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Embryology

Embryology and Shit

Cleavage

Fertilization in fallopian tubes, but zygote moves uterus (implantation)


Zygote unicellular, so first division creates the embryo
Cleavage: A series of mitotic division of the zygote immediately following fertilization,
resulting in progressively smaller cells with increased:

Two types of cleavage

1st division 32 hours


2nd division 60 hours
3rd division 72 hours (embryo now in uterus)

Morula

1. Indeterminate: Cells that can still develop into complete organisms


2. Determinate: Cells that have a determined fate to differentiate into a specific cell type

Important Cleavage Times

1. nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio


2. surface area to volume ratio (for better gas and nutrient diffusion)

A solid 8 cell mass that results from the 3rd division

Blastocyst

Appears on day 4 - 8
The process of blastulation forms a blastula (a.k.a. blastocyst), which has a hollow, fluid-filled inner cavity called
the blastocoel
Inner cell mass: protrudes into the blastocoel and gives rise to the organism
Trophoblast: cells that surround the blastocoel and form the chorion and later the placenta

Wells/VPHY3100

Embryology and Shit

Implantation
Endometrium
Uterine wall where the blastocyst implants
Progesterone has thickened the mucosal layer
of the endometrium
The embryo secretes proteolytic enzymes that
help it burrow in the endometrium
The connection allows for nutrient and gas
exchange and later for the growth of the
placenta

Embryology and Shit

Implantation

Umbilical cord: connect to the chorion and provides maternal-fetal gas exchange
Amniotic fluid: suspends the fetus and the umbilical cord
Allantois: first barrier holding the amniotic fluid
Amnion: surrounds the allantois, serves as the shock absorber during pregnancy
Chorionic Cavity: holds the amnion
Chorion: outside of the chorionic cavity; outermost embryonic layer
Chorionic villi: grow into the placenta and support maternal-fetal gas exchange
Placenta: formed from the chorion;
Yolk sac: site of early blood vessel development
Uterine lining: outside of everything; beginning of the mother

Embryology and Shit

Fetus

Embryology and Shit

Gastrulation
Definition: formation of three distinct cell layers
Analogy: blowing up a beach ball but leaving the seal open, then
applying pressure with your fist to the outside of the ball
If you push on a specific point, you form a two layered cup, like the
gastrula
The air escaping is like the loss of the blastocoel
Endoderm: the inner cell layer/inner cup where you applied pressure
with your fist
Mesoderm: shit inside of the ball that hasnt escaped
Ectoderm: outer cell layer/outer cup on the opposite side of the
beach ball
Archenteron: the cavity/deep invagination around your forearm as
you push down on the beach ball
Blastopore: the entrance into the deep invagination
Deuterosomes: (humans) the blastopore develops into the anus
Protosomes: blastopore develops into the mouth

Embryology and Shit

What turns into what

Ectoderm

Integument (epidermis, hair, nails, and the epithelium of the nose, mouth, and anal canal)

Ears

Lens of the eye

Nervous system

Pituitary gland

Mesoderm

Musculoskeletal system (cardiac, smooth and skeletal)

Bone marrow

Circulatory system (including heart)

Excretory system

Gonads

Muscular and connective tissue coats of the digestive and respiratory systems

Endoderm

Epithelial linings of digestive and respiratory tracts (lungs, etc)

Liver

Pancreas

Thyroid

Bladder

Distal urinary and reproductive tracts

Embryology and Shit

What turns into what


Respiratory
Blind tube that goes into the body and has an opening and a
termination point
Digestive
Has an opening at two places
Vascular
Has no beginning or end with the external world; is a loop

Embryology and Shit

What turns into what


Celom

A wide tubular space in which organs will form in, but have not yet
Surrounded by a muscular wall of mesodermal origin
As development continues, the celom divides into four compartments:

1. Pericardial - heart
2, 3. Pleural lungs (one each)
4. Peritoneal abdomen

Embryology and Shit

Formation: how?

How does certain shit form at certain areas and not others? Like how come we dont have
ears inside of our anus?

Selective transcription: Only the necessary genes are turned on. Although each cell has
the entire genome, it can turn on specific ones

Induction:
Certain groups of cells can influence the fate of others by chemical substances called
inducers
Inducers are passed from the organizing cells to the responsive cells
Inducers are responsible for such things as the guidance of axons as they grow
through out the body
Analogy: If Im at a pregame and I say were going to X bar, chances are I can
persuade everyone in the group, and everyone who is yet to arrive, to go to X bar.

Embryology and Shit

Neurulation
Definition: development of the nervous system
Process:
1. Notochord: a rod of mesodermal cells forms along the long axis of
the organism (like a spinal cord), which, through induction, cause
2. Neural folds:
ectodermal cells that slide inward
Neural crest cells: cells at the tip of each neural fold that
migrate outward to form the PNS (including sensory ganglia,
autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and Schwann cells)
The neural folds surround the
3. Neural groove: ex: valley between two mountains
4. The neural folds grow toward one another until they fuse into a
neural tube: gives rise to CNS
Ectodermal cells migrate over the neural tube and neural crests
to cover the newly formed, basic nervous system

Embryology and Shit

Embryology and Shit

Gestation

First Trimester

First few weeks - Major organs begin developing

Day 22 heart beats

Day 22+ some - Eyes, gonads, limbs and liver form

Week 5 embryo is 10mm long

Week 6 15 mm long

Week 7 cartilaginous skeleton hardens to bone

Week 8 Most organs are fully formed; brain partially developed; embryo is now a fetus

3 months 9cm long (90 mm)

Second Trimester

Begins to move around in amniotic fluid

Face appears human

Toes and fingers elongate

6 months 30 to 36cm long (300 360mm)

Third Trimester

7,8 months further brain development

9 months antibodies are transported by highly selective active transport from mother to fetus for
protection and preparation for outside world

Growth rate slows; fetus becomes larger and moves less

Embryology and Shit

Birth

Accomplished by rhythmic contractions of uterine smooth muscle

Coordinated by prostaglandins and oxytocin

Three phases:

1. Water breaking: Cervix thins out and amniotic sac ruptures

2. Birth of Fetus: Strong uterine contractions expel the fetus from the vaginal canal

3. Afterbirth: Placenta and umbilical cord are expelled

Embryology and Shit

Respiration (see Dr. Lis Ch. 20 Reproduction power point for explanation)