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Educational Leadership

A written Output / Requirement

Submitted to: Dr. Helen C. Estrella

In partial fulfillment
Of the requirement
Nursing 251

Submitted by: Jayson Y. Cataraja, R.N.


Date of Submission: January 12, 2015

Graduate School

SUBJECT

: NURSING 251 (Organizational and Administration of Nursing Education and Nursing Service)

TOPIC

: Educational Leadership

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

: After 1 hour of varied teaching-learning strategies, the MAN 1 students shall acquire basic knowledge and insights about Educational Leadership

SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVES
Specifically, the
students will be
able to:

CONTENTS

Opening Prayer
Preconditioning Activity

1. Know the
Development
Issues and
Challenges of
Higher Educational
System

Major challenges confronting the higher education sector


nowadays, which are:
1. Lack of overall vision, framework, plan for higher education;
2. Deteriorating quality of higher education;
3. Limited access to quality higher education.
Lack of overall Vision, Framework, Plan for Higher
Education;
According to the labor sector, the skills needed by the industry
but not adequately provided by the academe are the following:
a. Communication skills,
b. Technical skills, and

METHODOLOGY
Audio Visual
Presentation
Group Activity

LectureDiscussion

TIME
ALLOTMENT

RESOURCES
Material Resources:

Projector
Laptop
Pen & paper
Books and
Internet source
on Educational
Leadership

EVALUATION
After 1 hour of
varied teachinglearning
strategies, the
students will be
able to
participate in:
Group
Discussion
Question &
Answer
Synthesis
Formation

c. Numerical skills.

There is indeed a large proportion of mismatch between training


in schools and actual jobs. This is the major problem at the
tertiary level and it is also the cause of the existence of a large
group of educated unemployed or underemployed.
According to studies undertaken by CHED, the following
programs have been considered oversubscribed as evidenced by
the huge enrolment recorded:
Business Administration,
Nursing,
Teacher Education,
Information Technology, and
Hotel and Restaurant Management..
While the undersubscribed programs are:
Science and Technology, and
Agriculture and Fisheries
Deteriorating Quality of Higher Education
There has been a decline in the quality of higher education as the
results of licensure examinations in various degree board
programs were way below the target mean score.
Teachers bear the responsibility of educating our youth.
Lack of accreditation of HEIs and programs Out of the 2,180 HEIs
in the country, only about less than 500 HEIs have accreditation
in AY 2008-2010.

Limited Access to Quality Higher Education.


As evidenced by the low participation rate and low completion
rate caused by increasing costs and limited student assistance
programs. Out of 100 pupils who enrolled in Grade 1, only 14 will
graduate in higher education.
Dimensions of Effective Schools
2. Enumerate the
Dimensions of
Effective schools

Strong administrative leadership


A climate of expectation for satisfactory student
achievement
An orderly but not oppressive school climate
A focus on pupil acquisition of basic school skills
A system for continuous monitoring of progress
Resources that can be focused on the fundamental
learning objectives of the school

Competencies
Related to abilities
Able to do or a special talent
3. Explain the
It can be a state or quality of well-being well qualified to
different Leadership
competencies
perform a task
Common Elements of Competency
The Competency is an observable and measurable
knowledge and skills
The knowledge and skills must distinguish between
superior performers and other performers.

Use of Competencies
An alternative for replacement of intelligence test with
criterion reference testing
Criticism on Competencies
Lack of common definition and understanding
The possibility of becoming
Ethnocentric
Competencies fade away over a period of time if they are not
used, thus they fall in the same category as attitudes. However, if
it is real competency, then it takes an extremely long time for it to
weaken.
Capability Model
End product that frames performance as the capabilities
that make effective performance possible

Three Components of Capability Model


Individual Attributes
Competencies
Outcomes
Individual Attributes
1. General Cognitive Ability This can be thought of as

intelligence, which is linked to biology, rather than

experience . While the Army conducts general


entrance exams to measure the intelligence levels
of new recruits, the civilian world generally relies
on other means, such as the applicant's
educational grade level to make a very rough
guess on his or her intelligence
2. Crystallized Cognitive Ability This is the intellectual
ability that is learned or acquired over time. In
most adults, this cognitive ability continuously
grows and does not normally fall unless some sort
of mental disease or illness sets in. It is composed
of the concepts and mental abilities that we learn
through experience.

3. Motivation This is the performer's willingness to

tackle problems, exert their influence, and


advance the overall human good and value of the
organization.
4. Personality These are any characteristics that
help the performers to cope with complex
organizational situations.
Competencies

o Problem-Solving Skills These are the

performers' creative abilities to solve unusual


and normally ill-defined organizational
problems.
o Social Judgment Skills This is the
capacity to understand people and social
systems. They enable the performers to work
with each other.
o Knowledge This is the accumulation of
information and the mental structures used to
organize that information (schema).
Knowledge results from developing an
assortment of complex schemata for learning
and organizing data (knowledge structure).
Outcomes

This refers to the degree that the person has


successfully performed his or her duties. It is
measured by standard external criteria.

Leadership Competency Model

Three Main Groups


1 Core Competencies
2 Leadership Competencies
3 Professional Competencies
Core Competencies
Basic Communication
Negotiating

4. Identify
Educational
Manager and
School Culture

Leadership Competencies
Teamwork
Creative Problem Solving
Interpersonal Skills
Manage Client Relationships
Self-Direction
Flexibility
Build appropriate relationships
SCHOOL CULTURE
Deal and Peterson have offered the most succinct definition of
school culture.They simply state it is an "inner reality."Robbins
and Alvy (1995, p. 23) expand the definition by stating that "This
inner reality reflects what organizational members care about,
what they are willing to spend time doing, what and how they
celebrate, and what they talk about. "
Gary Phillips characterizes school culture as the, "beliefs,
attitudes, and behaviors that characterize a school in terms of:
How people treat and feel about each other;

Three Levels of Culture


1. Artifacts
2. Espoused Values
3. Underlying Assumptions

Level One
What you might see on your first visit first
impressions
Level Two
Values, beliefs, the way things should be done
These are testable in the physical environment
Level Three
Fundamental beliefs about school, students, etc.
Reason for being

POSITIVE CULTURE
Leadership Permeates
Success is celebrated and recognized
Honesty, openness are evident
External involvement
Participation is encouraged
Open to change
Takes risks
Socialization

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TOXIC CULTURE


Weak leadership
Lack of direction/rudderless
Closed and secretive
Mistrust / suspicion
Bully tactics
Fear/anxiety/isolation
Tension/stress
Inconsistency
Destructive internal competition
Controlled

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
www.ched.gov.ph
Alexander W. Wiseman (2009). Educational Leadership: Global Contexts and International
Comparisons
Patrick Duignan (2010). Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions
Harry Tomlinson (2009). Educational Management: Major Themes in Education