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SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL

ENGINEERING
(Division of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering)

Nanyang Technological
University

Year 2/ SEMESTER 2

N1.2-B4-16
CH2702
Experiment C1

Friction Loss in Pipe Flow


TRAN TRONG NHAN _ GP12
U1320173H
17/02/2015
I.

Aim

II.

The objective of this experiment is to introduce the way to measure flow rate by using
Venturi meter. This experiment also demonstrates how to measure major head loss
due to friction loss in straight pipes and minor head loss due to pipe fittings such as
valves and bends.
Abstract

III.

For viscous fluid flows in a circuit of pipes, it is subjected to head loss. The major
head loss is due to flowing of fluid along a pipes and minor head loss is resulted from
fittings and valves. In this experiment, we will see the effect of these head loss. We let
water flow through a circuit of pipes connected to a venturi meter and then measure
the height difference between 2 sections. This difference in height represent the head
loss. We also measure the flow rate of water so we can calculate loss coefficient K
and friction factor f.
Principles
When fluid flows in a circuit of pipes, there will be head loss. The head loss can be
caused by frictional resistance as fluid flows along a pipe. This contributes to the
major energy or head loss. In Figure 1, the water level difference between the
piezometric heads at the two sections represents the head loss along the pipe

Figure 1: Illustration of head loss for pipe flow


The head loss can also occur as a result of flow separations produced by the
installation of measuring device (e.g. orifice plates and venturi meters) and fittings
(e.g. bends, sudden expansion or contraction) as well as flow control devices such as
valves in the pipeline.
The energy balance equation between 2 sections 1 and 2 in a pipeline can be written
as:

p1
V
V
p
+ 1 1 + g z1 + 2 2 + g z 2 =h

2
For uniform cross-sectional area and horizontal straight pipe, we can neglect the
gravity effects and kinetic change.
p
=h =hl +h lm

h is the total head loss; hl is the major head loss and hlm is the minor head
loss
The major head loss can be calculated as:
hl=f

L V2
D 2g

The minor head loss can be expressed in term of the loss coefficient K:
V2
hlm=K
2g
V is the mean velocity of fluid through the pipe. For sudden contraction of expansion,
the larger V is used.
The friction factor f depends on Reynold number R and the relative rough ness e/D, e
is pipe roughness.
=

VD

For Re 2300, the flow is laminar and f = 64/Re


For Re >2300, the flow is turbulent
e
1
D 2.51
=2 log (
+
)
3.7 f
f
This equation is approximated by the Blasius formula (Re <100,000)
0.25

f =0.316
IV.

Equipment and material

Fluid Friction Apparatus and Piezometer from


http://static.tecquipment.com/Products/H408_FLUID-FRICTION-APPARATUS.jpg

V.

Hydraulic bench from http://www.iitg.ac.in/mech/images/labs/fml/5.jpg


Procedure

We did the experiment with Grey circuit for smooth pipe section and for rough pipe
section. First, we closed the Gate valve and the Globe valve (dark blue and light blue
circuit) and opened the Ball valve (grey circuit) fully. Then we pressed the black ON
button to turn on the pump and opened fully the red valve on the Hydraulic bench. We
could see the water started to flow together with air bubbles. We wait for the air
bubble to go out completely. We took 2 pair of connecting tubes with 2 meter length
and put 2 ends into a bucket then we connected the other ends to tapping points 7 and
8 (for smooth pipe section). For the next step, we set up the piezometer. We balance 2
section until the two are equal high. We waited a while for all air to be forced out of
the connecting tubes then we connected the free ends to the piezometer. We waited a
few minutes for the flow to settle and then record the readings on the piezometers into
Table 3a. After recording the sections height, we measured the flow rate. To measure
the flow rate we lifted the drain valve to allow the water to return to the sum tank,
then we set the drain valve in place so the water will start to accumulate in the
volumetric tank. When the water level reached the 0 mark, we started the stop watch
and waited for the water level to reach an appropriate mark and stopped the watch to
record the time. We could then calculate the flow rate from the time and volume
collected. We used the red valve on the hydraulic bench to reduce the flow rate in 3
steps (4, 4.25 and 4.5 turns) to receive 3 more values of the results. After finishing
measuring all the values, we turned off the red valve, disconnected the ends of tubing
from the piezometer and from the tappings. To measure for rough pipe section, we
connected the ends of the tubes to tapping point 31 and 30 and repeat same
procedures like for smooth pipe section.
VI.

Results
Light blue circuit
Table 1a. Results for Globe valve (D=13.6mm)

Volum
e
collect
ed
C
(litre)
15/25

Time
t
(s)

15/25

57/95
64/10
7

15

75

15

160

Flow rate
Q = C/t
(m3/s)
0.000263
16
0.000234
01
0.0002
0.000093
75

Velocit
y
V
(m/s)
1.8124
62
1.6117
1
1.3774
71
0.6456
9

Globe valve
Piezometer Readings (mm)
tap 4

tap 3

1001

585

416

940

614

326

888

634

254

752

687

65
Kavg

2.4820
56
2.4598
01
2.6237
64
3.0557
78
2.6553
5

Sample Calculation:
C =15L, t = 75s
=> Flow rate Q = 0.015 / 75 = 0.0002 m3 /s
0.0002
=1.377471(m/s )
3 2
13.6
10
=> Velocity V = Q / Area = 3.14 (
)
2
Tap 4: 888 mm; Tap 3: 634 mm
=> h=888634=254 mm
hlm 2 g 254 103 2 9.8
K=
=
=2.623764
=>
V2
1.3774712
Table 1b. Results for Sudden Expansion (D1 = 13.6mm to D2 = 26.2 mm)
Volum
e
collect
ed
C
(litre)

Time

Flow rate
Q = C/t
(m3/s)

Velocit
y
V1
(m/s)

Velocit
y
V2
(m/s)

t
(s)

25

94

0.000265
96
0.000234
38
0.000214
29
0.000106
84

1.8317
44
1.6142
24
1.4758
62
0.7358
29

0.4935
6
0.4349
5
0.3976
68
0.1982
68

15

64

15

70

25

234

Sudden Expansion
Piezometer Readings (mm)

1.55584
16
1.20826
9
1.01001
43
0.25106
68

tap 9

tap
10

943

910

33

1.1208

904

876

28

2.193

867

844

23

1.135

755

748

7
Kav
g

1.1814

Sample Calculation:
C =25L, t = 94s
=> Flow rate Q = 0.025 / 94 = 0.00026596 m3 /s
0.00026596

=1.831744 (m/s)
3 2
13.6
10
=> Velocity V1 = Q / Area1
3.14 (
)
2

Velocity V2 = Q / Area2

=>

0.00026596
=0.49356( m/ s)
26.2 103 2
3.14 (
)
2

V 21 V 22 1.831744 20.493562
=
=1.5558416
2
2

Tap 9: 943 mm; Tap 10: 910 mm

1.40755

=> h=943910=33 mm
=>

K=

2
V 12V 22
g

h+
=1.1208
2
V2

Dark blue circuit


Table 2. Results for Gate valve (D =13.6mm)
Volum
e
collect
ed
C
(litre)

Time

Flow rate

t
(s)

Q = C/t
(m3/s)

25

102

25

115

25

146

25

287

0.000245
1
0.000217
4
0.000171
2
8.711E05

Velocity
V
(m/s)

1.68807
7
1.49725
1
1.17934
2
0.59994
4

Gate valve
Piezometer Readings (mm)
tap 2

tap 1

539

323

216

1.485679

482

331

151

1.320212

429

335

94

1.32466

367

341

26
Kavg

1.41582
1.386593

Sample Calculation:
C =25L, t = 102s
=> Flow rate Q = 0.025 / 102 = 0.0002451 m3 /s
0.0002451
=1.688077(m/s)
3 2
=> Velocity V = Q / Area = 3.14 ( 13.6 10 )
2
Tap 2: 539 mm; Tap 1: 323 mm
=> h=539323=216 mm
hlm 2 g 216 103 2 9.8
K=
=
=1.485679
=>
V2
1.6880772
Grey circuit
Table 3a. Results for smooth pipe section (D=17mm, L = 912mm)
Volum
e
collect
ed

Time
t
(s)

Flow rate
Q = C/t
(m3/s)

Piezometer Readings
(mm)

Velocity
V
(m/s)

Re

f
(From
eqn
2&3)

Blasius
f
(from
Eqn 7)

C
(litre)
15

46

15

55

15

67

15

106

0.000326
09
0.000272
73
0.000223
88
0.000141
51

tap 7

tap 8

949

804

145

878

787

91

808

732

76

710

676

34

1.43736
1
1.20215
7
0.98684
5
0.62376
1

24435.
14
20436.
66
16776.
37
10603.
93

0.02564
2
0.02300
5
0.02851
2
0.03192
7

Sample calculation
C = 15L; t = 46 s
=> Q = C / t = 0.015 / 46 = 0.00032609 (m3/s)
0.00032609
=1.437361(m/ s)
3 2
17
10
=> V = Q / Area = 3.14 (
)
2
Tap 7: 949 mm; Tap 8: 804 mm
=> h=949804=145 mm
=

VD 1000 1.4373610.017
=
=24435.14

103

From equation (3) f =

hlm 2 g
LV

0.145 2 9.8
=0.025642
0.912 1.4373612

0.25
0.25
=0.316 24435.14
=0.025275
From equation (7) f =0.316

Table 3b. Results for Venturi meter


Volum
e
collect
ed
C
(litre)

Time
t
(s)

15

46

15

55

15

67

15

106

Flow rate
Q = C/t
(m3/s)

0.000326
09
0.000272
73
0.000223
88
0.000141
51

Piezometer Readings
(mm)

Q
(From
Eqn 8)

tap 29

tap 28

949

804

145

878

787

91

808

732

76

710

676

34

0.0003
52
0.0002
79
0.0002
55
0.0001
7

0.02527
5
0.02642
9
0.02776
6
0.03114

Sample calculation
C = 15, t = 46s
=> Q = C / t = 0.015 /46 = 0.00032609 (m3/s)
Tap 29: 949mm; Tap 28: 804mm
=> h=949804=145 mm
C A1

( )

2 gh
m3
4 2 9.8 0.145
=0.96 5.309 10
=0.000352( )
s
A1 2
5.309 2
1
1
2.011
A2

Table 3c. Results for rough pipe section (D=14mm; L = 200mm)


Volum
e
collect
ed
C
(litre)

Time
t
(s)

25

77

15

54

15

65

15

108

Flow rate
Q = C/t
(m3/s)

0.000324
68
0.000277
78
0.000230
77
0.000138
89

Piezometer Readings
(mm)
tap 31

tap 30

929

718

211

858

705

153

798

688

110

691

656

35

Velocity
V
(m/s)

2.1102
1.80539
3
1.49986
5
0.90269
7

Re

f
(From
eqn
2&3)

35873.
39
30691.
68
25497.
71
15345.
84

0.01731
2
0.01715
0.01786
5
0.01569
3

Sample calculation
C = 25L; t = 77s
=> Q = C / t = 25/77 = 0.00032468 (m3/s)
0.00032468
=2.1102(m/s)
3 2
=> V = Q / Area = 3.14 ( 14 10 )
2
Tap 31: 929mm; Tap 30: 718 mm
=> h=929718=211 mm
=

VD 1000 2.1102 0.014


=
=35873.39

103

From equation (3): f =

hlm D 2 9.8
LV

0.211 0.014 2 9.8


=0.017312
0.2 2.11022

VII.

Discussion
1. From the results in Tables 1 to 3, are the flows laminar or turbulent? Explain
From the data in table 3a and 3c, the Reynold number that we calculated is
larger than 4300. For a fluid flows, as the Reynold number is larger than 4300,
then the fluid exhibits turbulent flow. Thus based on the Reynold number, we
conclude that the flow of water in circuit pipes in this experiment is turbulent
flow.
2. From tables 1a and 2, which valve (gate or globe ) has the higher K value
when fully opened
When fully opened, the Globe valve has K = 2.65535 while the Gate valve
has K = 1.386593. Thus the Globe valve has higher K value.

Globe valve
Gate valve
From the image above, we can see that in the globe valve the flow is separated
at a point while the gate valve the fluid flows freely without being separated.
The minor head loss is caused by the separation of fluid. Thus the Globe valve
causes more head loss and therefore have higher K value.
3. From Tables 1b, how does the K value of the sudden expansion compare with
values found in literature (state your literature reference)? Work out a sample
calculation, showing very clearly your steps, for any of the K values in your
tables 1b
Emperical:
2

p1
V
p
V
+ 1 1 + g z1 2 + 2 2 + g z 2 =h

2
Assume 1= 2 =1 , neglect gravity effect and major head loss then
p1 V 21
p V2
V2
+ 2 + 2 =K
2
2
2

K=
Since

2
2
2 p1 p 2 V 1 V 2
+
2

2
V

p
=g h , we can write :

K=

2
V 1 V 2
g h+
2
2
V

Literature
2
2
V
V
hlm=K
=(C pi C p )
2g
2g
V

2
p
Cp=
C pi =1

A1 2
D
1
=1
=1 1
2
A2
D2
AR

( ) ( )

2
K=C piC p=1

D1 2 g h

D2

( )

Table of K empirical vs K literature:


V 12V 22
2

1.5558416

33

1.208269

28

1.0100143
0.2510668

K emperical

V1

V2

K literature

1.1208
2.193

1.830078
1.612757

0.734
0.715

1.135

1.47452

1.1814

0.73516

0.493111
0.43455
4
0.39730
7
0.19808
7

23
7

0.719
0.673

K empirical is higher than K literature. This is due to our pre-assumption for


different pipes. For the Empirical K value calculation, major head loss term is

considered negligible from the overall energy balance. The only energy loss
that remains is just the minor energy loss.
For literature K values, as it does not neglect any head loss. Major head loss
and minor head loss are both present in the energy balance. This assumption is
more accurate compared with K empirical assumption; keeping the major
head loss in equation will generate more favorable result as frictional effect is
contributing more than flow separation to head loss.
4. Using Bernoullis Equation end the Continuity Equation, it can be shown that
the volumetric flow rate through a venturi meter is given by
Q=C A 1

( )

2g h
2
A1
1
A2

Where C is the discharge coefficient, A1 is the cross-sectional area of the pipe


and At is the value of the smallest cross-sectional area in the venturi meter.
For this particular venturi meter, C = 0.96; A1 = 5.309 x 10-4 m2; At = 2.011 x
10-4 m2. Calculate the volumetric flow rates based on these data and compare
with the values of Q obtained in Table 3b. Comment on any differences you
may have in the values.
From table 3b, we can see that the measured volumetric flow rate is
approximately equal to the Q calculated from the equation above. However
the flow rate calculated from the equation above is a little higher than the
measured flow rate. The higher values is because the equation above doesnt
include the friction effect of fluid in the venturi meter.
For a flow, we can use the venturi meter to measure the flow rate. Venturi
meter have many advantages: the measurement is quite accurate since the
head loss is small compared to Orifice meter; it can be used at high
temperature; the pressure drop is small; can be used for many flow. However,
venturi has some disadvantages like: expensive; large, heavy; only work for
certain fluid; still produce friction that results in head loss.
5. (a) For table 3a, compare the Blasius friction factor for each test point with the
measured value of f. Do the values agree well?
The measured values of f is nearly equal as the Blasius friction factor but the
Blasius friction factor is a little lower in values . However the error is small
and is acceptable.
(b) What can you say about the friction factor of the smooth pipe compared to
the friction factor of the rough pipe at similar Reynold numbers?

With similar Reynold number we can calculate similar friction factor.


However, rough pipe have higher friction factor (f) in the experiment. Rough
pipe is affected more in frictional effect as the fluid experiences more
opposing force when flowing. The cause of this large friction is more head
loss, so rough pipe loses more head than smooth pipe.
(c) What is the e/D ratio of the rough pipe? Show how you arrived at your
answer?
e/D is the relative pipe roughness. It is the ratio between absolute roughness e
to the diameter of the pipe (D). e/D and Reynold number are used together to
determine the friction factor of flowing fluid in the moody diagram. We can
based on the reverse equation to calculate e/D
For turbulent flow
e
1
D 2.51
=2 log (
+
)
3.7 f
f

e
2.51
> =3.7 10 2 f
D
f

Reynold number
29515.94
25252.53
20979.02
12626.26

f
0.065196
0.064585
0.067278
0.059098

e/D
0.0407
0.0398
0.0436
0.0324

=> e/D average = 0.039125


VIII. Conclusion
After this experiment, we conclude that for fluid flow through a pipe circuit, it will
experience friction caused by pipes which causes major head loss and minor head loss
caused by fittings (from valve) or by expansion.
For fluid flowing in a long pipe, it is assumed to experience mainly the major head
loss. The major head loss depends on size of the pipe, the roughness of the pipe and
velocity of the fluid. Considering the roughness, the pipe with higher roughness will
cause higher friction and therefore cause larger major head loss. Considering the
velocity of the flow, when the fluid flow fast, it will have higher Reynold number and

IX.

the fluid will exhibit turbulent behavior (when Re>4300), the friction factor will be
higher.
For a pipe with a valve, the fluid flowing experience minor head loss mainly. One
factor contribute to minor head loss is flow separation. Flow separation happens
when there is a flow measurement devices installed into the pipe. If the valve creates
bend in the fluid flow, it will reduce head pressure and considered as head loss.
Although the Globe valve is used frequently in industry, it causes higher head loss
than Gate valve. Another factor contributes to the minor head loss is sudden
expansion of a flow as they have a larger area the velocity will decrease. However,
the total volumetric flow rate does not change.
When calculate K for minor head loss, we usually neglect all the major head loss and
thus make it less accurate than in literature.
Appendix
Useful Data:
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of water = 1 x 10-3 N-s/m2
Reference
James O.Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, 2nd Edition , Prentice
Hall, 2006