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Waste Management And Control


3 Units




Course Coordinator:

Dr Adewole M. Gbadebo B.Sc., M.Sc., PhD


Office Location:

Other Lecturers:


Waste Management and Control

Definitions, Sources of Waste, Integrated waste management, Methods of disposal, Monitoring
Pollution in Sanitary Landfills, Hazards effect of Pollution from Landfills, Resource recovery,
Sustainability, Costs, Waste management concepts,

This is a compulsory course for all 400 level students in the Department. It is compulsory that
students should participate in all the course activities and have minimum of 75% attendance in
order to be qualify to write the final examination.


Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, junk, litter) is unwanted or useless
materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled
from living organisms; such as urea, sweat or faeces. Litter is waste which has been disposed of

Waste is directly linked to human development, both technologically and socially. The
compositions of different wastes have varied over time and location, with industrial development
and innovation being directly linked to waste materials. An Example of this include plastics and
nuclear technology. Some components of waste have economical value and can be recycled once
correctly recovered.
Waste is sometimes a subjective concept, because items that some people discard may have
value to others. It is widely recognized that waste materials are a valuable resource, whilst there
is debate as to how this value is best realized. Such concepts are colloquially expressed in
western culture by such idioms as "One man's trash is another man's treasure."
There are many waste types defined by modern systems of waste management, notably

Municipal Waste includes household waste, commercial waste, demolition waste

Hazardous Waste includes Industrial waste
Bio-medical Waste includes clinical waste
Special Hazardous waste includes radioactive waste, Explosives waste, E-waste

Being considered of no further use in relation to the original purpose of a mechanism.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
"Substances or objects which are disposed of/or are intended to be disposed of or are required to
be disposed of by the provisions of international law" (Basel Convention).
"Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for
which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production,
transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated
during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and
final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled
or reused at the place of generation are excluded."

Sources of Waste
Everything on the planet earth, living or non-living has its source, waste is not an exception. On
olumes or mass.




Taxonomically, waste can be categorized in terms of state of matter i.e: solid, liquid and gaseous.
Also, it can be toxic, hazardous or volatile. A typical solid domestic waste will consist of paper,
glass, plastic, metals, textiles, woods, vegetables etc. liquid waste include gey water, kitchen
sludges, oils, grease while gaseous include CH4, CO2, CO, aerosols.
Identification of waste source helps in giving proper nomenclature to waste. It also helps in
identification of the required collection, storage, transportation and disposal. Similarly, analysis
of waste involves quantification in volumes or mass.
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, managing and
monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity,
and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste
management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve
solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural
areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste
residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local
government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste
is usually the responsibility of the generator.
Integrated waste management using LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer the most benign
options for waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad
studies have indicated that waste administration, then source separation and collection followed
by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production
of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path.
\Storage of waste takes place at the spot where the waste is generated. Domestic refuse is
normally stored continually in a container or sack until collected. The daily production is usually
stored inside until it is carried outside for collection. There can be 1 unit/household or per several
households, or local communal collection points where garbage is emptied in a bin or
caontainer. In some developing countries, old oil barrels, concrete tubes and other improvised
enclosures may be used for storage often without any systematized garbage collection taken
place. Industry and business often have their own systems with relatively large storage units.
Some factories run large refuse heaps on the factorys premises without any form of regular
collection. Containers used as storage units are common for a great many industries and outside
large market places.
Collection of waste generally take place by loading from the storage containers unto a vehicle
e.g. hand-cart (simple), donkey-cart (complex), tractor with trailer (sophisticated), lorry or

special garbage truck. The garbage is usually collected and emptied by the crew of the vehicle
(garbage collectors) but in some cases, collectors make a sound signal in which members come
and empty their garbage int the vehicle.
Collection requires passable routes and the choice of technology must be adapted to the existing
quality of roads, streets and settlement.
A simple cart can often be more useful than a modern garbage truck and labour intensive
method, more efficient than modern mechanized ones. The choice of technology should also be
considered on the basis of available facilities for maintenanace. In some places, tractors
ordinarily used for agricultural purposes have proved useful for collection and transportation of
Moreover, in agricultural areas where tractors are sued, there is often a food infrastructure with
garages available spare parts. Where there is systematic collection, small scale industries and
businesses are usually included. Major manufacturing industries producing large amount of
waste usually run their own system for collection and transport.
Collections of liquid waste (sludge) from waste water treatment plants require separate collection
Also, gaseous wastes are often collected through emission pipes (stacks) to be emitted into the
This is the process of shifting discarded resources from the point of generation or storage to the
point of recovery or pre-disposal point by a pre-determined medium. The medium can be man,
mechanical or nature. If the place of disposal is far away or if very small vehicles are used for
collection, it can be appropriate to load the garbage unto a larger transport vehicle. Transport is
thereby rationalized in that it takes fewer vehicles and crews. Waste transfer can take place by
the collection car emptying the garbage into a container for collection by a larger container car
that transports it to a place of final disposal.
There are certain factors to be considered when designing waste transport system aspect of waste
These include:

Location of disposal points

Disposal facilities
Available technology
Prevailing climate
Route plans and road network and
Waste quality and quantity

In the transportation of waste resources the following can be used:


Side loaders


Skip vehicles and

Roll over vehicle

These are useful in the transportation of compressible wastes.


Transportation of liquid waste may take place through networking in which the effluent passes
into soil pipes (a channel) or through the channel to the final storage point and this is regulated
through the use of gauge valve.
Methods of disposal

It appears that in most lowincome countries and many medium income countries, very
little progress has been in upgrading waste disposal methods. Open dumps are
is piled up without being covered or otherwise protected. Dumps are located wherever
Inindustrializednations,open dumpsareaisathingofthepast.IntheU.S.,thousandsof
open dumps have been closed and new ones banned. Common sites were mines and
quarries where gravel and stones had been removed, natural low areas like swamps or
flood plains, and hillside areas above or below towns. In some instances, the refuse is
As a general cycle, open dumps create a nuisance by being unsightly, providing breeding
grounds for pests creating health hazards, polluting the air and sometimes polluting

Landfill operation in Hawaii.

A landfill compaction vehicle in action.

Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice
in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining
voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and
relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly
managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown
litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of
landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic
waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odour problems, kill surface vegetation,
and is a greenhouse gas.

Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna.

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or
plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and
stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also
have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the
landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.

Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as
to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue
of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process
reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and
other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment".
Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash. Besides reducing a large
volume of waste to a much smaller volume of ash, incineration has another advantage in that the
process can be used to supplement other fuels and generate electrical power.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It
is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of
disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is
a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities
generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste
(EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam
or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and clean; there have been
concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has
focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins (a carcinogenic toxin), furans, PAHs
which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences. Smoke stacks from
incinerators may emit oxides of nitrogen and sulphur that lead to acid rain after series of
photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Hg; and CO2
which hypothetically is related to global warming.
In modern incinerator facilities, smoke stacks are filled with special devices to trap pollutants but
the process of pollutant abatement is very expensive. Furthermore, the plant themselves are
expensive to establish.
On-site disposal
A common on-site disposal method in urban areas in developed countries is mechanical grinding
of kitchen food waste. Garbage disposal devices are installed in the waste water pipe system at
the kitchen sink and the garbage is ground and flushed into the sewer system. Final material is
transferred to sewage treatment plants, where solids remaining as sewage sludge still must be
disposed off.
Sanitary landfill
Sanitary landfill is a site where solid wastes are placed are placed on or in the ground at a
carefully selected location by means of engineering techniques that minimize pollution of air,
water and soil, and other risks to man and animals. Aesthetic considerations are also taken into
considerations are also taken into account.
A sanitary landfill is designed to concentrate and contain refuse without creating a nuisance or
hazard to public health or safety. The idea is to confine the waste to the smallest practical area,

reduce it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with a layer of soil at the end of each day
of operation or more frequently if necessary.
Covering the waste is what makes the landfill sanitary. The compacted layer restricts (but does
not eliminate) continued access to the waste by insects, rodents and animals such as seagulls. It
also isolates the refuse, minimizing the amount of surface water entering into and gas escaping
from the waste.
Most sanitary landfills designs attach considerable importance to prevailing polluted water
(leachate) from escaping from the site. It has been shown that large quantities of leachates can be
produced by by landfills even in semi-arid climates.
Most designs include expensive and carefully constructed impermeable layers which present
leachates moving downward into the ground and drainage systems to bring the leachates to a
treatment plant or a sewage tank. However, if the plant is not emptied before it overflows, or if
the plant is not working the leachate control system actually makes the pollution worse than from
an open dump, because all the leachates is concentrated in one place, giving natural purification
system very little chance of reducing the pollution impacts. This example shows that good design
and construction alone can achieve nothing if they not followed by good operation. Hence, there
is training of a site manager, the provision of sufficient financial and physical resources to allow
a reasonable standard of operation.
The most significant hazard from a sanitary landfill is obviously the pollution of groundwater or
surface water. If waste buried in a landfill comes into contact with water percolating down from
the surface or with groundwater moving laterally through the refuse, leachates are produced. The
nature and strength of such leachates produced at a disposal site depends on the composition of
the waste, and the length of time that the infiltrated water is in contact with the refuse.
Choosing the site for a sanitary landfill is important. A number of factors must be taken into
consideration including:

Location of the ground water
Amount of precipitation
Type of soil and rocks
Location of the disposal zone in the surface-water and groundwater flow system.

A favourable combination of climates, hydrologic and geologic conditions help to ensure

reasonable safety in containing the waste and its leachates. The best sites are in arid regions,
disposal conditions are relatively safe because little leachate is produced in a dry environment. In
humid climates, sanitary landfills are best cited where there is relatively impermeable clay and
silt soils well above the water table. This is so that any leachate produced remains in the vicinity
of the site and degrades by natural filtering action and chemical reactions between the clay and
the leachate.
Monitoring Pollution in Sanitary Landfills
Once a site is chosen for a sanitary landfill and before filling starts, monitoring the movement of
groundwater should begin. The monitoring is accomplished by periodically taking samples of
water and gas from specially designed monitoring wells. Monitoring the movement of leachates

and gases should be as long as there is any possibility of pollution. This procedure is particularly
important after the site is completely filled with a final, permanent cover material is in place.
Continued monitoring is necessary because a certain amount of settlement always occur after a
landfill is completed, and if small depressions form, surface water may collect, infiltrate and
produce leachate. Monitoring and proper maintenance of an abandoned landfill reduce the
pollution potential.
Hazards effect of Pollution from Landfills
Landfills, if not properly managed can become source of hazardous substances into the
environment. Such pollution may enter the environment by as many as six routes namely:



Methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen gases may be produced from
compounds in the soil and the waste, and may enter into the atmosphere
Soluble materials such as chloride and iron may be retained in the soil, soluble
materials such as chloride, nitrates and sulphates may readily pass through the waste
and soil to the underground water
Heavy metals such as Lead, chromium and iron may be retained in the soil
Overland run-off may pick up leachates and transport it into streams and rivers
Some plants (including crops) growing in the disposal area may selectively take up
heavy metals and the toxic materials to be passed up the food chain as people and
animal eat them
If the plant residue from crops left in the field contains toxic substances, these
materials will return to the soil.

Ideally, a thorough monitoring program considers all six possible paths by which pollutants
enter the environment. Hence, adequate precautions could have been taken.
To some people, a perfect system for waste disposal system would be a technology that is
capable of accepting an unlimited amount of waste and safety containing it forever outside
the sphere of human life. This is an impossible dream and it is not environmentally sound.
The environmentally preferred concept with respect to waste management is to consider
wastes as resources out of place.
With increasing cost of raw materials, energy, transportation and land to reuse and recycle
more resources will become financially feasible. Moving towards this objective is moving
towards an utopian environmental view that there is no such thing as waste, only resources.
Hence, everything considered useful for something even though a waste somewhere.
Resource recovery means obtaining some economic benefits from materials that has been
regarded as waste by someone.
It includes:

Reduce: the objective here is to reduce the amount of urban and other types of wastes
that must be disposed of in landfills, incinerators, or other waste management
facilities. Reducing waste can be facilitated by better packaging establishment of
recycling programs and large-scale composting programs.




Reuse: this suggests using the same materials for the same purpose again, rather than
disposing of it. An example of this is the refilling of soft drink bottles.
Conversion: this involves the processing of materials to make something different
(such as producing padding for clothing and steeping bags from plastic bottles or
producing compost from food waste)
Recycling: this involves processing materials so that it can be used again as the same
material, such as the processing of waste paper to make pulp and then new ones.
Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty
beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed
into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general
waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed
waste streams. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum
such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel
furnishings or equipment , polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars,
paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated
fiberboard boxes. PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS are also recyclable. These items are
usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle
into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and
electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and
separation required. The type of recycling material accepted varies by city and
country. Each city and country have different recycling programs in place that can
handle the various types of recyclable materials
Energy recovery (Waste-to-energy): The energy content of waste products can be
harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by
processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment
ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to anaerobic
digestion and the use of the gas fuel (see above), to fuel for boilers to generate steam
and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal
treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen
availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure.
Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The
liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products
(chemical refinery). The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such
as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to
convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An
alternative to pyrolisis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water
decomposition (hydrothermal monophasic oxidation).

Anaerobic digestion component of Lbeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany,


Steel crushed and baled for recycling

The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001
accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year.
One way to do this is by improving a companys waste management with a new recycling
service. (such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)
Biological reprocessing

An active compost heap.

Composting is a biochemical process in which organic materials such as lawn clippings and
kitchen scraps decompose to rich soil-like material. Waste materials that are organic in nature,
such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological
composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic

material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In

addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating
electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The intention of biological
processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of
decomposition of organic matter.
There is a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in
complexity from simple home compost heaps, to small town scale batch digesters, industrialscale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment).
Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods,
though hybrids of the two methods also exist.
Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of MSW Municipal Solid Waste has been found to be
in a number of LCA analysis studies to be more environmentally effective, than landfill,
incineration or pyrolisis. The resulting biogas (methane) though must be used for cogeneration
(electricity and heat preferably on or close to the site of production) and can be used with a little
upgrading in gas combustion engines or turbines. With further upgrading to synthetic natural gas
it can be injected into the natural gas network or further refined to hydrogen for use in stationary
cogeneration fuel cells. Its use in fuel cells eliminates the pollution from products of combustion.
An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto,
Canada, where Source Separated Organics (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are
collected in a dedicated container and then composted.
An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created,
also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products,
repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable
(such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using
disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans,
packaging, and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for
example, lightweighting of beverage cans).
Environmental costs
Waste attracts rodents and insects which harbour gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms,
the plague and other conditions for humans. Exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when
they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers. Waste can contaminate
surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species,
and ecosystems. Waste treatment and disposal produces significant green house gas (GHG)
emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global climate change.

Social costs

Waste management is a significant environmental justice issue. Many of the environmental

burdens cited above are more often borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities,
women, and residents of developing nations. NIMBY (not-in-my-back-yard) is a popular term
used to describes the opposition of residents to a proposal for a new development close to them.
However, the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is
increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the transboundary movement of waste,
and although most waste that flows between countries goes between developed nations, a
significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations.
Economic costs
The economic costs of managing waste are high, and are often paid for by municipal
governments. Money can often be saved with more efficiently designed collection routes,
modifying vehicles, and with public education. Environmental policies such as pay as you throw
can reduce the cost of management and reduce waste quantities. Waste recovery (that is,
recycling, reuse) can curve economic costs because it avoids extracting raw materials and often
cuts transportation costs. The location of waste treatment and disposal facilities often has an
impact on property values due to noise, dust, pollution, unsightliness, and negative stigma. The
informal waste sector consists mostly of waste pickers who scavenge for metals, glass, plastic,
textiles, and other materials and then trade them for a profit. This sector can significantly alter or
reduce waste in a particular system, but other negative economic effects come with the disease,
poverty, exploitation, and abuse of its workers.
Waste management concepts
There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:

Waste hierarchy - The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle,
which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of
waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste
minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum
practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
Extended producer responsibility - Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy
designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their
life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product.
Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire
lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms
which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the
products after their useful life as well as during manufacture.
Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting
party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management,
this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate
disposal of the waste.

Institutional participation in solid waste management

Management of solid waste (or waste in general) should not be allowed to be handled by
individuals alone since the cost of such management may be too exorbitant, however various
institutions that can participate in waste management include:


The three tiers of government viz a) local, b) state and c) federal

Organized clubs in high schools and higher institutions of learning
Buoyant individual or philantropist
Non-governmental organization
Community based organizations
International institutions such as industries, oil companies, foreign bodies.

At the local government level, management of waste is commonly supervised by local

government officials popularly referred to as the Environmental Health Officers who embark
routine inspection of houses and streets within various communities in that particular local
government in order to ensure general cleanliness. The assignment of solid waste management
was formerly exclusive to the local government has been in existence and entrenched in the 1989
constitution of Nigeria. This might be due to the fact that the local government is closer to the
people that is: grassroot, however it has since been be assessed because it lacks the fiscal,
managerial and supervisory capacity to perform effectively the task of solid management
(collection, disposal). This is one of the reasons solid waste management has been recognized
and also treated as issue of state and federal government.
At the state level, the solid waste management was formerly under the umbrella of the state
Environmental protection Agency which comes under different acronyms such as OGEPA,
LASEPA, OSEPA etc. these EPA bodies in all states of Nigeria are now under the ministry of
Environment. The body organizes monthly environmental sanitation in which a day is set aside
throughout the entire states of the country for the general cleaning of the environment which
involves collection, transportation and disposal of waste among which is solid waste to
designated sites. This type of sanitation exercise takes place once in some states and twice in
other states, while it is no more in existence in some other states. Apart from EPA, there are
some other agencies at state level that are directly are directly connected or concerned with the
management of solid waste such include LAWMA, KAI (both in Lagos), MSI (Abeokuta).
OSWMA (Akure, Ondo).
At federal government level, for along time this tier of government through the now ministry of
Environment as been concerned directly or indirectly with issue of waste management. This is
achieved through the disbursement of funds to the state government and other relevant agencies
or organizations concerned with environmental management program. Notable among these is
the one time popular WAI (War Against Indiscipline) which passed through series of phases. It
was primarily the problem of monitoring unsightly and potentially dangerous spread of solid
waste in our cities which led to the formal launching of a national environmental sanitation he
program (also referred to as the 5th phase of the WAI IN August 1985). However, due to the
draconial measures of WAI, the program was wiped out. It is disheartening that people only
respond to this program when it is backed up with FORCE. When this is removed or slackened,
people will drop back to their pollution causing habits.
Similarly, the local, state or federal government levels may be financed by local or foreign
institutions and agencies. Many years ago, World Bank released $460m to Lagos State for the
construction of drainage channelization project while in 1981, European Economic Community
third one was converted to Civic Centres

The management of solid waste should not be left in the hands of government or communities
alone. Formation of solid waste management clubs under any chosen names will go a long way
to keep garbages from most of the cities. It will even help the club members and the society at
large which are likely to be dominantly people of youthful ages to group in the consciousness of
cleanliness is next to godliness. Buoyant individuals can also assist the communities or local
government in finding the cost of waste management thereby getting rid of shanty environment
dotted with heaps of solid waste. Non-governmental (NGOS) agencies and community based
organization as some of the examples of different institutions that can participate in the
management of waste and this involves coming together of people of like minds, raising fund at
community level for the management of waste or coming together of people of different
background, educational status but with common goal. Seeking fund locally and internationally
for the management of waste. Oil companies are not left out in the management of waste. Being
a strong financial company, prompt release of substantial amount of money to communities and
different tiers of government will assist in the management of waste. They can also organize or
finance seminars at different levels in other to create more awareness about solid waste
management in our society.

Serve as Soil Nutrients.

Used as fertilizer-crop product.
Source of abode.
Source of income-scaveryers.


When we are talking about environmental effects it implies negative or positive impact, and
these impact may either be direct or indirect. When it is direct, it means that the impact is linked
with waste itself, and when it is indirect, it means it linked with other activities that is associated
with waste management. Waste problems in developing countries are different and often greater
than in developed countries. In developing countries waste disposal is base on controlled
dumping on unsuitable e.g river banks, streets, canals, small and large rubbish heap. In several
developing countries, the amount of waste normally increase in proportion especially in relation
to industrial development. The waste problem is great and increases in cities. Extensive
migration to cities and relatively great differences between the poor and there rich urban areas
are major factors in considering wask generation and handling.
1. Waste results in Slum: - Most of the wastes generated are in form of metal scraps, glass,
cardboards, plastics, textiles. These are deposited in heaps on our settlements. Waste
heaps are not often common in affluent environment because of regular collection.
Therefore, the land that would have been useful in better ways has been designated
during sites in most of the environment of developing countries.
2. Foul odours: Most of the waste environment often consists of organic matter e.g
vegetable scraps and excrements from animal and humans. Such are areas are
characterized by bad smell and large ant of files and rodents.
3. Impacts on soil: Leachates from the waste during sites percolate into the soil, this
percolation continues in porous soil media or stop and accumulate in the non-porous
impermeable soil media. This ways, the metal load of the soil is increased.

4. Impact on air: Waste gas normally contains heavy metals like Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn. Also,
this includes gas flaming in the oil and gas industries. Waste gases also include fumes
from chemical industries. The incineration process of waste normally lead to the increase
of gases like Acid gas Hg, So, H2S nitrous oxide and also harmful components like PH
and dioxins
5. Impacts on water: Water flowing from the waste can leach into the underground i.e
aquifer, thereby polluting it. It can also get i.e through the drains out nearby rivers,
especially the wastes deposited at the banks of the rivers and this leads to metal
accumulation of the river and eutrophication.
6. Impacts on flora and fauna: Eutrophication resulting from leachates from the waste
dumpsites will lead to deoxygenation and extermination of natural flora and fishes. The
solubility of poisonous mineerals like Al and Cd from waste may increase and clamage
roots of plants thereby reducing their nutrients intake and uptake.
7. Impact on health aspect humans and animals: This is most felt in term of health problems.
a) Acid gases may in high concentration lead to health problems, cause damage to
vegetation and corrode buildings and materials.
b) Acidification of water bodies through precipitation may poison and kill small faura and
c) Waste may serve as an outbreak of diseases e.g. cholera typhoid etc.
d) Landfill gas may lead to suffocation among workers and there is also the possibility of
health hazards due to toxic, carcinogenic and irritation organic that gases which are
e) Manual sorting of waste may lead to injury from sharp and painted object hence
f) Exposure of waste scavengers/manual sorters to waste dust may lead to respiratory dxs.
g) Back injury may occur to people involved in the collection and transfer of too heavy
waste or overfilled.
h) Noise from waste processing plants may represent a health risk to refuse workers and
people living nearby especially in the case of every large plant.
Effect of hazardous waste to man
In the case of koko incident in Nigeria, some of the workers called to dear the dump site
experienced chemical burns in their hands even through hand gloves were given, some have
nausea (vomiting) and even paralysis. some women in that enviornment had premature birth
due to the toxicity at the dump site. The fumes from the site also sent from people to coma.
Man, more often than not is always at the receiving end of toxic waste dump for instance,
toxic waste comprising toxins that are considered persistent bio-accumulated toxins (PBTs)
e.g. Pb, Cd, Cr, etc. are particularly dangerous because they do not degrade over long pawd
of time and can easily spread and move between air, water, and soil resulting in the
bioaccumulation of the toxin far from the original point source of pollution. PBTs
accumulated in fatty tissues of human and animals, thereby making the toxins to gradually
concentrate, putting those at the top of the food chain at the greatest risk, some of these PBTs
get leached into H2o bodies and are taken by man and animals that use such water for
drinking purposes. Also plant roots takes some of these toxins up from polluted soil which
may not necessarily lead to death but are rather stored in their leaves. These leaves are fed on
by animals who overtime accumulate them in there tissues and some of these animals are
taken by man whereby causing acute and most time chronic diseases-PBTs are associated
with a range of adverse human effect including damage to nervous system, reproductive
developmental problems, cancer and genetic impact. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)

a common toxin in waste cell phones is associated with liver damage, neurological and
immune system problems, thyroid dysfunction among others. Hg poisoning has also resulted
from eating fish from polluted water.