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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Naturally fractured reservoirs

Part 2 - How to Characterize a


Fractured Reservoir?

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232, Avenue Napolon Bonaparte


P.O. BOX 213
92502 Rueil-Malmaison
France
Phone: +33 1 47 08 80 00
Fax: +33 1 47 08 41 85
info@beicip.fr

How to characterize fractured reservoirs ?


MAIN OUTLINES
 METHODOLOGY

 INTERWELL SCALE DATA


- Outcrops
- Seismic analysis
- Geomechanical models
2

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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 BOREHOLE SCALE DATA:


- Core data
- BHI data
- Cores to BHI calibration
- Statistical fracture analysis

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?

@Beicip-Franlab

 Methodology to characterize fractured


reservoirs
 Fracture analysis
 Data integration: conceptual model

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

Data Integration for Fracture Network Modelling

Production Tests

Core data

Q
0

LO SS

75

( l/m in )
150

225

3845

3846

3847

3848

3849

3850

Mud Losses

Image Logs

Wireline Logs

Outcrops

Seismic Attributes

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Geologic Models

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

FRACA workflow
WELL DATA :

Core data, Logs

(GR, NPHI, ), BHI / DSI

Fracture analysis

OUTCROPS
GEOLOGIC MODEL
facies, porosity, matrix K

Fracture modeling
Joints, fault related fractures, sub seismic faults

SEISMIC DATA
GEOMECHANICS
Fault map, Seismic horizons, Seismic
attribute maps, Stress/Strain maps

MULTI SCENARIO
fracture length, fracture conductivity

Kf
c
b

Kfx, Kfy, Kfz, a, b, c, f

Kf Tensor & Matrix Block Size for


Each Model Cell
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?

A. BOREHOLE SCALE DATA


B. INTERWELL SCALE DATA

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Model validation
Geological data Simulation of synthetic PLT and welltest

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DYNAMIC DATA :
PLT, well tests, PI, Kh maps, interference
test, production history

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


BOREHOLE SCALE DATA
1. Cores
2. Borehole images
- Microresistivity tools (FMS/FMI/STAR)
- Acoustic logs: UBI / CBIL
- OBM combined resistivity / acoustic logs (Earth)
- Television

3. Fluid flow logs


- Flowmeter logs, Production Logging Tool (PLT)
- Mud logging,

4. Stress information
- 4 arms calipers (breakout / washout), BHI data (stress orientation)
- DSI (shear waves anistropy)
- Leak-off tests, Minifrac (stress magnitude)
@Beicip-Franlab

5. Others
- Weight on hook, ROP,
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


BOREHOLE SCALE DATA
1. FRACTURES FROM CORE OBSERVATIONS
Objective 1: identify the main types of fractures that may or not
impact the reservoir performances

Natural fractures
Induced fractures
Other features

@Beicip-Franlab

Objective 2: provide fracture morphology (aspect ratio, etc. ),


orientations, intensity, aperture

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Core Quality

Tectonic fractures joints in quartzitic reservoir


Joints form with a maximum stress oriented parallel to the joint surface

Oil staining open fractures


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Open fractures

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Tectonic fractures Partly open and cemented fractures in tight bed

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Tectonic fractures - Breccia

Carbonate
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Sandstone

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Faults - Evidences of faults in cores

The possible presence of a fault in the red inset is showed by:


-The drastic contact between limestones (right) and shaly mudstones (left);
-The core in the red inset is highly broken

-Some pieces in the broken zone show striated surfaces, with slickensides

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Fault damaged zone / fault core zone

13

Early diagenetic fractures

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Compaction hair-like fractures

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Early diagenetic fractures

The thin planar fractures only


affect the central bed (early
diagenesis criteria)
Facies are shaly limestones

@Beicip-Franlab

Those fractures always exhibit a low


aspect ratio (Length/width < 100)

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Early diagenetic cemented fractures

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Early diagenetic features

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Cracks associated with dolomitic beds

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Diagenetic features: stylolites


Stylolite related fractures observed on cores

Tectonic fractures

Tension
gashes
Paleo-minimum
stress direction

Stylolite peaks
Tight zone related
to pressuresolution

Stylolite

Fracture

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overburden

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Diagenetic features: stylolites

1 cm thick
Stratigraphic
stylolite

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Associated tension gashes

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Diagenetic features: stylolites

Associated fracture

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20 cm thick
Stratigraphic
stylolite

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Diagenetic features: micro-stylolites

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Stylolite related fractures

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Tension gashes (indicated by the white arrows) associated to the


micro-stilolites.

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Artefact related breaks

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Plug induced fracture

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Artefact related breaks

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Disking 100% (1 cm)

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Artefact related breaks


Examples of not conventional core disking

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This photograph shows that disking is an


obvious artifact: the core external
surface is not affected by the slicing.

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Artefact related breaks


Examples of not conventional core disking

Artificial breaks >>


core disking
post-slabbing desegregation.
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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comma-shaped
disking

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Example of core description sheets

GENERAL

DISKING

cm
6b

Dampened Styl.

%
6a

Microstylolites

Visual Sat.
5

Small strati. Styl.

Core quality
4

Class 5

Boxes
3

Aver. disk thickn.

Depth dril. TOP


2

Affected thick.

Core Number
1

STYLOLITES

General information, disking,


Stylolite related fractures

Amp. Num. Cum. Amp. Affect. % Cum. Amp.


7
8
9
10

FRACTURE RELATED FEATURES

P
18

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U/L/B S/X/Y/Z
16
17

STAINING

mm
15

TIPS

deg. to core axis


14

FRACTURE TYPE

WIDTH

numblength numb length numb length


11
12
13

DIP

UNCEMENTED

PART. CEMENT.

CEMENTED

Fracture information

27

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


BOREHOLE SCALE DATA

2. FRACTURES FROM BHI DATA


Basis of fracture picking
Data QC
Tool resolution
Cores to BHI calibration
Statistical analysis of fractures
Fracture density log
The main types of fractures from BHI
Bed thickness record ?
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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Principle of fracture picking on BHI images

Fractured zone on acoustic log

Sinusoide on BHI log

Fracture
plane

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Bedding
plane

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Resistivity

Accoustic

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Tool resolution

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The different features on BHI

Vertical displacement
along the fracture plane

Fault breccia

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Faults identification

31

The different features on BHI


Natural fractures identification

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Conductive open fractures

Resistive closed fractures


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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The different features on BHI


Induced fractures identification

Induced fractures

Breakouts

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Induced fractures

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BHI and Maximum horizontal stress

Induced fractures

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

SHmax

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Breakouts

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Cores to BHI calibration

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Tectonic stylolite in core and in BHI image

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Cores to BHI calibration

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Shaly intervalle

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Cores to BHI calibration

CLOSED FRACTURE
Here the fracture is filled with soft material (gypse)
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Low amplitude fractures

37

Cores to BHI calibration

The core broken zone correspond to a N030E oriented fracture


swarm on borehole imagery
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Broken zone in the core

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Cores to BHI calibration


Correlation between facies (shaly limestones & tight limestones) and FMI images

Shaly limestones

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Tight limestones

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Example of fracture analysis (1/5)

Polar projection of fractures

Density of points after bias correction

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Example of fracture analysis (2/5)


Upper fracture zones and FMI image

CLUSTER

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41

Example of fracture analysis (3/5)


Validation with cores
Fault

Fractures are partially


open

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CLUSTER

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Example of fracture analysis (4/5)


Example of sub-horizontal fractures

DIFFUSE

2
Projection polaire des fractures

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Example of fracture analysis (5/5)


Validation with cores
Fractures are partially
open

BRECCIA

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Statistical fracture analysis (1/3)

 Multi-well integrated analysis


 Fracture set identification / characterisation
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Statistical analysis of borehole imagery interpretation

45

Statistical fracture analysis (2/3)


BOREHOLE SCALE DATA

Statistical analysis of borehole imagery interpretation


N70E

Avg. Strike

Fisher Strike Avg. Dip

Fisher Dip

0,5m

N70

5,2

85

6,6

N110E

0,49m

N105

3,3

85

4,6

N20E

0,46m

N23

2,6

88

3,7

 Multi well integrated analysis


 Fracture sets identification / characterisation
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Avg. Spacing

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Statistical fracture analysis (3/3)


The fracture density log

Mean strike=N081

 Well by well integrated analysis


 Fracture type identification / characterisation
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The fracture density log

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The bias correction

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Drivers on fracture density

DEVIATED WELL

BEDDING DIP VARIATION

BEDDING THICKNESS VARIATION

NO-DATA INTERVALS

FRACTURE SWARMS

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FACIES VARIATION

49

The main scales of fractures


Cluster analysis: fracture swarm / fault
1

1
2
3
3
4

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The main scales of fractures


Cluster analysis: diffuse fractures / joints

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The main scales of fractures


Examples of diffuse fractures in outcrops
Vertical variations of the diffuse
fracture distribution are generally due
to lithology and bed thickness.

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Fractures extension from metric to decametric

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Influence of lithology
Testing the relationship between lithology and fracture density

3 sets of fractures:
Mean strike N071, mean dip = 82
Mean strike N107, mean dip = 83
Mean strike N032, mean dip = 62

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Main fractured intervals


are found in tight sandstones

53

Shalyness has a large impact on fracture density


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Influence of lithology

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Influence of lithology

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Shaly interval
Fracture density

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Diffuse fractures are bed limited


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Influence of bed thickness

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

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Beds thickness / fracture density relationship 1/2

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Beds thickness / fracture density relationship 2/2

Conceptual model of fracture distribution


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FD = Fracture density

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Strain partitioning in a fold


Fractures produced by extension are pure extensional and open fractures
Fractures produced by compression are closed, stylolitic and/or partially open.

Present-day geo-structural setting


around well A

Well A

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Extension

Compression

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Fracture aperture from cores/BHI data


Thin section
analysis

BHI data

Fracture aperture
35

4000

30

3500
3000

25

Poiseuille law

2500
20
2000
15
1500
10

C = hydraulic conductivity in mD.m


e = fracture aperture

1000

500

Aperture (microns)

Limitations: questionable fracture aperture estimation that may have a


very strong impact on fluid flow computation
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Samples

-6

C = e / (12*0,98*10 )

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


INTERWELL SCALE DATA

@Beicip-Franlab

Outcrops
Seismic data
Geomechanical models
Others

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61

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


INTERWELL SCALE DATA
 A posteriori fault and fracture detection
From outcrop analysis
From seismic data
conventional picking
surface attributes
seismic facies analysis
seismic anisotropy

@Beicip-Franlab

 Geomechanical modelling
geological times
curvature based approach
geomechanical based

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Outcrop analogs analysis

SWARMS
JOINTS

Limitations due to decompaction and weathering:


questionnable fracture densities and fracture length measurements
cannot be used for fracture aperture
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Usefull observation to determine the type of fractures,


the fracture chronology

63

Seismic data analysis

Objectives:
To identify fault AND sub-seismic faults in the reservoir

To define the geometrical properties of the fault pattern (for


extrapolation to lower scale)

@Beicip-Franlab

To assess their impact on the reservoir fluid flow behaviour

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic data analysis


CONVENTIONAL PICKING

Conventional seismic picking

faults and flexures location

@Beicip-Franlab

fault throw measurement


fault geometry

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Seismic noise
Spikes
Top 1

Seismic cross-section
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Top 1

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic data analysis


Curvature methodology
1. The deformation (fault) induce a
curvature (positive and negative)

2. Smoothing
Horizon map

Fault plane

Positive curvature

Initial
topography

Negative curvature

After n steps of
smoothing

4. The interpretation is computed between


positive and negative lineaments

@Beicip-Franlab

3. The second derivative of


curvature highlights the deformation

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Impact of smoothing on curvature signal

SM=200
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10 Km

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Impact of smoothing on curvature signal

SM=100
@Beicip-Franlab

10 Km

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Impact of smoothing on curvature signal

SM=50
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10 Km

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Impact of smoothing on curvature signal

SM=30
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10 Km

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Impact of smoothing on curvature signal

SM=15
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10 Km

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Impact of smoothing step on curvature signal


SM=200

SM=100

10 Km

SM=10

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SM=50

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Seismic data analysis


Large scale features interpretation : curvature analysis
N

Negative curvature

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Positive curvature

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic data analysis


The main types of curvature:

Principal curvature (maximum of curvature)


Oriented curvature
Minimum curvature

N70 oriented curvature


N160 oriented curvature
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Maximum of curvature

75

Curvature analysis

NORTH
Curv min = 0

Fold or flexure

EAST
Curv min

Curv max

Low curvature
Fault zone
High curvature

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Local or regional scale

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Top of the Reservoir Formation

Maximum curvature processed in Fraca

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Seismic data analysis

77

Integration of seismic data: curvature analysis


N130E is the main trend
seismic faults (blue)
sub-seismic lineaments (yellow)
E-W is a minor (only sub-seismic lineaments)

Validation with the other seismic

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attributes

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic data analysis


SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES ANALYSIS

Red = high amplitudes


White = medium
Blue = low

Dip map

illuminated from NW

Yellow = areas dipping toward NW


Red = areas dipping away from NW
Black = steep dips away from NW

Correlation map

Red = areas of good correlation


Purple = poor correlation

A number of linear features occur on all 3 maps, many of which can be interpreted as faults;
generally the shorter the lineament the less confident the interpretation
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Amplitude map

79

Seismic data analysis


SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS
 Objective : Analyze the character of seismic traces and relate, if
possible, its variations to geological variations of the reservoir.
 Deliverables: Maps or cubes of seismic facies with the associated
interpretation.

Previous seismic interpretation not required


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 Methodology: Statistical methodology based on principal


component analysis that includes pattern recognition techniques.

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic facies analysis (1/4)


Selection of relevant seismic attributes
1250

1250

1250

1250

1000

1000

750

High

1250

1250

1250

1000

1000

1000

1000

750

750

750

750

500

500

500

500

250

250

250

250

High

1000

1000

750

750

750

500

500

500

500

250

250

250

250

High

Low
cdp
line

cdp
line
150 250 350 450

Curvature

Dissimilarity

Low

cdp
line

Low

150 250 350 450

cdp
line
150 250 350 450

Dip

Edge
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150 250 350 450

1250

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Seismic facies analysis (2/4)


Seismic facies definition
Statistical segmentation

Seismic
facies 3

dip

Edge

Seismic
facies 1

Ap

curvature

A2

A1

Seismic
facies 2

Attribute space

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Dissimilarity

A3

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Seismic facies analysis (3/4)


Seismic facies definition
Attribute #3

facies 3

Attribute #p

Attribute #2

facies 1

KS1

KS3

KS2

Attribute #1

facies 2

Facies 1
Facies 1

Facies 2

Facies 3

Facies 2
Facies 3
Facies 4

Facies 5

Facies 6

Facies 4

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Facies 5

83

Seismic facies analysis (4/4)


Mapping of seismic facies that shows fracture occurrence

5 km
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Seismic facies

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Fault geometry analysis

Thin lines show the portions of the curves which fit lines with slopes of C. Because these data were collected
from two-dimensional samples of three-dimensional volumes, equation (1) and the data in figure describe twodimensional fault populations. The actual (three-dimensional) power-law exponent for small faults is C + 1 (Marrett &
Allmendinger 1991). Also shown are the areas (A) in square kilometers of the maps from which the data were
collected.

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Fault length analysis

85

Fault geometry analysis

Fault displacement
analysis

Results of the combined analysis


of nine data sets (lines),

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with the source data (symbols)

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

Fault geometry analysis


ILLUSTRATION OF THE FRACTAL DIMENSION ON THE FAULT PATTERN

Fractal dim. = 1.4


Fractal dim. = 1.6

High values increase the lateral dispersion


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Fractal dim. = 2

87

Fault geometry analysis

2. Compartments analysis
- From geometric criteria: comparison of reservoir thickness and fault
throws (fault displacement contours)
- From fault surface properties: clay smearing related to throw
magnitude and to shalyness of reservoir blocks
- Compartmentalization also controlled by geomechanical criteria:

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(reverse faults are more likely sealing; controlled by present-day stress)

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


INTERWELL SCALE DATA

 A posteriori faults and fractures detection


From outcrop
From seismic
conventional picking
surface attributes
seismic facies analysis
shear waves analysis

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 Geomechanical modelling
geological times
curvature based approach
elastoplastic approach

Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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Geomechanical modelling

TIME

CURVATURE ANALYSIS

TOTAL DEFORMATION

T5

No deformation

T4

Max. of deformation

T3
T2

Deformation = Curv.(T1) Curv.(T2)

T1

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A coupled back-striping / curvature approach is required

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The conceptual fracture model

Fractures
corridors

Fault

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Diffuse
fractures

10 m

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The conceptual fracture model

Not fractured well (2)


Not fractured well (1)

Fracture swarms

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Faulted well

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The conceptual fracture model

Fractures were clustered along the main faults and developed in spite
of the lithological variations.
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1. The reservoir unit was fractured by means of large-scale fractures (faultrelated) (Northern Africa)

93

The conceptual fracture model

Two proven main geological drivers on lateral and vertical distribution of


diffuse fold-related fractures: lithology and the structure.
Part 2 - How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir?

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2. The reservoir unit was intensely fractured by means of diffuse and largescale fractures (Mexico)

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

The conceptual fracture model

Locally connected fractures

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Regional diffuse fractures

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How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


FRACTURE MODELLING
To integrate fracture characterisation results for
reservoir engineering purposes:

1. to predict the distribution of fracture sets properties within the


reservoir volume
2. to build 3D models of the fracture network for fluid
flow computation:
- to calibrate fracture hydraulic properties
- to compute large-scale flow properties (input for field-scale
flow simulation)
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Objective:

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to model a fractured reservoir?


Reservoir scale

Simulation cell scale

Well scale
1m
5 km
100 m

Joints
Swarms
Faults
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Faults
[Sub Seismic faults
Swarms]

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How to model a fractured reservoir?


The choice of the FRACTURE MODELLING APPROACH depends on
fracture SCALE :

FAULTS (km ; throw: >10m)


Large-scale
fractures

sub-seismic faults (100 m-1 km ; throw: 0-20m)


and

Global (reservoir-scale)
discrete fracture model

fracture swarms (10 m -1 km; no throw)

Matrix
anisotropy

JOINTS (cm - 10 m)

Local discrete
fracture model

microfractures (mm - cm)


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Small-scale
fractures

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to model a fractured reservoir?


FRACTURE MODELLING OF LARGE SCALE FEATURES
Procedure:
1. Integration of deterministic information
- basic surfaces (geologic horizons, faults) are built from sets of points provided by the
seismic
- relationships between these surfaces are specified (according to faulting history, )

- use of a statistical discrete modelling method based on the fault geometric properties
. fault orientation map,
. distribution law of fault lengths,
. fractal dimension.

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2. Extrapolation at lower scales: sub-seismic fault (or fracture swarms) modelling

99

How to model a fractured reservoir?


Modelling of sub-seismic faults

3D SEISMIC

Major faults used as


deterministic
modelling constraints:

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2 sets
1 orientation map for each set

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to model a fractured reservoir?


CONDITIONING the sub-seismic fault model
From 3D seismic attributes
picking

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To the map of
initiation probability
for the stochastic modelling
of sub-seismic faults

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How to model a fractured reservoir?


MODELLING of sub-seismic faults
Seismic-derived
(sub-seismic)
fault

Fault
map

Constrained stochastic modelling

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Simulated
fault network

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to model a fractured reservoir?


SMALL-SCALE FRACTURES MODELLING
Procedure:
1. Analysis and quantification of fractures from wellbore information:
- distribution of fracture azimuths and dips (Schmitt diagram,)-->identification of
fracture sets
- fracture density (m2/m3) and fracture spacing (measurement depends on the relative
orientation of fracture set and wellbore trajectory), in relation with lithology
- identification of fracture swarms (versus systematic joints)]

2. Building a RESERVOIR DISTRIBUTION MODEL of fracture properties (orientation,


density,..) : the global geocellular fracture model

- by indexing fracture density: on lithology (global geocellular facies model)


on proximity to faults
indexing fracture density and orientation on local curvature.
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- by interpolation of property values between wells

103

How to model a fractured reservoir?


Curvature analysis
Geomechanics
Interpolation between wells

Conventional Geo-cellular model

Maps of fracture properties

Spatial distribution of fractures

Local model at cell size

Modeling subseismic faults


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Discrete model of faults

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to model a fractured reservoir?


Discrete fracture model
Example of stylolite related fractures modelled at cell size

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Top View

Side View
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How to model a fractured reservoir?


3D view of the diffuse fractures generated by Fraca

N150

N140

100x100 m cell
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N080

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


CONCLUSIONS (1)
Fracture analysis and fracture modelling
Identify the main type of fractures,
Identify the geological drivers on fracture distribution
Qualitatively asses the role of fractures on fluid flow
Prepare upscaling phase through adapted modelling of objects
with various scales
All relevant data must be integrated in a rigourous package
A transversal expertise to be shared by geologists,
geophysicists and reservoir engineers
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How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


CONCLUSIONS (2)
1. Borehole scale data
A carefull expertise of cores with BHI data is important to identify the
main tectonic features that may have an impact on the reservoir

Discriminate between tectonic fractures, induced fractures, etc...

- Statistical analysis of the main fracture sets, fracture


orientations, fracture dips, fracture density and statistical
dispersion
- Identification of the fracture types
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BHI data provide essential informations on fractures orientation

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How to Characterize a Fractured Reservoir ?

How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


CONCLUSIONS (3)
2. Interwell scale data
Seismic data are of primary importance to locate main fractured areas in
the reservoir (faults and sub-faults)
 A posteriori observations (seismic picking, seismic attributes,
seismic facies, shear waves seismic)
 evolution of deformation through geological times (via curvature or
geomechanical modelling)

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They provide geometrical properties of fault and fracture patterns for


extrapolation to lower scale

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How to characterize a fractured reservoir?


CONCLUSIONS (4)
Main sources of uncertainties:
 Poor sampling (compared to matrix)
 Fracture extension is poorly defined
 uncertainty on the connectivity of the fracture network
Fracture aperture (filling) is hard to constrain

 uncertainty on the fracture porosity estimated from such models


 uncertainty on fracture network equivalent permeability
 Hydraulic characterization is required to calibrate discrete fracture
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models

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