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ACTION RESEARCH

DATE

7th FEBRUARY 2015

SUPERVISOR

MADAM NURLIZA BT OTHMAN

RESEARCHER

SITI ROHAYU BTE KAMARUDDIN

PROGRAMME

PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU JUN 2011

OPTION

TESL-2

SCHOOL

SK TAMAN PASIR PUTIH, PASIR GUDANG, JOHOR

TITLE

HOW EFFECTIVENESS OF USING NEWSPAPERS


TO PROMOTE GRAMMAR IN LEARNING
PROCESS.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The notion of using newspaper text as a resource for language learning is not very
original. In Malaysia for example, the leading English language dailies the New
Straits Times and The Star run well established and widely employed Newspaper in
English (NIE) initiatives in Malaysian schools and colleges. This type of project aims
to encourage the use of the newspaper as a language learning resource. Penny Ur's
popular classroom ideas book has several suggested activities that utilize newspaper
text (Ur 1988). In an edition of a leading English language teaching (ELT) journal
two articles appear which exploit newspaper articles; one of the purpose of "language
awareness" (Wright and Bolitho, 1993) and the other for "genre analysis"
(Flowerdew, 1993). There are examples of whole textbooks devoted to the
exploitation of newspaper based material for language learning purposes. "Scoop" by
Barry Baddock (1984) is one such title.
In this article the focus will be on the use of newspaper material for the purpose of
exploring the grammar of English. Whatever the different arguments, positions and
ideas put forward by ELT professionals about the role and nature of grammar, no
serious teacher"... interested in the development of second and foreign language has
ever suggested that learners do not need to master the grammatical system of the
target language..." (Nunan, 1991: 152)Or take the position of Widdowson (1990)
who states that: "language learning is essentially learning how grammar functions in
the achievement of meaning..." (ibid: 1987) Since then there has been a growing
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realization that effective communication and effective grammar are linked, grammar
allows us "to mean" in a language. The need for grammar therefore is a real one.
What the more recent emphasis on learner centeredness and communication in ELT
has done is to encourage a more imaginative and eclectic approach to the area of
grammar teaching and learning. We now have an ideal where grammar is not the sole
focus of lessons but rather an integral part of learning to communicate effectively in
the target language. Into this frame, newspaper text as a resource for grammar
activities fits in. 97) The debate on how best to teach English as a second or foreign
language seeks to facilitate the development of target language competence in
learners, in the most effective way. This debate has necessarily included the issue of
what grammar to teach, how to teach it, how much to teach, and how explicitly to
teach it. There seemed to be an assumption at one point that increasingly '~modern"
methodology and approaches were marginalizing the role and importance of
grammar (or at least formal grammar study) in the EL classroom. This was
articulated by EL course designers in Kuwait for instance, who asked: "If language is
a means of communication, does it not seem more important to you to make
somebody understand what you want or make a grammatically perfect statement?"
(Sawaan)
1.1 Reflection on Past Teaching Experience
During the teaching and learning process I always try to provide an environment that
will allow pupils to express themselves and contribute ideas.In each lesson pupils are
given grammar exercises even if they do not know how to answer the question
correctly. However, during the whole process I find that my pupils especially in the
lower class answer the question with high grammatical error.When explained they
actually understand what the question wants but they do not know how to answer the
question with the correct grammar.

For one month, I was asked to teach Year 4 Dedikasi which was the third class from
six classes. My first number of pupils was thirty-eight pupils. Since the pupils are
from the third class of six classes, they could understand what I said butcould not

respond well. The one thing that I detected when I was teaching was they did their
best when I offered them a token as a reward for correct answers

The first thing I thought of was the discipline problem. There were so many
complaints about the class from other teachers. I took it as a challenge for myself and
ignored the negatives perception of the class. I taught them even though they
misbehaved each time I entered the class. For the first two weeks, I tried really hard
to establish their discipline problems. Once when I was teaching in the class, two

boys were fighting at the back and one of them cried. I was bewildered because they could not
restrain their misbehaviour during my lesson. I had come up with the class rules on the first day
I entered the class but that did not work.

In the next lesson, I started to use token as a reward for good conduct and correct
answers. Each time they behaved properly or answered correctly I rewarded them a token.
When they did things that displeased me, I took one token out. With this, I managed to get
them to behave during my class. I did the token system based on Skinner(1938), who proposes
that giving the reinforcements will result to the desired behaviour from the target. This theory
worked well for the last two practicums that I had undergone. My school pupils were weak in
all the four language skills based on the poor achievement in examinations.

I tried to speak one hundred percent in English with them because if I were to be
observed by my headmaster, it would not seem professional if I spoke in Malay. However,
when I communicated in English with them, none of them understood me completely. Some of
them can speak English but lot of grammar mistake They were always whispering indicating
that they did not understand me. Due to this problem, I decided to come up with the way to
improve their grammar. And every time they did not understand me, I explained the words by
doing actions and gestures to describe the words. I only used Malay when they could not
understand my explanation in English.

Teaching strategies were important when I wanted to choose suitable approach to


ensure that my pupils would understand me better. I know that I had to take the teaching
strategies more seriously.. The pupils in my school were able to listen to me but with limited
range of vocabulary. I asked my friends the way to give very simple instructions to the pupils..

My experience tells me that placing specific grammar structures within their larger
conceptual framework is more helpful to students than a random, piecemeal approach to
explicit grammar teaching. Let's continue with the example of participial adjectives. If students
already understand that -ing can signify the active meaning of a transitive verb and that the -ed
can signify a passive meaning (whether they know the terminology or not), the difference
between boring and bored becomes less difficult for the teacher to demonstrate or the student
to grasp than if the student had no understanding of active vs. passive meanings.

Teachers must set goals for the things that the pupils have to achieve so that we know
they are improving from time to time. A lot of things have to be considered when a teacher sets
the goals for his pupils which are the proficiency level, the pupils interest on the subject, and
the pupils work in the subject. Our job as teachers is to guide them and lead them to proper
way of doing things in the future. I wished that I could help the pupils to understand and love
English because whenever I entered the class, the pupils always told me that English was
difficult. As an English teacher I want my pupils to love English as a second language because
in the current world, English is very important.

1.2 Related Theory/Literature (Literature Review)


In teaching grammar, three areas have to be considered: grammar as rules, grammar as form,
and grammar as resource. For many L2 learners, learning
grammar often means learning the rules of grammar and having an intellectual
knowledge of grammar. Teachers often believe that this will provide the generative basis on
which learners can build their knowledge and will be able to use the language eventually. For
them, prescribed rules give a kind of security
A better approach is perhaps to see grammar as one of many resources that we

have in language which helps us to communicate. We should see how grammar


relates to what we want to say or write, and how we expect others to interpret
what our language use and its focus.
According to Widdowson (1990: 86), " . . . grammar is not a constraining imposition but a
liberating force: it frees us from a dependency on context and a purely lexical categorization of
reality." Given that many learners and teachers tend to view grammar as a set of
restrictions on what is allowed and disallowed in language use a linguis
tic straitjacket in Larsen-Freemans words (2002: 103) the conception of grammar as
something that liberates rather than represses is one that is worth investigating.
According to Morelli (2003), students perceived themselves as having a better attitude
towards grammar instruction incontext, while performing slightly better after having
experienced the traditional grammar instruction.
Elkilic and Akca (2008) reported generally positive attitudes of students studying English
grammar at a private primary EFL classroom towards studying grammar. In particular,
however, a little over 50% of their subjects claimed to enjoy
grammar very much and only about 10% reported finding some difficulty in
learning and remembering grammar.
Student expectations.
Student expectations of traditional, explicit grammar teaching have been confirmed by many
teachers (cf. Borg, 1999a, b). Burgess and Etherington (2002:440-441) also conclude that
teachers believe that explicit teaching of grammar is favoured by their students because of
expectations and feelings of insecurity.
Since the 1970s, attention has shifted from ways of teaching grammar to ways of getting
learners to communicate, but grammar has been seen to be a powerful undermining and
demotivating force among L2learners. In terms of motivation and learner success with
languages, grammar has been seen to be a problem and to stand in the way of helping
learners to communicate fluently. The hard fact that most teachers face is that learners often
find it difficult to make flexible use of the rules of grammar taught in the classroom. They may
know the rules perfectly, but are incapable of applying them in their own use of the language.
Teachers' recognition of this process (i.e., of transferring declarative knowledge about
grammar into procedural knowledge) as a problem for many of their students has been
reported by Burgess and Etherington (2002:442). Haudeck has reported that many learners
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have difficulty in internalising grammar rules, although these have been taught intensively
(1996, cited in European Commission, 2006).
Newspapers bring to our students real life situations and can be easily used as authentic
materials. Newspaper-based activities engage students in interesting and enjoyable activities
and they also encourage them to further reading. They usually reflect the culture of a certain
community through the language they contain. It reflect the changes in the language as well,
and in doing so, help students and teachers keep up pace with such changes. Most
newspapers are linguistically up-to-date and
provide valuable linguistic data` (Tafani, 2004).

2.0 FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION/ ISSUE OF CONCERN.


Teachers can find newspaper materials a useful source of enrichment in the teaching of
grammar for a number of reasons. It is useful to consider three main areas related to the
rationale for using such text.
Newspaper text is cheap, relatively plentiful, and easily accessible. Other everyday sources of
real language data such as television or radio have to be recorded, transcribed, edited and
rigorously prepared before use in the classroom. They then present major logistical problems
for presentation. Newspaper text on the other hand is "ready for use" and demands no special
equipment, expertise or power supply. Newspaper (as organizations) tend to positively
encourage the use of their products in educational institutions by teachers and learners, offering
discounted cover prices to students and organizing workshops, competitions and activities for
teachers and learners.
Newspaper text is easy to physically manipulate. It can be cut out, cut up, jumbled up,
rearranged, combined, pasted etc. If reprographic facilities such as photocopying are available,
newspaper text is an excellent medium for the preparation of presentable materials through the
"cut and paste" method. Alternatively, a whole page or section or newspaper can be utilized
with learners seeking out examples of certain language features or following teacher rubrics to
do tasks on the text.

In Malaysia local English language newspaper text is widely available. It is also of high
standard and offers a good range of choice with four titles (three morning and one evening*) in
West Malaysia alone.
Newspaper text is an example of real life language data. For learners with a limited English
language environment, newspapers can be a source of enrichment and increased language
exposure. This is important given the link that has been postulated between increased levels of
target language exposure and correspondingly enhanced degrees of target language competence
(Ismail, 1991).
The language in newspapers tends to be more current and mainstream. Other types of text such
as those extracted from literary or specialized sources may present encounters with idiomatic,
regional, colloquial, and esoteric or technical usage. Fossilized or stylistic idiosyncracsies may
occur. These features may be distracting in a general ELT context.
There is a wide range of routine grammar topics which can be found in newspaper text. The
extent of the topics is limited only by the imagination of the teacher.
2.0 WHAT IS MY FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION?

Grammar skills is an important skill in foreign language learning. Students are expected
to be competent and to develop grammar skill in both formal and informal situation in. It
needs to be supported by English components; grammar together with vocabulary and
pronunciation which are taught appropriate with standard competence at School. The
students are expected to be able in speaking, it means they are able to share ideas and
opinions to listeners through English speaking. Grammar skill is viewed as the measure of
competency. It is the requirement that is important for success of Malaysian students in
welcoming globalization era.
Improving grammar skill involves a process of building and sharing means through the
use of language orally and the students will know the way how to express language
communicatively. They will learn how to express utterances meaningfully. It also leads
them to make interaction in the societyby using language since to be able to use grammar
correctly is one of important skils that should be mastered by the students in learning
English language.

Therefore, teaching English especially grammar skill should be distributed to the


students by using many creative techniques. Through that way, the students will be
interested in studying English.
The teachers should also be able to use some media of teaching. According to Moalani
(2007), in general, there are three kinds of media in teaching process. They are audio,
visual, audio visual. Mc Keachie (2005) states that film, television, among many examples,
can be used for educational objective; to achieve students comprehension. Then, Rohani
(1997) also gives statement that comic is a kind of visual media that can be effectively used
in teaching English.
Almost all the students who enter the university are literate in English; that is, they are
able to read in English but many of them are not in the habit of actually using this ability to
practice reading outside the demands of the ESL classroom. Hence, functional literacy is
confined to reading so as to be able to answer comprehension questions, complete
grammar-based exercises, or write a composition/essay. Occasionally, if core subject
reference materials are not available in the national language (Bahasa Malaysia), students
read books and journals in English to obtain content related-knowledge. As for survival
literacy, they are generally content to carry on using their literacy in Bahasa Malaysia,
given the fact that almost everyone in the university can communicate in the national
language.
The main objective is to encourage the students to read any of these local English
dailies. At the same time, students are provided with the opportunity to improve their
grammar skills as well as enhance their knowledge of current issue.
However, based on my observation at SK Tmn Pasir Putih was a low motivation in
studying English, the students were passive in learning English and they did not have self
confidence in speaking English. I feel, one of factors that cause the condition was the use of
media by the English teachers like books, pictures, or photographs. I thought that the
students also need a new and a creative media to increase their motivation and grades. In
this case, newspaper is a kind of media that can solve the problem. So it could be a solution
to solve this problem.
Based on the explanation above, I intended to conduct the classroom action research
focusing on the use of newspaper in improving pupils grammar when using English in
communication. I also wish to prove the effectiveness of using newspaper in teaching
English toward the standard four students English speaking ability at SK Tmn Pasir Putih.
2.1 Preliminary Investigation Of The Issue
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Teaching grammar is considered to be one of the most challenging parts whilst teaching
English as language subject. By using newspaper text will make the learning process simpler
and easy to reach. Newspaper text is easy to physically manipulate. Itcan be cut out,cut up,
jumbled up, rearranged, combined, pasted etc. If reprographic facilities such as photocopying
are available, newspaper text is an excellent medium for the preparation of presentable
materials through the cut and paste method. Alternatively, a whole page or section or
newspaper can be utilized with learners seeking out examples of certain language features or
following teacher rubrics to do tasks on the text.
2.2 Analysis of Preliminary Investigation Issue
There is the issue of language data quality. Some question the standard of English found in
some newspaper writing. While acknowledging this concern, it is important to point out that
such a problem can be seen as an opportunity for language work in the area of error analysis
and correction. The style of newspaper journalism, the journalistic genre, is cited as a problem
too. For example the "telegraph" nature of headlines presents samples of language not
commonly encountered outside newspapers and which could be accused of being
ungrammatical "journalese". Headlines however, provide ample material for language work.
Learners can be asked to rewrite headlines as "proper", full sentences for example.
In this research, I wish to present a case for the use of newspaper text as suitable material for
the teaching of grammar in the English language classroom in Malaysia. As well as considering
the rationale for the employment of such material despite several possible constraints that
might arise and ways to overcome them.

General benefits to this research may be:a. For Teachers:


1. To develop effective, efficient, and fun learning model which can involve the
students being active in grammar learning process to improve their
communicative competency.
2. To improve the result teaching and learning process.
3. To assist improving the quality of teachers professionalism as educator.
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4. To assist in designing scientific paper which is become part of evaluation of


getting support in teaching
For Students:
1. To improve students ability in interpreting the meaning of the dialogue by using
the experience, so the students can apply correct common noun in grammar
usage to word dialogue to their environment in their daily activity.
2. To improve the students motivation and interest.
3. To improve students grammar
4. To improve the students communicative competence and their achievement in
learning English.
For The school:
1. Through the learning method by using newspaper may improve ways in
learning grammar at SK Tmn Pasir Putih
3.0 Problem Statement/ Background

In education, there are lots of problems and issues faced by teachers. To narrow the scope,
there were many problems occurred in my classroom as well. Thus as a teacher, I should pay
close attention to the problems faced by the pupils. Problems and issues will never be easy to
handle but they also will make teachers improve a lot in the teaching practice. How a teacher
handles the problems will make the teacher have high ethics and accountability of being a
teacher. So as a teacher, I have to try my very best to overcome these problems.

Grammar is one of the English skills, which should be mastered by student. By mastering
grammar skill better, student may converse themselves in baslic interactive skills such as
greeting, apologizing, thanking, introducing, asking or offering something. It is an
assumption that somebody who mastered English should posses a good grammar skill.
Generally, teaching is not only transferring knowledge to the students, but it is also guiding
students to become successful in their own fields. The aim of this research is to encourage
primary student to use also use English newspaper in ESL classroom. Learning English
may become fun learning if we can use various methods such as English newspaper.

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As grammar skill is essential to be able to write or other interactions, it is necessary and


useful to have a material aid such as English newspaper in learning and improving English
grammar skill.
2.4 Definition Of Terms

The issue of grammar and its place in the ELT syllabus is not confined to ideology or
methodology. The definition of the term is difficult in itself. Crystal's interpretation (1971) of
grammar as the "... patterns of syntax, word structure (morphology) and meaning..." (ibid: 55)
appears to offer a reasonable working definition for the purposes of a simple paper like this.
The descriptive categories used in the examples and descriptions that follow are labels that are
familiar and "traditional" in the sense that they represent a shared grammar metalanguage. Of
course there may be quibbles about the exact purview of terms and the scope of definitions, but
generally the categories used are part of the common terminology ELT professionals and
learners use to depict the grammar of English.

3.0 OBJECTIVES/ RESEARCH QUESTION/S?


1. How effective is using newspaper text in improving common noun usage in
grammar to the Year Four Student at SK Tmn Pasir Putih?
4.0 TARGET GROUP PARTICIPANTS?
The participants for my research are 2 pupils from Year Four (4) in my school. They are from
the third class in merits. Their English command especially in grammar are rather average only.
So I did my research on these two pupils as to see whether with the use of newspaper, will there
be any improvement in their grammar skill or what may the result proves.
4.1 Students personal data and academic background Refer to Appendix A1-A3
Occupation
#

Student

Nurul Shafiqah bt
Mohd Adam

Nurul Nazira bt
Shukur

English Tests Scores

Father

Mother

Mid-year
2013

End-year
2013

Mid-Year
2014

Teacher

Housewife

60 B

62 B

62 B

Housewife

74 B

68 B

70 B

Engineer

Table 2: Participants Particulars

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5.0 ACTION
I had taken a few actions when conducting this research. The use of outside material is more
demanding on teachers. I have to organize, design and produce tasks to exploit newspaper test as
well as select the text in the first place. Using an article or newspaper text may throw up points of
student questions that the teacher does not anticipate. The use of provided and prescribed course
text offers ..time and cost benefits to teachers and schools.. (Richards, 1992:4) Newspaper text
does offer the most flexible and ease in terms of its use for supplementing course material. As
mentioned before, it is physically easy to manipulate and commonly available. Task rubrics can be
given orally or written on the board. Using newspaper text for extra materials allows us teacher, to
tailor activities to the students needs and provides teachers with opportunity toengage in some
professional reflection through the deliberation of questions about the role and purpose of the
material:
What do I want my students to do by way of this material which in case is the newspaper;
What exercise, task or activity can I think of that will do what I want it to do for my students;
How best can I (through newspaper) assist my students in the realization of syllabus requirements
in this area (grammar?)
5.1 Procedures Of Actions

To find out whether the teacher uses different kinds of approaches and strategies during
teaching and learning process by observation and questionnaire.

Use colored pen to focus on grammar points. For example, if you are studying verbs
that take the gerund or the infinitive, have students highlight these combinations using one
color for gerunds and another color for infinitives. Another option is to have students
highlight different tenses in different colors.

Photocopy an article from a newspaper. White out key grammar items that you are
focusing on and have students fill in the blank. For example, white out all the helping verbs
and ask students to fill them in.

Review the definition of a noun with your class. Then have them select a story from the
front page of today's newspaper and find the nouns. They can underline the people they find
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in red, the places in blue and the things in green. Then make a list of nouns you can find
looking around your classroom
5.11 Procedure
Grammar test 1
Step 1

: Teacher reviews the definition of common noun in textbook

Step 2

: Pupils to read the dialogue in the textbook given.

Step 3

: Pupils listen to teachers specific instruction about common noun exercise.

Step 4

: Pupils to build a mind map and list down things they may see at library, Park,
Market and Night Market

Grammar test 2
Step 1

: Teacher reviews the definition of common noun in textbook

Step 2

: Pupils work in group select a local story from STAR newapaper

Step 3

: Pupils listen to teachers specific instruction about common noun exercise.

Step 4

: Using color markers, the pupils underline the people in red, the places in blue
and the things in green.

6.0 DATA GATHERING METHOD


6.1 Observation 1: In this research, I have to observe an ongoing English lesson in this
particular classroom. Scores are based on the Standard 4 of the Standard Kualiti
Pendidikan Malaysia (SKPM) provided by the Jemaah Nazir Sekolah. The scores are
from 1 to 6 with 6 is the highest. The sample of the instrument may be seen in Appendix B1.
The aspects observed are as below:
#
1
2
3
4
5
6

Aspect No.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Aspect
Pupils Participation
Pupils Learning Acquisition
Pupils Work
Teachers Preparations and Planning
Methodology
Communication Skills
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7
8
9
10
11
12

4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12

Teaching Resources Implementation


Assessments
Questioning Techniques
Curriculum Content
Classroom Management
Etiquettes
Table 3: SKPMs Standard 4

6.2 Questionnaire: A set of Questionnaire will be given to the particular teacher. Refer to
Appendix B2.
The questionnaire will focus on the teachers own opinions towards how she teach English
in the particular class and the usage of language games.
6.3 Interviews: Interview with students will be done with the questions will be set based on
how they feel when playing language games and how the games affect them. Refer to
Appendix B3.
6.4 Pre-Test: A set of Pre-Test question will be given to the students after the interviews. Refer
to Appendix B4. The question will test the students vocabulary based on the words
allocated in the Curriculum. Appendix B5.
6.5 Observation 2: Still using the same SKPMsStandard 4 Instrument and after all
interventions had been done, the English teacher will be asked to conduct a lesson that
includes the language game strategy. The lesson plan (Appendix B6) will be provided by the
researcher.
6.6 Post Test: Using the same type of test but different questions as in the Pre-Test, students are
again asked a series of questions but this time the students may use the Bubble Map
thinking skill to help them. (Appendix B7)

7.0 HOW WILL I ANALYSE MY DATA?


7.1 Observations 1 and 2:
K. Popper, (2004) said, the main advantages of using observation as a method of data
collection include that it is a fast method of collection of data as information obtained can
be readily available.
In this research, by using the official instrument provided by the Ministry of Education
(MOE) through SKPM, the researcher will have a standardized document that is being used
throughout the nation. The instrument itself is familiar to every teachers and will not
become something of a shocker to them.
As stated earlier, the instruments are divided into 12 aspects with each aspects scores
ranging from 1 to 6 which is the highest score one can achieved. Then the scores are added

15

and by using a formula that has been determined, the final score will be obtained and the
proficiency level of the teacher could be determined. The levels are as follows:
Percentage

Level of Proficiency

90-100

Excellent

80-89

Good

60-79

Hope

40-59

Satisfactory

20-39

Weak

0-19

Very Weak

Table 4: Proficiency Level for Standard 4


Lets take the 4.5 Methodology aspect as an example. The scores are listed as below:
Score

Description

Teacher failed to create learning readiness among students


Method used are not suitable with students abilities
Activities did not attract students interests
Lack of time management

Better than 1 but less than 3

Teacher managed to create learning readiness among students


Method used are (just) suitable with students abilities
Activities done attracted students experience and knowledge
Teacher applied basic principles of learning
Remedial and enrichment activities done
Good time management

Better than 3 but less than 5

Teacher managed to create learning readiness among students


Method used are suitable with students abilities
Activities done are closely within students experience and knowledge
Activates done are focused to the lessons objectives
Teacher applied basic principles of learning
Activities encourage critical and creative thinking and has moral values
Remedial and enrichment activities done and executed well
Good time management

All strength in 5 are optimized. There are innovative and creative thinking
applied. Some value-added materials are being used to make sure students
achieved the objectives and overall lesson.
Table 5: Standard 4.5 Methodology Scoring Scheme

After all 12 aspects are scored, then the formula stated below will be used to determine the
final proficiency level of the teacher.
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Formula

Sample Score

Base Score (Aspects x 12= max.72)

60

Min Score (Base 12)

Percentage ((Min-1)5 X 100

80.00

Proficiency

Good

Table 6: Sample Calculation for Standard 4


7.2 Questionnaire:
S. Ackroyd and J. A. Hughes, (1981), stated that, questionnaires can be carried out by the
researcher or by any number of people with limited affect to its validity and reliability. It is
also can be analysed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research.
The questionnaire (Appendix B2) is designed in order to determine the English teachers
own accounts of the class that she is teaching. The questions are primarily focused on how
she thinks her teaching methodology is working to the class intended or not. It will also
state her own opinions about the proficiency level of the students and what are their
weaknesses and strengths. Due to the manner of this research, among the must-have
questions are like the methods that the teacher usually used during lessons and does she
uses language games in lessons. And if not, she must state the reason why.
The results of this questionnaire should reflect on the teachers own proficiency level based
on the SKPMs Standard 4. If the results are not aligned with the observation, it probably
means that whether the teacher is not being truthful when answering the questionnaire or
she was not being herself during the observation session.
Both these questionnaire and observation session will not just benefit me as the researcher
but also as the head of the school so that I may help the teachers in creating the best
teaching and learning experience in the school.
7.3 Interview:
Kvale (1983, p.174) defines the qualitative research interview as "an interview, whose
purpose is to gather descriptions of the life-world of the interviewee with respect to
interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena".
The interview session is planned for the students due to their low proficiency of the English
language. This interview can also be changed to a questionnaire if students have the right
proficiency level to understand the written questions. By doing an oral interview like this,

17

the researcher would have the opportunity to use simple sentences and rephrasing questions
as the interview goes along in order to make the students understand.Refer to Appendix B3.
The interview is focused on the students background, their interests and also their
perception on the methodology of their English teachers had done with them during their
school hours. This will (hopefully) show whether the methods applied by teachers attracted
the students interests or otherwise.
7.4 Pre-Test
Bachman (1990) who was also quoted by Brown defined a test as a process of quantifying a
test-takers performance according to explicit procedures or rules.
Bachman (1990) also cautioned us to distinguish between quantitative and qualitative
descriptions. Simply put, the former involves assigning numbers (including rankings and
letter grades) to observed performance, while the latter consists of written descriptions, oral
feedback, and non-quantifiable reports.
In this research, there will be two test conducted before and after the intervention planned.
The pre-test (Appendix B4) will be the base score to determine the actual proficiency of
students in vocabulary. The test will be a multiple choice question based on the current
syllabus. Look at the example below:
Which one of these things is a part of a house?
A. Shoe
B. Nose
C. Roof
D. Leg
There will be 40 questions and the score will be kept and compare to the post-test that will
be carried out after the interventions are taken.
7.5 Post-Test
Just like the pre-test mentioned above, the post test (Appendix B5) will be a 40 questions
multiple choice test. The scores will be collected and compare to the pre-test in the table
below:
No.

Student

Nur Shafiqa bt Mohd Adam

Nurul Nazira bt Shukur

Pre-Test

Post Test

Difference

Table 7: Comparison of the Pre and Post test


The analysis will be the key factor to determine will there be any significant increase or
decrease of the students proficiency after the planned intervention has been taken. Due to
the number of test, at least a margin of 10 (25%) is required to show any significance.
18

8.0 WHAT IS MY PLAN OF ACTION?


8.1 Create a Strategic Plan
No.

Plan

Date / Duration

First Tutorial

5 July 2014

Collecting resources and journals

5 - 12 July 2014

Writing First Draft of the Proposal

13 - 17 July 2014

Submitting First Draft of the Proposal

Second Tutorial Personal talk with Ms Kan Kwong See

Reselecting title and materials

Completing and submitting Second Draft - Table

Refining and completing Final Draft

Submission of the Final Draft of the Research Proposal

23 August 2014

10

Proof read and finalising the Research Proposal

24 August 19
September 2014

11

Submission of the Action Research Proposal

12

Writing letters of approval to parents

By 30 September
2014

13

Observation 1 The teacher involved

October 2014

14

Interview and Pre-Test

15

Intervention 1: Introduction to language games

January 2015

16

Intervention 2: Lessons with language games

February 2015

17

Observation 2 The teacher involved

February 2015

18

Post Test

19

Collecting and analysing data

March 2015

20

Proof read and finalising Action Research findings

April 2015

21

Submission of the final Action Research.

17 July 2014
9 August 2014
10-14 August 2014
16 August 2014
17-22 August 2014

20 September 2014

November 2014

By 26 February 2015

TBA*
*TBA To be advised

Table 8: Strategic Plan


8.2 Planning the activities for the intervention.
8.2.1 Intervention 1: Introducing the language game- Bubble Map

19

8.2.1.1 The researcher plans out at least a one hour lesson (Appendix B6) for
the class so that the teacher will be able to introduce the language game
to the students.
8.2.1.2 The language game itself is a part of the iThink Programme which the
school is enrolled to since May 2014. And it is the school vision to
become a Thinking School by the end of 2015. (Appendix C1)
8.2.1.3 When students are familiar with the designing and creation of Bubble
Maps, then it will be converted into a game.
8.2.1.4 The game will use cut-out circles that can be pasted on the board with
lines that connect with the circle in the middle as the main idea.

Graphic 1: Bubble Map


8.2.1.5 Due to there are only two students in the class, there will be one set of
the game for each student.
8.2.1.6 The circles itself will be made from laminated paper so that by using
whiteboard markers, it can be erased and use over and over again.
8.2.1.7 The purpose of the game is to let the students use their thinking skills
and list out as much as possible on the topics given.
8.2.1.8 They may use the dictionaries at first and by the end of the month they
should try it on their own as best as they can. Teachers can always give
a helping hand every now and then so that the students (who are of
very low proficiency will enjoy themselves) (Appendix C2)

8.2.1.9 A sample of a filled Bubble Map is shown below

20

fly
Pla
y
bu
y

Presen
t tense

drink

catc
h

Graphic 2: Bubble Map- Filled


8.2.2

Intervention 2: Applying the language games into lessons


8.2.2.1 After the students managed to understand how the game is played, the
researcher will choose some topics that they had learnt from year 4 and
5 and integrate them into lessons at least once a week.
8.2.2.2 These activities will be carried out by the researcher or by the English
teacher during regular lessons.
8.2.2.3 The topics chosen are:
8.2.2.3.1 Our Community
8.2.2.3.2 Spending Wisely
8.2.2.3.3 Yesterday and Today
8.2.2.3.4 Be Safe
8.2.2.3.5 Blogging
8.2.2.3.6 Occupation
8.2.2.3.7 Objects in the classroom
8.2.2.3.8 Sports
8.2.2.3.9 Going Places
8.2.2.4 The topics chosen will not interfere with the teacher who is teaching
the class. She will continue to teach as usual. (Appendix C3)
8.2.2.5 Hopefully the games should at least to be carried out 4 times in the
particular month.

9.0 REFERENCES
9.1 Multiple resources
9.1.1 Books
9.1.1.1 Chitravellu, N. (2005).ELT Methodology, Principles and Practice,
Oxford Fajar, Selangor.
9.1.1.2 Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching.
Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh.

21

9.1.1.3 Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Languages to Young Learners.


Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh.
9.1.1.4 Brown, H.D (2007).Teaching by Principles, An Interactive Approach to
Language Pedagogy. Pearson Longman, New York.
9.1.2

Magazines
9.1.2.1 The Times
9.1.2.2 Readers Digest

9.1.3

Journals
9.1.3.1 Zhu, D. (2012) Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 3,
No. 4, pp. 801-805
9.1.3.2 Sobhani, M. (2014). Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 4,
No. 5, pp. 1066-1073
9.1.3.3 Intratat, C. (2011). Alternatives for making language learning games
more appealing for self-access learning. Studies in Self-Access
Learning Journal, 2(3), 136-152
9.1.3.4 Wilkins, D. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching.London, UK:
Arnold
9.1.3.5 K. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959), reprinted (2004)
by Routledge, Taylor & Francis
9.1.3.6 S. Ackroyd and J. A. Hughes, Data Collection in Context (1981)
Longman
9.1.3.7 Kvale, Steinar (1983). The qualitative research interview: A
phenomenological and a hermeneutical mode of understanding. Journal
of Phenomenological Psychology, 14, 171-196
9.1.3.8 Min.YK.(2013). Vocabulary Acquisition: Practical Strategies for ESL
Students. University of Washington at Bothell (USA)

9.1.4

Online Articles
9.1.4.1 Advantages

and

disadvantages

of

observation.

Strathclyde. http://www.strath.ac.uk/
9.1.4.2 The importance of vocabulary.Frankfurt

University

International

of

School.

http://esl.fis.edu/parents/advice/vocab.htm
9.1.4.3 English as a Second Language (ESL) Teachers: How to Teach
Vocabulary to Beginner and Intermediate ESL Students.ESL Teacher
Guide. http://eslteacherguide.hubpages.com/

10.0

APPENDICES
10.1
A1 - Student 1 Personal Profile
10.2
A2 - Student 2 Personal Profile
22

10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13

A3 Students Academic Report


B1 SKPM Standard 4
B2 Questionnaire
B3 - Interview Questions
B4 Pre Test Questions
B5 Word List from Syllabus
B6 Proposed Lesson Plan
B7 Post Test Questions
C1 iThink
C2 Bubble Map
C3 Topic for Intervention 2

23