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# CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

## Department of Technical Education

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Third Semester
Sub: ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS
Sub Code:
Contact Hrs/Week: 4.
Chapter No

Contact Hrs/Sem: 64
Topic

No. of Hours

UNIT-I
Characteristics of instruments

Wattmeters

3
UNIT-II

5
6

Energy meters
Galvanometers

4
2

## Range Extension of meters

Special Meters

UNIT-III
Measurement of Resistance

10

## Measurement of Inductance and Capacitances

11

Calibration of meters

12
13

Transducers
Telemetry

8
2

## INDUSTRY INNOVATION AND SEMINAR

6
TESTS AND REVISION

TOTAL

4
_______
64

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

CONTENT
1. Characteristics of instruments.
Static characteristics- Static error, accuracy, reproducibility [definition] drift, sensitivity,
precision.

## 2. Classification & essentials of Measuring Instruments.

Absolute and secondary Instruments, classification of secondary instruments, Torque- typesexplanation Effects used to obtain deflecting torque constructional features pointer, scale,
springs coils, magnets, discs, separations.

## 3. Ammeter and voltmeters

M.I instruments, Moving coil and Induction type - construction, operation, range, errors,
4. Wattmeter and Energy Meter

## Induction type, Dynamometer type ---Varieties, construction, operation

Limitation and applications.

[LPF&UPF],

5 Energy meters
Construction and working of 1-Phase & 3-Phase Energymeters, their applications
Limitations.

and

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

6. Galvanometers
Types, construction, operation, care to be taken in use of shunts.
7. Range extension of meters

## Shunts and Multipliers simple problems.

C.T and P.T principle of operation & application, Simple problems.
8. Special Meters
Construction, operation of-- frequency meter, P.F meter, Synchroscope, phase sequence
indicator, megger, earth tester, AVO meter, tong tester. Recording [x-ray] instruments.
Digital voltmeter- Multimeter
9. Measurement of Resistance:

## Low resistance---Kelvin bridge, Medium resistance---Wheatstone bridge, Insulation

resistance---Meggar and earth resistance---Earth tester.
Low resistance measurement---Potentiometer.
Cable faults---Murray loops, Simple problems

## 10. Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance

InductanceMaxwell, Anderson bridge Capacitance- Desauty and schering

bridge

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

Simple problems.
Errors and precautions in bridges

## 11. Calibration of Meters

Calibration of Ammeters, Voltmeters and Energy meters by different methods.
12. Transducers
Different types, working and applications.
13. Telemetry.
14. Industrial innovation and seminars.
15. Tests and revision
TEXT BOOK:
1. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, 2nd Revised Edition - R.K.Rajput
Publishers- S.Chand
REFERENCES:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Electrical measurements and measuring instrument - Rajendra Prasad.

A course in Electrical and electronics measurements and instrumentation
- A.K.Sawhney Publishers- Dhanpatrai and sons
Electrical measurements and measuring instruments - J.B.Gupt PublishersPrinciples electronic instrumentation - D.Patranabis
PHI 2009 edition

S.K.Kataria

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## SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

a. Introduction to electrical measurements
2hrs
1.1. Explain significance of measurements.
1.2 With a block diagram explain the concept of generalized measurement system
and its functional elements.
1.3 Explain the meaning of the following terms with respect to measuring instruments
1.31 Accuracy
1.32 Precision
1.33 Sensitivity
1.34 Resolution
1.35 Error
1.36 Linearity
1.37 Reliability
2

## Understand the classification, Essential Constructional features of Electrical

Measuring Instrument parts.
4hrs

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

## Classify the measuring instruments

Compare analog with digital the type of instruments.
Distinguish between absolute and secondary instruments
What are indicating,recording,integrating instruments.Give example for each.
State the need, purpose and methods of deflecting, controlling and damping
Torque in measuring instruments
2.6 Name the material used and their significance for following parts of measuring
Instruments
a) Magnets b) Discs c) Suspension d) Coils e) Pointers f) Springs g) Scales
3

## Constructional details and working principle of different

types of Ammeters and Voltmeters

7hrs

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Describe the construction and working principle of M.I Instruments (Repulsion type)
List the merits and demerits of MI instruments and their applications
List & explain the sources of error w.r.t. DC and AC measurements
Describe the construction and working of different types of MC measuring instruments
a) Permanent Magnet type b) Dynamometer type C) Rectifier type
3.5 List the merits and demerits different types of MC Instruments
3.6 List and explain the various types of errors and suggest the remedies to reduce errors
3.7 List the application of MC instruments
3.8 List the different types of digital Ammeters.
3.9 With block diagram, explain the working of Digital Ammeter.
3.10 List the different types of digital voltmeters.
3.11 With block diagram, explain the working of successive-approximation. Digital Voltmeter.
4

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5

## List the types of Wattmeters

Explain the construction and working of dynamometer type wattmeter (1-ph & 3-Ph)
List the merits and demerits of Dynamometer type Wattmeter
State the special features required for measurement of power in Low power factor circuits
Understand the construction details, working principle,errors and adjustments of
energy meter.
4hrs

## 5.1 Mention the different types of energy meters.

5.2 Explain the construction and working of Induction type single phase energy meter.
5.3 Explain the construction and working of Induction type 3 phase energy meter
a) 3 phase two elements
b) 3 phase three elements
5.4 Explain the concept of Digital energy meters.
5.5 List the various sources of errors and compensation for the same.
5.6 Discuss various adjustments in energy meter.
6

2hrs

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

## Classify Galvanometer on the basis of their use.

Describe the construction and working of DArsonal Galvanometer.
List and explain the constants of galvanometer.
Mention the cares to be taken in the use of shunt with galvanometer as ammeter and
voltmeter.
6.5 Explain Ayrton shunt with Galvanometer.
7

## Comprehend the methods used to extend the range of DC and AC instruments.

5hrs

7.1 Explain the use of shunts as a device for extending the range of ammeters.
7.2 State the advantages of shunts.

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

7.3 List the precautions to be taken while using shunt.
7.4 State the principles and main requirements that are to be fulfilled by a multiplier.
7.5 Design suitable shunts and multiplier for specified requirements for Voltmeter/ammeter.
7.6 Define instrument transformer and list their advantages in the field of measurements
7.7 Explain with sketch the construction of C.T.
7.8 Explain the errors introduced in C.T. precautions to reduce them
7.9 Explain why the secondary circuit of C.T in always kept closed.
7.10 Explain with sketch the construction of P.T.
7.11 State the errors introduced in P.T
7.12 Differentiate between instrument transformer and power transformers.
7.13 Advantages of instrument transformers over shunts and multipliers.
7.14 Draw the circuit diagram incorporating CTs & PTs in extending the range of AC
ammeter, voltmeter.
8

Understand the construction, working and field of application of special type meters.

8hrs
Classify frequency meters.
With a neat sketch explain the construction, working of Weston frequency meter.
With block diagram, explain the counter type digital frequency meter.
Explain Digital LCR meter.
List the features of commercially available digital LCR meters.
List the different types of power factor meter.
With a neat sketch, explain the construction and working of 1 phase dynamometer type PF
meter
8.8 With a neat sketch explain the construction and working of synchroscope.
8.9 List the application of synchroscope.
8.10 With neat sketches, explain the construction, working and uses of followings
a) Phase sequence of indicator
b) Electronic Tri-vector Meter
c) Digital Multimeter
8.11 Explain basic concept on infrared instruments.
8.12 List the applications of infrared instruments.
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

## Understand the different methods of measuring resistance.

4hrs

9.1 With a neat diagram, explain the measurement of low resistance using
Kelvin's double bridge
9.2 With a neat diagram explain the measurement of medium resistance using Wheatstone
bridge.
9.3 With a neat sketch, explain measurement of insulation resistance using Meggar.
9.4 With a neat sketch, explain the measurement of earth resistance using an Earth tester.
9.5 With a neat sketch, explain the construction of dial type potentiometer.
9.6 List the types of cable faults.
9.7 Mention the causes for cable faults.

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

9.8 Murray loop test.
9.8.1 Explain with diagram Earth fault test to locate earth fault.
9.8.2 Explain with diagram to find Short Circuit in cables.
9

3hrs

## 10.1 Explain the general principle of four arm AC bridge network.

10.2 Draw the circuit and know the equation for unknown inductance in the following bridges
a) Maxwell b) Anderson (Derivation not required)
10.3 Explain the procedure for measuring inductance with Maxwell and Anderson bridges.
10.4 Draw the circuit and Know the equation for the unknown capacitance in the
following bridges.
a) Desauty's bridge b) Scheering bridge (Derivation not required)
10.5 Explain the procedure for measuring capacitance with Desauty's and Scheering Bridge.
11

Calibration of meters.

2hrs

## 11.1 Explain the calibration of ammeter and voltmeter using AC potentiometer.

11.2 Explain the procedure adopted for calibration of single- phase energy meter.
12

## Comprehend the working principles of transducers

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
12.15
12.16
12.17
12.18
12.19

8hrs

Define Transducer
Classify the different types of Transducers.
Explain Resistance Transducers
Explain Thermistor.
Explain Variable Inductance Transducers.
Explain LVDT type of self-generating Variable Inductance Transducers.
Explain variable reluctance transducer.
Explain capacitive Transducers
Explain capacitive tachometer.
Define Piezoelectric Materials.
Explain the working operation of piezoelectric transducer.
Explain piezoelectric accelerometer.
Know Hall Effect.
Explain Hall Effect displacement transducer.
Understand Thermoelectric Transducers.
Explain the principle of operation of photoelectric transducer.
Classify the different types of photoelectric transducers.
Explain photoelectric tachometer.

13 Understand Telemetry.

2hrs

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

13.2 Classify the types of telemetering system.
13.3 Explain with neat diagram voltage telemetering system.
Industrial innovation and seminars (Not for end examination)
14.1 Seminars by industrial experts/academic experts/visit to nearby industry 6hrs

14

4hrs

## MODEL QUESTION PAPER

Third Semester Diploma Examination
ELECTRICAL BOARD
ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS & MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
TIME:3 Hours

## Note: i) Question No. 1 is compulsory.

ii) Answer any two full questions each from sections II, III & IV
SECTION -I
1.a)

5x1 = 5

## i)------------------instruments can be used both on AC and DC.

ii)-----------------is used to increase the range of DC voltmeter.
iii) The instrument used for measuring insulation resistance is-----------iv) Maxwells bridge is used for measuring -----------------v) The full form of LVDT is -------------------------b) Distinguish between absolute and secondary instruments. Give examples

SECTION II
2. a)

i) Accuracy
ii) Precision

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

iii)Sensitivity
b) With neat diagram explain spring control in measuring instruments

## c) Compare analog and digital instruments.

3. a) With a neat sketch explain the construction and working of repulsion type M.I
Instruments.
b) List the types of errors in MI instruments and their remedies.
c) List the applications of MC instruments.
4

a) With a neat sketch explain the construction and working of single phase
Induction type energy meter.
b) Explain with block diagram the concept of Digital energy meters.
c) List any two sources of errors in energy meters

8
4
3
8
5
2

SECTION III
5. a) List and explain the constants of galvanometer.
b)With neat diagram explain the construction and working of DArsonal Galvanometer.
c) Mention the cares to be taken while using shunts with galvanometers.

4
8
3

6. a) Explain with neat circuit diagrams, the range extension of AC ammeter, voltmeter and
wattmeter using CTs & PTs
9
b) Explain why the secondary circuit of C.T in always kept closed.
4
c) List the advantages of instrument transformers over shunts and multipliers.
2
7. a) With a neat sketch, explain the construction and working of 1 phase dynamometer
type PF meter.
b) List the merits and demerits of Dynamometer type instruments
c) List the applications of infrared instruments.

8
4
3

SECTION IV
8. a) With a neat sketch explain the construction and working of Megger.
b) List the types of cable faults and Mention the causes for cable faults.
c) Explain the general principle of four arm AC bridge network.

8
4
3

## 9. a) Define transducer. Classify the different types of Transducers.

b) Explain with sketch the construction and working of piezoelectric transducer.
c) Explain the principle of operation of photoelectric transducer. List their applications

4
6
5

10. a) With neat sketch, explain the construction and working of Phase sequence of indicator. 6
b) Define Telemetry. Classify the types of telemetry system.
4

11

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## CURRICULUM 2009 10, With Effect From 2010 11

c) With block diagram, explain the counter type digital frequency meter.

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