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STEEL DECK

INSTITUTE

American National standards institute / steel deck institute

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

copyright 2012 steel deck institute

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

disclaimer
The Steel Deck Institute has developed the material contained herein. The Institute has made a diligent
effort to present accurate, reliable, and useful information on testing of composite steel deck-slabs.
The materials
Steel DecksetInstitute
has developed
the material
contained
Thenot
Institute
has made
a diligent
forth herein
are for general
information
only.herein.
They are
a substitute
for competent
effort
to
present
accurate,
reliable,
and
useful
information
on
testing
of
composite
steel
deck-slabs.
professional advice. A registered professional engineer should review application of this information to a
specific
most
jurisdictions,
lawgeneral
requiresinformation
such review.
Anyone
of the information
set
The project.
materialsInset
forth
herein are for
only.
Theymaking
are not use
a substitute
for competent
forth
herein does
so atAtheir
own risk
and assumes
any andshould
all resulting
arisingoftherefore.
professional
advice.
registered
professional
engineer
reviewliability
application
this information to a
specific project. In most jurisdictions, law requires such review. Anyone making use of the information set
forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefore.

PREFACE
The Steel Deck Institute developed
stiffness of composite steel deck-slabs.
deckThe
construction.
Steel Deck Institute developed
stiffness of composite steel deck-slabs.
deck construction.

this Standard to determine the nominal resistance and composite


This Standard is intended for use with cold-formed composite steel
this Standard to determine the nominal resistance and composite
This Standard is intended for use with cold-formed composite steel

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

s
1.

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

Scope
1.1

1.2

This standard shall apply to testing of composite steel deck-slabs under load transverse to the
deck span, and the determination of the nominal resistance and stiffness thereof.
1.1.1

For composite steel deck-slabs for which the nominal strength is computed in
accordance with SDI-C, Appendix 2, testing to confirm strength shall not be required.

1.1.2

For composite steel deck-slabs for which the nominal strength is determined in
accordance with SDI-C Appendix 3, shear bond testing shall be performed in
accordance with this Standard.

1.1.3

For composite steel deck-slabs which are outside of the scope of SDI-C, Appendix 2
and 3, performance testing shall be performed in accordance with this Standard.

The user notes and commentary shall not be part of the Standard.
User Note: User notes and commentary are intended to provide practical guidance in
the use and application of this Standard.

2.

Reference Codes, Standards, and Documents:


2.1

3.

Codes and Standards: The following codes, standards and documents or portions thereof are
referenced in this Standard and shall be considered part of the requirements of this Standard
2.1.1

American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)


a.
AISI S100-07 w/S2-10, North American Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members, Including Supplement 2 (February 2010).
b.
AISI/AISC, Standard Definitions for Use in the Design of Steel Structures,
2007 edition.

2.1.2

ASTM International (ASTM)


a.
ASTM A370-10, Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical
Testing of Steel Products.
b.
ASTM C39/C39M-10, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of
Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
c.
ASTM E6-09be1, Standard Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical
Testing

2.1.3

American Concrete Institute (ACI)


a.
ACI 318-11, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

2.1.4

Steel Deck Institute (SDI)


a.
SDI-C-2011, Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck-Slabs

Terminology
3.1

Terms not defined in this standard, AISI S100, AISI/AISC, ASTM E6, or SDI-C shall have the
ordinary accepted meaning for the context for which they are intended.

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

3.2

67

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

The following terms are defined for use with this standard.

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3.2.1

Approved Agency: A qualified registered professional engineer, firm, or corporation


approved by the reviewing authority to conduct the testing and provide the reports
required by this standard.

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3.2.2

Configuration: An arrangement of a specific assembly of panel geometry, concrete


thickness, mechanical properties, span(s) and attachments that is unique to that test.

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3.2.3

Confirmatory Testing: Testing performed to verify strength is not less than the
strength predicted by an established empirical or rational design methodology.

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3.2.4

Performance Testing: Testing performed to establish performance where there is not


an established empirical or rational design methodology, or the configuration exceeds
the limitations of an established empirical or rational design method.

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3.2.5

Shear Bond Testing: Testing performed to establish shear bond performance as


required by SDI-C Appendix 3.

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4.
4.

Symbols
Symbols
b
bd
Cp
C
d

=
=
=
=
=

dd
e
fc
Fm
Fy
Fu
h

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

ht

k1, k2, k3, k4

99
100

k5, k6

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

l
l
Mm
n
Pm
Pt
t
Vf
Vm
Vp
VQ
Vt

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Unit slab width = 12 inches (1000 mm)


Width of composite test slab, in. (mm)
Correction factor
Calibration coefficient
Effective slab depth, measured from top of slab to the gross section neutral axis of the
deck unit, in. (mm)
Depth of steel deck unit, in. (mm)
Natural logarithmic base
Concrete cylinder compressive strength, psi (MPa)
Mean value of the fabrication factor
Measured yield strength of steel, ksi (MPa)
Measured tensile strength of steel, ksi (MPa)
Overall depth of the composite slab, measured from bottom of deck to top of concrete,
in. (mm)
Overall depth of composite slab at failure crack, measured from bottom of deck to top
of concrete, in. (mm)
=
Shear bond coefficients obtained from multi-linear regression analysis of test
data from three or more deck thicknesses tested.
Shear bond coefficients obtained from a linear regression analysis of the test data for
each individual deck thickness tested.
Length of span, measured from center of supports, in. (mm)
Length of shear span, in. (mm)
Mean value of the material factor
Number of tests
Mean value of the professional factor
Ultimate failure load from test, pounds/ft (N/m) of slab width
Base metal thickness, in. (mm)
Coefficient of variation of fabrication factor
Coefficient of variation of material factor
Coefficient of variation of test results
Coefficient of variation of load effect
Tested shear bond resistance, pounds/foot (N/m) of slab width

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

114

W
0

=
=

Weight of the composite slab specimen, pounds/ft (N/m) of slab width


Target reliability index

115

Resistance Factor (LRFD)

116

Safety Factor (ASD)

113

117
118

5.
5.

Units of
Terms
Units
ofSymbols
Symbolsand
and
Terms
5.1

119
120
121
122

Equations, symbols, and terms that appear in this standard are compatible with the inch-pounds
system of units, however, any consistent system of units shall be permitted to be used. SI units
or equations are shown in parenthesis in this standard are for information only and are not part
of this standard.

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124

6.

6.

Precision

Precision

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6.1

127

6.2

Loads shall be recorded to a precision of 2 percent of the anticipated ultimate load during
application of test loads.
Deflections shall be recorded to a precision of 0.01 in. (0.25 mm).

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129

7.
7.

Test Specimen
Specimen
Test
7.1

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7.2

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7.3

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7.4

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General:
7.1.1 The number of specimens tested shall comply with Section 10.
Concrete:
7.2.1 Concrete used in the composite specimens shall be prepared and cured in accordance
with standard construction practice in accordance with Chapter 5 of ACI 318.
7.2.2 Concrete used in the composite specimens shall be representative of the compressive
strength and unit weight of the concrete in the actual field installation. Structural
normal-weight concrete and structural light-weight concrete shall be permitted.
7.2.2.1 Compression strength of the concrete shall be determined in accordance with
ASTM C39. A minimum of three concrete cylinders shall be tested for each identical
set of test specimens. Testing of the cylinders shall be performed within 24 hours of
the testing of the composite specimens. Concrete cylinders shall be cured under the
same ambient conditions as the test specimens.
Steel Deck Units
7.3.1 The coating of all steel deck units shall be in a condition which simulates the condition
found in actual field installation.
7.3.2 The steel deck units shall be representative of the units in the end-use construction,
including profile of the steel deck, deck embossment pattern, deck thickness, steel
tensile properties, and all other properties that affect the strength and stiffness of the
steel deck.
7.3.2.1 Standard tensile tests of the steel from which the deck units were produced
shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM A370. A minimum of three
steel coupons shall be tested for each identical set of test specimens.
Dimensions and Construction of Composite Specimens
7.4.1 Span. Test specimen spans shall encompass the range of spans used in field

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

7.4.2

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

applications for the deck profile tested. Single span, 2-span or 3-span specimens shall
be permitted.
Width. Width of all specimens shall not be less than 2 feet (600 mm).
User Note: Test specimens of two or more deck unit width are preferred as
representative of actual installation. Test specimens of a single unit width will
typically yield lower (conservative) tested capacities.

7.4.3
7.4.4
7.4.5

7.4.6
7.4.6
7.4.7

Depth. Slab depths shall encompass the range for which the deck unit shall be utilized.
Support and sidelap fastener type, size, and installation shall be representative of the
actual field installation. Fastener installation shall be in accordance with SDI-C.
Slab end details (including fastening) and shear stud installation (if any) shall be
representative of the actual field installation. The distance from the centerline of the
support fastener to the end of the deck unit shall not be greater than the depth of the
deck unit, unless the minimum allowable edge distance for the specific fastener
requires a larger distance.
Deck used for 2-span or 3-span tests shall include at least one butted joint.
The test specimen shall be permitted to be shored during concrete placement and
curing when required to meet strength or deflection requirements of SDI C-2011.
Single-span test specimens shall be permitted to be moved after the concrete has been
placed. Two-span and three-span test specimens shall not be permitted to be moved
once the concrete has been placed.
User Note: It is not advisable to move specimens because moving may damage the
specimens, which could result in lower bond strength and lower (conservative) tested
capacities. Because of the inherent difficulties in moving larger, multi-span
specimens, these specimens are not permitted to be moved.

8.

Test Setup
8.1

Test Support Frame


8.1.1

Single-span test: The test support frame shall consist of either two
exterior support wide-flange steel beams, as shown in Figure 1, or bar
stock as shown in Figure 3.

8.1.2

Two-span or three-span test: The test support frame shall consist of


two exterior support wide-flange steel beams and one (two span test)
or two (three span test) interior support wide-flange steel beams, as
shown in Figure 2. It shall be permitted to vary span lengths within an
individual test specimen, however the length of any exterior spans for
a three span test shall not be less than 50% of the length of the interior
span, nor shall the shorter span of a two-span test be less than 50% of
the length of the longer span.

8.1.3

The test frame shall be wide enough to accommodate the width of the
test specimen.

8.1.4

Wide flange support beams shall have minimum flange width of 4

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

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8.1.5
8.1.5

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9.

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T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

inches, a maximum flange width of 6 inches, a minimum flange


inches, a maximum flange width of 6 inches, a minimum flange
thickness of inch, and a maximum flange thickness of 1 inch. Flat
thickness of inch, and a maximum flange thickness of 1 inch. Flat
bar or plate stock shall be permitted to substitute for wide-flange beam
bar or plate stock shall be permitted to substitute for wide-flange beam
support. Flat bar stock shall be a minimum width of 4 inches (100
support. Flat bar stock shall be a minimum width of 4 inches (100
mm) and a maximum width of 6 inches (150 mm), with a minimum
mm) and a maximum width of 6 inches (150 mm), with a minimum
thickness of 3/8 inch (9 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1 inch (25
thickness of 3/8 inch (9 mm) and a maximum thickness of 1 inch (25
mm).
mm).
Rollers and pins as shown in Figure 3 shall be permitted if bar stock
Rollers and pins as shown in Figure 3 shall be permitted if bar stock
deck bearing points are used.
deck bearing points are used.

Test Procedure
Procedure
Test

Test Procedure
9.1
Testing shall be conducted after the concrete has reached its specified compressive strength,
9.1
Testing shall be conducted after the concrete has reached its specified compressive strength,
but not less than seven days after casting. Except as noted, structural lightweight concrete
but not less than seven days after casting. Except as noted, structural lightweight concrete
shall be permitted a longer curing time if required. High early strength concrete shall be
shall be permitted a longer curing time if required. High early strength concrete shall be
permitted to be tested earlier than seven days.
permitted to be tested earlier than seven days.
9.2
Specimens shall be tested using concentrated line loads as shown in Figures 1 and 2.
9.2
Specimens shall be tested using concentrated line loads as shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Alternatively, uniform loading in accordance with Section 9.2.1 shall be permitted to be used
Alternatively, uniform loading in accordance with Section 9.2.1 shall be permitted to be used
with l equal to the distance from the support to the intersection of the first vertical flexural
with l equal to the distance from the support to the intersection of the first vertical flexural
crack with the bottom of the deck, but need not be less than l/4.
crack with the bottom of the deck, but need not be less than l/4.
9.2.1 Uniform loading using air bags, vacuum boxes, or other means shall be permitted as an
9.2.1 Uniform loading using air bags, vacuum boxes, or other means shall be permitted as an
alternate to Figures 1 and 2, provided that the test method does not provide stiffening
alternate to Figures 1 and 2, provided that the test method does not provide stiffening
to the test specimen.
to the test specimen.
9.3
Loading
9.3
Loading
9.3.1 Prior to testing, apply a small initial load not greater than 5% of the anticipated
9.3.1 Prior to testing, apply a small initial load not greater than 5% of the anticipated
ultimate load and hold for 5 minutes (+- 1 minute) and then release. Zero all
ultimate load and hold for 5 minutes (+- 1 minute) and then release. Zero all
measuring devices and begin the test.
measuring devices and begin the test.
9.3.2 All loads shall be applied continuously and without shock, except for pauses to take
9.3.2 All loads shall be applied continuously and without shock, except for pauses to take
instrument readings. All load shall be applied in maximum increments of one-tenth of
instrument readings. All load shall be applied in maximum increments of one-tenth of
the anticipated ultimate load. Load shall be applied at a maximum rate of 10% of the
the anticipated ultimate load. Load shall be applied at a maximum rate of 10% of the
anticipated ultimate load per minute.
anticipated ultimate load per minute.
9.3.3 Load shall be applied up to a load of 60% of the anticipated ultimate load and held for
9.3.3 Load shall be applied up to a load of 60% of the anticipated ultimate load and held for
5 minutes (+- 1 minute). The load shall then be released and the test specimen be
5 minutes (+- 1 minute). The load shall then be released and the test specimen be
allowed to settle for a minimum of 2 minutes. Load shall then be reapplied until
allowed to settle for a minimum of 2 minutes. Load shall then be reapplied until
failure of the specimen as evidenced by the inability of the specimen to sustain
failure of the specimen as evidenced by the inability of the specimen to sustain
additional load.
additional load.
9.4
Recording of Data: The following data shall be recorded and documented for each test
9.4
Recording of Data: The following data shall be recorded and documented for each test
specimen.
specimen.
9.4.1 Testing Properties
9.4.1 Testing Properties
a.
Maximum applied load, including weight of all test equipment and frames that
a.
Maximum applied load, including weight of all test equipment and frames that
add to the applied load on the specimen
add to the applied load on the specimen
b.
Load versus deflection measurements, with deflection measured at location(s)
b.
Load versus deflection measurements, with deflection measured at location(s)

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

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9.4.2

9.4.3

9.4.4

9.4.5

10.
10.

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

of anticipated maximum deflections.


c.
Brief description of significant events during testing
d.
Identification of final mode and details of failure
e.
Date and place of testing, along with the name of the witness(es) and approved
agency overseeing the testing.
Dimensional Properties (Measured)
a.
Width of composite test slab, bd
b.
Overall depth of slab, h, (measurements shall be taken on an interior rib and
edges of the specimen, at ends, center, and load points.
c.
Depth of steel deck unit, dd
d.
Length of span, l
e.
Length of shear span, l
f.
Base metal thickness, measured from specimens used to obtain material
properties, t
g.
Overall depth of slab at failure crack, ht
h.
Embossment length, width, depth, spacing and general variation in these
dimensions.
i.
Slab overhang at support
Material Properties (Measured)
a.
Concrete cylinder compressive strength, fc
b.
Yield strength of steel, Fy
c.
Tensile strength of steel, Fu
d.
Percent elongation of steel
e.
Steel specification and grade
Dead Loads
a.
Steel deck dead load (calculated or measured)
b.
Concrete dead load (including concrete ponding load due to by deck
deflection, either calculated or measured)
Construction of Test Specimen
a.
Steel surface coating and conditions
b.
Shoring
c.
Details of end restraint (if any), including thickness, cross-section profile,
dimensions, and attachment details.
d.
Details of shear connectors (if any), support fasteners, and sidelap fasteners (if
any), including type, size, and spacing.
e.
Concrete mix design and date of casting
f.
Type and location of steel reinforcing (if any)
g.
Concrete curing procedures
h.
Concrete cylinder air-dry density at time of testing (measured)

Data Evaluation
Data
Evaluation
10.1

General
10.1.1 No test result shall be eliminated unless a rationale for its exclusion can be provided
that is acceptable to the reviewing authority. Such rationale shall be included in the
test report.

10.2

Shear Bond Testing


10.2.1 The following shall apply when testing is performed to establish performance in

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American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

accordance with SDI-C, Appendix 3.


10.2.1.1When three or more different deck thicknesses are tested, the following
equation shall apply:

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291

Vt

292

bd [k1t/l+ k2/l+ k3t + k4]

(Eq 10-1)

293

Where:
Vt
=
b
=
d
=

294

tested shear bond resistance, pounds/foot (N/m) of slab width


unit slab width = 12 inches (1000 mm)
effective slab depth, measured from top of slab to the gross
section neutral axis of the deck unit, in (mm)
l
=
shear span, in (mm)
t
=
base metal thickness, in (mm)
k1, k2, k3, k4
=
shear bond coefficients obtained from multilinear regression analysis of test data from
three or more deck thicknesses tested.
Alternately, it shall be permitted to use the provisions for one or two deck
thicknesses contained in Section 10.2.1.2.

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305
306

10.2.1.2When one or two deck thicknesses are tested, the following equation shall
apply:

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Vt

310

bd [k5/l + k6]

(Eq 10-2)

311

Where:
k5, k6 =

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315

shear bond coefficients obtained from a linear regression


analysis of the test data for each individual deck thickness
tested.

316

10.2.1.3

The yield and ultimate flexural limit states capacity shall be permitted
to be established by analysis in accordance with conventional reinforced
concrete design in accordance with ACI 318 or by testing.
10.2.2 A testing program shall be conducted for each deck profile and embossment pattern for
which design values are required.
10.2.2.1
A testing program shall be conducted for each deck surface coating to
be used with a given profile or embossment pattern. Shear bond coefficients
shall be permitted to be established using the deck surface coating
demonstrating the lowest shear bond strength, provided that verification of a
coatings lower shear bond strength is found from a minimum of two
comparison tests.
10.2.2.2
A testing program shall be conducted for each type of concrete to be
used. Tests using specimens made of structural lightweight concrete may be
used to establish values for normal weight concrete provided that at least two
comparison tests indicate that the shear bond strength is lower for the
structural lightweight concrete.
10.2.2.3
Because the shear span, l, and deck thickness, t, are the most

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American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE


334334
335335
336336
337337
338338
339339

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

important
important
parameters
parameters
in in
thethe
shear
shear
bond
bond
equation,
equation,
thethe
shear
shear
span
span
controls
controls
thethe
extreme
extreme
conditions
conditions
of of
thethe
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
forfor
anyany
given
given
deck
deck
thickness.
thickness.
TheThe
shear
shear
span
span
shall
shall
be be
varied
varied
to to
achieve
achieve
thethe
maximum
maximum
andand
minimum
minimum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistances
resistances
of of
anyany
composite
composite
slab
slab
system.
system.
Table
Table
10.2.2.3-1
10.2.2.3-1
shall
shall
be be
permitted
permitted
to to
be be
followed
followed
as as
a guide.
a guide.
However,
However,
it shall
it shall
notnot
be be
required
required
to to
testtest
more
more
than
than
oneone
slab
slab
depth.
depth.

340340

Shear
Shear
bond
bond Shear
Shear
Span
Span
Length,
Length, Slab
Slab
Depth,
Depth,
Resistance
Resistance
l l
h h
Maximum
Maximum Shortest
Shortest
Span
Span
Length
Length Thickest
Thickest
Minimum
Minimum Longest
Longest
Span
Span
Length
Length Thinnest
Thinnest
341341
342342

Table 10.2.2.3-1. Maximum and Minimum Shear bond Resistances

Table
Table
10.2.2.3-1.
10.2.2.3-1.
Maximum
Maximum
andand
Minimum
Minimum
Shear
Shear
bond
bond
Resistances
Resistances

343343
344344
345345
346346
347347
348348
349349
350350
351351
352352
353353
354354
355355
356356
357357
358358
359359
360360
361361
362362
363363
364364
365365
366366
367367
368368
369369
370370
371371
372372
373373
374374
375375

10.2.3.
10.2.3.
TheThe
number
number
of of
tests
tests
required
required
in in
a testing
a testing
program
program
forfor
establishing
establishing
shear
shear
bond
bond
coefficients
coefficients
shall
shall
be be
as follows:
as follows:
10.2.3.1
10.2.3.1
When
When
three
three
or or
more
more
different
different
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
areare
used
used
in the
in the
testing
testing
program,
program,
a minimum
a minimum
of of
twotwo
tests
tests
in in
each
each
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
shall
shall
be be
carried
carried
out.out.
ForFor
each
each
deck
deck
thickness,
thickness,
oneone
testtest
shall
shall
be be
carried
carried
outout
at the
at the
maximum
maximum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
(shortest
(shortest
l) l)
andand
thethe
second
second
testtest
at the
at the
minimum
minimum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
(longest
(longest
l) l)
(i.e.(i.e.
eight
eight
tests
tests
areare
required
required
forfor
four
four
deck
deck
thicknesses).
thicknesses).
This
This
shall
shall
enable
enable
thethe
determination
determination
of of
thethe
coefficients
coefficients
k1, kk12,, kk23,, kand
k4 kof4 of
thethe
3, and
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
expression
expression
which
which
then
then
shall
shall
be be
used
used
to predict
to predict
thethe
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
of of
all all
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
andand
shear
shear
spans
spans
within
within
thethe
range
range
of of
thicknesses
thicknesses
tested.
tested.
10.2.3.2
10.2.3.2
When
When
a number
a number
of of
different
different
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
areare
produced
produced
forfor
design
design
andand
only
only
thethe
thinnest
thinnest
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
is used
is used
in the
in the
testing
testing
program,
program,
a minimum
a minimum
of of
four
four
tests
tests
shall
shall
be be
carried
carried
out,out,
twotwo
at the
at the
maximum
maximum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
andandtwotwoat atthetheminimum
minimumshear
shearbond
bondresistance.
resistance.This
Thisshall
shallenable
enablethethe
determination
determination
of of
thethe
coefficients
coefficients
k5 kand
k6 kof
thethe
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
5 and
6 of
expression
expression
forfor
thisthis
oneone
individual
individual
deck
deck
thickness.
thickness.
These
These
results
results
shall
shall
now
now
be be
applied
appliedconservatively
conservativelyto toall allthicker
thickerdeck
deckthicknesses,
thicknesses,provided
providedthatthata a
minimum
minimum
of of
twotwo
additional
additional
tests
tests
areare
carried
carried
outout
on on
thethe
thickest
thickest
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
to confirm
to confirm
thatthat
thisthis
procedure
procedure
is conservative.
is conservative.
10.2.3.3
10.2.3.3
When
When
a number
a number
of of
different
different
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
areare
produced
produced
forfor
design
design
(t1...
(t1t...(n-1)t(n-1)
, tn, twhere
t1 ist1 the
is the
thinnest
thinnest
andand
tn istn the
is the
thickest)
thickest)
andand
only
only
thethe
t1 and
t1 and
n, where
t(n-1)t(n-1)
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
areare
used
used
in the
in the
testtest
program,
program,
a minimum
a minimum
of of
four
four
tests
tests
in in
each
each
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
shall
shall
be be
carried
carried
out.out.
ForFor
each
each
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
tested,
tested,
twotwo
tests
tests
shall
shall
be be
carried
carried
outout
at the
at the
maximum
maximum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance
resistance
andand
twotwo
at the
at the
minimum
minimum
shear
shear
bond
bond
resistance.
resistance.
This
This
shall
shall
enable
enable
thethe
determination
determination
of of
thethe
shear
shear
bond
bond
coefficients
coefficients
k5 kand
k6 for
k6 for
each
each
thickness
thickness
tested.
tested.
These
These
results
results
shall
shall
5 and
be be
permitted
permitted
to be
to be
used
used
forfor
deck
deck
thicknesses
thicknesses
between
between
t1and
t1and
t(n-1)t(n-1)
by by
straight
straight
lineline
interpolation
interpolation
of the
of the
shear
shear
bond
bond
coefficients.
coefficients.
TheThe
shear
shear
bond
bond
coefficients
coefficients
k5 and
k5 and
k6 of
k6 the
of the
deck
deck
thickness
thickness
t(n-1)t(n-1)
shall
shall
be be
permitted
permitted
to be
to be
used
used
conservatively
conservatively
on on
thethe
tn deck
tn deck
thickness
thickness
provided
provided
thethe
embossment
embossment
depths
depths
equal
equal
or or
exceed
exceed
thethe
t(n-1)t(n-1)
embossment
embossment
depths.
depths.

376376

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

10.2.4 Analysis of Test Results


10.2.4.1
If three or more deck thicknesses are used in the testing program, a
multiple-linear regression analysis shall be used to determine the shear bond
coefficients, k1, k2, k3, and k4. A comparison of the experimental and computed
shear bond resistances shall be made for all the test data. If their ratios are less
than 0.85, the shear bond coefficients, k1, k2, k3, and k4, shall be reduced by
5%. This reduction is necessary because the calibrated resistance factor, v, is
based on a maximum scatter limit of 15%.
10.2.4.2
If each deck thickness is treated separately, a linear regression analysis
shall be used to determine the shear bond coefficients k5 and k6 for each deck
thickness. If the ratios of experimental to computed shear bond resistances are
less than 0.85, the shear bond coefficients k5 and k6 shall be reduced by 5%.
10.2.4.3
The tested shear bond resistance shall be determined as follows for
specimens tested under concentrated line loads:

377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391

Vt

392

Pt/2 + W/2

(Eq 10-3)

393

Where:
Vt
=
Pt
=
W
=

394
395
396
397
398

10.2.4.4

399

tested shear bond resistance, pounds/ft (N/m) of slab width


ultimate failure load from test, pounds/ft (N/m) of slab width
weight of the composite slab specimen, pounds/ft (N/m) of
slab width
The resistance factor shall be as required by SDI-C Appendix 3.

400

10.2.5 Alternate shear bond analysis: Alternate rational methods for establishing the shear
bond strength shall be permitted to be used if the pertinent parameters contributing to a
shear bond failure (including deck cross section; steel thickness; shear span; concrete
weight, strength, and type; shear transfer devices; and method of loading) are
considered. These methods include linear and nonlinear relationships between the
parameters. Sufficient tests shall be made to establish the test method variability.

401
402
403
404
405
406
407

10.3

408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423

Confirmatory Testing
10.3.1 When confirmatory testing is required, structural performance shall be evaluated in
accordance with the following procedure:
10.3.1.1
Test results shall be evaluated to demonstrate that the mean tested
strength of the composite steel deck-slab is not less than the strength predicted
by an established empirical or rational design methodology
10.3.1.2
Evaluation of test results shall be made on the basis of the mean value
of test data from the results of not fewer than three specimens which are
reflective of the construction for which performance is being evaluated,
provided the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value
obtained from all the tests does not exceed 20 percent from the mean. If such
deviation from the mean value exceeds 20 percent, more tests of the same kind
shall be made until the deviation of any individual test result from the mean
value obtained from all the tests does not exceed 20 percent, or until at least
three additional tests have been performed.
10.3.1.3
The resistance factor, , shall be as defined by the established

10

417
418
419
420
421
422

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

423

10.4

provided the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value
obtained from all the tests does not exceed 20 percent from the mean. If such
Americandeviation
National
steelmore
deck
institute
fromstandards
the mean valueinstitute/
exceeds 20 percent,
tests
of the same kind
shall be made until the deviation of any individual test result from the mean

T - CD - 2011
Standard
forthe tests does not exceed 20 percent, or until at least
value Test
obtained
from all
three additional tests have been performed.
10.3.1.3
The resistance factor, , shall be as defined by the established
empirical or rational design methodology.
10.3.1.4
If the mean tested strength of the composite steel deck-slab is less than

the nominal strength computed


by the established empirical or rational design
methodology, the testing shall be permitted to be considered to be performance
testing and evaluated in accordance with Section 10.4.

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

Performance Testing
10.4.1 Structural performance shall be evaluated in accordance with the following
procedures:
10.4.1.1
Tests of a Single Configuration: Evaluation of test results based on a
single configuration shall be made on the basis of the mean value of test data
from the results of not fewer than three specimens which are reflective of the
construction for which performance is being evaluated, provided the deviation
of any individual test result from the mean value obtained from all the tests
does not exceed 20 percent from the mean. If such deviation from the mean
value exceeds 20 percent, more tests of the same kind shall be made until the
deviation of any individual test result from the mean value obtained from all
the tests does not exceed 20 percent, or until at least three additional tests have
been performed. The mean value of all tests shall then be regarded as the
nominal strength, Rn, and the coefficient of variation, Vp, shall be determined
by statistical analysis. The resistance factor and factor of safety shall be
determined in accordance with Section 10.5.
10.4.1.2
Evaluation of a Range of Test Configurations: Evaluation of an
analytical or empirical theory to a range of test configurations shall be based
on the ratio of the test results to the analytically predicted value for that
configuration. No fewer than three configurations shall be tested. The
configurations shall include the maximum and minimum conditions covered
by the analytical theory. The resistance factor and factor of safety shall be
determined in accordance with Section 10.5.
10.4.2 Consideration shall be given to any variation of differences between the specified
properties and the actual properties of the specimens used in the tests by adjustment in
accordance with Table 10.4.2.
User Note: Table 10.4.2 is intended to be used to adjust when the design parameters
of the intended product (Fy for instance) differ from the tested prototype.

11

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

461

Limit
State
Yielding
Horizontal
Shear or
End Slip

Rn design1

Parameter
t > tdesign
Fy > Fy design
dd > dd design
dd > dd design
fc > fc design

(tdesign / t) Rn test
(Fy design/Fy) Rn test
(dd design / dd) Rn test
(dd design / dd) Rn test

f 'c design f 'c Rntest

All
design > test
Rn test
1
1 When
When
more
parameter
applies,
the combined
multiplier
more
thanthan
one one
parameter
applies,
the combined
multiplier
shall be

462
463

shall be applied to

Rn test.to Rn test.
applied

464

Table 10.4.2 Adjustment Factors


Table 10.4.2 Adjustment Factors

465
466
467

10.5

Determination of Resistance Factor and Factor of Safety


10.5.1 The strength of the tested assembly shall satisfy Eq. 10-4 or Eq. 10-5 as
applicable.
Ru Rn
for LRFD
(Eq. 10-4)
Ra Rn /
for ASD
(Eq. 10-5)
10.5.2 The resistance factor, , shall be calculated using Eq. 10-6.

468
469
470
471
472
473
474

C (MmFmPm)e

o VM 2 +VF 2 +CPVP2 +VQ2

475
476

482

Where:
C
=
=
Mm
=
=
Fm
=

483

1.00

Mean value of the professional factor

485
486

1.00

487

1 i =n
(Rntest / Rntheory ) if comparing a theoretical equation to
n i =1

477
478
479
480
481

Pm

484

Calibration coefficient
1.50
Mean value of the material factor
1.10
Mean value of the fabrication factor

if all test assemblies are identical and an average


tested strength is used.

a range of tests

488

489

Natural logarithmic base

12

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

2.718

Target reliability index

3.0

Coefficient of variation of material factor

0.10

Coefficient of variation of fabrication factor

0.05

Correction factor

498

((1 + (1/n))(n-1) / (n-3) for n 4

499

5.7, for n = 3

Coefficient of variation of test results

1
Rm

Coefficient of variation of load effect

0.18

Each Rn test if all test assemblies are identical and an


average tested strength is used
Rn test / Rn theory if comparing a theoretical equation to a
range of tests

490

491
492

Vm

493
494

Vf

495
496

Cp

497

Vp

500

501

VQ

502
503

Ri

504
505

506
507

1 n
( Ri Rm ) 2 0.065
n 1 i =1

508

Rm

509
510
511
512

513

Mean value of all test results, Rn test, if all test assemblies are
identical and an average tested strength is used

Mean of all (Rn tset / Rn theory) if comparing a theoretical


equation to a range of tests

number of tests

514

10.5.3 The safety factor, , shall be calculated using Eq. 10-7.

515
516

517

1.50 /

(Eq 10-7)

518

User Note:
Section 10.5
loading only,
User
Note: Section
10.5 is
is intended
intended to
to be
be used
used to
to for
for gravity
gravity loading
only, and
and is
is not
not
applicable
to
diaphragms.
The
safety
factor
is
calculated
using
an
effective
load
factor
applicable to diaphragms. The safety factor is calculated using an effective load factor
of 1.50,
dead load
of
1.50, which
which is
is applicable
applicable for
for aa ratio
ratio of
of live
live to
to dead
load of
of approximately
approximately 3.
3.

519
520
521
522
523

11.

Report

13

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

s
11.

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

Report
11.1
11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

11.6
11.7

The test report shall be prepared by an approved agency who shall have supervised the
assembly and testing of the test specimens.
The test report shall include a description of the tested specimens, including a drawing
detailing all pertinent dimensions. This information shall, at a minimum, include the
information listed in Sections 9.4.2, 9.4.3, 9.4.4, and 9.4.5.
The test report shall include a detailed drawing of the test setup, depicting location and
direction of load application, location of displacement instrumentation and their point of
reference, and details of any deviations from the test requirements stipulated in Sections 7, 8
and 9. Photographs shall be permitted to supplement the detailed drawings of the test setup.
The test report shall include individual and average load-versus-deflection values and curves,
as plotted directly, or as reprinted from data acquisition systems. Additionally, the test report
shall include theoretical load-versus-deflection curves using both uncracked and fully cracked
section properties.
The test report shall include individual and average maximum test load values observed,
description of the nature, type and location of failure exhibited by each specimen tested, and a
description of the general behavior of the test fixture during load application. Photographs
shall be permitted to supplement the description of the failure mode(s).
The test report shall include a description of the test method and loading procedure used, rate
of loading or rate of motion of the crosshead movement, and time to maximum load.
The test report shall be permitted to include design values determined in accordance with
Section 10.

14

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

546
547
548
546
547
549
548

Figure
1 - Single Span Test Frame

550
549
550

551
552
551
553
552
554
553

Figure 2 - Three Span Test Frame (Two Span Similar)


Figure 2 Three Span Test Frame (Two Span Similar)
Figure 2 Three Span Test Frame (Two Span Similar)

554

Figure 3 - Alternate Roller Configuration

15

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

558

commentary

559

OF SHEAR BOND EQUATIONS


Utilization ofUTILIZATION
Shear Bond Equations

560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580

Linear Regression
for Three of More Deck Thicknesses

Test
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594

COMMENTARY

t (deck)
in
0.0299
0.0299
0.0358
0.0358
0.0480
0.0480
0.0598
0.0598

Yb (deck depth)
in
0.8709
0.8709
0.8744
0.8744
0.8815
0.8815
0.8886
0.8886

h (slab)
in
3.50
6.85
3.50
6.81
3.50
6.97
3.54
6.85

l'
in
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81

Slab Width
in
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43

Failure Load
#/in
139.13
1002.45
141.11
987.78
234.24
1332.93
293.51
1409.41

Slab Weight
#/in
22.20
48.51
22.20
48.10
22.20
49.34
22.48
48.51

Vt
#/in
80.67
525.48
81.66
517.94
128.22
691.13
157.99
728.96

16

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

Test Vt
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
595
596
597
598

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

b
in
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00

d
in
2.63
5.98
2.63
5.94
2.62
6.09
2.65
5.96

Vt/(bd)
y
2.55
7.32
2.59
7.27
4.07
9.46
4.96
10.19

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

t/L'
x1
0.000760
0.002533
0.000910
0.003033
0.001220
0.004067
0.001520
0.005067

1/L'
x2
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667

t
x3
0.0299
0.0299
0.0358
0.0358
0.0480
0.0480
0.0598
0.0598

k1
k2
k3
k4

351.9604482
69.38377236
78.33614666
-2.006928773

Standard Error of Y Estimate


R Squared
Number of Observations
Degrees of Freedom

0.384424064
0.990340056
8
4

599
600
601
602

603

604
605
606
607
608

Vu =

Test
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
609
610
611
612

Pu
t
1

= bd 351.960 + 69.384 + 78.336t + (2.007)


2
l'
l'

V from
Prediction Equation
74.78
509.68
90.95
551.51
124.22
661.89
158.59
739.65

Theory/Test
0.927
0.970
1.114
1.065
0.969
0.958
1.004
1.015

17

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

STEEL DECK
INSTITUTE

613
613
613
614
614
615
614
615
616
615
616
617
616
617
618
617
618
619
618
619
620
619
620
621
620
621
622
621
622
623
622
623
624
623
624
624

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

T - CD
- 2011 Test Standard for

Linear Regression
for One
or Two Deck Thicknesses

Test
t (deck)
Yb (deck depth) H (slab)
L'
Slab Width
Failure Load
Slab Weight
Vt
Test
t (deck)
Yb (deck
L'
Slab in
Width
Failure
Slab#/in
Weight
Vt
in
in depth) H (slab)
in
in
#/inLoad
#/in
Test
A
A
B
A
B
C
B
C
D
C
D
D

t0.0299
(deck)
in
in
0.0299
0.0299
0.0299
0.0358
0.0299
0.0358
0.0358
0.0358
0.0358

Yb (deck
in depth)
0.8709
in
0.8709
0.8709
0.8709
0.8744
0.8709
0.8744
0.8744
0.8744
0.8744

H 3.50
(slab)
in
in
3.50
6.85
3.50
6.85
3.50
6.85
3.50
6.81
3.50
6.81
6.81

L'
in
39.37
in
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
39.37
11.81
11.81

Slab
Width
in
35.43
in
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43
35.43

Failure
#/inLoad
139.13
#/in
139.13
1002.45
139.13
1002.45
141.11
1002.45
141.11
987.78
141.11
987.78
987.78

Slab22.20
Weight
#/in
#/in
22.20
48.51
22.20
48.51
22.20
48.51
22.20
48.10
22.20
48.10
48.10

Vt
#/in
80.67
#/in
80.67
525.48
80.67
525.48
81.66
525.48
81.66
517.94
81.66
517.94
517.94

625
625
626
625
626
627
626
627
627

Test
b
d
Vt/(bd)
1/L'

628
628
629
628
629
630
629
630
631
630
631
631

k5
79.74949549

632
632
633
632
633
634
633
634
634
635
635
635
636
636
637
636
637
638
637
638
639
638
639
639

Test
Test
A
A
B
A
B
C
B
C
D
C
D
D

b
in
b
in
12.00
in
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00

Standard Error of Y Estimate


Standard
of Y Estimate
R
SquaredError
Standard
Error of Y Estimate
R
Squared
Number
of Observations
R Squared
Number
of
Degrees
of Observations
Freedom
Number of
Observations
Degrees
Freedom
Degrees of
of Freedom

Vt/(bd)
y
Vt/(bd)
y
2.553015
y
2.553015
7.323349
2.553015
7.323349
2.587762
7.323349
2.587762
7.270402
2.587762
7.270402
7.270402

k5
k6
k5
k6
k6

1/L'
X1
1/L'
X1
0.025400
X1
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.025400
0.084667
0.084667

79.74949549
0.544751597
79.74949549
0.544751597
0.031664862
0.544751597
0.031664862
0.999910243
0.031664862
0.999910243
4
0.999910243
4
2
4
2
2

P
1

Vu = Puu = bd 79.749 1 + 0.544

Vu = P2u = bd 79.749 l1' + 0.544

Vu = 2 = bd 79.749 l ' + 0.544

2
l'

Test
Test
V from
V from
Theory/Test
Theory/Test

Prediction
Prediction
Equation
Equation
A
B
C
D

640640
641641
642642
643643
644644
645645

d
in
d
in
2.63
in
2.63
5.98
2.63
5.98
2.63
5.98
2.63
5.94
2.63
5.94
5.94

A
B
C
D

81.22
81.22
523.58
523.58
81.11
81.11
519.82
519.82

1.007
1.007
0.996
0.996
0.993
0.993
1.004
1.004


18

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute


STEEL DECK
INST
ITUTE

T - CD - 2011 Test Standard for

646References:

647

648

641
642
643
644
645

Composite Steel Deck - Slabs

649

650
651

19