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Anderson, Loren Runar et al "SPECIAL SECTIONS"

Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes

Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,2000

Figure 18-1 Wye showing transition flow from a mainline (inflow) pipe to two branch (outflow) pipes.
(In fact, flow could be in either direction.) Unit length of cone is x(cos ).

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Special sections in pipes are valves, tees, wyes,
elbows, caps or plugs, transitions such as cones for
changes in diameter (i.e. change in flow velocity),
and transitions between conduits of differing shapes
or sizes such as transitions from a rectangular
conduit to a circular pipe. Experience and expertise
are available from manufacturers of common
standard specials. However pipeline engineers often
need an uncommon section. Following are some
basic rules and procedures for preliminary design of
specials. As an example, consider a wye.
A wye (Y) is a bifurcation of the pipeline from a
larger mainline pipe to two smaller branch pipes.
See Figure 18-1. A wye may require a trifurcation,
or branch pipes of different diameters, or at different
offset angles, etc. Wyes can be either molded
(warped surface) or mitered (circular cylinders or
The following example is a mitered
bifurcation with equal offset angles. The basic
components are two truncated cones shown dotted
with large ends Di and small ends Do to match up
with the diameters of the inflow (mainline pipe) and
the outflow (branch pipes). The cones are cut and
welded together at the crotch to form the wye; and
are then welded to the mainline and the branch pipes
as shown. It is noteworthy that the crotch, the
intersection of the two cut cones, is an ellipse in a
plane. It is like a crotch seam in jeans. An ellipse is
easy to analyze and to fabricate. Because the cut is
in a plane, the welded intersection lends itself to
reinforcement by internal vane or external stiffener
ring or crotch plate. For high pressure, fabricators
favor welding the crotch cuts to a heavy crotch
plate, and welding stiffener rings to the outside of
the welded miters.






Consider the horizontal cross section 0-0 at the

crotch of Figure 18-1. A free-body-diagram of half
of the cross section shows a rupturing force of
pressure times the span of the cut. This force is
more than twice the rupturing force in each ring of
the branch pipes and will cause ballooning of the
cross section unless the rings are held together at
the center either by a vane on the inside, or by a
crotch plate on the outside. A crotch plate is a Cclamp with an elliptical inside cut as shown in Figure
18-2. It is located at the plane of intersection
(crotch cut) of the two branch pipes.

Force On Crotch Plate Due To Internal Pressure

See Figure 18-3. From ring analysis (Chapter 2) the
force to be resisted by the crotch plate from each of
the cone walls at the vertex section A-A-A, is PrA
per unit length of the pipe. Per unit length of crotch
plate (or vane), the force on the crotch plate
w = 2PrA(cos )

Notation and Nomenclature



ID = inside diameter (nominal for steel)

inside diameter of inflow pipe

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inside diameter of outflow pipes

wall thickness
radius of bend in the pipe or cone
offset angle of contiguous mitered
length of section of pipe
length of truncated cone
angle between axes of each branch pipe
and the mainline pipe.



. . . . . (18.1)

vertical force on crotch plate (vane)

per unit length of crotch plate
internal pressure
radius of the circular cone
(or circular cylinder in some cases)
offset angle of axes of branch cones
(or cylinders) from the axis of the
mainline pipe


Figure 18-2 Development of the crotch cut and the crotch plate which, together with the stiffener rings, supports the hoop tension at the cuts (all cuts
are elliptical).

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Figure 18-3 Free-body-diagrams of cone corss sections showing where the crotch is cut, the hoop forces PrA
at section A-A-A and PrB at section B-B.

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Figure 18-4 Free-body-diagram of one limb of the crotch plate showing an approximate procedure for
analyzing the forces on the limb assuming it to be a cantilever beam (bottom sketch) loaded at the free end
of the statically indeterminate restraint Q of the stiffener rings.

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angle on the cone cross section from

the vertical axis to the crotch cut
length of longitudinal element on the
inside of the mitered cone section

But this force w oc curs only on section A-A-A at

the vertex of the crotch cut. At section B-B of
Figure 18-3, the hoop forces are not vertical. If the
crotch plate (or vane) resists vertical components
only, per unit length the vertical force on the crotch
plate is: w' = 2Pr B(cos )sin ; where is the
angle, in the plane of section B-B, from vertical to
the intersection of the two branch pipes. The
horizontal components of the hoop forces, Pr B, are
balanced because of symmetry i.e. because the
pressures, diameters, and offset angles are equal in
the two branch pipes.
Figure 18-4 is a plot of w' throughout the length of
the crotch cut of Figure 18-3. Clearly, the plot does
not deviate significantly from a straight line.
Therefore, if a straight line is assumed, angle
serves no purpose, and Equation 18.1 provides a
value for w for analyzing forces on the crotch plate.
From the force analysis, the crotch plate can be

Hydrodynamic Guidelines
In pressure lines of high velocity water flow, such as
penstocks for hydroelectric power plants, it is
prudent to avoid sudden changes in velocity or
sudden changes in direction of flow because of
turbulence and loss of energy. Guidelines used by
fluid dynamicists for minimizing energy loss are as
follows. See Figures 18-5 to 7.
1. Keep the cross-sectional areas of the mainline
pipe nearly equal to the areas of the branch pipes.
For a wye (bifurcation), Do2 = Di2/2.

keep < 7.5o or even < 6o for very high velocity

3. Keep the radius of the bend greater than 2.5
times the pipe diameter (or mean diameter of any
mitered cone section); i.e. R > 2.5D = 5r. It is
preferable to keep R > 3D or even > 4D for very
high velocity flows. See Figure 18-7.
4. Keep the length, Li, on the inside of the bend of
each mitered section, greater than half the mean
radius of the section (pipe or cone).
5. Keep the cone taper angle minimum. The greater
the taper angle, the shorter are the length s Li of
contiguous cone (or pipe) sections. This means a
sharper bend (shorter radius R of bend). On the
other hand, the smaller the taper angle, the longer
the crotch plate must be. Consequently, much
greater loads must be supported by the cantilever
limbs of the crotch plate. The crotch plate, a critical
structural element of the wye, presents a dilemma
the need for a large taper angle to keep the
crotch plate short, and the need for a small taper
angle to keep the radius of the bend and the inside
lengths, Li, within limits of hydrodynamic guidelines.
From this point on, design is by trial. The
relationship of the hydrodynamic guidelines to the
structural integrity of the wye are best described by
an example.
Consider a penstock for a hydroelectric power plant.
Suppose that the mainline pipe is 96-inc h steel pipe,
bifurcated into two branch pipes to supply water
under high pressure and high velocity to two equal
sized turbines. For steel pipes, diameters are inside.
Yield strength is 45 ksi. For preliminary design,
including 100% surge, pressure is P = 225 psi.
First Trial

2. On mitered bends, keep the inside-of-bend offset

angles minimum. Inside offset angles are the critical
cause of turbulence. Inside offset angle should
never be greater than = 15o. It is preferable to
keep < 10o. Most engineers try to

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Start with a trial wye say Figure 18-1. Try a

taper angle of 7.5o, for which the truncated length of
the cones is LT = 113.94 inches. To facilitate
fabrication and welding, select the same steel

Figure 18-5 Wye with inside offset angles limited to 7.5o. Note that branches do not clear each other at the
lower end.

Figure 18-6 Same wye, but mitered; i.e., cut near midlength of the cone, rotated 180o, and welded. Note that
the branches now clear each other.

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thickness for all of the pipes and cones at the wye.

The hoop stress is maximum in the mainline pipe
where hoop stress is = PDi /2t. Therefore:
t = PDi(sf)/2S
. . . . . (18.2)
= wall thickness (to be found)

= hoop stress in the pipe wall

= internal pressure = 225 psi
= inside diameter of the mainline
pipe = 96 inches
= yield strength of steel = 45 ksi
= safety factor say 1.5
Solving, t = 0.360 inch. This is not a standard, so try
standard t = 0.375 inch for analysis.
From guideline 1, Do2 = Di2/2. So Do = 67.88 inches
for the branch pipes. Specify diameters of the
branch (outflow) pipes to be a standard Do = 66
inches. The ratio of areas, inflow to outflow, is
1.058 not bad. Moreover, the slight reduction in
outflow areas from perfect gives a slight increase in
flow velocities into the turbines. This is desirable
from the standpoint of turbine efficiency.
From guideline 2, the inside offset angle, , should
be less than about 7.5o. For the trial wye of Figure
18-1, is greater than 7.5o actually 15o. If
reduced to 7.5o, the branch offset becomes = 15o
as shown in Figure 18-5. Obviously, the outflow
pipes do not clear each other at the lower end. In
order for the branches to clear each other, two
remedies are considered.
1. The taper angle could be reduced such that length
of the cone is increased. But then, the length of the
crotch plate would have to be increased. That's
2. An alternative remedy might be to miter the cones
as shown in Figure 18-6. The length of the crotch
plate is increased only slightly. That's not so bad.
The total offset angle from the axis of the mainline
to branches is low = 22.5o.
It is noteworthy that the inside offset angle from

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tapered cone to pipe is less critical than the inside

offset angle for bends in pipes because the taper-tocylinder transition is a symmetrical squeeze-down of
flow. Bends are not symmetrical. If one or the
other has to be mitigated, the taper (rather than the
inside offset angle in a bend) is allowed to exceed
the recommended maximum.
Figure 18-7 shows how mitered bends are formed.
Because a planar cut across any circular cone (or
pipe) is a perfect ellipse, mitered bends can be
achieved by cutting any cone (or pipe) at an angle of
/2 with the diameter, rotating one section 180o, and
then welding the cut. The ellipses match. The
resulting offset angle is .
It is not always necessary to miter the mainline pipe.
See the mainline-to-cone cut in Figure 18-7. When
this particular cone tilts to angle = 15o, its
horizontal radius is approximately the same as the
radius of the mainline pipe. Of course, the cut of the
cone is an ellipse, but the ellipse is so nearly circular,
that the cone and pipe can be pulled together for
welding. If the ring cut were mitered, the stiffener
rings would come in at some angle such as the ring
cut angle of 6o shown on Figure 18-1. For the
transition, upper stiffener ring A is a circle an
easy cut. See Figure 18-8. The lower stiffener
rings B (at the miter cuts in the cones) intersect at
the angles shown.
Second Trial
Figure 18-8 is the second trial wye for analysis and
design. Of primary concern is the crotch plate. In
this case, the length of the crotch plate limbs is 109.5
inches. This compares not too badly with a crotch
limb length of 94.8 inches for the first trial shown in
Figure 18-1. A free-body-diagram of the force w on
the 109.5-inch limb can be calculated by means of
Equation 18.1. However, there are two values of ,
upper section and lower section. For the upper
section, cos = cos 15o = 0.966. For the lower
section, cos = cos 22.5o = 0.924. Not justified is
any attempt to interrelate the two by applying
Equation 18.1 over the upper and lower sections
separately. Conservatively, we use the larger value,
cos = 0.966, and we analyze the full

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Figure 18-8 Second trial configuration of mitered wye showing the crotch plate and stiffener rings; and a full
circle stiffener ring at A.

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Figure 18-9 Mitered wye showing cross-hatched areas which, when multiplied by pressure P, are the loads
at the mitered cuts where stiffener rings and crotch plate are required.

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109.5-inc h length of the limb as a single free-bodydiagram with a straight line distribution of the wforce on the cantilever. The radius of the cones at
the vertex of the crotch cut is about 33.5 inches.
Consequently w = 2Pr(cos 15o) = 14.6 kips per inch.
With this information, forces on the crotch plate can
be found.
The above simplifications are justified by noting that
Equation 18.1, for finding w, applies not only to the
crotch plate, but to the stiffener rings as well. In
fact, each stiffener ring is simply two crotch plates
with the ends of the limbs welded together. All
mitered cuts result in a w-force in the plane of
intersection of the two contiguous sections. Any
part of the mitered section that is not part of a full
ring (tension hoop), when pressure P is applied, must
be supported by a crotch plate or stiffener ring. This
is shown in Figure 18-9. Areas shown crosshatched, when multiplied by pressure P, represent
the w-force distribution diagrams on each of the cuts
where crotch plate or stiffener rings are located.
The areas are shown in the plane of the page, but
represent the vertical w-force. The proof is evident
in the column of values at the right margin, all of
which, when multiplied by constant pressure P, are
simply Equation 18.1 for w. Clearly, rings at A and
B must resist w-forces from the mitered joints as
well as interaction from the crotch plate. However,
the areas at the A-cut and B-cut are small
compared with the areas at the crotch cut and are
usually ignored. Moreover, almost any reasonable
stiffener ring at the A-cut can resist the w-force
acting on it. The w-force at B is insignificant. The
B ring only needs to help support the crotch plate.
Moreover, the reduced radius rB at the B-cut, where
the wall thickness is still 0.375 inch, results in a
much stronger cone at the B-cut than at the A-cut.

Crotch Plate Design

Figure 18-10 is a free-body-diagram of a cantilever
representing the crotch plate with the w-force and
reactions at A, B, and O as shown. The reactions at
A and B are the restraints by stiffener rings which
can deform under Q-loads. Therefore the analysis

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is statically indeterminate, depending upon the spring

constants of the stiffener rings at A and B. For a
true ring, such as A, the spring constant is,
Q/ = 6.72 EI/r3

. . . . . (18.3)

= diametral load on the ring

= deflection of the diametral load

= modulus of elasticity of the steel ring
= moment of inertia of the cross-sectional
area of the ring wall
= radius to the neutral surface of the ring
cross section.
The spring constants of ring B and the crotch plate
are more difficult to evaluate because of their
shapes. A reasonable simplification of the crotch
plate for preliminary design is to assume that ring A
will, at least, prevent rotation of the crotch plate
cantilever limb at section B. See Figure 18-11. To
the left of section B, the crotch plate is
approximately a half ring, wherein section B does
not rotate under load. Consequently, the spring
constant for the crotch plate can be analyzed by an
equivalent circular ring. To analyze the equivalent
ring, it is only necessary to neglect QA and to double
the load QB on the equivalent ring. The spring
constant can be calculated from Equation 18.3. It is
noteworthy that simulating the crotch plate by a ring
with twice the Q-load on it, we are assuming that
the limb of the crotch plate does not rotate at B. A
more accurate analysis would prove that rotation at
B is small.
Figure 18-12 is proposed as a reasonable trial cross
section of the crotch plate at section C-C. Try a
1.5-inch by 30-inch plate for a web with a 1 x 12inch flange on the outside. On the inside of the web
are the steel cone walls double welded to the crotch
plate and splitter plates securely welded to provide
the equivalent of a flange and to provide abrasion
resistance to head-on flow of water containing
sediment. The crotch cross section shown is not a
standard I-beam section. Nevertheless, assuming
that the walls of the cones and the splitter plates
combine to provide an area

Figure 18-10 Forces on a cantilever beam which is used as an approximation of the upper limb of the crotch
plate and showing (below) the general shape of the stiffener rings at A and B.

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Figure 18-11 Upper limb of crotch plate showing how the spring constant for the load Q can be analyzed
approximately by means of an equivalent ring with a load of 2Q.

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Figure 18-12 Trial cross section of crotch plate at Section C-C.

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of steel equivalent to the 1x12 flange, an

approximate moment of inertia, I, can be easily
The spring constant for stiffener B may requ i r e a
computer analysis. However, at this point, in a
sequence of many simplifications, to simulate ring B
by an equivalent circular ring may be sufficient for
preliminary design. The basic function of ring B is
to help support the crotch plate.
A layout of the crotch cut can be accomplished by
any of a number of methods for scribing an ellipse.
Shown on Figure 18-13 is one method based on
evaluation of the major and minor semi-diameters.
A cutting plane is passed through the cone on the
right at = 18.26o. can be found graphically, or
by the law of sines for the small cross-hatched
triangle shown. The major diameter is the length of
the cutting plane. The minor diameter is the length
of a line segment piercing the cone perpendicular to
the page at the geometrical center G of the ellipse.
This can be found graphically as shown by the
projection below the cone. Or it can be found by
trigonometry. With the semi-diameters known, the
elliptical crotch cut can be developed as shown on
the left. This procedure is based on two circles
centered at G with radii equal to the major and minor
semi-diameters. Any radial line from G intersects
the two circles at the latitude and departure of a
point on the ellipse as shown. A few numerical
values of latitudes and departures are shown at the
lower left. This is the crotch cut.
No allowance is made yet for the thickness of the
cone wall or the thickness of the crotch plate. If the
crotch cut is laid out on the inside of the cone, the
cone wall thic kness is not an issue. Depending on
the method used to lay out the cut on the cone, half
the thickness of the crotch plate must be allowed in
the layout. Alternatively, a new crotch cut can be
analyzed by graphical techniques allowing for half
the thickness of the crotch plate in the elliptical cuts
in the cones.
With the crotch cut drawn to scale, a trial crotch
plate can be laid out. See Figure 18-14. Note that
the crotch plate is cut well inside the crotch cut line.
This allows ample surface for welding the cones and

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the splitter plates to the crotch plate. These welds

must be of excellent quality, for they must resist the
entire hoop tension in the walls of the cones.
Stress analysis of the crotch plate and stiffener rings
starts with assumed dimensions. See Figures 18-12,
18-14, and 18-15. A free-body-diagram of the upper
limb of the crotch plate is represented as a
cantilever in Figure 18-14. With four unknowns, Mo,
Qo, QB, and QA, it is statically indeterminate.
Moreover, QA and QB are reactions from rings
which deflect under the Q-loads. A reasonable
simplification is to assume that section BA is a
cantilever as shown at the bottom of Figure 18-14,
and that the vertical deflections of points A and B
are equal. Solving, QA = 59.3 kips. The remainder
of the load is QB = 800 - 59 = 741 kips to be divided
between crotch plate and "ring" B. This is a
conservative simplification because the 800-kip total
force is actually distributed not concentrated
and to assume it to be concentrated at A and B
results in higher stresses in the crotch plate and ring
B than would the distributed w-force. The division
of QB between crotch plate and ring B is
proportional to the spring constants of the crotch
plate and ring B. The data for the trial cross
sections of crotch plate and ring B are shown in
Figures 18-12 and 18-15. To assume that ring B is
circular is an approximation. The ring is not circular
neither inside cut nor outside cut. The two
halves of the ring are not even in the same plane.
Nevertheless, using an average radius, r, an
approximate spring constant can be evaluated.
From Equation 18.3, the ratio of spring constants for
crotch plate and ring B is,
(Q/) r = [9140/2(2293)](59/57.8)3 = 2.12.
From this ratio, the crotch plate must take 68% of
the 741 kip load (506 kips), and ring B must take
32% (235 kips). Stresses in the trial sections of
crotch plate and ring B can be estimated because
the moment in a ring due to a concentrated Q-load
M = 0.318Qr

. . . . . (18.4)

Figure 18-13 Graphical construction of the crotch cut based on the fact that it is an ellipse (constructed here
by one of various methods).

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Figure 18-14 Dimensions of the proposed crotch plate and loads on the upper limb shown (above) for the
entire limb, and (below) for the section BA between stiffener rings.

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Figure 18-15 Trial cross sections for stiffener rings A and B.

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moments at locations of Q and at 90o to

Q-locations on the ring
concentrated diametral load
radius to neutral surface of the ring.

Crotch Plate

= 571 in 3
= 75 in 2
= 506 kips
= 57.8 mean
= 20,333 kip inches
= 2Q o /2Ao + M/(I/c)
= 6.75 + 35.61 = 42.36 ksi

Ring B
229 in 3
38 in 2
235 kips
59 mean
70 inches
5231 kip inches



= Q B /2AB + M/(I/c)
= 3.09 + 22.84 = 25.94 ksi

Stress in the crotch plate is high; i.e., yield stress is

45 ksi. However, considering that flexural yield
stress is not failure for pipes (failure is a plastic
phenomenon, not an elastic phenomenon), and
considering that surge pressures of 100% can be
reduced by slow-closing valves and controlledresponse turbines, this preliminary crotch plate
design seems acceptable. A final analysis may be
The stress in ring B is greater than that typical
allowable, 45/2 = 22.5 ksi, with a safety factor of 2.
Nevertheless, the same mitigating arguments apply.
The preliminary design of ring B is acceptable.
The stress in ring A is

= QA /2A + M/(I/c) = 1.24 + 10.13 = 11.37 ksi

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QA =

104.24 in 3
24 in 2
59 kips
56 mean
0.318QA /(I/c) = 1056 kip inches.

Stress is low enough to justify elimination of the

flange. Without the flange, neglecting contribution
of the pipe wall, I/c > (16)2/6 = 42.67 in 3, A > 16 in 2,
and < 1.85 + 24.75 = 26.60 ksi. Based on the
same arguments used for the crotch plate and ring
B, the flange is not needed. However, there may be
some question about web buckling in compression at
9:00 and 3:00 o'clock. On the other hand, buckling
could occur only when there is pressure in the
pipeline, and pressure would reduce greatly the
compressive buckling stress in ring A.
preliminary design, the flange is to be eliminated.
Figure 18-16 is a preliminary layout of a trifurcation
in a water supply pipeline (penstock) for a
hydroelectric power plant. Flow in the penstock is
to be divided equally into three turbines. Rather than
a fork with outflow pipe axes all in the same plane,
a cluster of outflow pipes is proposed. From the
standpoint of hydrodynamics, it is an efficient
transition. The crotch plates are three heavy vanes
at 120o all welded to a keel as shown. 120 sections
of the transition cones are then welded to the crotch
plates. The inflow is a 126-inch diameter steel pipe.
The three outflows are all 72-inch diameter. Static
pressure is 106 psi, but with surge, it is designed for
212 psi. For preliminary design, the proposed wall
thickness is 0.375 inch. Yield strength of the pipe
wall is at least 42 ksi. It may not be necessary to
miter short cone sections if the trifurcation is
encased in reinforced concrete. Even though the
cones are long, crotch plates will not be required if
the cones are supported from outside by the
reinforced concrete casing. See Figure 18-17. All
hydrodynamic guidelines are met for high-pressure,
high-velocity flow.

Figure 18-16 Layout of a cluster trifurcation from a 126-inch diameter intake to three 72-inch diameter outlets showing the top crotch plate on the left
and the bottom transition cone on the right.

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Figure 18-17 Cross section of a hexagonal reinforced concrete encasement for the trifurcation of 126-D to
three 72-D pipes.

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Figure 18-18 Branch in a steel penstock, showing a pair of crotch plates in pipes of equal diameter (left) and
a stiffener ring that is a curved plate (right). For high pressure, it is possible to add a flat plate as shown
dotted. It may be advisable to contruct a small scale model to check dimensions, to note any fabrication
or assembly problems, and to test the special section to rupture.

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Branch sections also require reinforcing by crotch
plates or stiffener rings. Figure 18-18 is a sketch of
two common branches which are explained in
"Buried Steel Penstocks; Steel Plate Engineering
Data Volume 4," published by the American Iron
and Steel Institute.
Design procedures are
explained, and graphs are presented for detailing.

this text. However, once costs are known, the

safety factors (zones of safety) can be identified. In
legal action, comparative damage is based on the
percent encroachment of each of the adversaries
into the zone of safety. For example, a buried
pressure pipe joint ruptures. To what percent did
the manufacturer, designer, welder, and installer
each encroach into the zone of safety?

Wyes and branches are not the only special sections.
However, most special sections are variations of the
wye. For example, a tee (T) is a junction of three
pipes just as a bifurcation (wye) is a junction of three
pipes. The junction can be reinforced with ring
stiffeners and crotch plates in the same way as the
The development of special sections has been mostly
empirical. Because specials are costly, the attitude
of manufacturers has been, "Make it stout. Our
product must not fail." For example, instead of
stiffening mitered sections with rings, the thickness
of the steel is increased. Competition is forcing
reconsideration of this policy.
For costly specials, or specials for which failure is
costly, physical tests are performed. Small scale
model tests are often adequate. The conditions for
similitude discussed in Appendix C are not sufficient
for hydrodynamic model studies.
hydrodynamic similitude is described in most texts on
hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamicists have led the
world in physical model studies.

Safety factors are based on monetary equivalents.
Analysis of the cost of risk is outside the scope of

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18-1 What are the major and minor diameters of the

crotch cut of Figure 18-1?
18-2 What should be the diameter of the three steel
outflow pipes of a trifurcation from a 3 meter steel
inflow pipe if all outflow rates are equal and the flow
velocity is to remain constant?
(1.732 m)
Given: mitered wye in a welded steel water pipeline
for which,
= 51 inches = inside diameter, inflow pipe
= 36 inches = inside diameter, outflow pipes
= 196 psi = design pressure, includes surge
Taper = 9o = taper angle of the transition cones
18-3 What should the wall thickness be if the
allowable hoop stress in the steel is 20 ksi?
(t = 0.250 inches)
18-4 What is the length of the two transition cones?
(LT = 47.35 inches)
18-5 What is the w-force on the crotch plate?
(w = 6.6 k/in)
18-6 What should be the miter cut angle in the
transition cones if the outflow ends are to be
separated by 5 inches to allow for welding?