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By Qiang Fu, Ahmad Hamidi, Adel Nasiri,

Vijay Bhavaraju, Slobodan (Bob) Krstic,

and Peter Theisen

The Role of Energy Storage

in a Microgrid Concept
Examining the opportunities and promise of microgrids.
Microgrid is a cluster of distributed
generation (DG), renewable sources, and
local loads connected to the utility grid. A
microgrid provides a solution to manage
local generations and loads as a single gridlevel entity. It has the potential to maximize overall system efficiency, power quality, and energy surety for critical
loads. The Microgrid Exchange Group, an ad
hoc group of expert and implementers of microgrid

technology, has defined a microgrid as a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within
clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single
controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid
can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to
operate in both grid-connected or island mode.
Microgrids can operate in parallel to the grid or as an
island. The most compelling feature of a
microgrid is its ability to separate
and isolate itself from the

town courtesy of
wikimedia commons/simisa

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MELE.2013.2294736

Date of publication: 26 February 2014


IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec emb er 201 3


utilitys distribution system during grid events, i.e., faults,

voltage collapses, and blackouts. It may also intentionally
disconnect during grid maintenance
and when the quality of power from
the grid falls below certain standards.
A microgrid can be reconnected to the
utility grid without any interruption
once grid stability is recovered.
Figure 1 shows the concept of a
future microgrid for a small town.
There are several types of generation, including renewables and nonrenewables. Renewable sources, e.g.,
solar photovoltaic (PV), can be more
distributed. Energy-storage systems
(ESSs) are also distributed, but their
controls have to be coordinated to
support frequency and voltage. A
proper mixture of energy sources and
management of the resources thus
becomes an important requirement
for the future high-reliability industrial parks or campuses
and townships with energy surety mandates.

reliability; reducing the cost of energy; managing price volatility; assisting in the optimization of power delivery systems, including the provision for
services, providing different levels of
service quality and value to customers
segments at different price points;
helping to manage the intermittency
of renewables; promoting the deployment and integration of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly
technologies; and increasing the resiliency and security of the power delivery system by promoting the dispersal
of power resources.
However, some technical and nontechnical barriers must be overcome
to provide these benefits. The greatest
technical challenges are monitoring,
controls, and protection. A highly efficient and reliable supervisory and
monitoring system has to be developed to accommodate a wide range of load and generation variations. The communication and information
layers play a critical role in the supervisory management
for microgrids. A lack of standardized communication and
controls has thus far limited microgrid development to
custom designs and case studies. Other technical challenges include microgrid sizing and planning, steady-state
and dynamic performance, utility system and equipment
upgrades, and interconnection requirements.
Additionally, to ensure that microgrids operate as legal
entities, regulatory barriers need to be resolved, including
regulatory policies, microgrid ownership models, the choice
of voltage level, the legality of microgrids, service territories,
utility tariffs, and environmental and sitting laws.

A highly efficient
and reliable
supervisory and
monitoring system
has to be developed
to accommodate a
wide range of load
and generation

Microgrid Drives: Benefits

and Barriers
There are several technical drivers behind the idea of
microgrids, including
utility transmission constraints requiring that supplies be located closer to their loads
demands for improved power reliability, efficiency,
and quality
a desire for energy security
the integration of renewable energy and distributed
energy resources
military demands for enhanced energy securitysurety, survivability, supply, sufficiency, and sustainability
higher system efficiency (e.g., use of generation waste
heat in a combined heat and power installation).
In addition, the lower costs of solar PV installations, natural gas, and energy-storage devices have been supporting
further expansion of DG and microgrids.
The microgrid concept provides opportunities for economic development in the electric power and clean energy
industry. According to Navigant Research, the microgrid market was at US$10 billion in 2013 and projected to increase to
more than US$40 billion annually by 2020. In addition to economic development opportunities, microgrids are envisioned to be environmentally friendly and a promising way
of building net zero energy communities, which have the
ability to operate separately from bulk grid and sustain
themselves in the event of a grid outage. This is crucial for
critical infrastructure, such as hospitals, public facilities, military bases, and emergency-response facilities.
As envisioned, a microgrid would provide added value
to society, the grid, and customers by improving energy


I E E E E l e c t ri f i c a t i on M a gaz ine / december 2013

Ongoing Microgrid Activities

Several microgrid projects are currently under research and
development in the United States, including the 100-kW
Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions
(CERTS) microgrid test bed near Columbus, Ohio, the 3-MW
Santa Rita correctional facility test site in Alameda County,
California, the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration
for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) microgrids, the
700-kW Fort Sill microgrid project, and the Illinois Institute
of Technologys Perfect Power System. The CERTS microgrid
test bed uses advanced control techniques to perform
seamless islanding and reconnection and apply the peerto-peer and plug-and-play concepts for devices. One of the
goals of the SPIDERS program is to provide reliable backup
power during emergencies by integrating renewables and
other DG sources into the microgrid and to ensure that critical operations can be sustained during prolonged utility
power outages. In the Fort Sill microgrid project, the objective is to demonstrate a field-scale, renewable-focused,
intelligent microgrid, which serves critical mission power

Wind Turbines

Gas Generation



Fuel Cell Energy



Solar Panels

Figure 1. A microgrid envisioned for a small town.

requirements in a sustainable, reliable, and secure manner.

This microgrid includes two natural gas generators, one
500-kWh energy-storage element, small wind and solar PV
systems, various loads, and a static switch. Worldwide,
there are several other other experimental microgrid facilities under operation and construction as well.
Figure 2 shows the configuration of
the Fort Sill microgrid, which has a rating of 0.480 kV, 60 Hz, and 630 kW. It is
connected to the utility grid through a
0.48-kV/13.20-kV transformer and a
static switch. The generations in this
microgrid include two natural gas generators rated at 190 kW each, one
30-kW solar PV system, a 2.5-kW wind
turbine, and a 250-kW energy-storage
device. The solar PV and wind turbine
generators are connected to the system
through inverters operating in a current mode while the energy storage
inverter operates in a voltage mode.
The system also includes various
motor loads and variable loads. The motor loads mainly
include chillers, water pumps, and air compressors.
The microgrid concept has already been applied at the
community level to provide benefits to customers. The first

microgrid in The Netherlands was built in Bronsbergen

Holiday Park, Zutphen, mainly to improve power quality.
The microgrid consists of solar PV systems on 108 houses,
with a peak total generation of 315 kW and a peak load of
150 kW. Two battery storage systems with inverters and a
grid tie switch have been added to convert the existing system to a microgrid. An aerial photo of
the park and the configuration of the
microgrid are shown in Figure 3. The
configuration is mesh type and centrally controlled.

The inverter plays

a critical role to
regulate voltage
and frequency and
mange transitions
to island and
grid-tie modes.

Needs for ESSs in Microgrids

It is well known that within an envisioned microgrid, various types of

DG and customers create and
demand varying active and reactive
power profiles that may challenge
the stability of the system. The ESSs,
therefore, play a critical role in stabilizing the voltage and frequency of
the microgrid for both short- and
long-term applications. From the device to system level,
the ESS is a crucial element in the integration of DG into
the microgrid. Researchers have employed various types
of energy storage at the turbine and farm levels for wind

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / d ec emb er 201 3


190 kW

13.2 kV

190 kW

30 kW

Energy-storage units can either be

distributed or centralized in a
microgrid. The distributed ESS not
only actively manages and controls
the functions of the storage devices
to provide power support to local
loads but also tries to maximize its
life, efficiency, and safety. It also
communicates to the upper-layer
control unit such as the supervisory
control unit to perform other
advanced operations. A centralized
ESS is typically observed in a smaller
microgrid but typically when some
critical facilities are involved. It usually performs similarly to a main
backup power supply in the event of
bulk grid blackout. A higher energy
and power level is needed to support
the whole system from couple of
minutes to hours.

2.5 kW

13.2 kV/0.480 kV


Chiller 3
400 hp

Water Chilled
Compressor Pump Water
10 hp
30 hp Process
Pump 3
10 hp

Battery System
250 kW

Tower Chilled
Sweep Water
Pump Loop
40 hp Pump 3
200 hp

Energy-Storage Technologies

Figure 2. The configuration of the Fort Sill microgrid.

energy to smooth the power intermittency and make

wind power more compatible with grids and microgrids.
Novel topologies for solar PV converters are being proposed and discussed for integrating batteries into solar PV
systems to make them capable of providing continuous
power during a cloudy day. For microgrid planning, various projects have focused on the optimization of the allocation of ESSs for microgrids. There is research underway
aimed at determining the optimal location and size for
energy storage within a microgrid so that a minimal cost
and system energy loss can be achieved while microgrid
reliability and surety are improved.

Energy storage with newer battery

technologies has become a reality.
The lead-acid battery-based technology has been replaced by lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology and
many other alternatives. There are currently several types
of energy-storage technologies with different characteristics, e.g., energy and power density, efficiency, cost, lifetime,
and response time. Examples of ESSs are ultracapacitors,
superconducting magnetic ESSs, flywheels, batteries, compressed air, pumped hydro, fuel cells, and flow batteries.
Currently, energy storage is a tradeoff between power
and energy density. Although ultracapacitors and hybrid
batteries offer higher power density, their capacity (in Ah)
and energy density are nowhere close to those of batteries.
They can release a large amount of power but only for a few




PQ Master


10 kV 400 kVA

Static Switch



Inv A



Inv B

Battery A


Battery B

Figure 3. (a) An aerial view and (b) the configuration of the Bronsbergen Holiday Park microgrid in The Netherlands.


I E E E E l e c t ri f i c a t i on M a gaz ine / december 2013







seconds. On the other hand, fuel cells are capable of storing

et al. investigated the first rechargeable Li-ion battery. High
a vast amount of energy but are limited in the peak output
capacity, energy density, and cycle life were the main
power. Based on the available technologies, batteries are the
advantages of cells based on LiCoO2 as the positive elecbest choice to provide both power and energy densities.
trode. However, high energy release when the battery is
There are several types of batteries currently in use for
abused was a safety concern and a disadvantage of the earindustrial applications. Nickel cadmium (NiCd), lead acid,
lier batteries. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) was proand Li-ion are the most popular existposed to mitigate safety concerns
ing battery types. NiCd-based batterwhile representing similar voltage and
ies contain toxic metals and are
energy density, however, with faster
environmentally unfriendly. Furthercapacity fading.
more, the memory effect and high
Combining several lithium metal
maintenance requirements are other
oxides to take the advantage of several
drawbacks that make this type of batfeatures has created new lines of battery less favorable for industrial appliteries. The NCA type, which is a mixcations. Nickelmetal hybrids (NiMH)
ture of lithium, nickel, cobalt, and
are another type of nickel-based bataluminum oxides, and the NMC type,
tery that offers higher energy density and shorter cycle life
which is a compound of lithium, nickel, manganese, and
compared to the NiCd battery but still suffers from high
cobalt oxides, were two popular compounds based on nickmaintenance requirements due to the memory effect.
el. Having nickel in the compound increases the lifetime
Lead-acid batteries are the most cost-efficient commercial batteries for power-supported applications. The
short cycle life and low energy density are the two main
Energy Density
disadvantages of these types of batteries. Lead-acid batteries could be a good choice for applications in which a
Power Density
power support with low depth of discharge rate is
required. Deep cycling has a serious impact on the life
cycle of the battery.
Among all of the different types of energy storage currently available commercially, Li-ion batteries offer the best
solution for high-power and high-energy applications.
Cycle Life
Recent technologies also provide a combination of high
power and energy density with considerably high cycle and
floating lifetime (a >5,000-cycle life). Li-ion batteries come in

various types based on the chemistries for the active positive

and negative materials. Different materials for the electrodes



lead to various battery specifications in terms of power and
energy density, voltage characteristics, life, and safety. ChoosFigure 4. A property comparison of several types of electrochemical
ing the appropriate battery chemistry to meet the required
specifications of the application is
vital. Similar to other battery types, Liion batteries consist of two electrodes,
an anode, a cathode, a separator to
prevent shorting, and an electrolyte as
a conductor.
The cathode is a lithium metal
oxide, and common materials such as
lithium, cobalt, manganese, and iron
phosphate oxide as well as combined
chemistries including lithium nickel
cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) or lithium manganese cobalt oxide (NMC)
are used as the cathode electrode.
Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) has
typically been used as the positive
active material for Li-ion batteries Figure 5. The schematic of the lab setup for microgrid testing: (a) 500-kVA energy storage
since 1979, when John Goodenough inverter and (b) 250-kWh and 500-kW Li-ion battery.

Batteries are the

best choice to
provide both power
and energy densities.

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / d ec emb er 201 3














P, Q,
Vrms, f





Vbase = 1


fbase = 1





Figure 6. The block diagram of the storage inverter controls.

and energy density of the device. NCA has high energy and
power densities and an excellent life span, whereas NMC
presents lower power density with almost similar energy
density but represents better safety features. The development of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) in the 1990s for
positive active materials was a significant safety improvement. However, lower energy and power density and cell
voltage were the drawbacks of this type of battery cell.
Since the 1980s, when Rachid Yazami proposed graphite as the negative active material in secondary

(rechargeable) Li-ion batteries, it has

been commonly used because of the
reversible electrochemical intercalation (insertion) of lithium ions.
Graphite as a negative electrode is
sensitive to the operating temperature of the cell. By overheating the
battery cell, the Li-ion permeable
solid-electrolyte interphase layer
protecting lithium ions from reacting with electrolyte breaks down,
and an irreversible reaction between
the lithium ions and electrolyte may
cause thermal runaway and, potentially, fire. Replacing the graphite
with lithium titanate as the negative
active material eliminates the overheating issue. Moreover, because of
the capability of lithium titanate to
operate at higher voltages, a higher
charging rate is possible, which
reduces the charging time to as low
as several minutes. On the other
hand, the power and energy density
as well as the cell terminal voltage
are reduced. The electrolyte in Li-ion
batteries is normally a lithium-salt
such as lithium hexafluorophosphate in an organic solvent.
Figure 4 shows a comparison of
several types of battery chemistries,
considering lithium iron phosphate
as a reference case. An appropriate type can be chosen
based on the requirements for energy and power density,
cost, cycle life, performance, and safety.

Optimal Allocation for

ESS in Microgrids



Planning the best locations and sizes for ESSs can have a
significant impact on the power system, including
enhancing the power system reliability and power quality,
reducing the power system cost, controlling high energy
cost imbalance charges, minimizing
power loss, improving voltage profiles, serving the demand for peak
load, and correcting the power factor.
In recent years, much research
has been focused on determining the
location and capacity of ESSs. Algorithms combining multipass dynamic programming were proposed to
Storage Power
maximize fuel-cost savings and benefits from energy pricing differences
1 10
1 00
0 50
0 40
0 30
0 20
0 10
0 00
between peak- and light-load periods. Methodologies were also develFigure 7. The microgrid voltage, frequency, and output power of a storage inverter in black start
oped to optimize the allocation and
and island mode.


I E E E E l e c t ri f i c a t i on M a gaz ine / december 2013









0 40

economical operation of ESSs in

microgrids. A genetic algorithm optiFrequency
mization technique based on a multiobjective function was used to
evaluate the economic impact of the
Storage Power
energy-storage-specific costs on the
net present value of energy-storage
installations in distribution substations. One research group proposed a
two-stage stochastic optimal algo1 30
1 20
1 10
1 00
0 50
0 40
0 30
rithm for sizing the ESS in an isolated wind-diesel power system. The Figure 8. The microgrid voltage, frequency, and output power of a storage inverter when
authors considered wind penetra- transitioning from island to grid-tie mode.
tion, ESS efficiency, and diesel operating strategy to minimize the cost of
supplied energy. Research in another
work presented an integrated electricity production cost analysis for
Source 1
autonomous electrical networks
based on renewable energy sources
and energy-storage configurations.
The initial cost of the energy storage,
Storage Power
the input electricity, and fuel cost, as
well as the fixed and variable mainte2 30
2 00
1 30
1 00
0 30
0 00
nance and operating costs of the
entire installation were taken into
consideration. A group of researchers Figure 9. The off-grid to on-grid transition with a storage inverter in voltage mode and a source
inverter in current mode.
made use of particle swarm optimization to achieve optimal dispatch of
controllable loads and generators as well as to effectively
all considered contingencies. A MOPSO approach, which
use the battery storage of each microgrid. The cost of the
adopts differential evolution algorithm, was presented to
microgrid is reduced by selling the stored energy at higher
optimize the operation of an interconnected microgrid,
prices and shaving peak loads from the larger system. The
which comprises a variety of distributed energy resources
authors in another work focused on the optimal ESS for
and storage devices to minimize both cost and emission
maximizing the support to the network voltage control in a
resulted from supplying local demands.
distributed system. It has been shown that the location of
Energy-Storage Interface
the ESS impacts the transient stability and voltage quality
and Controls in a Microgrid
of a multibus microgrid.
Figure 5 shows a 500-kW energy-storage inverter and 250Multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO)
kWh, 500-kW Li-ion battery for the Fort Sill microgrid. The
has become an efficient tool for solving the multiobjective
inverter plays a critical role to regulate voltage and freoptimization problems in power system by searching for
quency and mange transitions to island and grid-tie
an acceptable pareto-optimal set. Xu and Singh proposed
a modified particle swarm optimization based on multiobjective optimization algorithm to solve the
energy-storage design problem,
which not only considers energyStorage Power
storage capacity and power rate but
also the operation strategy. The
authors in another work proposed a
MOPSO method to determine an
optimal static var compensator (SVC)
installation scheme for the required
0 25
0 20
0 15
0 10
0 05
0 00
loading margin with the SVC installation locations and capacities Figure 10. The microgrid frequency and output power of two inverters when transitioning from
derived from the use of the SVC for grid-tie to island mode.

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / d ec emb er 201 3


modes. The inverter control is designed for the device to

operate in voltage mode (grid forming).
In voltage mode, the inverter behaves as a synchronous
generator and regulates its output voltage magnitude and
phase to adjust its output reactive
and active power. It can serve as a frequency and voltage reference for
other sources in a microgrid. Voltage
mode is against current mode, in
which the inverter behaves as a current source and adjusts its real and
reactive power by varying the phase
and magnitude of output voltage.
A typical control block diagram for
a microgrid storage inverter is shown
in Figure 6. This control can operate
the inverter in both island and gridtie modes and support the transition
mechanism. During island mode, if
the storage is the sole source, it
needs to provide power to all loads.
Voltage magnitude is only adjusted
in this mode. When the storage is
working in parallel with other sources, it adjusts the terminal voltage
phase to change the output power
and regulate frequency. The feedback
for angle adjustment can come from both output power
and system frequency. The feedback for terminal voltage
magnitude adjustment can come from both output reactive power and system voltage.
When the microgrid is in grid-tie mode, the frequency
is determined by the grid. The inverter regulates the phase
of output voltage versus grid to adjust output power. It
should be noted that this control can place the storage in
either charging or discharging mode in both island and
grid-tie modes. It means that the direction of the power
can be both ways while the inverter is in voltage mode.
Adjustment of terminal voltage magnitude versus grid
voltage regulates the reactive power.
Figures 710 show the traces for a microgrid system
with an energy-storage inverter, two inverter-based sources, and loads. The energy-storage inverter is in voltage
mode, and the inverter-based sources are in current mode.
Figure 7 shows the system voltage and frequency as well
as the total power delivered by the inverters when all
three inverters are running in off-grid mode. The system
starts from zero voltage and experiences step load changes. The load is initially at 40 kW and then is reduced to
12.5 kW and zero in steps. The system voltage and frequency experience small variations according to the block
diagram of Figure 6.
Figure 8 shows the waveforms of the voltage, frequency, and output power of the storage inverter when the system is moved from off-grid to grid-tie mode. The inverter
settings are different for these two modes depending on

the batterys state of charge and system load. In off-grid

mode, the inverter is providing 10 kW because of the load
demand. In grid-tie mode, the inverter is charging the
storage with 20 kW by power settings.
Another example illustrating the
off- to on-grid transition is shown in
Figure 9. Initially, the storage inverter is
configured as black start supporting
the systems voltage and picks up 20
kW of load. One inverter-based source
is configured in current mode and follows the storage inverters power command, so that each one shares 10 kW.
At 85 s, the microgrid is reconnected to
the grid. The source inverter and storage inverter follow their power command of 0 and 20 kW of charging,
Figure 10 shows the waveforms of
the voltage, frequency, and output
power of two inverters when the system transitions from grid-tie to offgrid mode. Source inverter 1 is in
current mode, and its output power
remains constant during both modes.
The storage inverter is in voltage
mode, and its power changes from 15
to 35 kW. During the transition, the frequency drops to
59.35 Hz before recovering to 59.85 Hz in island mode.

particle swarm
optimization has
become an efficient
tool for solving the
problems in power
system by searching
for an acceptable
pareto-optimal set.


I E E E E l e c t ri f i c a t i on M a gaz ine / december 2013

For Further Reading

C. Marnay, H. Asano, S. Papathanassiou, and G. Strbac, Policymaking for microgrids, IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 6,
no. 3, pp. 6677, 2008.
M. D. Johnson and R. A. Ducey, Overview of U.S. Army
microgrid efforts at fixed installations, in Proc. IEEE
Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011, pp. 12.
(2012, Oct. 15). U.S. Army Installation Management
Energy Portfolio. [Online]. Available: http://armyenergy.hqda.
Q. Fu, L. F. Montoya, A. Solanki, A. Nasiri, V. Bhavaraju, T.
Abdallah, and D. C. Yu, Microgrid generation capacity
design with renewable and energy storage addressing
power quality and surety, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3,
no. 4, pp. 20192027, Dec. 2012.
M. Nick, M. Hohmann, R. Cherkaoui, and M. Paolone,
On the optimal placement of distributed storage systems
for voltage control in active distribution networks, in Proc.

2012 3rd IEEE PES Int. Conf. Exhibition on Innovative

Smart Grid Technologies, 2012, pp. 16.
C. Chen, S. Duan, T. Cai, B. Liu, and G. Hu, Optimal allocation and economic analysis of energy storage system in
microgrids, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 10,
pp. 27622773, Oct. 2011.
Jason Stamp, SPIDERS: Smart power infrastructure
demonstration for energy, reliability, and security, in

Advanced Microgrid Concepts Technologies Workshop,

Beltsville, MD, June 78, 2012, pp. 12.
R. H. Lasseter, Extended CERTS microgrid, in Proc. IEEE

Power and Energy Society General MeetingConversion

Delivery Electrical Energy 21st Century, 2008, pp. 15.
C. Marnay, N. DeForest, and J. Lai, A green prison: The
Santa Rita Jail Campus microgrid, in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 2226, 2012, pp. 12.
J. Kelly and D. V. Dollen, The Illinois Institute of Technologys Perfect Power System Prototype, in Grid-Interop,
Albuquerque, NM, Nov. 79, 2007, pp. 14.

Qiang Fu ( earned his B.S. and M.S.
degrees in electrical engineering from
Chongqing University, China, in 2006
and 2009, respectively, and his Ph.D.
from the University of WisconsinMilwaukee in 2013. Currently, he is an
electrical engineer with the Corporate
Research and Technology Group of
Eaton Corporation. His research mainly focuses on modeling and assessing
of microgrid as well as probabilistic
analysis of power system. He is a
coauthor of the book Architecture, Programming, and Interfacing for the Freescale DSP 56F8346 (China Machine

member of Journal of Power Components and Systems. He

is a Senior Member of the IEEE.
Vijay Bhavaraju ( earned
his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from IIT-Madras,
India, in 1976, his M.S. degree in power system operation
and controls from S.V. University Tirupathi, India, in 1988,
and his Ph.D. degree in power electronics from Texas A&M
University, College Station, in 1994. He worked in the oil
industry designing and commissioning off-shore and land
rigs. He developed three products, the Mud-Pump Synchronizer, the Auto-Drill, and Block Controller, while working at Tech Power Controls (later acquired by NOV). He was
at Ford-Ecostar from 1998 to 2004, working on inverters for
microturbines, photovoltaics, and fuel cells. Since 2005, he
has been with the Corporate
Research and Technology Group of
Eaton Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He has been involved in different projects related to inverters for
solar, batteries, and microgrids. He
led a team that released the 250-kW
PV inverter. He was a member of IEEE
1547 standard from 2000 to 2004. He
is currently a member of the IEC
Project Team for Microgrid for Disaster Preparedness and Recovery. He is
a Member of the IEEE.
Slobodan (Bob) Krstic ( earned his
B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical
engineering from the University of
WisconsinMilwaukee in 1979 and 1986, respectively.
His industrial experience has centered on defining and
analyzing design concepts for new power conversion
technologies and products for industrial and Navy
applications, including ship propulsion and power distribution systems. His other experience includes technology development in sensorless motor diagnostics,
motor drives, active filters, power semiconductor testing, and dc and ac circuit breakers. He holds 11 U.S.
patents and has published 11 technical papers. He has
held various positions at DRS Technologies and American
Superconductor and is presently a principal engineer with
the Corporate Research and Technology Group of Eaton
Corporation, where his focus is on the design and implementation of microgrids for military and commercial
Peter Theisen ( earned his
B.S. in electrical engineering and M.S. in mechanical engineering from Marquette University in 1974 and 1979,
respectively. He has been with Eaton Corporation since
1974 and presently is a senior principal engineer with the
Corporate Research & Technology Group. He has been
awarded over 35 U.S. patents.

The most compelling

feature of a
microgrid is its
ability to separate
and isolate itself
from the utilitys
distribution system
during grid events.

Press, 1999). He has published more

than ten conference and journal
papers and was awarded one Chinese
patent. He is a Member of the IEEE.
Ahmad Hamidi ( earned his B.Sc.
and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Shiraz University and Toosi University of Technology, Iran, in 2006 and
2009, respectively. Since 2011, he has been working toward
his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the University
of WisconsinMilwaukee. His research interests are modeling of renewable energy resources and integration with
energy storage systems. He is a Student Member of the IEEE.
Adel Nasiri ( earned his B.S. and M.S.
degrees from Sharif University of Technology, Tehran,
Iran, in 1996 and 1998, respectively, and his Ph.D. degree
from Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, in 2004, all
in electrical engineering. He worked for Moshanir Power
Engineering Company, Tehran, from 1998 to 2001. He also
worked for For Health Technologies, Inc., Daytona Beach,
Florida, from 2004 to 2005. He is presently a professor in
the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science at the University of WisconsinMilwaukee. His
research interests are renewable energy systems including wind and solar energy, energy storage, and
microgrids. He is currently an editor of IEEE Transactions
on Smart Grid, associate editor of IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, associate editor of the International
Journal of Power Electronics , and an editorial board

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / d ec emb er 201 3