s rooerr arde'r" GordenPrarea;;;-;i;;;li;;.
llrre. Ctu ow,Queensland
FINE SULPHIDES
ma, t caa. I d m r l trd EoL _ nen i rde'i e l oq
i,i.-ana.rtlo*
rlotr'acenrd
,r.*&r*"
0t"..,, ".tg "'oacruqJom !o lofom,bond

; ; ; ; . ' n , ; i # ; i : ' r ' e n u : " . i a e ' a e a n o ' p p ec ro' d e n v e I o d e

Plltc 27. COARSESULPIiIDES


\" of(od'e cE'rd
\er b.e.. i" cl, 'wi \ Dmd anoorlade o"etgoY
(
Mre rava
d
rcur
galaaard
ombo
rmsj.e,9yflF sp1d6re

LATT]CEBLAOES
CARBONATE
. i r n o r r o . n . r , e , . r e u l . a e " o l . a L. v p u r r e ! b ! p o b l e n J a l . a u t i e .
i r , i i . i i " , ; " t * r " . t ' , o " a o u J , / ' P L G 1 7 'n d ' e v c o n p r 6 b l e
o i e 3 e a ! , P s er d o n o r Pol
x;;di Mrne.C.romddel, Nevzealand
TEXTURAL ZONES
' '-"

qlm/ $ir' qe I de" ooo l'ru'e brJdesdrd pddllel


M::i ;.i"'"-...
/ge/l
""ii'.iri,l'..r'"l'-*.'o.led
ryiLiieqds/i1losdhalf
q
w
o
'l $oolBd
; n d L r y . L d . i r e q u i z rirl r o L r i t ' t

30,
- ZONECHtu
Plat
''- _ _
q d d z * h t r s r ' t ! $ i r l i n t ' oo u o a n dr'' e r w l e f t )
ra^* JFl*ao'
ffd.ear ] bai"o nilq rclon ngt ' Lor $o' d Woolge

TEXTURAL ZONES
ZONE CC@
and collofom bandeit qndz with budr dominated bv noss
Glstifofl
((r!m.
LAue
Di*). Bvd. of chal!edory(srey)ud zonedq' dzryqals
.e;ms
bardsreleserr weth.Fd { lr@' lvpical orhiC}
beiwee.
Ddk
L.oe.
Pai lgo. o,r$ole tMD 7l 21 0 m rJ gd r ore I d)
oE.
S.ot
EEde

zoNEcc

Crosdfm collofom with b&ds of saheidar-conb qnartz (whne) yith


djsseninated sulfidesr massive lo no$ chalcedonic quartz (buro; nos
aduldiarc em,; dd sl!fide s 'lplo\al pdings 'b'act\ lt8\ gradeAt Ag
S e o ( , r L f i U n o l a p r - . S a m p l e( o u i , P s )J o f n D o w \ e w r o n r '

BRECCIA IN ZONE CCsa


CLassof @srilom-collof@ bmded vein quar.zjulflde (entie andulpd
nsht) andveineddd siliciied walr@k 0ef0 overgrcM by hstifom bands
oiirorors chalrdony(srr, andecch@idalqdd/ lvhiE). Oe mr' scorr
Lode,Pai:neo,.lnI lol.;tMD 24) arol5m(7q2 M A' over' m)
BRECCIA FROM CC xadTRANSmON
Crlastsof siDcified v.llrock (nght cent) dd sacchuoidal quar'tzsulide
(dqhrlrper ovsso$n bJ ru.rJom brd' andceladeso'mn"d qLMz
da dl;axme adtlri, Colo.nP.daL openn't,Cra ow. Quers|mo
ZONE Xs
Muldlhase, crudely cruslifom vei. consisri.g edirly of dned qudt
cry.@jsd d os. sran-l& r l '.tu (pfalri.e, prrik. gdlem , t al(opynk\'
S'lv?r-ba"meral or I e.neidll) ro. Bo.o or.. ldrdo v"in. San Iran
Mountains,Colorado.Smple counesyofD.J. KiN&.
PIat 36, ZONEXCa
teaturc due b nilky-cled
Crysraline conb quanz viL\ weal mstifm
va;ction tr quM. CirbonaE:nfi l i1 vug. 8tr1 o! low srade6ne. Scol
L ! d e ,P d r n E o d r i l l h oJ lM
e D2 J 1 d 2 0 n ( 0 6 4 E / ' A u @ q I n )

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thisrolume was onginallt prcducedin 19q) by th aulhon for the Cold Resemh cotrp ar
Janes Cook Univesity as pa't of AMIRA Eoje.t P24? Epithemal cold Deposirs in

Theclasification and zoning model \eassy.rheshedfrom rconnaisencework on nunerons


veinsandsample
suites(C.M..D.G.&N.M.Tate)anddetailedstudies
(R. Bobn
on deposirs
Scottt de,PajingoiJ.Digweed woolsarjR.Pone.- PajingooubidelodesiM. Wo6ley

Acces to deposils,ptuvision or snple suitesand nndcial s$poft for the ovei.lt research
ooie, ra. p!\iden rh6l"Ir qVIRA b) rhelolo/re.omprn.e.
Aberfoyls Ltd
Azlec Mning Conpanylrd

Ausralian ConsolidatedMinomtsLtd
BanteMounlain(Austmtia)lnc.

CarpdnunaExplomtionConpany
ChevDn ExplomtionCoQoarion
CRA Exploctior r\t Ltd
DalrympleReeurcesNL
Geopeko
HunterResources
Kid$oncoldMines
NedexPl, Ltd

Cenr,alPacincMinmtsNL
CEcow Midng vemure
Clprus Cold Ausralia Cor'omtion
Elde6 Resounes
GoldenShanDck
K*lawee
Merda Mnenls NL
NewmoniAustmlia

Billiton
OtterExplomtion
Plrason Cotd |.ly Ltd
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W.stem Mining CorpoEtion

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Pancontinenhl
Plac{ Pacifi.
RCC Ltd
RTz

Theonsiml editionwasq?ed by S.Waren andnockedup in de ttintery at JadesC@k


Unive6ir_.Thantsalsoto Ja. Morison andNick Tate for tle coler design.Al1 this sDpponis