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MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

9.35 Sensation And Perception


Spring 2009

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Hearing

Kimo Johnson

April 14, 2009

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Psychoacoustics

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Ask listeners how sounds are perceived


Pressure (dB) => loudness
Frequency (Hz) => pitch
Critical bandwidths

Relative amplitude of movement (m)

b) Travelling waves
3

1600Hz

0
3

800Hz

0
3

400Hz

0
3

High frequencies
displace basilar
membrane in
base of cochlea.

"Unrolling" of cochlea

Basilar
membrane

Cochlear base

Direction of sound
movement

Low frequencies
displace basilar membrane
in apex of cochlea.
"Unrolled" cochlea

Cochlear apex

200Hz

0
3

100Hz

0
3

50Hz

0
3

25Hz

0
20
0
30
10
Distance from stapes (mm)
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Critical bands

Auditory lters

Amplitude (dB)

0
10
20
30
40
0

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

8
10 12 14
Frequency (kHz)

16

18

20

Critical bands

Width of auditory lters

Fletcher (1938)
Zwicker (1960,1990)
Moore, Glasberg
probe

intensity

noise

bw
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

frequency

Critical bands

76

Signal threshold (dB SPL)

75

74

73

72

71

70

50

100

200

400

800

1600

3200

Masking noise bandwidth (Hz)

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Critical bandwidth
2000

Critical Bandwidth (Hz)

1000

500

200

100

50

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

0.1

0.2
0.5
1
2
Center Frequency (kHz)

10

Center frequency

Bark scale

Zwicker and Fastl, 1990

#!
!
"
"2 $
0.76 f
f
B( f ) = 13 arctan
+ 3.5 arctan
1000
7500
25

Bark

20

15

10

10

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

10
Frequency (kHz)

10

Masking

Masking experiments to investigate


frequency selectivity

Tones masking tones demo

Amplitude

masker

probe

Frequency
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

100

80

dBspl

60

40

20

0
20

50

100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10k

20k

Frequency (Hz)
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Zwicker and Fastl, 1990


Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Upward spread of masking

800Hz

0
b) Travelling waves
3

1600Hz

400Hz

"Unrolled" cochlea

Basilar membrane

Cochlear apex

Cochl

ear ba

se

Direction of sound
movement

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

MP3 Compression

Perceptual coding
ISO Standard 1991
10 : 1 compression
Typical song size: 3.75 MB vs. 40 MB (CD

Original iPod (2001)


5GB = 1000 songs

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Quantization

16 bits = 65536 levels


10 : 1 compression = 1.6 bits
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Tone masking noise

Amplitude

masker

noise

noise level

noise
bandwidth
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Frequency

Tone masking noise

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Complex tones

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Hearing

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Sound localization
Perception of complex periodic sounds

pitch
timbre

Auditory scene analysis

Localization

Vision
Sound

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

-20o: IDT = -200 s

0o: IDT = 0 s

20o: IDT = 200 s

60o: IDT = 480 s

-60o: IDT = -480 s

90o: IDT = 640 s

-90o: IDT = -640 s

120o: IDT = 480 s

-120o: IDT = -480 s

-160o: IDT = -200 s


180o: IDT = 0 s

160o: IDT = 200 s

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Interaural time difference

0.7

Interaural time difference (ms)

0.6
0.5
Measured values
(5 subjects)

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0o

Front

20o

40o

60o

80o

100o

120o

Direction of sound source

140o

160o

180o
Back

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Interaural level difference

6000 Hz
10
0
4000
10
0

Interaural level difference (dB)

2500
10
0
1800
10
0
1000
10
0
500
10
0
200
10
0
0o
Front

30o

60o

90o

120o

Direction of sound source

150o

180o
Back
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Cones of confusion

?
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Auditory distance perception

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Relative intensity
Spectral composition

Auditory distance perception

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Relative intensity
Spectral composition

Complex periodic sounds


Pitch
Timbre

Amplitude

Time

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Complex sounds: pitch

Amplitude (db)

Fundamental frequency

1
0

11

13

15

17

Harmonics Frequency (Hz)

19

21

23
6000
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Fundamental frequency

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Lowest harmonic usually perceived pitch


Fundamental can be missing

Fundamental frequency

Lowest harmonic usually perceived pitch


Fundamental can be missing

Amplitude (dB)

10

20

30

40

50

60

261.6

523.2

784.8

1046.4

1308

Frequency (Hz)

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

1569.6

1831.2

Fundamental frequency
Lowest harmonic usually perceived pitch
Fundamental can be missing

10

10

Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

20

30

40

50

60

20

30

40

50

261.6

523.2

784.8

1046.4

1308

Frequency (Hz)

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

1569.6

1831.2

60

261.6

523.2

784.8

1046.4

1308

Frequency (Hz)

1569.6

1831.2

500 (Hz)
750 (Hz)

1000 (Hz)

500 + 700
+ 1000 (Hz)

4 ms

4 ms

4 ms

4 ms

e
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Odd harmonics

Clarinet

cylindrical bore, closed at one end


0
5

Amplitude (dB)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

262

785

1308

1831

2354

Frequency (Hz)
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

2877

3400

3923

Pitch illusion
Shepard tone

Amplitude

Hearing
threshold

Log frequency
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

from Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound, ed. Perry Cook

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Mel scale

Stevens,Volkmann and Newman 1937


Equal in distance
1400

Interval size (MELs)

1200
Octave

1000
800

Fifth

600
400
200
0

64

128

256

512

1024

2048

4096

8192

Frequency (Hz)
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

from Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound, ed. Perry Cook


Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Pitch helix
Tone Height

Drobish (1855)
Shepard (1982)

F5

G5

B6

A6
F4

G4

F3

F2
A3

E3
B4

A4
G2

E4
B5

A5

G3

E5

E2
B3

C6
D5
C5
D4
C4
D3
C3
D2
C2

A2

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

B2

Increasing
frequency

Musical scale notes

Complex sounds: timbre

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Not well dened


Overtones
Formants
Attack and decay
Synchrony of microvariations

Harmonics fuse

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Energy in harmonics typically falls off


Harmonics perceptible in unusual spectra

Harmonics fuse
Energy in harmonics typically falls off
Harmonics perceptible in unusual spectra

Amplitude

Frequency

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Harmonics fuse
Energy in harmonics typically falls off

Amplitude

Harmonics perceptible in unusual spectra

Amplitude

Frequency
Frequency

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Harmonics fuse
Energy in harmonics typically falls off

Amplitude

Harmonics perceptible in unusual spectra

Amplitude

Frequency

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Throat Singing

Figure removed due to copyright restrictions.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Formants

Fixed resonances
A

B
'ah'
Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

Piano

'ee'
Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

Trombone

Frequency (Hz)
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Amplitude (dB)

10

20

30

40

50

60
0

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

4000

5000

10

10

Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

20

30

40

50

60
0

20

30

40

50

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

4000

5000

60
0

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)

4000

5000

10

10

Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

20

30

40

50

60
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

40

10

20

30

40

50

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

60
0

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)

Amplitude (dB)

30

50

Frequency (Hz)

60
0

20

4000

5000

4000

5000

10

10

Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

20

30

40

50

60
0

20

30

40

50

1000

2000

3000

4000

60
0

5000

1000

10

10

20

30

40

50

60
0

3000

4000

5000

4000

5000

Frequency (Hz)

Amplitude (dB)

Amplitude (dB)

Frequency (Hz)

2000

20

30

40

50

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)
Tuesday, April 28, 2009

4000

5000

60
0

1000

2000

3000

Frequency (Hz)

Microvariations

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

modulations of harmonics can affect fusion

Microvariations

modulations of harmonics can affect fusion

Example
from Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound, ed. Perry Cook

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Attacks and decays

Basic transitions

attack, sustain, decay, release (ADSR)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADSR_envelope

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument quiz
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument quiz
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1

Instrument quiz
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1
Instrument 2

Instrument quiz
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3

Instrument quiz
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Instrument 4

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument quiz 2
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument quiz 2
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1

Instrument quiz 2
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1
Instrument 2

Instrument quiz 2
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3

Instrument quiz 2
bassoon,
clarinet,
horn,
oboe,
piano,
sax,
synth,
trumpet

Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Instrument 4

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Attacks

Figure removed due to copyright restrictions.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009