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888 tayangan25 halamanAnderson, Loren Runar et al "SPECIAL SECTIONS"
Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes

Mar 15, 2015

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Anderson, Loren Runar et al "SPECIAL SECTIONS"
Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes

© All Rights Reserved

888 tayangan

Anderson, Loren Runar et al "SPECIAL SECTIONS"
Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes

© All Rights Reserved

- Technical Standars for Gates and Penstocks
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- Bifurcation Calculation (1) (1)
- Penstock Branch Design
- Hydraulic Gate Seals
- DESIGN OF CONCRETE BLOCK ANCHOR.xls
- Penstock Embedded Design
- Design Penstock
- MANUAL ON DESIGN FABRICATION ERECTION & MAINTENANCE OF STEEL PENSTOCK
- Mathcad - Sickle Plate
- Ring Girder (Japan-1)
- Sickle Plate
- Buried Steel Penstocks
- Penstock Manual
- Structural Design of Penstock
- Steel Penstocks_4 Exposed Penstocks
- Bifurcation Simulation ANSYS
- Radial Gate Analysis
- AISI - Buried Steel Penstocks
- Structural Design of Penstock Indian Standard

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Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,2000

Figure 18-1 Wye showing transition flow from a mainline (inflow) pipe to two branch (outflow) pipes.

(In fact, flow could be in either direction.) Unit length of cone is x(cos ).

Special sections in pipes are valves, tees, wyes,

elbows, caps or plugs, transitions such as cones for

changes in diameter (i.e. change in flow velocity),

and transitions between conduits of differing shapes

or sizes such as transitions from a rectangular

conduit to a circular pipe. Experience and expertise

are available from manufacturers of common

standard specials. However pipeline engineers often

need an uncommon section. Following are some

basic rules and procedures for preliminary design of

specials. As an example, consider a wye.

A wye (Y) is a bifurcation of the pipeline from a

larger mainline pipe to two smaller branch pipes.

See Figure 18-1. A wye may require a trifurcation,

or branch pipes of different diameters, or at different

offset angles, etc. Wyes can be either molded

(warped surface) or mitered (circular cylinders or

cones).

The following example is a mitered

bifurcation with equal offset angles. The basic

components are two truncated cones shown dotted

with large ends Di and small ends Do to match up

with the diameters of the inflow (mainline pipe) and

the outflow (branch pipes). The cones are cut and

welded together at the crotch to form the wye; and

are then welded to the mainline and the branch pipes

as shown. It is noteworthy that the crotch, the

intersection of the two cut cones, is an ellipse in a

plane. It is like a crotch seam in jeans. An ellipse is

easy to analyze and to fabricate. Because the cut is

in a plane, the welded intersection lends itself to

reinforcement by internal vane or external stiffener

ring or crotch plate. For high pressure, fabricators

favor welding the crotch cuts to a heavy crotch

plate, and welding stiffener rings to the outside of

the welded miters.

Do

t

R

=

=

=

L

LT

=

=

=

crotch of Figure 18-1. A free-body-diagram of half

of the cross section shows a rupturing force of

pressure times the span of the cut. This force is

more than twice the rupturing force in each ring of

the branch pipes and will cause ballooning of the

cross section unless the rings are held together at

the center either by a vane on the inside, or by a

crotch plate on the outside. A crotch plate is a Cclamp with an elliptical inside cut as shown in Figure

18-2. It is located at the plane of intersection

(crotch cut) of the two branch pipes.

See Figure 18-3. From ring analysis (Chapter 2) the

force to be resisted by the crotch plate from each of

the cone walls at the vertex section A-A-A, is PrA

per unit length of the pipe. Per unit length of crotch

plate (or vane), the force on the crotch plate

becomes:

w = 2PrA(cos )

where

w

=

D

Di

=

=

inside diameter of inflow pipe

(mainline)

(branch)

wall thickness

radius of bend in the pipe or cone

offset angle of contiguous mitered

sections

length of section of pipe

length of truncated cone

angle between axes of each branch pipe

and the mainline pipe.

P

r

=

=

. . . . . (18.1)

per unit length of crotch plate

internal pressure

radius of the circular cone

(or circular cylinder in some cases)

offset angle of axes of branch cones

(or cylinders) from the axis of the

mainline pipe

217

Figure 18-2 Development of the crotch cut and the crotch plate which, together with the stiffener rings, supports the hoop tension at the cuts (all cuts

are elliptical).

Figure 18-3 Free-body-diagrams of cone corss sections showing where the crotch is cut, the hoop forces PrA

at section A-A-A and PrB at section B-B.

Figure 18-4 Free-body-diagram of one limb of the crotch plate showing an approximate procedure for

analyzing the forces on the limb assuming it to be a cantilever beam (bottom sketch) loaded at the free end

of the statically indeterminate restraint Q of the stiffener rings.

Li

the vertical axis to the crotch cut

length of longitudinal element on the

inside of the mitered cone section

the vertex of the crotch cut. At section B-B of

Figure 18-3, the hoop forces are not vertical. If the

crotch plate (or vane) resists vertical components

only, per unit length the vertical force on the crotch

plate is: w' = 2Pr B(cos )sin ; where is the

angle, in the plane of section B-B, from vertical to

the intersection of the two branch pipes. The

horizontal components of the hoop forces, Pr B, are

balanced because of symmetry i.e. because the

pressures, diameters, and offset angles are equal in

the two branch pipes.

Figure 18-4 is a plot of w' throughout the length of

the crotch cut of Figure 18-3. Clearly, the plot does

not deviate significantly from a straight line.

Therefore, if a straight line is assumed, angle

serves no purpose, and Equation 18.1 provides a

value for w for analyzing forces on the crotch plate.

From the force analysis, the crotch plate can be

designed.

Hydrodynamic Guidelines

In pressure lines of high velocity water flow, such as

penstocks for hydroelectric power plants, it is

prudent to avoid sudden changes in velocity or

sudden changes in direction of flow because of

turbulence and loss of energy. Guidelines used by

fluid dynamicists for minimizing energy loss are as

follows. See Figures 18-5 to 7.

1. Keep the cross-sectional areas of the mainline

pipe nearly equal to the areas of the branch pipes.

For a wye (bifurcation), Do2 = Di2/2.

flows.

3. Keep the radius of the bend greater than 2.5

times the pipe diameter (or mean diameter of any

mitered cone section); i.e. R > 2.5D = 5r. It is

preferable to keep R > 3D or even > 4D for very

high velocity flows. See Figure 18-7.

4. Keep the length, Li, on the inside of the bend of

each mitered section, greater than half the mean

radius of the section (pipe or cone).

5. Keep the cone taper angle minimum. The greater

the taper angle, the shorter are the length s Li of

contiguous cone (or pipe) sections. This means a

sharper bend (shorter radius R of bend). On the

other hand, the smaller the taper angle, the longer

the crotch plate must be. Consequently, much

greater loads must be supported by the cantilever

limbs of the crotch plate. The crotch plate, a critical

structural element of the wye, presents a dilemma

the need for a large taper angle to keep the

crotch plate short, and the need for a small taper

angle to keep the radius of the bend and the inside

lengths, Li, within limits of hydrodynamic guidelines.

From this point on, design is by trial. The

relationship of the hydrodynamic guidelines to the

structural integrity of the wye are best described by

an example.

Example

Consider a penstock for a hydroelectric power plant.

Suppose that the mainline pipe is 96-inc h steel pipe,

bifurcated into two branch pipes to supply water

under high pressure and high velocity to two equal

sized turbines. For steel pipes, diameters are inside.

Yield strength is 45 ksi. For preliminary design,

including 100% surge, pressure is P = 225 psi.

First Trial

angles minimum. Inside offset angles are the critical

cause of turbulence. Inside offset angle should

never be greater than = 15o. It is preferable to

keep < 10o. Most engineers try to

taper angle of 7.5o, for which the truncated length of

the cones is LT = 113.94 inches. To facilitate

fabrication and welding, select the same steel

Figure 18-5 Wye with inside offset angles limited to 7.5o. Note that branches do not clear each other at the

lower end.

Figure 18-6 Same wye, but mitered; i.e., cut near midlength of the cone, rotated 180o, and welded. Note that

the branches now clear each other.

The hoop stress is maximum in the mainline pipe

where hoop stress is = PDi /2t. Therefore:

t = PDi(sf)/2S

. . . . . (18.2)

where

t

= wall thickness (to be found)

P

= internal pressure = 225 psi

Di

= inside diameter of the mainline

pipe = 96 inches

S

= yield strength of steel = 45 ksi

sf

= safety factor say 1.5

Solving, t = 0.360 inch. This is not a standard, so try

standard t = 0.375 inch for analysis.

From guideline 1, Do2 = Di2/2. So Do = 67.88 inches

for the branch pipes. Specify diameters of the

branch (outflow) pipes to be a standard Do = 66

inches. The ratio of areas, inflow to outflow, is

1.058 not bad. Moreover, the slight reduction in

outflow areas from perfect gives a slight increase in

flow velocities into the turbines. This is desirable

from the standpoint of turbine efficiency.

From guideline 2, the inside offset angle, , should

be less than about 7.5o. For the trial wye of Figure

18-1, is greater than 7.5o actually 15o. If

reduced to 7.5o, the branch offset becomes = 15o

as shown in Figure 18-5. Obviously, the outflow

pipes do not clear each other at the lower end. In

order for the branches to clear each other, two

remedies are considered.

1. The taper angle could be reduced such that length

of the cone is increased. But then, the length of the

crotch plate would have to be increased. That's

bad.

2. An alternative remedy might be to miter the cones

as shown in Figure 18-6. The length of the crotch

plate is increased only slightly. That's not so bad.

The total offset angle from the axis of the mainline

to branches is low = 22.5o.

It is noteworthy that the inside offset angle from

offset angle for bends in pipes because the taper-tocylinder transition is a symmetrical squeeze-down of

flow. Bends are not symmetrical. If one or the

other has to be mitigated, the taper (rather than the

inside offset angle in a bend) is allowed to exceed

the recommended maximum.

Figure 18-7 shows how mitered bends are formed.

Because a planar cut across any circular cone (or

pipe) is a perfect ellipse, mitered bends can be

achieved by cutting any cone (or pipe) at an angle of

/2 with the diameter, rotating one section 180o, and

then welding the cut. The ellipses match. The

resulting offset angle is .

It is not always necessary to miter the mainline pipe.

See the mainline-to-cone cut in Figure 18-7. When

this particular cone tilts to angle = 15o, its

horizontal radius is approximately the same as the

radius of the mainline pipe. Of course, the cut of the

cone is an ellipse, but the ellipse is so nearly circular,

that the cone and pipe can be pulled together for

welding. If the ring cut were mitered, the stiffener

rings would come in at some angle such as the ring

cut angle of 6o shown on Figure 18-1. For the

transition, upper stiffener ring A is a circle an

easy cut. See Figure 18-8. The lower stiffener

rings B (at the miter cuts in the cones) intersect at

the angles shown.

Second Trial

Figure 18-8 is the second trial wye for analysis and

design. Of primary concern is the crotch plate. In

this case, the length of the crotch plate limbs is 109.5

inches. This compares not too badly with a crotch

limb length of 94.8 inches for the first trial shown in

Figure 18-1. A free-body-diagram of the force w on

the 109.5-inch limb can be calculated by means of

Equation 18.1. However, there are two values of ,

upper section and lower section. For the upper

section, cos = cos 15o = 0.966. For the lower

section, cos = cos 22.5o = 0.924. Not justified is

any attempt to interrelate the two by applying

Equation 18.1 over the upper and lower sections

separately. Conservatively, we use the larger value,

cos = 0.966, and we analyze the full

Figure 18-8 Second trial configuration of mitered wye showing the crotch plate and stiffener rings; and a full

circle stiffener ring at A.

Figure 18-9 Mitered wye showing cross-hatched areas which, when multiplied by pressure P, are the loads

at the mitered cuts where stiffener rings and crotch plate are required.

109.5-inc h length of the limb as a single free-bodydiagram with a straight line distribution of the wforce on the cantilever. The radius of the cones at

the vertex of the crotch cut is about 33.5 inches.

Consequently w = 2Pr(cos 15o) = 14.6 kips per inch.

With this information, forces on the crotch plate can

be found.

The above simplifications are justified by noting that

Equation 18.1, for finding w, applies not only to the

crotch plate, but to the stiffener rings as well. In

fact, each stiffener ring is simply two crotch plates

with the ends of the limbs welded together. All

mitered cuts result in a w-force in the plane of

intersection of the two contiguous sections. Any

part of the mitered section that is not part of a full

ring (tension hoop), when pressure P is applied, must

be supported by a crotch plate or stiffener ring. This

is shown in Figure 18-9. Areas shown crosshatched, when multiplied by pressure P, represent

the w-force distribution diagrams on each of the cuts

where crotch plate or stiffener rings are located.

The areas are shown in the plane of the page, but

represent the vertical w-force. The proof is evident

in the column of values at the right margin, all of

which, when multiplied by constant pressure P, are

simply Equation 18.1 for w. Clearly, rings at A and

B must resist w-forces from the mitered joints as

well as interaction from the crotch plate. However,

the areas at the A-cut and B-cut are small

compared with the areas at the crotch cut and are

usually ignored. Moreover, almost any reasonable

stiffener ring at the A-cut can resist the w-force

acting on it. The w-force at B is insignificant. The

B ring only needs to help support the crotch plate.

Moreover, the reduced radius rB at the B-cut, where

the wall thickness is still 0.375 inch, results in a

much stronger cone at the B-cut than at the A-cut.

Figure 18-10 is a free-body-diagram of a cantilever

representing the crotch plate with the w-force and

reactions at A, B, and O as shown. The reactions at

A and B are the restraints by stiffener rings which

can deform under Q-loads. Therefore the analysis

constants of the stiffener rings at A and B. For a

true ring, such as A, the spring constant is,

Q/ = 6.72 EI/r3

. . . . . (18.3)

where

Q

= diametral load on the ring

E

= modulus of elasticity of the steel ring

I

= moment of inertia of the cross-sectional

area of the ring wall

r

= radius to the neutral surface of the ring

cross section.

The spring constants of ring B and the crotch plate

are more difficult to evaluate because of their

shapes. A reasonable simplification of the crotch

plate for preliminary design is to assume that ring A

will, at least, prevent rotation of the crotch plate

cantilever limb at section B. See Figure 18-11. To

the left of section B, the crotch plate is

approximately a half ring, wherein section B does

not rotate under load. Consequently, the spring

constant for the crotch plate can be analyzed by an

equivalent circular ring. To analyze the equivalent

ring, it is only necessary to neglect QA and to double

the load QB on the equivalent ring. The spring

constant can be calculated from Equation 18.3. It is

noteworthy that simulating the crotch plate by a ring

with twice the Q-load on it, we are assuming that

the limb of the crotch plate does not rotate at B. A

more accurate analysis would prove that rotation at

B is small.

Figure 18-12 is proposed as a reasonable trial cross

section of the crotch plate at section C-C. Try a

1.5-inch by 30-inch plate for a web with a 1 x 12inch flange on the outside. On the inside of the web

are the steel cone walls double welded to the crotch

plate and splitter plates securely welded to provide

the equivalent of a flange and to provide abrasion

resistance to head-on flow of water containing

sediment. The crotch cross section shown is not a

standard I-beam section. Nevertheless, assuming

that the walls of the cones and the splitter plates

combine to provide an area

Figure 18-10 Forces on a cantilever beam which is used as an approximation of the upper limb of the crotch

plate and showing (below) the general shape of the stiffener rings at A and B.

Figure 18-11 Upper limb of crotch plate showing how the spring constant for the load Q can be analyzed

approximately by means of an equivalent ring with a load of 2Q.

approximate moment of inertia, I, can be easily

calculated.

The spring constant for stiffener B may requ i r e a

computer analysis. However, at this point, in a

sequence of many simplifications, to simulate ring B

by an equivalent circular ring may be sufficient for

preliminary design. The basic function of ring B is

to help support the crotch plate.

A layout of the crotch cut can be accomplished by

any of a number of methods for scribing an ellipse.

Shown on Figure 18-13 is one method based on

evaluation of the major and minor semi-diameters.

A cutting plane is passed through the cone on the

right at = 18.26o. can be found graphically, or

by the law of sines for the small cross-hatched

triangle shown. The major diameter is the length of

the cutting plane. The minor diameter is the length

of a line segment piercing the cone perpendicular to

the page at the geometrical center G of the ellipse.

This can be found graphically as shown by the

projection below the cone. Or it can be found by

trigonometry. With the semi-diameters known, the

elliptical crotch cut can be developed as shown on

the left. This procedure is based on two circles

centered at G with radii equal to the major and minor

semi-diameters. Any radial line from G intersects

the two circles at the latitude and departure of a

point on the ellipse as shown. A few numerical

values of latitudes and departures are shown at the

lower left. This is the crotch cut.

No allowance is made yet for the thickness of the

cone wall or the thickness of the crotch plate. If the

crotch cut is laid out on the inside of the cone, the

cone wall thic kness is not an issue. Depending on

the method used to lay out the cut on the cone, half

the thickness of the crotch plate must be allowed in

the layout. Alternatively, a new crotch cut can be

analyzed by graphical techniques allowing for half

the thickness of the crotch plate in the elliptical cuts

in the cones.

With the crotch cut drawn to scale, a trial crotch

plate can be laid out. See Figure 18-14. Note that

the crotch plate is cut well inside the crotch cut line.

This allows ample surface for welding the cones and

must be of excellent quality, for they must resist the

entire hoop tension in the walls of the cones.

Stress analysis of the crotch plate and stiffener rings

starts with assumed dimensions. See Figures 18-12,

18-14, and 18-15. A free-body-diagram of the upper

limb of the crotch plate is represented as a

cantilever in Figure 18-14. With four unknowns, Mo,

Qo, QB, and QA, it is statically indeterminate.

Moreover, QA and QB are reactions from rings

which deflect under the Q-loads. A reasonable

simplification is to assume that section BA is a

cantilever as shown at the bottom of Figure 18-14,

and that the vertical deflections of points A and B

are equal. Solving, QA = 59.3 kips. The remainder

of the load is QB = 800 - 59 = 741 kips to be divided

between crotch plate and "ring" B. This is a

conservative simplification because the 800-kip total

force is actually distributed not concentrated

and to assume it to be concentrated at A and B

results in higher stresses in the crotch plate and ring

B than would the distributed w-force. The division

of QB between crotch plate and ring B is

proportional to the spring constants of the crotch

plate and ring B. The data for the trial cross

sections of crotch plate and ring B are shown in

Figures 18-12 and 18-15. To assume that ring B is

circular is an approximation. The ring is not circular

neither inside cut nor outside cut. The two

halves of the ring are not even in the same plane.

Nevertheless, using an average radius, r, an

approximate spring constant can be evaluated.

From Equation 18.3, the ratio of spring constants for

crotch plate and ring B is,

(Q/) r = [9140/2(2293)](59/57.8)3 = 2.12.

From this ratio, the crotch plate must take 68% of

the 741 kip load (506 kips), and ring B must take

32% (235 kips). Stresses in the trial sections of

crotch plate and ring B can be estimated because

the moment in a ring due to a concentrated Q-load

is:

M = 0.318Qr

. . . . . (18.4)

Figure 18-13 Graphical construction of the crotch cut based on the fact that it is an ellipse (constructed here

by one of various methods).

Figure 18-14 Dimensions of the proposed crotch plate and loads on the upper limb shown (above) for the

entire limb, and (below) for the section BA between stiffener rings.

where

M

=

Q

r

=

=

Q-locations on the ring

concentrated diametral load

radius to neutral surface of the ring.

Crotch Plate

I/c

Ao

Qo

r

M

= 571 in 3

= 75 in 2

= 506 kips

= 57.8 mean

= 20,333 kip inches

= 2Q o /2Ao + M/(I/c)

= 6.75 + 35.61 = 42.36 ksi

Ring B

229 in 3

38 in 2

235 kips

59 mean

70 inches

5231 kip inches

I/c

AB

QB

r

rmax

M

=

=

=

=

=

=

= Q B /2AB + M/(I/c)

= 3.09 + 22.84 = 25.94 ksi

45 ksi. However, considering that flexural yield

stress is not failure for pipes (failure is a plastic

phenomenon, not an elastic phenomenon), and

considering that surge pressures of 100% can be

reduced by slow-closing valves and controlledresponse turbines, this preliminary crotch plate

design seems acceptable. A final analysis may be

advisable.

The stress in ring B is greater than that typical

allowable, 45/2 = 22.5 ksi, with a safety factor of 2.

Nevertheless, the same mitigating arguments apply.

The preliminary design of ring B is acceptable.

The stress in ring A is

where

I/c

=

A

=

QA =

r

=

M

=

104.24 in 3

24 in 2

59 kips

56 mean

0.318QA /(I/c) = 1056 kip inches.

flange. Without the flange, neglecting contribution

of the pipe wall, I/c > (16)2/6 = 42.67 in 3, A > 16 in 2,

and < 1.85 + 24.75 = 26.60 ksi. Based on the

same arguments used for the crotch plate and ring

B, the flange is not needed. However, there may be

some question about web buckling in compression at

9:00 and 3:00 o'clock. On the other hand, buckling

could occur only when there is pressure in the

pipeline, and pressure would reduce greatly the

compressive buckling stress in ring A.

For

preliminary design, the flange is to be eliminated.

Example

Figure 18-16 is a preliminary layout of a trifurcation

in a water supply pipeline (penstock) for a

hydroelectric power plant. Flow in the penstock is

to be divided equally into three turbines. Rather than

a fork with outflow pipe axes all in the same plane,

a cluster of outflow pipes is proposed. From the

standpoint of hydrodynamics, it is an efficient

transition. The crotch plates are three heavy vanes

at 120o all welded to a keel as shown. 120 sections

of the transition cones are then welded to the crotch

plates. The inflow is a 126-inch diameter steel pipe.

The three outflows are all 72-inch diameter. Static

pressure is 106 psi, but with surge, it is designed for

212 psi. For preliminary design, the proposed wall

thickness is 0.375 inch. Yield strength of the pipe

wall is at least 42 ksi. It may not be necessary to

miter short cone sections if the trifurcation is

encased in reinforced concrete. Even though the

cones are long, crotch plates will not be required if

the cones are supported from outside by the

reinforced concrete casing. See Figure 18-17. All

hydrodynamic guidelines are met for high-pressure,

high-velocity flow.

Figure 18-16 Layout of a cluster trifurcation from a 126-inch diameter intake to three 72-inch diameter outlets showing the top crotch plate on the left

and the bottom transition cone on the right.

Figure 18-17 Cross section of a hexagonal reinforced concrete encasement for the trifurcation of 126-D to

three 72-D pipes.

Figure 18-18 Branch in a steel penstock, showing a pair of crotch plates in pipes of equal diameter (left) and

a stiffener ring that is a curved plate (right). For high pressure, it is possible to add a flat plate as shown

dotted. It may be advisable to contruct a small scale model to check dimensions, to note any fabrication

or assembly problems, and to test the special section to rupture.

BRANCH SECTIONS

Branch sections also require reinforcing by crotch

plates or stiffener rings. Figure 18-18 is a sketch of

two common branches which are explained in

"Buried Steel Penstocks; Steel Plate Engineering

Data Volume 4," published by the American Iron

and Steel Institute.

Design procedures are

explained, and graphs are presented for detailing.

safety factors (zones of safety) can be identified. In

legal action, comparative damage is based on the

percent encroachment of each of the adversaries

into the zone of safety. For example, a buried

pressure pipe joint ruptures. To what percent did

the manufacturer, designer, welder, and installer

each encroach into the zone of safety?

PROBLEMS

OTHER SPECIAL SECTIONS

Wyes and branches are not the only special sections.

However, most special sections are variations of the

wye. For example, a tee (T) is a junction of three

pipes just as a bifurcation (wye) is a junction of three

pipes. The junction can be reinforced with ring

stiffeners and crotch plates in the same way as the

wye.

The development of special sections has been mostly

empirical. Because specials are costly, the attitude

of manufacturers has been, "Make it stout. Our

product must not fail." For example, instead of

stiffening mitered sections with rings, the thickness

of the steel is increased. Competition is forcing

reconsideration of this policy.

For costly specials, or specials for which failure is

costly, physical tests are performed. Small scale

model tests are often adequate. The conditions for

similitude discussed in Appendix C are not sufficient

for hydrodynamic model studies.

However,

hydrodynamic similitude is described in most texts on

hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamicists have led the

world in physical model studies.

SAFETY FACTORS

Safety factors are based on monetary equivalents.

Analysis of the cost of risk is outside the scope of

crotch cut of Figure 18-1?

18-2 What should be the diameter of the three steel

outflow pipes of a trifurcation from a 3 meter steel

inflow pipe if all outflow rates are equal and the flow

velocity is to remain constant?

(1.732 m)

Given: mitered wye in a welded steel water pipeline

for which,

Di

= 51 inches = inside diameter, inflow pipe

Do

= 36 inches = inside diameter, outflow pipes

P

= 196 psi = design pressure, includes surge

Taper = 9o = taper angle of the transition cones

18-3 What should the wall thickness be if the

allowable hoop stress in the steel is 20 ksi?

(t = 0.250 inches)

18-4 What is the length of the two transition cones?

(LT = 47.35 inches)

18-5 What is the w-force on the crotch plate?

(w = 6.6 k/in)

18-6 What should be the miter cut angle in the

transition cones if the outflow ends are to be

separated by 5 inches to allow for welding?

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