STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
UCB/SEMM
COURSE NOTES
by
FILIP C. FILIPPOU
Notation
General:
Upper case letters for matrices and vectors refer to variables of the entire
structure, e.g. collection of forces, displacements, etc.
Lower case letters for matrices and vectors refer to element variables.
A bold face font is used for matrices, a bold face italic font is used for vectors. An
italic font is used for scalars.
All variables refer to a global (structural) reference system under otherwise
indicated
General notation:
Static variables
P
p
stress tensor
Kinematic variables
Element deformations
section deformations
strain tensor
Page 1
Subscripts
Subscripts are used to specialize the variables on the preceding page often denoting
a subset or subarray of the original variable. They have the following meaning:
Single
subscript
Interpretation
Boolean
elastic
global
hinge
Double
subscript
Interpretation
pl
plastic capacity
ce
cp
Page 2
A
f
U f
axial force
bending moment
shear force
curvature
load factor
Other variables or symbols
increment of
X, Y, Z
x, y, z
Page 3
Variables by section
Statics or Equilibrium
P
Pf
Pd = R
Pfw
stress tensor
axial force
bending moment
shear force
br
bg
Bf
Bd
Bi
Bx
Bi
Bx
Qp
Page 4
Qi
Qx
Qpl
plastic capacities for basic forces; superscript + for positive,  for negative
Pref
load factor
Qc
Qce
Qcp
Be
Bp
Qpe
Bxe
Uf
Ud
element deformations
section deformations
strain tensor
ar
ag
Page 5
Af
Ad
Vd
curvature
vh
Vh
Ac
U f
A
f
Vi
Vx
Ve
Ai
Ax
Ae
Acp
Afp
W p
Page 6
Force method
modulus of elasticity
moment of inertia
Fs
v0
V0
element length
BV
Ks
q0
Q0
Pf
P0
Page 7
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Page 8
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
structure
Another example of the approximation involved in the idealization of the actual structure are the structural
joints: members of frame structures intersect at joints of finite size. In a structural model the nodes are
points in space. It is not entirely clear how to represent the joint region with onedimensional elements.
We will mention this point in the latter part of the course.
Page 9
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
In a discrete structural model the response of the model is completely described by structural variables
associated with the nodes. These are of two kinds: generalized forces and generalized displacements.
We use the word "generalized" to indicate forces, in the conventional sense, and moments. "Generalized"
displacements refers to translations and rotations of a node.
Since a node is a point in space, we can decompose its translation into 3 components along the global X,
Y and Zaxes; we can also decompose the rotation into 3 components, i.e. a rotation about the Xaxis, a
rotation about the Yaxis, and a rotation about the Zaxis. Note, however, that the decomposition of the
rotation into 3 components is only possible for very small (actually infinitesimal) rotations. In this course
we limit ourselves to such very small rotations, but, moreover, plan to study mostly planar structures for
which only the rotation about the Zaxis is relevant. With the righthanded coordinate system we use
the right hand grip rule to define positive rotations: with the Zaxis pointing toward the viewer in the above
figure a counter clockwise rotation (CCW) is positive, and a clockwise (CW) rotation is negative.
This is also the consistent convention for moments: a moment acting CCW is positive, and a moment
acting CW is negative.
Each node of the structural model thus experiences, in general, a translation and a rotation: these
are described by 3 components each. Each component is called a degree of freedom (dof) of the node.
By decomposing the translation and rotation into components relative to the global coordinate system, we
ensure that the degrees of freedom (dofs) are independent.
Thus, each node of a 3d structural model has 6 degrees of freedom. In a 2d or planar structural model,
there are only two translation components and one rotation in the plane for each node. Thus, each node
has only 3 degrees of freedom in a planar structural model.
We represent each node with a small black square in this course. This allows us to
illustrate its rotation, which a point does not allow us to do. We depict translation
dofs with a single arrowhead and rotation dofs with a double arrowhead. The same
is true for forces and moments, respectively. In the plane the rotation dof is
depicted the same way as the moment, as shown in the figure on the right.
Node dofs may be restrained by devices. We depict
such devices with special symbols. Nodes with at
least one dof restrained are known as the supports
of the structural model. In the following figure of
typical node restraint (support) symbols the
restrained dofs are shown in gray, and the free dofs
are shown in black; to each restrained dof there
corresponds a restraining force, which is commonly
known as support reaction.
Page 10
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
10
13
X
14
11
15
12
we use the abbreviated notation nf for the number of free dofs and nr for the number of restrained dofs;
the total number of dofs then, nt, is equal to the sum of nf and nr, i.e. nt = nf + nr
U f
U d
Uf
Ud
is the restrained dof displacement vector (note that restrained displacements are not necessarily zero;
instead restrained displacements are of specific value at the start of the analysis with zero a special
case; given support settlements thus fall into this category
Page 11
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
10
0
0
0 10
20
Pf =
0
0
15
200
0
20
6
15
200 3
10
13
14
11
12
15
P
P
P = f or P = f
Pd
R
Pf
is the vector of the applied forces at the restrained dofs, commonly known as support reactions
Page 12
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
In this course we will consider loading type 1 and 2. For loading type 3 we limit ourselves to uniformly
distributed transverse forces and uniform initial deformations over the entire element span
Distinction between nodal and element forces is a question of discretization
nodal loading
element loading
Actual model
Page 13
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
EQUILIBRIUM (STATICS)
Objective: static variables for structure, element and section and their interrelationship
through free body equilibrium equations; static matrix of structural model and
its properties; degree of redundancy; basic force influence matrix; solution of
equilibrium equations
Page 14
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
(b)
p(c)
3
b
Because we deal exclusively with two node elements in this course, i.e. elements that connect to only
two nodes, the fictitious cuts separate each element from the structural model at its two ends.
The cut reveals element force variables, i.e. a force and a moment at each cut. We decompose these
into components relative to the global coordinate system and collect them in a generalized element force
vector p. We use the convention in this course that lower case letters refer to element variables
and upper case letters to structural variables. We identify the end points of each element with the letters
i and j, with i referring to the end point at the node with lower number and j to that with higher number.
The end points of the element undergo generalized displacements, i.e. a translation and rotation at each
end. We decompose these into components relative to the global coordinate system and collect them
in a generalized element displacement vector u. We number the components of the element force and
displacement vector in sequence starting with the translation (or force) components in X, Y and Z at node i,
continuing with the rotation (or moment) components about X, Y and Z at node i and then proceeding in
the same fashion with the translation (or force), and then rotation (or moment) components at node j. For
a two node element we end up with 6 generalized displacement (or force) components in a 2d model,
and 12 components in a 3d model.
5
p1 generalized displacement and
u1
6
force vector for 2d element b;
u2
p2
4
j
p the little white square are there
u
(b )
(b )
3
3 to indicate that the element
p
=
u =
p4 free body extends from node
u4
element b
2
p to node, i.e. the full element
u
5 length
5
p
u
3
6
1
6
i
Page 15
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
3
b
Structural model
2
c
a
Y
d
10
13
14
11
15
12
Write equilibrium equations at free dofs in terms of the applied forces P and the element forces p
p (b) 0 0
(a)
P1 p4 1
0
(b) 0
0
(a)
0
p
P2 p5 2 0
0
P (a) p (b)
0
3 p6 3 p (c) 0
P4 0 p (b) 1
0
4 (c)
0
P
p
f
fr
P6
p
0
0
P
(c) p2(d) 0 of the structural model; we see that the resisting force
8
0
p
0 p (c) 3 and we write symbolically
P
6
(d) 0
10 0
p
Pr = p (el ) with the understanding that each
0 0 6
el
The equilibrium equations for the restrained dofs result insimilar fashion R Pdr = 0
We can combine these two sets of equations in the expression of Newton's first law for the structural model
Pf Pfr 0
=
R
P 0
dr
or, shorter
P Pr = 0
P Pr = M U t
is the dof acceleration vector and M is the mass matrix of the structural model (see CE225)
Page 16
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
6
j
p2 + p5 = 0
p3 + p6 + p5 X p4 Y = 0
Y = Y j Yi
2
1
p1 + p4 = 0
3
i
X = X j X i
In a structural problem the applied forces at the free dofs of the structural model are given. Similarly, the
displacements of the restrained dofs are also given. It is our task to determine the displacements at the
free dofs and the forces at the restrained dofs (support reactions). We write this in compact form
Structural Analysis Problem
Given:
Pf
Determine:
U f and
and U d
NOS = (3 x ne)  nf
Note: instead of adding 3 x ne element equilibrium equations to the nf node equlibrium equations it is much
more efficient to use the element equilibrium equations to express the element forces in terms of only three
independent or basic element forces. This is what the boxed equation reflects: there are only 3 x ne
unknown element forces and nf available node equilibrium equations. This assumes that none of the basic
element forces are set to zero through special devices (releases). We will address this issue later on.
Note: nothing changes to the above discussion by adding the nr equilibrium equations at the restrained
dofs since these equations involve an additional nr unknown support reactions. Thus, it is convenient to
leave the support reactions and the corresponding equilibrium equations out of consideration.
Page 17
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
*Note that adding the element equilibrium equations to the node equilibrium equations results in a very
large system of equations with many 0 terms, since each element equilibrium equation involves only the
forces of the particular element.
In working out the relation between dependent and independent element forces it is convenient to work
with an element specific right handed coordinate system. This system is shown in the following figure. It
is called local or element coordinate system, and we use lower case letters to denote its axes.
element coordinate system (e.g. for b)
y
b
j
Definition of element specific or local coordinate system
1. Local xaxis points from lower to higher numbered
node (we denote the former node i and latter node j)
2. In 2d local yaxis lies in the plane and is normal to x;
in 3d local yaxis is specified by user (e.g. along
principal axis of cross section)
3. Local zaxis is normal to the plane formed by xy
The force vectors at the end points of the element can be expressed relative to the global or to the local
coordinate system. The former decomposition is shown on the left and the latter on the right of the
following figure. We introduce a new symbol for denoting the components of the element force vector in
the local coordinate system.
element force vector in local coordinates
5
2
3
3
X = X j X i
4
j
Y = Y j Yi
5
6
L = X 2 + Y 2
p1 + p4 = 0
p2 + p5 = 0
p3 + p6 + p5 L = 0
Page 18
p1
p2
p
p = 3
p4
p
5
p
6
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
p2 + p5 = 0
p3 + p6 + p5 L = 0
There are some obvious choices for the basic element forces (note that we cannot pick any three!)
One common choice is this group
p1 p2
p3
p4
p6
p3
p1 = p4
In this course we pick the second choice for the basic forces.
We use then the element equilibrium equations to express the
other three element forces in terms of the basic.
p5 =
p3 + p6
L
p 2 = p5 =
Because of their importance we introduce a new
symbol for the basic element forces: q
p4 = q1
p4
q1 q2
1 0
p1
1
0
L
p2
p 0
1
p = 3=
0
p4 1
p
5 0 1
p
L
6
0
0
p6 = q 3
p1 = q1
p2 =
p6
p3 = q 2
p5 =
p3
p3 + p 6
q 2 + q3
L
q 2 + q3
L
q3
1
L
q
0 1
q = bq
0 2
q
1 3
L
1
with b the force transformation matrix from the basic to the local coordinate system. We call q1 the
longitudinal basic force, q2 and q3 the flexural basic forces of the element. q2 acts at node i and q3 at node j
Summary: the relation between local components of the element force vector and basic element forces is
p = bq
with
Page 19
1 0
1
0
L
0
1
b=
1
0
0 1
L
0
0
1
L
0
L
1
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
global
pj
local
q1
q3
pi
q2
(b)
basic
q 2 + q3
L
pi
(a)
q1
q 2 + q3
L
(c)
After having established a relation between the local and basic element forces, we need to relate the global
element force components to the local. This is rather straightforward, if we note that the two coordinate
systems are related by a rotation in the plane of the model. We use the direction cosines of the element
orientation in the undeformed (original) position in lieu of trigonometric functions of the orientation angle.
p5
p5
p4
p5
p4
p5
p4
p4
X
X
Y
p5
L
L
Y
X
p5 = p4 sin + p5 cos = p4
+ p5
L
L
p4 = p4 cos p5 sin = p4
or, compactly
X
L
p1 Y
p2 L
p 0
p = 3 =
p4
p 0
5
p
6 0
0
Page 20
X
p
4 L
=
p5 Y
L
Y
L
X
L
0
0
0
X
L
Y
L
0
Y
L p4
X p5
L
0
0
p
1
0
0 p
2
0
0 p3
p = br p
Y
0 4
L
p5
p
X
0 6
L
0
1
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
with
p = br p
p = bq
with
X
L
Y
L
0
b g = b r b =
0
Y
L
X
L
0
0
p = br b q = bg q
gives
0
X
L
Y
L
0
0
Y
L
X
L
0
0
1 0
0 0
0 0
1
1
0
0
1
0 L
0
0
0
X
L
0
1 Y
L L
0 0
=
0 X
1 L
L Y
1 L
Y
2
L
X
L2
1
Y
L2
X
L2
0
Thus, finally the relation between element force components in the global coordinate system
and the basic forces is
X
L
p1 Y
p2 L
p 0
p = 3=
p4 X
p L
5
p Y
6
L
L2
X
L2
1
Y
L2
X
L2
0
L2
X
L2
q
0 1
q = bg q
Y 2
q3
L2
X
2
L
with bg the force transformation matrix from the basic to the globall coordinate system;
this matrix can also be regarded as the equilibrium or static matrix of the element.
Page 21
Y
2
L
X
L2
0
Y
L2
X
2
L
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Y
q1
L
q1
X
q1
L
Y
q1
L
q1
X
q1
L
X
q2
L2
Y
q2
L2
q2
L
X
q2
L2
q2
q2
q2
L
Y
q2
L2
q3
X
q3
L2
q3
Y
q3
L2
q3
L
X
q3
L2
q3
L
Page 22
Y
q3
L2
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
end i
end j
q1
q2
q1
q2
q1
q1
2d frame element; longitudinall basic
force released; two basic forces only
Page 23
q2
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
q1
q1
q3
frame element
q 2 + q3
L
q2
q 2 + q3
end i L
end j
q1
N ( x)
M ( x)
q2
q 2 + q3
L
q 2 + q3
L
V ( x)
q3
M ( x)
N ( x)
slice of length x
V ( x)
We collect the section forces in a vector s(x), which for the 2d element in the figure includes the normal
force N(x), the shear force V(x) and the bending moment M(x). Note that the section or internal forces N,
V, and M (there is another shear force, another bending moment, and a torsional moment in 3d) are
continuous functions of x and not discrete variables as the basic element forces. As continous functions of
x the internal forces can be differentiated with respect to x. Moreover, the sign convention for the internal
forces needs to follow the sign convention for continuous functions: the forces at the face of the cut
(section) closest to end i follow the axes orientation of the local coordinate system, while those at the
opposite section act in the opposite direction. By contrast, the basic element forces are discrete static
variables and follow the sign convention adopted for all structural and element variables.
We can now introduce releases of the internal forces at any section inside the element. These result in
one constaint equation between the basic element forces for each release. Each release, therefore,
reduces the number of basic element forces by one. Three common cases follow
q2
q1
2d frame element with normal force release
q2
i
q2
q2
2d frame element with moment release at x
i
Page 24
Lx
x
j
x
Lx
q1
q1
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
P (a) p (b) 0 0
p
2
2
5
0 0
P3 (a) p (b)
p
3
(c)
6
(b) p1 0
P
p
4
0
4 p (c) 0
P
5
0
+ p5(b) + 2 +
=
0
(c)
P6 0 (b) p3
(d)
p6
P
(c) p1
7
0
0 4 (d)
p
(c)
P8 0
0 p5 2(d)
P
9 0 0 p (c) p3
6
P
10 0 0 0 p6(d)
3
b
Structural model
2
c
4
a
Y
d
10
13
12
b
b (a) b (a) b (a)
g.11
g.42
g.43
P1 g.41
b (b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
g.21
P
b
b
b
g.52
g.53
2 g.51
b (b)
P3 (a)
(a)
(a)
g.31
b
b
b
g.61
g.62
g.63
(b)
P4
q (a) bg.41
0
0
0
P
1
(b)
5 = 0
0
0 q 2 + bg.51
P6
(b)
0
0 q 3
P 0
bg.61
7
0
0
0
P8
0
0
0
0
P
0
9 0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
(b)
(b)
bg.12
(b)
bg.22
(b)
bg.32
(b)
bg.42
(b)
bg.52
(b)
bg.62
0
0
0
0
14
11
15
(b)
0
0
0
bg.13
0
0
0
0
0
0
(b)
0
0
0
bg.23
0
0
0
0
0
0
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)
bg.33
(b)
bg.43 q (b) b (c) b (c) b (c) q (c) 0
0
0 q (d)
g.21
g.22
g.23
1
1
(b)
0
0 q
bg.53 q 2 + b (c) b (c) b (c) q 2 + 0
2
g.32
g.33
(d)
(d)
(d)
g.31
q
b
b
b
q
q
(b)
g.12
g.13 3
g.11
bg.63 3
b (c) b (c) b (c) 3
(d)
g.42
g.43
(d)
(d)
g.41
0
(c)
(c)
(c)
b
bg.52 bg.53
(d)
(d)
(d)
g.51
0
bg.31 bg.32 bg.33
(c)
(c)
(c)
b
bg.62 bg.63
(d)
0
(d)
(d)
g.61
bg.61 bg.62
bg.63
0
0
0
0
Page 25
q (a)
1 Q
q2 1
Q2
q3 Q
(b) 3
q1 Q4
q
2 Q5
q 3 Q6
=
=Q
(c)
q Q7
1 Q
q 2 8
q Q9
3 Q
(d) 10
q1 Q11
q 2 Q
12
q3
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)
( b)
P2 bg.61 bg.62 bg.63 bg.31 bg.32
P
(b)
(b)
0
0
bg.41
bg.42
3 0
P
4
(b)
(b)
P 0
0
0
bg.51
bg.52
5
=
(b)
(b)
P6 0
0
0
bg.61
bg.62
P7
0
0
0
0
P 0
8
0
0
0
0
P9 0
P
10 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Pf = B f Q
(b)
bg.13
(b)
bg.23
(b)
bg.33
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)
bg.43
bg.11
bg.12
bg.13
(b)
bg.53
(c)
bg.21
(c)
bg.22
(c)
bg.23
(b)
bg.63
(c)
bg.31
(c)
bg.32
(c)
bg.33
(c)
bg.41
(c)
bg.42
(c)
(d)
(d)
bg.43
bg.11
bg.12
(c)
bg.51
(c)
bg.52
(c)
bg.53
(d)
bg.21
(d)
bg.22
(c)
bg.61
(c)
bg.62
(c)
bg.63
(d)
bg.31
(d)
bg.32
(d)
bg.61
(d)
bg.62
Q1
0
Q
2
0 Q3
Q
0 4
Q5
0 Q
6
0 Q7
Q
(d) 8
bg.13
Q
9
(d)
Q10
bg.23
(d) Q11
bg.33
Q12
(d)
bg.63
where Bf is the static matrix of the structural model for the free dofs
Q2 + Q3
12
Q4 0.8
P2
Q1 0.6 Q4 +
P3
Q3 + Q5
P4
0.8 Q4 +
P5
0.6 Q4
P6
Q6 + Q8
P7
0.8 Q7
10
Q5 + Q6
10
Q8 + Q9
0.6 Q7
P9
Q9 + Q11
P10
Q12
Q5 + Q6
Q5 + Q6
P8
Q5 + Q6
10
10
0.6
0.8
0.6 0.8 Q7 +
0.8 + 0.6 Q7 +
0.6 +
Q8 + Q9
10
10
Q8 + Q9
10
Q8 + Q9
10
0.6
0.8
Q11 + Q12
12
0.8 + Q10
Bf
0
0
1
12
0.6
0.6
1
0.8
10
12
10
0.6
0.8
0.6
0
0
Page 26
0.6
0.6
10
10
0.6
0.8
10
0.8
10
0.8
12
12
0.6
0.8
0.8
1
10
10
0.8
0.8
10
10
0.6
0.6
10
10
0.8
0.8
10
10
0.8
0.6
10
0.6
10
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
where Pfw are the equivalent nodal forces due to element loading
The above equation can be rewritten with the known loading terms
on the left and the unknown basic element forces on the right.
Pf Pfw = Bf Q
The solution of this linear system of equations depends on the properties of the static matrix Bf. In a stable
structural model the number of linearly independent rows of static matrix Bf should be equal to to the
number of free dofs. The number of linearly independent rows of a matrix is known as its rank. Thus, for a
stable structural model the rank of the static matrix should be equal to the number of free dofs.
The degree of redundancy (static indeterminacy) of the structural model is given by the difference between
the number of basic element forces and the number of linearly independent equations of equilibrium at the
free dofs. For a stable structural model the degree of redundancy or static indeterminacy NOS is the
difference between the number of columns and the number of rows of matrix Bf.
STRUCTURE A
STRUCTURE B
STRUCTURE C
NOS = 1812=6
NOS = 1511=4
NOS = 1511=4
NOS = 107=3
a
NOS = 10  8 = 2
Page 27
3
b
Structural model
2
3
a
Y
12
10
13
14
11
15
12
We isolate node free bodies and number the equations of equilibrium (or, degrees of freedom dofs,
according to Newton's second law). We number the free dofs first starting from the lowest numbered node,
and number the support or restrained dof's after completing the numbering of the free dof's in the same way.
The equilibrium of the element free bodies is satisfied by selecting 3 basic forces as independent or basic
forces and then expressing the element end forces in the global reference system in terms of them, so as to
satisfy the 3 equilibrium equations of the element. We obtain the relation
If we write the equilibrium in the undeformed configuration (first order or linear equilibrium)
then the array bg depends only on the geometry of the element (length and direction cosines)
p = b g q
the element equilibrium transformation matrix to global coordinates b g has the form
pj
pj
q1
q3
pi
q2 + q3
L
pi
(a)
q2
(b)
q1
X
L
p1 Y
p2 L
p 0
p= 3=
p 4 X
p5 L
Y
p6
L
Y
L2
X
L2
1
Y
L2
X
2
L
0
Y
L2
X
L2
0
q1
q = b q
2
g
Y
q
L2 3
X
2
L
q 2 + q3
L
(c)
Page 28
When writing the equilibrium equations we proceed equation by equation and limit ourselves to the
equations not involving support reactions, i.e. the equilibrium equations for the free dofs of the structural
model. We note in the following figure that the basic forces Q are numbered in sequence starting from
element a through element d. The node i and node j correspondence for the elements of the model is
shown next to the figure.
Q5
Q4
Q6
Q8
Q9
Q7
6
4
Q1
element
Q11
Q3
Q12
10
13
12
Q10
11
Q2 + Q3
14
15
12
P1 =
node j
Q2
node i
Q4 0.8
P2 = Q1 0.6 Q4 +
Q5 + Q6
Q5 + Q6
10
10
0.6
0.8
P3 = Q3 + Q5
P4 = 0.8 Q4 +
P5 = 0.6 Q4
Q5 + Q6
10
Q5 + Q6
10
0.6 0.8 Q7 +
0.8 + 0.6 Q7 +
Q8 + Q9
10
Q8 + Q9
10
0.6
0.8
P6 = Q6 + Q8
P7 = 0.8 Q7
Q8 + Q9
P8 = 0.6 Q7
10
0.6 +
Q8 + Q9
10
Q11 + Q12
12
0.8 + Q10
P9 = Q9 + Q11
P10 = Q12
Page 29
Pf = Bf Q
Observations:
1. the basic longitudinal force is always assumed at node j
2. we can use the appropriate terms of the element equilibrium matrix b g; the signs will be correct as long as
we remember that X is measured by subtracting the Xcoordinate of node i from that of node j and the
same is true for Y. Thus, for element c in the gable frame of the example, Y is negative because node j is
located lower than node i.
8 6 6
10
2
2
10
10
6
8
8
10
2
2
10
10
0
1
0
bgc :=
6
6
8
10 102 102
6
8
8
2
2
10
10
10
0
1
0
0
Bf := 0
0
0
0.8
0.6
0
bgc =
0.8
0.6
0
1
12
0.6
0.6
1
0.8
10
12
10
0.6
0.8
0.8
10
10
0.8
0.6
10
0.6
10
0.8
0.6
10
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.8
10
0.8
10
0.6
0.8
10
1
0.6
10
0.8
10
0.08 0.08
0
1
0.06 0.06
0.08 0.08
1
0
0.06
0.06
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0.6
0 0
0
10
0.8
0 0
0
10
0
0 0
0
0.6
1
1
0
10
12 12
0.8
1 0
0
10
1
0 1
0
0
0 0
1
0
In the structure equilibrium matrix Bf we see the contribution of element c in columns 79. The terms of the
equilibrium matrix bg for element c appear in rows 4 through 9. Before discussing the automatic assembly
of the equilibrium equations let us write down the equilibrium equations for the support reactions.
Page 30
Q5
Q4
Q6
Q8
Q9
Q7
6
4
Q1
P11 =
10
Q11
P13 = Q2
Q12
P14 =
Q10
Q11 + Q12
12
P15 = Q10
14
11
15
12
with
P12 = Q1
Q3
13
12
8
9
Q2
Q2 + Q3
P11
P12
R = P13
P14
P
15
and
R = Bd Q
0 1 1 0 0 0 0
12
12
1 0
0
0 0 0 0
1
0
0 0 0 0
Bd := 0
0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
12
12
0
1 0
0
we can see that this matrix contains a lot of zeros, since only one element connects to a support. Thus,
the determination of the support reaction by the operation Bd Q is not very efficient. Instead, each
support reaction should be evaluated from the corresponding equation.
we can combine the equilibrium equations for the free and restrained dofs in a single
set by stacking the corresponding vector and matrices on top of each other. We get
the matrix
B=
Bf
Bd
Pf
=
R
Bf
Q
Bd
Matrix B can be readily assembled automatically by considering the contribution of one element after
another. The contribution of each element goes into 3 separate columns, so that the contribution of element
a goes into columns 1 to 3, element b into columns 4 to 6, and so on. The rows of each element equilibrium
matrix bg go to the rows of matrix B according to the incidence relation of the dofs of this element. This
incidence relation expresses the relation between element dof and global dof numbers. Since the 2node, 2d
frame element has 6 dofs, the incidence (id) array for this element has 6 rows. Each row contains the global
dof number that corresponds to the element dof number for that row. We illustrate this for the example
Page 31
11
12
13
1
2
3
element b
element c
1
2
3
4
5
6
element d
4
5
6
7
8
9
7
8
9
14
15
10
2
3
10
13
14
11
15
12
this means that the first row of the equilibrium matrix of element c goes to row 4 of the structure matrix B,
the fourth row to row 7, etc. In Matlab this reassignment of rows can be easily accomplished with array
indexing as the FEDEASLab function B_matrix.m illustrates.
B := stack ( Bf , Bd)
0 0.083 0.083
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
B= 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.083 0.083
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.6
0.08
0.08
0.8
0.06
0.06
0.8
0.06
0.06
0.6
0.08 0.08
0.6
0.08
0.08
0.8
0.06 0.06
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.083 0.083
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.083 0.083
0
0
1
0
Even though the function B_matrix.m assembles the static matrix B for all dofs of the structural model we
use only the static matrix Bf for the free dofs of the model for discussions of stability and static
indeterminacy. This is so because the addition of the support dofs does not change stability or static
indeterminacy considerations. In the case of static indeterminacy this is easy to see: there are as many
equilibrium equations at the restrained dofs as unknown support reactions.
Page 32
Pf
=
R
Bf
Q
Bd
since it contains the unknown support reactions on the left hand side of the equations. We always work
only with the top portion of these equations, and determine the support reactions only after having
determined the basic element forces Q, as subsequent examples will illustrate.
We return now to deal with the equilibrium equations at the free dofs of the structure
Pf = Bf Q
It is the properties of the static matrix Bf for the free dofs of the structural model that determine whether a
solution exists, and whether it is unique, or whether there are multiple solutions. Note that the specification
of a loading is not necessary for the task, except for the case of an unstable structure being stable for a
specific load, which is of no interest to us. Let us look at one important property of static matrix Bf :
the rank of the matrix, i.e. the number of linearly independent rows
A necessary and sufficient condition for a structural model to be stable is that the rank of Bf be equal to
the number of rows, i.e. to the number of free dofs; such a matrix is known to have full rank
Let us check the present example:
rank ( Bf) = 10
rows ( Bf) = 10
A structure is called statically determinate, if it is stable and its static matrix Bf has the same number of
rows as columns (i.e. it is a square matrix). In such case the inverse of the structure equilibrium matrix
exists and is called the force influence matrix. We give it the symbol Bbar.
The equilibrium equations have a unique solution for a stable, statically determinate structure. This is an
important class of structures, since the internal stress state does not depend on material properties.
A structure is called statically indeterminate, if it is stable and its structure equilibrium matrix has more
columns than rows (i.e. more unknowns than available equations). The difference between number of
columns or unknowns and number of rows or available equations is called the degree of static indeterminacy
and we use the shorthand NOS for this number.
In a stable, statically indeterminate structure the equilibrium equations have multiple solutions. These
solutions can be expressed as the sum of a primary basic force field (called primary or particular solution),
and NOS selfstress basic force fields with NOS redundant basic forces as parameters (consult Strang, 3rd
edition, pp 7177). The selection of these redundant basic forces can be done automatically with the
GaussJordan form of the structure equilibrium matrix. We will illustrate this solution process with examples.
The structure in this example has 12 unknown basic forces and 10 equations of equilibrium, i.e. NOS = 2.
In the above system of equilibrium equations, there is one that involves only one unknown basic force, which
can be therefore determined immediately and independently from the rest, i.e.
P10 = Q12
given the value for P10 at the beginning of the analysis we can immediately calculate Q12.
Quite often the value for P10 is zero, resulting in a basic force with zero value and the final
result 0 = 0 for the corresponding equilibrium equation. If the value of P10 is not zero, we
can still calculate Q12 and account for its effect on the remaining equilibrium equations (this
would be equation 7 for this structure). To economize on the number of equations and
basic forces, it is advisable to identify such equations and basic forces at the beginning of
the analysis and avoid numbering the corresponding dof and basic force. We should make
sure to include the effect of a nonzero value for the corresponding basic force on the
remaining equilibrium equations.
Page 33
An interesting case results with the insertion of a moment release at node j of element b, i.e. by releasing
the basic force Q6 . Since Q6 = 0, equation 6 now involves a single unknown
Thus, for this structure we should only set up 8 equations (i.e. eliminate #6 and #10 above)
and then use only 9 unknown basic forces, because Q8 and Q12 can be determined
independently at the start of the analysis from the corresponding equilibrium equation.
Note that NOS = 1 in this case, since we have 8 equilibrium equations for 9 basic forces.
P6 = Q8
12
Q4
Q8
Q5
6
Q9
Q7
Q1
8
1
Q11
Q3
Q2
Q12
10
13
Q10
14
11
12
15
Page 34
Page 35
% 2d frame element
Model = Create_SimpleModel(XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 3
4];
CON {4} = [ 4
5];
Create model
% Automatic assembly of equilibrium equations for gable frame with FEDEASLab function B_matrix
% Clear workspace memory and initialize global variables
CleanStart
Page 36
the
the
the
the
0.0833
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0833
0
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.8000
0.6000
0
0.8000
0.6000
0
0
0
0
0
0.0600
0.0800
1.0000
0.0600
0.0800
0
0
0
0
0
0.0600
0.0800
0
0.0600
0.0800
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.8000
0.6000
0
0.8000
0.6000
0
0
0
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0600
0.0800
1.0000
0.0600
0.0800
0
0
0
0
0
0.0600
0.0800
0
0.0600
0.0800
1.0000
0
Equilibrium equations
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0833
0
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0833
0
0
1.0000
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Q = Bf1 Pf Pfw
Q = B Pf Pfw
Page 37
Y
1
a
X
2
8
q1
truss element
q1
It is quite clear from the above figure that no moments can be applied at the nodes of the truss. With this
assumption the moment equilibrium at the nodes is satisfied automatically, i.e. 0 = 0. Strictly speaking,
however, this results in an unstable node. Thus, it is better to represent the model as shown in the
following figure and then postulate that the applied moments at the nodes are zero (this is what makes
sense in computer analysis).
Page 38
in this case there is one element with a rigid (moment) connection at each node so that the stability of the
nodes against rotation is ensured. If no moments act at the nodes, there are no end moments in the
elements. For convenience we simplify the display of these construction details with a single circle at the
node, as shown in Fig. 1. This indicates a node without any applied or resisting moments.
Remark: The longitudinal basic force q1 in each element should not be confused with the axial force N(x),
which is the internal force acting parallel to the element axis at a section located a distance x
from end i of the element. While N(x) is equal to q1 in the absence of longitudinal element loads,
this is not the case in their presence. q1 and N(x) are also not equal if the "truss element" is
curved. It should then be considered as a frame element with end moment releases.
Based on the preceding discussion, there are no moment equilibrium equations at the nodes of a truss
structure. Starting with the first node we number the equilibrium equations at the node free bodies in the
following order: equilibrium equations without support reactions are numbered first, in the Xdirection and
then Ydirection following the node sequence (we call these equilibrium equations for the free degrees of
freedom or dofs). After we finish with the equations without support reactions, we number in the same
fashion the equations with support reactions (we call these equilibrium equations for restrained dofs). The
numbering in Figure 2 results.
2
6
Page 39
Length of elements
La := 8
La = 8
Lb := 8
Lb = 8
2
Lc :=
6 +8
Lc = 10
Ld := 6
Ld = 6
2
Le :=
6 +8
Le = 10
We now set up the equilibrium equations at the free bodies of the nodes after separating these with
mental cuts from the elements. Each truss element has a single basic force. Note that we keep the
loading general, i.e. we assume that forces may be present at any degree of freedom. We have:
Equilibrium equations for free dofs
5
P1 Q 1 + Q 2 = 0
4
Q3
7
P2 + Q 4 = 0
P3 Q2 0.8 Q5 = 0
Q4
Q5
P4 0.8 Q3 + 0.8 Q5 = 0
8
2
6
Q1
Q2
P5 0.6 Q3 Q4 0.6 Q5 = 0
moving the unknown basic forces to the right hand side of the equations gives the following equations
5
P1 = Q 1 Q 2
P2 = Q 4
P4 = 0.8 Q3 0.8 Q5
P5 = 0.6 Q3 + Q4 + 0.6 Q5
Q4
Q3
P3 = Q2 + 0.8 Q5
7
Q1
Q5
Q2
8
3
Conclusion: To determine the signs of the element forces Q directly on the right hand side of the
above equilibrium equations we can use the element force orientation at the element side of the cut of
the corresponding node free body.
Page 40
The coefficients of the element forces Q (note that they range in absolute value from 0 to 1, since they
represent direction cosines) can be collected in static or equilibrium matrix of the structure for the free dofs.
We can then write the above equations in compact form: after denoting the applied forces at the free dofs
with Pf the system of equilibrium equations for the free dofs of the structure becomes Pf = Bf * Q
Pf = Bf Q
with
P1
P2
Pf = P3
P4
P5
1
0
Bf := 0
0
0.8
0.8 0
0.8
0.6 1
0.6
and
Q1
Q2
Q = Q3
Q4
Q5
Bf
1
0
= 0
0
1 0 0 0.8
0 0.8 0 0.8
0 0.6 1 0.6
In the static matrix for the free dofs of a truss structure rows correspond to equilibrium
equations and columns to the basic force of one element
Note that the static matrix for the free dofs Bf only depends on the geometry of the structural model; it is
independent of the loading. Thus, it can be set up for a given model geometry, without specification of the
applied forces, exactly as we have done in this example.
If Bf is a square and nonsingular matrix, we talk of a statically determinate, stable structure.
In such case we can invert the matrix to obtain the (basic) force influence matrix Bbar.
1
Bbar := Bf
Bbar
1
0
= 0
0
0.667 1
0.5
0.667
0.667 1
0.5
0.667
The rows of the basic force influence matrix correspond to the longitudinal basic force in a particular
element (e.g. the coefficients in row 3 correspond to element c), and the columns correspond to a
particular dof (e.g. the second column corresponds to the effect of a force at dof 2). Thus the term (i,j) of
the basic force influence matrix shows the effect of a unit force at dof j on the basic force i of the structure.
This basic force influence matrix coefficient is very useful in design optimization problems, since it shows
which member is most affected by the given loading.
Remark: the static matrix at the free dofs Bf and the basic force influence matrix Bbar depend only on the
model geometry for linear statics, in which case the equilibrium equations are formulated in the undeformed
(original) configuration of the structural model. When the deformed shape deviates appreciably from the
undeformed configuration, the equilibrium equations should be established in the deformed configuration.
This is covered in Nonlinear Structural Analysis.
Page 41
0
5
Pf := 0
10
0
5
8
solve for unknown element forces by Gauss elimination (function lsolve in Mathcad, \ in Matlab)
Q := lsolve ( Bf , Pf)
8.33
8.33
= 2.08
5
10.42
Note that if we have spent the effort to determine the basic force influence matrix (getting the inverse of a
matrix is more work than performing Gauss elimination!), then we can obtain the element forces also by
multiplying the second column of Bbar by (5) and the fourth column by 10 and adding up the results.
Q := Bbar 2 ( 5) + Bbar 4 10
8.33
8.33
= 2.08
5
10.42
Thus, the end forces result from the linear combination of the 2nd and 5th column of the basic force
influence matrix after these are factored by the values of the force acting at the corresponding dof.
Page 42
Q4
Q3
P6 = Q1 0.8 Q3
Q5
P7 = 0.6 Q3
7
Q1
P8 = 0.6 Q5
Q2
We do this directly for each support reaction (for convenience we can use the symbol R to denote the
support reactions; in such case we number these independently).
R1 = P6 = Q1 0.8 Q3
R1 := Q 0.8 Q
R2 = P7 = 0.6 Q3
R2 := 0.6 Q
R2 = 1.25
R3 = P8 = 0.6 Q5
R3 := 0.6 Q
R3 = 6.25
R1 = 10
and with these we can check the global equilibrium (a very important check indeed!)
10
10
1.25
6.25
5
8
In addition to the trivial sum of the forces in X and sum of the forces in Y (which are satisfied by inspection!)
we check the sum of the moments about the left and right support (only one of the two is really necessary)
sum of moments about left support (CCW is +ve)
10 6 5 8 + R3 16 = 0
10 6 + 5 8 R2 16 = 0
Page 43
Ok!
If we are interested in the support reaction influence matrix, then we set up the static matrix for the support
dofs consisting of the coefficients of the basic forces in the equilibrium equations for the restrained dofs of
the structure. We have from the earlier equations
R1 = P6 = Q1 0.8 Q3
R2 = P7 = 0.6 Q3
R3 = P8 = 0.6 Q5
1 0 0.8 0 0
Bd := 0 0 0.6 0
0
0 0 0 0 0.6
eq for dof 6
eq for dof 7
eq for dof 8
The support reaction influence matrix is the product of Bd and Bbar and contains the coefficients for the
effect of the applied forces at the free dofs on the support reactions.
Bd Bbar
0
1 0 1 1
Note: if we had bothered setting up the matrix Bd , we could determine the support reactions from the basic
element forces with the following expression
support reactions
R := Bd Q
10
= 1.25
6.25
Page 44
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 8
0]; % second node, etc
= [ 16
0]; %
Page 45
XYZ(4,:) = [
6];
% number of elements
% truss element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
specify loading
Pe(2,2) = 5;
Pe(4,1) = 10;
Page 46
postprocessing of results
% plot axial force distribution
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Plot_AxialForces(Model,Q);
Page 47
10
10
Q3
Q2
6
9
Q1
Q5
Q6 Q
4
b
Q8
Q9
c
Q7
Ydirection
P1 = Q 2
P2 = Q 1 Q 4
P3 =
Q2 + Q3
10
Q5 + Q6
10
P5 = Q 4 Q 7
P7 = Q 7
P4 = Q 3 + Q 5
P6 = Q 6 + Q 8
P8 =
Q8 + Q9
P9 = Q 9
Page 48
10
10
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
b
Q5
Q6
c
Ydirection
P1 = Q 1
P2 =
Q1 + Q2
10
Q3 + Q4
10
P3 = Q 2 + Q 3
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
P5 =
Q5 + Q6
P6 = Q 6
Looking at these 6 equations and the unknown 6 basic element forces we conclude that equations 1 and 6
involve a single unknown basic force each. We can therefore solve for the corresponding unknown basic
force independently from the rest. Assuming that the applied force at this degree of freedom is zero in most
cases, we can proceed to remove the two equations and the corresponding basic forces from the system of
equations. This process can be done by inspection at the start of the analysis once the loading is given. If
the applied forces at dofs 1 and 6 are not equal to zero, the corresponding basic forces will not be zero and
we should be careful to include the effect of the nonzero basic force on the remaining equilibrium
equations. We will see later in this example how this is done.
Page 49
10
10
Q1
Q2
Q3
b
Q4
c
Ydirection
P1 =
P4 =
Q1
10
Q2 + Q3
10
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
P3 = Q 3 + Q 4
Q4
5
We note that equation 4 now involves only one unknown, which can be, therefore, determined
independently from the other basic element forces. However, it is quite likely that a concentrated
transverse force acts at the tip of the cantilever, so that this basic force will not be zero in most cases. For
this reason we defer further simplification until we determine the solution for a specific load case.
Page 50
15
1
5
b
10
10
We start with the 6 equilibrium equations not involving axial forces, since the latter are zero by inspection
for the given loading. We note that the applied forces are zero at dofs 1 and 6, so that the corresponding
basic forces are also zero. We can, therefore, set up the equilibrium equations in terms of the reduced set
of 4 dofs with 4 basic forces corresponding to case C above. We restate the equilibrium equations
1
P1 =
Q1
10
Q2 + Q3
10
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
Q1
Q2
Q3
P3 = Q 3 + Q 4
P4 =
Q4
Q4
5
P1 = 15
P2 = 0
P3 = 0
P4 = 5
and it is very straightforward to solve the equilibrium equations for the unknown basic forces. We get
Q4 = 25
from equation 4
Q3 = 25
from equation 3
and then need to solve equation 1 realizing that Q1 = Q 2 from equation 2. We get
and thus,
Q1 = 62.5
and
Q2 = 62.5
Page 51
15 =
Q1
5
2.5
We can also use Gauss elimination of the system of equilibrium equations. This approach is useful for larger
structures, which we do not wish to solve by hand.
15
Pf :=
0
Q := lsolve ( Bf , Pf)
1 1 1 0
10 10 10
1 1 0 0
Bf :=
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
62.5
62.5
Q =
25
25
Before determining and drawing the bending moment diagram we need to establish the relation between
basic forces and internal forces at a section located a distance x from end i of the frame element. The
following figure is limited to the effect of the flexural basic forces. The corresponding internal forces are the
bending moment M(x) and the shear force V(x) at a section x from the end i of the frame element.
y
q2
frame element
q 2 + q3
L
q 2 + q3
L
end i
end j
q3
M ( x)
q2
q 2 + q3
L
q2
q3
q 2 + q3
L
V ( x)
x
x
M ( x) = q 2 1 + q3
L
L
q3
M ( x)
V ( x)
q 2 + q3
L
Page 52
62.5
62.5
25
6.25
6.25
25
8.75
8.75
25
62.5
Once the basic forces are known we use element equilibrium to determine all dependent forces
(in this case there are only shear forces). We then use the nodal equilibrium to determine the support
reactions. Finally, we check global equilibrium. This process is illustrated in the following figures.
(1) Element equilibrium: determine shear forces
62.5
a
6.25
6.25
62.5
25
b
8.75
8.75
25
c
5
(2) node equilibrium: determine support reactions and confirm correctness of solution at applied forces
15
6.25
8.75
6.25
8.75
6.25
13.75
6.25
13.75
Page 53
It is instructive to display this 3step process in a single figure of element, node and structure equilibrium
62.5
a
6.25
62.5
6.25
25
b
8.75
8.75
25
c
6.25
6.25
15
8.75
8.75
6.25
13.75
15
6.25
13.75
Page 54
The inverse of the 4x4 static matrix for the free dofs of the structural model yields the basic force influence
matrix Bbar. for transverse loading
Bbar := Bf
Bbar
5
=
0
2.5
0.5 0.5
The rows of the force influence matrix correspond to a particular basic force, e.g. the second row
corresponds to Q2 . The columns correspond to particular dofs. The terms of the force influence matrix
are force influence coefficients that show the effect of a unit force at a certain dof on the particular
basic force. For example, a unit force at dof 1 gives rise to Q2 = 5, while a unit force at dof 4 gives rise
to Q2 = 2.5 (recall that a positive force is directed upwards). Thinking that the unit vertical force may
be acting anywhere along the beam leads to the idea of influence line for Q2 The influence line for a
particular force is the graphical representation of the effect of a moving unit force on the basic force.
The value of the diagram at a particular location represents the value of the basic force when a unit
force acts at that particular location of the structure.
moving unit force
1
+

2.5
CONCLUSIONS:
1. In beams the longitudinal basic forces and corresponding equilibrium equations are uncoupled from the
other basic forces and the equilibrium equations. In the absence of applied longitudinal forces the
longitudinal basic forces are all zero and do not need to be considered.
2. The inverse of the static matrix of a statically determinate structure is called the force influence matrix.
Rows of this matrix represent the effect of a unit force at any free dof on a particular basic force. The
corresponding values can be used to construct influence lines for each basic force of interest. The
influence lines consist of straight line segments for statically determinate structures.
Page 55
P1 =
Q1
10
Q2 + Q3
10
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
Q1
Q2
Q3
P3 = Q 3 + Q 4
P4 =
Q4
Q4
5
We note that equation 4 only involves one unknown basic force, Q4 , and can be solved independently.
For the general case we obtain
Q4 = 5 P4
which says that the basic force at the base of the cantilever it equal to the force acting at
the tip times the lever arm.
P3 = Q3 5 P4
P3 + 5 P4 = Q3
after moving the applied force to the left hand side of the equation we get
this is now another trivial equilibrium equation that can be solved for the basic force Q3 independently of
the other equations.
The above equations simplify the number of equilibrium equations and basic forces for the given load case
to the following
5
15
25
1
P1 =
10
10
Q1
10
Q2 25
10
1
2
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
Q1
a
Q2
25
b
Page 56
This is an example of determining basic forces independently, one at a time, from as many equilibrium
equations. We did this in this case first for Q4 from equation 4, and then for Q3 from equation 3. In each
case we have accounted for the effect of the basic force on the remaining equilibrium equations. The effect
of Q4 was accounted for in equation 3 where it appears. Then, the effect of Q3 was accounted for in
equation 1 where it appears. The end result is the inclusion of Q3 = 25 in equation 1 leaving us with 2
coupled equilibrium equations in two unknowns. The solution is very straightforward.
Page 57
0 = free)
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
specify loading
Pe(2,2) = 15;
Pe(4,2) = 5;
Page 58
% extract applied force vector Pf at free dofs from Loading field Pref
Pf = Loading.Pref;
plotting
% open window and plot moment diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
% observe that the second argument is empty [] in the following function call
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,[],Q);
Page 59
12
10
5
1
8
Q4
2
Q5
7
5
3
Q1
Q6
Q2
Q8
d
a
Q7
Page 60
Equilibrium equations:
Xdirection
P1 =
Q2
12
Ydirection
Q3
Q4
P2 = Q 1 +
P4 = Q 3 Q 5
P6 = Q 5 +
Moments about Z
P5 =
Q8
P7 =
10
Q4
8
Q6
8
P3 = Q 2 + Q 4
8
+
Q6
8
+ Q7
P8 = Q 6 + Q 8
there are 8 equations in 8 unknown basic element forces and the structure is statically determinate
Suppose that we like to separate the equilibrium equations that involve the 4 longitudinal basic forces in
the frame elements, Q 1 , Q3 , Q5 and Q7 . To do so, we need to isolate 4 equations from the above 8 in
such a way that we are left with 4 equations that do not include the longitudinal basic forces.
This is easy to do for Q1 and Q7 , since each appear in only one equilibrium equation, namely 2 and 7
respectively.
We also note from the above equations that Q3 , Q5 appear in only three equations, namely 1, 4 and 6.
In order to isolate these two longitudinal basic forces from the remainder, we create a new equation by
summing up the three equations in the Xdirection. We obtain:
P1 + P 4 + P6 =
Q2
12
Q8
10
(*)
We note that the longitudinal basic forces do not appear in this equation. We can therefore set aside the
three equilibrium equations in the two longitudinal basic forces that we wish to isolate, as long as we insert
the sum of these 3 equations (*) in their place. We are left with the following two sets of equations:
Set A: equilibrium equations without longitudinal basic element forces
Xdirection
P1 + P 4 + P6 =
Ydirection
Q2
12
Moments about Z
Q8
P3 = Q 2 + Q 4
10
P5 =
Q4
8
Q6
8
P8 = Q 6 + Q 8
Page 61
P1 =
Q2
12
Ydirection
Q3
P6 = Q 5 +
P2 = Q 1 +
Q8
P7 =
10
Q6
8
Q4
8
+ Q7
Thus, by isolating the four longitudinal basic forces and an equal number of equilibrium equations from
the four flexural basic forces, we have split the original set of 8 equations in 8 unknowns into two sets
of 4 equations. The first set of 4 equations only involves 4 unknown flexural basic forces and can be
solved independently. The second set, however, can only be solved after determining the value of the
flexural basic forces Q 2 , Q4 , Q6 and Q8 from the solution of the first set.
Reduced set of equilibrium equations without longitudinal basic element forces
We can simplify this process by numbering only the first set of equations and corresponding unknowns.
This is the fastest of tackling the problem by hand (the preceding discussion serves only as explanation of
how to get to this point systematically!). Basic forces and relevant dofs are shown in the following figure.
Q3
Q2
c
3
2
1
Q4
Q1
d
a
Page 62
The corresponding equilibrium equations without longitudinal basic element forces are
P1 =
Q1
12
Q4
10
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
P3 =
Q2
8
Q3
8
P4 = Q 3 + Q 4
It is worth noting that the first equilibrium equation now physically corresponds to the force equilibrium
in the global Xdirection for the free body consisting of nodes 2, 3 and 4 and elements b and c, as
shown in the following figure.
Q1
Q1
12
Q4
10
Q4
d
a
The process of setting up these equations directly results in a significant reduction of problem size
and in better insight into the system response.
The static matrix of the frame without the longitudinal basic element forces is
Bbar := Bf
Page 63
Bbar
5.45
5.45
=
5.45
5.45
1 0 0
12
1 1 0
Bf :=
0 1 1
8 8
0 0 1
0.55
0.55
4.36
0.45
4.36 0.55
3.64 0.55
0.45
10
0
Solution of basic forces for specific load case including distributed element loading
We wish to solve for the basic forces under the given loading
5
5
2
12
10
5
1
5
0
Pf :=
0
0
q1
q3
q2
q 2 + q 3 wy L
+
L
2
q1
q1
q 2 + q 3 wy L
+
2
L
q3
q2
q 2 + q3
L
wy
q1
q 2 + q3
L
wy
0
wy L
wy L
Page 64
We note that the equilibrium solution of a typical element consists of two parts:
(a) the homogeneous solution, i.e. the relation between basic and dependent end forces so as to satisfy
the element equilibrium equations, and
(b) the particular solution, i.e. the values of the dependent forces that satisfy the element equilibrium under
the applied element loads
We have already accounted for the homogeneous solution when writing the equilibrium equations in terms
of the basic forces. Now it remains to include the particular solution for the element carrying a distributed
load. This is element c in our case and the shear forces of the particular solution affect dof 5 and 7 of the
original equilibrium equations. We show this particular solution effect separately in the following figure.
5
c
20
20
5
3
5=
Q2
12
Ydirection
Q3
0 = Q3 Q5
0 = Q5 +
0 = Q1 +
0=
Q8
10
0=
Q4
8
Q6
8
Moments about Z
Q4
0 = Q2 + Q4
8
+
Q6
8
+ 20
+ Q7 + 20
Page 65
0 = Q6 + Q8
and after separating the equations involving longitudinal basic element forces we get
Equilibrium equations without longitudinal basic forces
Xdirection
5=
Q2
Moments about Z
Q8
12
Ydirection
0 = Q2 + Q4
10
0=
Q4
8
Q6
8
+ 20
0 = Q6 + Q8
Q2
P1 =
12
Ydirection
Q3
P2 = Q 1 +
Q8
P6 = Q 5 +
P7 =
10
Q6
8
Q4
8
+ Q7 + 20
After renumbering basic forces and equations, as before, to focus only on the effect of the flexural basic
element forces we get
5=
Q1
12
Q4
10
0 = Q1 + Q2
0=
Q2
8
Q3
8
+ 20
0 = Q3 + Q4
For hand calculations the solution of this problem can be simplified by realizing that equations 2 and 4
essentially amount to Q2 = Q 1 and Q4 =Q3 . This leaves us with two equations in two unknowns, an easy
task.
Page 66
Pf = Bf Q + Pfw
with Pf the vector of the forces applied directly at the nodes, and Pfw the vector of the equivalent nodal
forces due to element loading. To solve this system we move all given terms to the left hand side, and solve
for the unknowns on the right hand side noting that we have as many unknowns as available equations.
Pf Pfw = Bf Q
For solving the equations we set up the vectors and matrices in Mathcad or Matlab and get
Pf
5
0
=
0
0
and with the static matrix for the free dofs defined earlier, i.e.
1 0 0
12
1 1 0
Bf :=
0 1 1
8 8
0 0 1
Pfw
0
0
:=
20
0
10
0
Q := lsolve ( Bf , Pf Pfw )
As the equations reveal the element loading amounts to an equivalent nodal force vector of Pfw
60
60
=
100
100
20
20
5
2
d
a
5
1
Thus, it is possible to treat the element loading as an equivalent nodal force vector for the determination of
the basic forces. For the later determination of the shear forces and bending moment distribution in element
c, however, we should not neglect to include the particular solution.
Page 67
With these results we return to the remaining equilibrium equations to obtain the longitudinal basic forces.
Instead of doing this analytically with the equations we set up earlier, it is better to use the element and
node equilibrium directly to get the longitudinal basic element forces and dependent element end forces.
This avoids the numbering of the longitudinal basic element forces and the corresponding equations.
The following figure provides all details. It is an excellent way for the analyst to check equilibrium
and display applied and resisting forces. Note that we have selected to include the effect of element load in
element c as equivalent nodal forces. This results in the right values for all internal forces except for the
shear forces and bending moments in element c for which the particular solution due to the element
loading needs to be added to the homogeneous solution. We will do this separately.
7.5
10
10
b
60
7.5
10
10
12.5
7.5
10
7.5
10
12.5
20
20
10
7.5
60
100
10
12.5
32.5
10
12.5
10
100
32.5
7.5
Node 2
Node 3
Node 4
d
Node 5
32.5
Node 1
10
7.5
10
32.5
10
7.5
32.5
5
7.5
Page 68
10
100
12.5
12.5
0
20
10
particular solution
20
100
60
wy L2
8
60
100
w := 5
7.5
Mmax :=
2 w
Mmax := 100 +
Mmax = 5.625
2
Page 69
32.5
2 w
Mmax = 5.625
20
10
12
10
5
32.5
7.5
8
Sum of the forces in X and Y is satisfied by inspection. Sum of the moments about the right support yields:
5 2 5 10 7.5 16 + 40 4 = 0
ok
Remark
Basic forces and support reactions are the same under the distributed element load or the equivalent nodal
forces due to the element load (this is where the name equivalent comes from). The particular solution only
plays a role in the determination of the shear force and bending moment distribution of the element
carrying the distributed element load.
CONCLUSIONS:
1. In frame analysis longitudinal basic forces are of less significance than the flexural basic forces of the
elements. Thus, we try to set up only the equilibrium equations involving the latter and set aside the
equilibrium equations involving the longitudinal basic forces.
2. After solving for the basic forces of primary interest, we use the equilibrium equations that were set
aside in the first place to determine the longitudinal basic forces. This is usually done with free body
diagrams of the elements and nodes.
3. In determining the shear force and bending moment distribution of elements carrying the element
loads we should remember to include the particular solution of the element equilibrium equations under
the element loading.
Page 70
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 0 12]; % second node, etc
= [ 8 12]; %
= [ 16 12]; %
= [ 16
2]; %
0 = free)
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
2
Page 71
specify loading
Pe(2,1) =
5;
% force at node
% for vertical loading use equivalent
class notes
Pe(3,2) = 20;
% force at node
Pe(4,2) = 20;
% force at node
2 in direction X
nodal forces as determined in pp. 5354 of
2 in direction Y
4 in direction Y
disp('B*Q gives');
disp(B*Q);
B*Q gives
0
5.0000
0
0
0
20.0000
0
0
20.0000
0
Page 72
0
5.0000
7.5000
10.0000
32.5000
plotting
% open window and plot moment diagram first w/o distributed element load w
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
% observe that the second argument is empty [] in the following function call
% use scale factor of 2 for plot as last argument
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,[],Q,2);
Page 73
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
NOS=2
1
4
complete dofs
4
2
Q5
10
Q6
Q1
Q4
Q7
Q3
Q11
Q9
NQ = 12
NF = 10
Q2
Q8
nontrivial dofs
Q4
Q1
Q8
Q7
NQ = 8
Q2
Q3
Q6
Q2
NF = 6
Q5
Q1
Q4
NQ = 5
NF = 3
Page 74
Q5
Q3
Q12
Q10
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
select NOS redundant basic forces and collect them in vector Qx call remaining basic forces Qi
the static matrix is partitioned accordingly into two submatrices Bi
and B x
Bi is a square matrix that should not be singular; it corresponds to the static matrix of the primary structure
(i.e. the statically determinate structure that results when the redundant basic force values are set to zero)
Qi = Bi1 ( Pf Pfw ) B x Qx
Qx = Qx
add the identity to recover the complete set of basic forces on the left hand side
combine
B 1B
Qi B 1
i
P
P
=
+
f
i x Q x
fw
Q
0
I
x
Q = Bi Pf Pfw + B x Qx
where
Bi , B x
In actual problems we are usually interested in the basic forces under a specific loading and thus
determine the basic forces of the primary structure under the given loading directly without first
setting up the force influence matrix Bbari We denote these basic forces with Qp
we write
Qp = Bi Pf Pfw
Q = Qp + B x Q x
How do we select the redundant basic forces at the beginning of the solution process?
(a) "by hand" we select them so that the primary structure is stable;
we assess stability of structural models by kinematic criteria in the lectures on compatibility
(b) automatically we can select the redundant basic forces by a linear algebra procedure known as rowechelon
form of the equilibrium matrix Bf (see Strang, 3rd edition, pp. 7177). This is a builtin function in Mathcad and
Matlab and is used in the FEDEASLab function ForceInfl_matrix to establish the force influence matrices. To
select specific basic forces as redundants, one needs to reorder the columns of Bf and place the selected
redundants last. If you are interested in this, consult the addendum to Example 6 and Matlab file Example_6.m.
Page 75
15
Geometry:
6
Q2
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q3
Q1
Page 76
La := 8
Lb := 6
Lc := 6
Ld := 8
Le := 10
Lf := 10
P1 = Q1 + 0.8 Q5
P2 = Q4 0.8 Q5
1
0
Bf := 0
0
P3 = Q2 + 0.6 Q5
P4 = Q4 + 0.8 Q6
P5 = Q3 + 0.6 Q6
0 0 0
0.8
0 0 1 0.8
1 0 0
0.6
0 0 1
0.8
0 1 0
0.6
There are 6 truss element forces and 5 independent equations of equilibrium at the free degrees of
freedom. The structural model has a degree of static indeterminacy NOS of 65=1 (i.e. NOS=1).
How do we know that the 5 equilibrium equations are independent? The question we need to answer is
whether the structure is stable or not. For this structure this is easy to. For more complex structures with few
elements the best way is by the kinematic method, as we will discuss later in the course. Linear algebra,
however, provides the standard method for any size structure. It has to do with the rank of the matrix, which
is equal to the number of linearly independent rows. Thus, when the rank of the static matrix is equal to the
number of rows (which, in turn, are equal to the number of free dofs), then the structure is stable. Let us
check this for the truss using two builtin functions of Mathcad (the corresponding Matlab functions are rank
and size)
rank ( Bf) = 5
rows ( Bf) = 5
Page 77
Review of Linear Algebra (Linear Algebra and Its Applications by G. Strang, pp. 7177 of 3rd edition)
The general solution of a system of equations
M x = b
can be obtained as the superposition of the particular solution which satisfies the system of equations
for the given right hand side vector, and the homogeneous solution which satisfies the system of
equations M x = 0
denoting the homogeneous solution with xh and the particular
solution with xp we have the following conditions
and we can see clearly that
M xp = b
and
M xh = 0
M ( xp + xh) = b
If the matrix M is square and invertible, then the only homogeneous solution is the socalled trivial solution
xh = 0. However, a matrix M with more columns than rows, has as many nontrivial homogeneous solutions
as the difference between the number of columns and the rank of the matrix M. These nontrivial
homogeneous solutions span the nullspace of matrix M.
Translated to the structural problem where M is the static matrix Bf of the structural model this means: there
are NOS nontrivial homogeneous solutions of the equilibrium equations for a stable structure with degree of
static indeterminacy of NOS.
What is the systematic way of finding the particular solution and the NOS homogeneous solutions?
In Linear Algebra we select the NOS free variables by a procedure known as rowechelon form. In Mathcad
and Matlab there is a builtin function called rref for Reduced RowEchelon Form, which goes even further
by transforming the matrix M through row operations into a diagonal unit matrix and unreduced columns for
the free variables. Note that the diagonal unit matrix may not be contiguous as the following example shows
1 2 3 1 1 0 1 0
rref 0 1 1 0 = 0 1 1 0
1 2 3 2 0 0 0 1
here the free variable is the third, since the row operations
result in a diagonal unit matrix with columns 1, 2 and 4. If this
were a static matrix, then Q3 would be the redundant that the
program would select, because the primary structure with Q 1 , Q2
and Q4 is stable (look at the rank of columns 1, 2 and 4). By
contrast, the selection of Q 4 as redundant results in an unstable
primary structure (the rank of columns 1, 2 and 3 is only 2).
In structural analysis we select the free variables (i.e. the redundants) by inspection or by the kinematic
method.
Once the free variables (i.e. redundants) are selected we set their value equal to 0 (primary structure)
and solve the governing equations (equilibrium equations) for the remaining variables (basic forces). This
gives the particular solution for the given vector (applied nodal forces) b.
To obtain linearly independent homogeneous solutions we set each free variable in turn equal to 1 (all other
free variables are zero) and solve the system of equations M xh = 0 . In structural analysis these solutions
are called selfstress states, since the structure is stressed without external forces. Such selfstress states
only arise in statically indeterminate structures, since a square matrix M has only trivial homogeneous
solutions, as we have already stated.
Page 78
Step 3: Determine basic forces Q for given loading with redundants equal to zero
Set redundant equal to zero. Solve the equilibrium equations for the applied nodal force vector. This is the
particular solution of the equilibrium equations for the given load case; we denote the basic forces with Qp
Set redundant equal to zero, i.e. Q 6 = 0
We equilibrium equations for the
given applied force vector become
0 = Q1 + 0.8 Q5
Q1 = 15
0 = Q4 0.8 Q5
Q5 = 18.75
0 = Q2 + 0.6 Q5
Q2 = 11.25
15 = Q4
Q4 = 15
0 = Q3
Q3 = 0
15
11.25
0
Qp :=
15
18.75
We can also solve these equations in matrix form, but we leave this for Matlab (see Example_5.m).
With the basic forces we can obtain the support reactions from node equilibrium at the restrained dofs.
15
Q6 = 0
e
b
15
11.25
a
8
Page 79
11.25
Step 4: Determine the basic forces Q for a unit value of each redundant from the homogeneous
equilibrium equations, i.e. without any applied force vector
This is a force influence vector and is denoted by
Bbar x. Because of the absence of applied forces this
represents a selfstress state
0 = Q1 + 0.8 Q5
Q1 = 0.8
0 = Q4 0.8 Q5
Q5 = 1
0 = Q2 + 0.6 Q5
Q2 = 0.6
0 = Q4 + 0.8 1
Q4 = 0.8
0 = Q3 + 0.6 1
Q3 = 0.6
We can also do this in matrix form, but it is easier to demonstrate in Matlab (see Example_5.m).
We can then obtain the support reactions from the equations at the restrained dofs.
The final result for the basic forces and support reactions becomes
Q6 = 1
e
b
Bbarx
f
Page 80
0.8
0.6
0.6
:=
0.8
In reality, of course, the redundant basic force can assume any value (not just the value 1!). Consequently,
the general solution of the equilibrium equations is a one parameter expression of the form
15 0.8
11.25
0.6
0 0.6
Q=
+
Q6
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
in the more general case of a structural model with degree of static indeterminacy NOS, there are exactly
NOS redundant basic forces and we generalize the above expression as follows: the force influence vectors
for each redundant get collected into a force influence matrix Bbarx and the redundant basic forces into a
vector of redundant basic forces Qx .
Q = Qp + Bbarx Qx
We can see that the matrix Bbarx has NOS columns, one for each redundant basic force. We therefore say
that the final stress state is the linear superposition of a particular solution Qp for the given applied forces,
and NOS selfstress states, each of which is expressed by a column of matrix Bbarx
The columns of matrix are linearly independent because we selected a unit value for each redundant in turn.
Solution with Linear Algebra functions (optional)
It is interesting to note that we can obtain the above solutions directly with the reduced rowechelon form
function in Mathcad and Matlab. Let us see
The reduced rowechelon form of the static matrix Bf is
1
0
rref ( Bf) = 0
0
0 0 0 0 0.8
0 1 0 0 0.6
0 0 1 0 0.8
0 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 0.6
the program selects the first 5 variables that give a unit matrix; in this case the first 5 do the job and, thus,
the last variable, i.e. Q6 , is selected as the free variable or redundant, exactly as we did above. We note
that the numerical values in the sixth column of the reduced rowechelon form of Bf are the first five values
of the force influence matrix Bbarx with opposite sign. Recall that the sixth value for the redundant is 1.
Page 81
If we wish to obtain the particular solution automatically, then we need to perform the reduced rowechelon
operation on the augmented matrix consisting of the static matrix and the applied force vector. We
demonstrate it below
0
0
Pf := 0
15
0
we get
1
0
0 0 0 0 0.8
1 0 0 0 0.6
0 1 0 0 0.6
0 0 1 0 0.8
0 0 0 1 1
11.25
0
15
18.75
15
Now, the last column contains the first 5 values of the particular solution. Recall that the sixth value is 0
in this case.
CONCLUSIONS:
1. The general solution of the equilibrium equations for any stable structure is made up of the particular
solution for the given applied force vector (including element loading, if present) and NOS independent
selfstress states, where NOS is the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure.
2. The final stress state of the structure under the given loading is then the linear superposition of the
particular solution with NOS independent selfstress states with free parameters. The independence of the
selfstress states is achieved by selecting each redundant in turn equal to 1, with the other redundants
equal to zero. Other ways of selecting linearly independent selfstress states are possible, indeed they are
ideal for solution that take advantage of the symmetry of the structure. This will be discussed later in the
course.
Page 82
Page 83
Page 84
La := 6
Lb := 4
Lc := 4
Ld :=
8 +6
dof 2
dof 4
c
dof 1
P1 =
6
+ 0.8 Q6
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 + Q4 Q5
P3 =
+
4
4
4
Q2
Q1 + Q2
Q3
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
Q4
static matrix Bf
Q5
1
6
0
Bf :=
0
Q6
Q1
Page 85
1
6
0 0.8
0
0
1 1
1
4 4
4
There are 6 basic element forces and 4 equations of equilibrium at free degrees of freedom.
The structural model has a degree of static indeterminacy of 2 (NOS=2).
Step 2: Selection of redundant(s), primary structure
Select NOS basic forces as unknowns of the problem. These are known as redundant basic forces or
simply redundants. Make sure that the structure is statically determinate and stable without the NOS
redundants. In the case at hand we select the basic forces Q1 and Q4 as redundants. The structure that
remains when the redundants are set equal to zero is known as primary structure.
Given load case
20
30
Step 3: Determine basic forces Q for given loading with redundant forces equal to zero
set
Q1 = 0
Q4 = 0
30 =
Q2
6
30
80
Q6 =
+
0.8 4.8
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
Q3 Q5
20 =
+
4
4
0 = Q5
Q2 = 80
Q3 = 80
Q5 = 0
check solution
30
Bf Qp =
20
ok!
Page 86
80
80
Qp :=
0
30 80
0.8 4.8
Step 4: Determine basic forces Q for a unit value of each redundant without any applied forces.
Q1 = 1
set
Q4 = 0
0=
1 + Q2
6
1
Q6 =
4.8
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
0=
Q3
4
Q2 = 0
Q5
Q3 = 0
0 = Q5
Q5 = 0
Q1 = 0
set
Q4 = 1
0=
Q2
6
Q6 =
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
0=
Q3 + 1
4
0 = 1 + Q5
Bbarx 1 := 0
0
5
24
Q2 = 2
+
Q5
Q 3 = 2
4
Q 5 = 1
Bf Bbarx
0
=
0
2
4.8
Bbarx 2 := 1
1
5
12
0
0
thus, we have found two independent homogeneous solutions (selfstress) states which span what is known
in linear algebra as the nullspace of the static matrix Bf
In reality, of course, the redundants are free parameters that can assume any value (not just the value 1!).
Consequently, the general solution of the equilibrium equations is a two parameter expression of the form
0 1
0
80 0
2
80 0
2
Q=
+ 0 Q1 + 1 Q4
0
0 0
1
260 5
5
4.8 24
12
Page 87
Q = Qp + Bbarx Qx
We can see that the matrix Bbarx has NOS columns, one for each redundant. We therefore state that the
final stress state is the linear superposition of a particular solution Qp for the given loading, and NOS
selfstress states, each of which is expressed by a column of matrix Bbarx
It is important to be able to establish the particular and the homogeneous solutions of the equilibrium
equations of a statically indeterminate structure by inspection. This is a much faster approach for most
small structures and yields significant insight into the behavior of the structure.
Consider first the applied loading on the primary structure. In the following figure we have inserted moment
releases at the locations of the redundants to form the primary structure. We have also replaced the
element loading by equivalent nodal forces, which give the same basic forces Q (see Example 3). We
decompose the loading into the horizontal force and the vertical force, as shown.
20
30
20
30
Page 88
20
30
c
80
80
80/6
30/0.8=37.5
80/6/0.8=16.67
80/6
a
2/(6x0.8)=5/12
1/(6x0.8)=5/24
Q1 = 1
Page 89
We can now use the remaining 3 equilibrium equations involving the axial forces in elements a, b and c
to determine the axial forces in terms of the basic forces Q (i.e. eventually in terms of the applied loading
and the two redundant basic forces)
Basic axial force in element a (call it Q 7 )
Q3
Q2
Q4
0 = Q7 +
Q5
i.e.
Q3 + Q4
4
Q7 =
Q3 + Q4
Q6
Q1
30 =
i.e.
Q1 + Q2
6
Q9 = Q8
R4
Q8
Q8 = 30 +
P7 = Q 8 Q 9
20
b
Q1 + Q2
R3
R1
R2
Using the equilibrium equations at the restrained dof's we can determine the support reactions in terms
of the basic forces Q (i.e. eventually in terms of the applied loading and the two redundant basic forces)
for ease of identification we call the support reactions by R and number them in sequence starting with 1
R1 =
R2 =
Q1 + Q2
6
Q3 + Q4
4
0.8 Q6
0.6 Q6
R3 = Q 1
R4 =
Q5
4
+ 0.6 Q6
Page 90
Remark: We can use the static matrix Bd for the restrained dofs to set up the direct relation between the
support reactions and the applied loading plus the redundants. We demonstrate
1 1 0 0 0 0.8
6
6
1 1
0
0
0
0.6
4 4
Bd :=
1 0 0 0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 4 0.6
the support reactions of the primary structure due to the applied loading are
30
12.5
Rp =
0
32.5
Rp := Bd Qp
Rx = Bd Bbarx Qx
thus, with
Bd Bbarx
0.125
=
1
0.125
0
0
we get
30 0
12.5
0.125
+
Q
R=
0 1 1
32.5 0.125
R1 + 30 = 0
ok
R2 + R4 20 = 0
ok
R3 30 6 20 4 + R4 8 = 0
ok, because
30 6 20 4 + 32.5 8 = 0
Remarks:
(a) this solution demonstrates the utility of matrix notation in establishing direct relationships between
variables; in this example the relation between the support reactions and the redundants of the structure
(b) it is interesting that there are no support reactions due to the redundant Q4 ; can you explain why?
Page 91
define loading
Pf=[30 ; 0 ; 20 ; 0];
% determine basic element forces of primary structure under the applied loading
Qp(ii,1) = Bi\Pf;
Qp(ix,1) = [0; 0];
% extract matrix Bx
Bx=Bf(:,ix);
% determine force influence matrix for redundant basic forces
% set up 1st column
Bbarx(ii,1) = Bi\Bx(:,1);
Bbarx(ix,1) = [1;0];
% set up 2nd column
Bbarx(ii,2) =Bi\Bx(:,2);
Bbarx(ix,2) = [0;1];
Page 92
Page 93
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
c = max
and
Q Qpl
Note that Pref, contains the applied forces to be factored and Pfu the applied forces that remain
constant in the equilibrium equations.
We write the above statement in a single set of equations for the unknowns and Q.
max 1 0
Q
Pref Bf = Pfu
Q
+
0 I Qpl
0 I Q Qpl
with solution
c
where c stands for collapse
Qc
FEDEASLab function LowerBound_PLAnalysis takes the static matrix for the free dofs, the plastic
capacity array, the reference load vector and the constant load vector and returns the collapse load
factor and the basic element forces at collapse.
[lamdac,Qc] = LowerBound_PLAnalysis(Bf,Qpl,Pref,Pfu)
Examples 7, 8 and 9 discuss plastic analysis from different standpoints, including the case of partial
collapse.
Page 94
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Page 95
The axial capacity in tension or compression of the truss elements of the structural model in the figure is
given. It is equal to 10 units of force.
The loading here is specified more generally than what we have seen so far. The actual forces applied on
the structure consist of reference force values, which define the load pattern. These are arranged in a
reference force vector Pref. This force vector is then multiplied by a load factor to give the applied force
vector Pf.
For the example at hand this means that
Pref :=
10
10
and
Pf = Pref
Note that the load factor is assumed to be greater than zero, i.e. load reversal is not allowed.
The equilibrium equations are straightforward in this case:
P1 = Q1 + 0.8Q2
10 = Q1 + 0.8Q2
P2 = 0.6 Q2 + Q3
10 = 0.6 Q2 + Q3
There are two equilibrium equations and 3 unknown basic element forces. Thus, the degree of static
indeterminacy is NOS=1. With the load factor on the left hand side of the equations unknown that
there are 4 unknowns for two available equations (the excess number of unknowns is thus NOS+1, i.e.
the number of redundants of the structural model + the load factor).
We now ask the following question: what is the largest load factor that the structure can resist? Looking
at the above equilibrium equations it is easy to conclude that the largest load factor results when the
basic forces Q 1 through Q3 are as large as possible. These basic forces cannot exceed, however, the axial
capacity of the element. Thus, there is a limit to how large can become.
Page 96
In fact, from the sign of the applied forces and the sign of the basic forces we conclude that the largest l will
be attained for positive (tensile) basic forces Q1 through Q3
Since there are 2 equilibrium equations in 4 unknowns we need to "guess" which two basic forces reach the
axial capacity. We can do this with insight, or, we can simply apply trial and error. Since there are only 3
alternatives for the case at hand, we apply the latter method which yields some interesting information.
Our first guess is that the largest collapse load factor results when truss elements a and b reach the
axial capacity. With this assumption we get
set
Q1 = 10
Q2 = 10
= 1.8
Q3 = 12
Since no basic force can exceed the axial capacity, this is not a feasible solution.
The second guess is that the largest collapse load factor results when truss elements a and c reach the
axial capacity. With this assumption we get
set
Q1 = 10
Q3 = 10
10 = 10 + 0.8Q2
10 = 0.6 Q2 + 10
= 1.0
Q2 = 0
The third and final guess is that that the largest collapse load factor results when truss elements b and c
reach the axial capacity. With this assumption we get
set
Q2 = 10
Q3 = 10
= 1.6
Q1 = 8
Definition:
(a) the plastic condition expresses the fact that the basic forces cannot exceed the axial capacity
(b) a feasible solution is any and set of Q's that satisfies the equilibrium equations and the plastic condition
Conclusion: There are two feasible solutions for the problem at hand. The largest load factor
corresponds to the case when truss elements b and c reach the axial capacity. We call this value the
collapse load factor c of the structure for the given loading. For this example it is equal to 1.6.
the corresponding axial forces are
Q1 = 8
Page 97
Q2 = 10
Q3 = 10
for
c := 1.6
We denote the basic forces at collapse with Qc and can confirm once more the equilibrium equations
8
Qc := 10
10
Bf :=
1 0.8 0
0 0.6 1
Bf Qc =
16
16
16
16
c Pref =
good!
In this problem we were able to check all possible solutions and then select the solution with the largest
collapse load factor among the feasible solutions. Thus, we are sure to have found the solution. In more
complex structures it is not possible to check all feasible solutions. Thus, an additional condition becomes
necessary to ensure that we have reached the unique solution of the problem. We will discuss this in due
time. For now, we wish to formulate the problem that we solved in a mathematical way, so that we can use
matrix methods to solve it for structural models of any size.
Problem formulation: determine the largest load factor and the corresponding set of basic forces Q that
satisfy the equilibrium equations and the plastic condition. We realize that the problem involves the
maximization of a function (the collapse load factor), under equality (equilibrium) and inequality constraints
(plastic condition). The function and the constraints are linear in the unknowns of the problem. This
constitutes a linear programming problem for the solution of which there exist powerful algorithms. Mathcad
and Matlab have such algorithms and we will demonstrate these in the following example.
For now, we give a name to the problem of finding the largest load factor that satisfies the equilibrium
equations and the plastic condition: it is called the lower bound theorem of plastic analysis. The name stems
from the fact that any that satisfies the equilibrium equations and the plastic condition is a lower bound of
the collapse load factor c. Thus, the collapse load factor c is the maximum that satisfies the equilibrium
equations and the plastic condition, as we have already stated.
Note: we have not used any information about cross section or material properties for the solution of the
problem. In reality, the axial capacity is area * yield strength, so that both geometric and material
properties are involved in its determination. Thus, the design of the structure is required before its
collapse load factor can be determined under a given loading.
Page 98
Given:
(a) load pattern
(b) plastic flexural capacity of girder, i.e.
elements b, and c is 120 units
(c) plastic flexural capacity of columns,
i.e. elements a and c is 150 units
(d) axial capacity of all elements is large
(e) effect of axial force on flexural
capacity is negligible
We avoid writing the equations of equilibrium involving longitudinal basic forces, so as to reduce the
problem size. We note that the collapse load factor is not affected, because of (d). Without the longitudinal
basic forces there are 8 basic forces (2 for each element) and 5 corresponding equilibrium equations.
2
1
Q4
Q3
3
4
Q6
Q5
Q2
Q7
P1 =
5
Q8
Q1
Q1 + Q2
Page 99
Q7 + Q8
5
5
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 + Q4 Q5 + Q6
P3 =
+
4
4
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
P5 = Q 6 + Q 7
30
0
Pref := 50
0
120
120
a 150
150 d
We plan to solve this problem in trial and error fashion before using linear programming functions to get
the solution by computer. We note first that there are 5 equilibrium equations for 8 unknown basic forces,
meaning that the degree of static indeterminacy NOS is three, i.e. NOS=3. We also note that there are 5
possible plastic flexural hinge locations (we denote the locations by the corresponding subscript of the
basic force): at the base of each column, i.e. at 1 and 8, at the girder ends at the girdercolumn
connection, i.e. at 3 and 6, and at the girder midspan, i.e. either at 4 or 5. Note that no plastic flexural
hinge is possible at the top of the columns, since their flexural capacity is larger than that of the girder
("strong column" design). For each of these locations a positive or negative value is possible, i.e. there are
5x2 = 10 possible outcomes, at least as long as we do not use structural insight to eliminate unlikely
outcomes. For a complete collapse (more in the following example) we need NOS+1 = 4 plastic flexural
hinges for getting a solution to the problem, and so there are 210 possible combinations!!
combin ( 10 , 4) = 210
this is indeed a very large number for such a small problem, imagine what would
happen in a multistory frame!
We can now use the signs of the terms in the equilibrium equations to reduce the number of possible
outcomes to an extremely small number (many people call this process "insight into structural behavior").
we first specialize the equilibrium
equations for the given loading
30 =
Q1 + Q2
5
Q7 + Q8
5
0 = Q2 + Q3
( 50) =
(1)
(2)
Q3 + Q4
4
Q5 + Q6
4
(3)
0 = Q4 + Q5
(4)
0 = Q6 + Q7
(5)
and then take advantage of the fact that plastic hinges can occur at 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8 to retain only the basic
forces at these locations in equations (1) and (2) after making use of moment equations (2), (4) and (5).
We get:
30 =
Q1 Q3
50 =
Q3 + Q4
4
Q 6 + Q 8
5
+
Q 4 + Q 6
4
(1*)
(3*)
Page 100
Thus, we have reached some very specific conclusions regarding the signs of the basic forces at the likely
plastic hinge locations. The only contradiction regards Q3 which according to (1*) should be negative, and
according to (3*) should be positive. This is a strong indication that no plastic flexural hinge is likely to
occur at 3, as long as neither applied force in the above equations dominates. Why? Because the
preceding discussion indicates the opposite effect that the horizontal force has on Q3 relative to the
vertical force. Only when the horizontal force is very large a hinge will form at 3 with negative value. Only
when the vertical force at girder midspan is very large, a hinge will form at 3 with positive value. For the
problem at hand, we will assume first than neither force is very "large" (note that we have no criterion what
this means, so we need to be cautious). Then, we will check the other possibilities just to be sure.
Note: studying the deformed shape of the structure gives good insight of what happens, but not as good
as the equilibrium equations. Let us see why. Here are the bending moments under each applied force
separately (draw an approximate deformed shape for each load case)
We see that the moments at locations 6 and 8 act in the same sense under these two load cases. Thus,
plastic hinges are a sure bet at these two locations with the indicated signs (ve for 6 and +ve for 8). The
next likely hinge location is at 4 and then it is not clear whether 1 or 3 is the most critical. This depends on
the relative magnitude of the horizontal and vertical force, as we have already discussed.
After this preliminary discussion we have one very strong candidate for the collapse load factor (instead of
210!). It is the following case
plastic hinges at 1, 4, 6 and 8
Q1 = 150
Q4 = 120
Q6 = 120
Q8 = 150
30 =
150 Q3
50 =
120 + 150
+
5
Q3 + 120
4
30 =
120 120
4
50 =
We use the Given Block in Mathcad to solve the two simultaneous equations
Page 101
Q3
5
Q3
4
420
5
360
4
:= 0 Q3 := 0
Given
30 =
50 =
Q3
5
Q3
4
420
5
360
4
:= Find( , Q3)
Q3
= 2.229
Q3 = 85.714
we have determined a feasible solution, since Q3 is smaller than the flexural capacity at that location. Is this
the largest load factor, i.e. is it the collapse load factor?
Let us see what happens if we assume that a plastic hinge arises at 3 either because the horizontal force is
"large", i.e. using eq (1*), or because the vertical force is "large", i.e. using eq (3*).
Q1 := 150
:=
Q3 := 120
Q6 := 120
1 Q 1 Q 3 Q 6 + Q 8
5
5
30
Q8 := 150
= 3.6
Q4 := 2 50
Q3 := 120
:=
Q3
4
Q6
Q4 := 120
1 Q 3 + Q 4 Q 4 + Q 6
+
50
4
4
= 2.4
30 =
Q1 Q3
5
Q 6 + Q 8
Q1 + Q8 = 150 + Q3 + Q6
i.e.
Q1 + Q8 = 360
it is clear from the last equation that the solution is not feasible, since there is no way to select values for Q1
and Q8 that satisfy the horizontal force equilibrium without exceeding the flexural capacity of the column.
Thus, it is clear that there can be no plastic hinge at 3. Is there another solution? It does not seem possible
in this case, since we do not seem to have further equilibrium solutions. Nonetheless, we will be able to
answer this definitively, once we look at the collapse mechanism later in the course.
Page 102
0.2
0
Bf := 0
0
0.2
0.2 0.2
0
0
Pf = Pref
We specify the plastic moment capacities of the elements in a vector with the same numbering as the basic
forces vector. This way we can write the inequality in very compact form.
plastic moment capacities
T
Qpl := ( 150 150 120 120 120 120 150 150 )
The determination of the collapse load factor of any structure can be formulated as a linear
programming problem. To this end we define the function to maximize subject to given equality and
inequality constraints. In a structural problem the unknowns are the load factor and the basic forces.
The function to maximize is the load factor . The equality constraint are the equilibrium equations, and
the inequality constraints are the yield conditions stating that the basic forces cannot exceed the plastic
capacity of the member (positive or negative).
Mathcad has a builtin linear programming function called Maximize (there is also Minimize). We define
the function for our purposes and supply guess values for the start of the search.
function to maximize
g ( , Q) :=
:= 0
Q := 0
8
We then specify the equality and inequality constraints in a "Given" block, as follows
Given
Pref = Bf Q
Q Qpl
Q Qpl
Sol := Maximize ( g , , Q)
Page 103
2.229
150
85.714
85.714
Sol = 120
120
120
120
150
We can extract the collapse load factor as the first element of the nested array Sol.
Collapse load factor is:
c := Sol1
c = 2.229
and the basic forces at collapse as the second element of the nested array Sol.
Qc := Sol2
T
Qc = ( 150 85.714 85.714 120 120 120 120 150 )
We confirm that the plastic hinges have formed at 1, 4(5), 6 and 8. Substituting Q into the equilibrium
equations we should be able to confirm the collapse load factor.
66.857
0
c Pref = 111.429
0
Bf Qc
66.857
0
= 111.429
0
confirmed
We will show later that the collapse mechanism of this structure under the given loading is
2.229*50
2.229*30
Note: the plastic hinge can be either at 4 or 5; this creates an ambiguity that is, however, not relevant
Page 104
After determining the flexural basic element forces we use element equilibrium to determine the
transverse (shear) forces and then use node equilibrium at the free dofs to determine the axial forces.
It is important to recall that the applied forces should be multiplied by load factor .
The following figure illustrates the determination of the shear forces.
2.229*30
54
12.86
2.229*50
60
51.43
85.71
12.86
120
51.43
51.43
120
60
60
54
12.86
54
150
150
We conclude that the axial force in the left column is 51.43 (C), and in the right column it is 60 (C).
The axial force in the girder is 54 (C).
The following figure shows the support reactions
Check of global equilibrium
2.229*50
2.229*30
sum of forces in X
5
150
12.86
51.43
150
54
4
60
Page 105
30 0
0 0
Pref := 0 50
0 0
0 0
Given
Pref = Bf Q
equality constraint
Q Qpl
Q Qpl
inequality constraints
We invoke the Maximize function with the name of the function and the variables. Mathcad returns
the solution in a nested array, here called Sol.
Sol := Maximize ( f , , Q)
2.229
150
85.714
85.714
Sol = 120
120
120
120
150
We can extract the collapse load factor as the first element of the nested array Sol.
Upper bound load factor is: u := Sol1
u = 2.229
Page 106
We show the flexural basic forces in element free bodies and determine the shear forces.
2.229*25=55.725
2.229*30
54
12.86
60
60
85.71
120
162.88
12.86
60
120
60
60
54
12.86
54
150
150
60
+ 120 = 152.308
2 u 25
This clearly exceeds the plastic moment capacity. Thus, the collapse load factor is not correct. If we scale
down, the left and the right hand side of the equilibrium equations, so that the maximum moment just
reaches the plastic moment capacity we have a lower bound that satisfies equilibrium and the plastic
condition. It is
l := u
120
152.308
l = 1.756
From this we can only conclude that the actual collapse load factor c is between 1.756 and 2.229. Since
the difference between the two values is significant, we need to repeat the analysis by inserting another
node at the expected location of the maximum moment. Instead of the exact location of maximum moment
(which will change after inserting the node!), we place the extra node at midspan of element b.
We perform this analysis in Matlab (see Example_8.m)
Page 107
30
0
Pref := 0
0
0
Pfw
0
0
:= 50
0
0
Given
Pref = Bf Q + Pfw
equality constraint
Q Qpl
inequality constraints
Q Qpl
We invoke the Maximize function with the name of the function and the variables. Mathcad returns
the solution in a nested array, here called Sol.
Sol := Maximize ( g , , Q)
3.6
150
120
120
Sol = 100
100
120
120
150
We can extract the collapse load factor as the first element of the nested array Sol.
Upper bound for load factor is:
u := Sol1
u = 3.6
The result is now very different, of course and the plastic hinge locations have changed.
Page 108
We show the flexural basic forces in element free bodies and determine the shear forces.
25
3.6*30
54
54
55
55
120
54
120
55
45
100
55
55
54
54
54
150
150
55
+ 100 = 160.5
2 25
This exceeds again the plastic moment capacity. Can you obtain an estimate of the lower bound?
A more exact analysis is obtained with Matlab, see Example_8.m
Page 109
0.2
1
0
0
0
0
1
0.25
0
0
0
0
0.25
1
0
0
0
0.25
1
0
0
0
0.25
0
1
0.2
0
0
0
1
0.2;
0 ;
0 ;
0 ;
0 ];
specify applied force vector at free dof's for load case of nodal forces
Pref = [ 30;
0;
50;
0;
0];
define plastic flexural capacity of elements in a column vector (2 entries per element)
Qpl = [ 150 150 120 120 120 120 150 150]';
Page 110
Page 111
load case of distributed element load in left half of girder (not factored)
% redefine applied force vector only
Pref = [ 30;
0;
0;
0;
0;
0;
0];
Pfw =[
0;
0;
50;
0;
25;
0;
0];
Page 112
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 0
5]; % second node, etc
= [ 4
5]; %
= [ 8
5]; %
= [ 8
0]; %
0 = free)
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
2
define plastic flexural capacity of elements in a column vector (3 entries per element)
% axial force capacity is "very large"
Qpl = [1e5 150 150 1e5 120 120 1e5 120 120 1e5 150 150]';
Page 113
specify loading
Pe(2,1) = 30;
Pe(3,2) = 50;
Page 114
% we can also show the plastic hinge locations in the same window as the moment
diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,[],Qc);
Plot_PlasticHinges (Model,Qpl,Qc);
Optimization terminated.
The collapse load factor for nodal force at girder midspan is
2.2286
The basic forces Q at collapse are
51.4286
150.0000
85.7143
54.0000
85.7143
120.0000
54.0000
120.0000
120.0000
60.0000
120.0000
150.0000
Page 115
Given:
30
4
2
1
1
3
Q7
Q6
Q5
Q8
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Global dof numbering (eq equations) without those affected by longitudinal basic forces in elements a
through e. The basic forces are also numbered accordingly.
The equilibrium equations are:
P1 =
Q1 + Q2
6
Q3
6
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3 + Q 4
P3 =
Q4 + Q5
8
0.6 Q8
P4 = Q 5 + Q 6 + Q 7
Page 116
Q6
6
Q7
6
+ 0.8 Q8
1
6
0
Bf :=
0
1 1
1 1
0 0
6 6
6 6
1 1 0
1 1
8 8
0 0 1
Pf = Bf Q
with
0.8
0 0
0 0.6
1 0
40
Pref :=
30
100
100
100
150
Qpl :=
150
100
100
20
The determination of the collapse load factor of any structure can be formulated as a linear programming
problem. To this end we define the function to maximize subject to given equality and inequality constraints.
In a structural problem the unknowns are the load factor and the basic forces. The equality constraint is
the set of equilibrium equations, and the inequality constraints are the socalled plastic conditions,
which state that the basic forces should not exceed the plastic capacity of the member (positive or negative).
Mathcad has a builtin linear programming function called Maximize (there is also Minimize). We define
the function for our purposes and supply guess values for the start of the search.
function to maximize
g ( , Q) :=
:= 0
Q := 0
8
We then specify the equality and inequality constraints in a "Given" block, as follows
Given
Pref = Bf Q
equality constraint
Q Qpl
Q Qpl
inequality constraints
Page 117
We invoke the Maximize function with the name of the function and the variables. Mathcad returns
the solution in a nested array, here called Sol.
Sol := Maximize ( g , , Q)
1.442
100
0
100
Sol = 100
150
50
100
20
We can extract the collapse load factor as the first element of the nested array Sol.
Collapse load factor is:
c := Sol1
c = 1.442
and the basic forces at collapse as the second element of the nested array Sol.
Qc := Sol2
T
Qc = ( 100 0 100 100 150 50 100 20 )
Interestingly, Matlab's linear programming function returns a different set of basic forces for the solution.
In both cases, however, the collapse load factor c is the same. The collapse load factor is unique
while the solution for the basic forces is not! Why is this happening?
T
Qc.matlab := ( 100 50 100 150 100 0 100 20 )
2
1
Page 118
We note that both solutions agree at 1, 3, 7 and 8, and that the plastic capacities are reached at these
locations. We conclude, therefore, that these plastic hinge locations are unique. The rest of the basic
forces is not unique. What does this mean?
(a) for a unique solution of the basic forces we require plastic hinges to form at NOS+1 locations,
converting the equilibrium problem to a unique solution (NOS basic forces more than available equations +
collapse load factor c require NOS+1 values among the unknowns to be given; these values are the
basic forces at the plastic hinge locations).
(b) if plastic hinges form at less than NOS+1 locations, we speak of a partial collapse. In the case of the
example we have NOS=4 and 4 plastic hinges at collapse. We are therefore left with 5 unknowns, i.e. the
other 4 basic forces + the collapse load factor. Since the values for these 5 unknowns are unique at
collapse, we are actually left with 3 independent equilibrium equations in 4 unknown basic forces (recall
that the structure becomes unstable at collapse). This is a statically indeterminate problem and its general
solution has one parameter (one redundant basic force). We have studied such problems earlier.
How do we identify this static indeterminacy? By studying the rank of the equilibrium matrix without
the columns corresponding to the plastic hinges. We call this matrix Be
1
6
1
Be :=
0
1
0 0
6
1 0
1 1
8 8
0 1
rank ( Be) = 3
c Pref = B eQ ce + B pQ cp
since the collapse load factor c and the basic forces at the plastic hinge
locations are known at this point from the linear programming problem
we solve the equilibrium equations for the remaining basic forces
c Pref B pQ cp = B eQ ce
Because matrix Be has rank 3 and not 4, such a system of equations does not generally have a solution
except for the very special case of the left hand side vector lying in the column space of the matrix Be . This
is indeed the case at incipient collapse of a structure in a partial collapse mode. To see this we determine
the rank of the matrix that consists of the left hand side "load vector" next to the elastic equilibrium matrix Be
let us first form the left hand side in the above equation
1
6
Bp := 0
0
1 1
6 6
0.8
1 0
0 0 0.6
0 1
100
100
Qcp :=
100
20
Page 119
8.333
100
LHS =
31.25
100
Here is the rank of the matrix that results from placing the left hand side load vector next to Be
indeed, the rank is still 3, which means that the column of the applied
load vector lies in the space spanned by the columns of Be , i.e. it a
linear combination of these columns
In such case where the load vector lies in the space spanned by the columns of the equilibrium matrix, even
though the rank of the matrix is less than the number of rows, and the matrix is thus singular, there is a mn
parameter solution for the elastic basic forces at incipient collapse Qce, with m being the number of unknown
elastic basic forces and n the dimension of the column space or rank of matrix Be . In our example, m=4, n=3
and there is a one parameter general solution which we now seek.
We use the method of Examples 5 and 6.
We select the last basic force in vector Qce (i.e. Q6 ) equal to zero and solve for the values of the other 3
under the given left hand side load vector. We obtain the following particular solution (recall that we have
used the subscript p for the particular solution in Examples 5 and 6). In the following we drop the subscript c
to avoid having to deal with 3 subscripts. It is clear from the context that we are referring to forces at collapse
50
150
Qep :=
100
Be Qep
8.333
100
=
31.25
100
Then we set the last basic force in vector Qce (i.e. Q6 ) equal to 1 and determine the values of the other 3
forces from the 4 equilibrium equations (this solution is known as the nullspace of Be ).
We obtain
1
1
Bbarxe :=
1
1
0
0
Be Bbarxe =
0
0
Q6 := 50
100
50
Q6 := 0
50
150
Qep + Bbarxe ( 0) =
100
Page 120
1/6
1
0
0
1/6
1
0
0
0
1
1/8
0
0
0
1/8
1
1/6
0
0
1
1/6
0
0
1
0.8
0
0.6
0
;
;
;
];
specify applied force vector at free dof's for load case of nodal forces
Pref = [40;
0;
30;
0];
define plastic flexural capacity of elements in a column vector (2 entries per element)
Qpl = [ 100 100 100 150 150 100 100 20]';
rank of equilibrium matrix for structure with plastic hinges at incipient collapse
% basic force index at plastic hinge locations
ip = [1 3 7 8];
% basic force index at nonplastic locations (subscript e for elastic)
ie = setdiff(1:8,ip);
% left hand side of equilibrium equations (consult pp. 101 in class notes)
LHS = lambdac*Pref  Bf(:,ip)*Qc(ip);
Page 121
Page 122
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 6
0]; % second node, etc
= [ 12
0]; %
= [ 0
8]; %
= [ 6
8]; %
= [ 12
8]; %
% 2d frame element
%
truss element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
4
Page 123
define plastic flexural capacity of elements in a column vector (3 entries per element)
% axial force capacity is "very large" except for brace (truss) element
Qpl = [ 1e5 100 100 1e5 100 100 1e5 150 150 1e5 100 100 1e5 100 100 20]';
specify loading
Pe(4,1) = 30;
Pe(5,2) = 40;
Page 124
Page 125
% we can also show the plastic hinge locations in the same window as the moment
diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,[],Qc);
Plot_PlasticHinges (Model,Qpl,Qc);
Page 126
CE220Theory of Structures
Equilibrium
Equilibrium Summary
static variables
Pf
support reactions
Qx
Bf
Pf = Bf Q + Pfw
Bi
Bx
if
Pf (1) = B f Q (1)
Q = B ( Pf Pfw )
then
B = B f 1
Q = Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Qx
c = max
and Q Qpl
if the rank of matrix Be is equal to the number of columns a complete collapse mode exists accompanied by a
unique set of elastic basic forces Qce. If the rank is smaller than the number of columns, a partial collapse
mode arises and difference between the number of columns and the rank of the matrix defines the number of
free basic force parameters of the general solution.
Page 127
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
KINEMATICS (COMPATIBILITY)
Objective: kinematic variables for structure, element and section and their interrelationship
through compatibility equations; kinematic matrix of structural model and its
properties; stability of structural model
Page 128
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
2
3
u (b )
10
13
14
1
15
5
6
j
element b
11
12
u1
u2
u
= 3
u4
u
5
u
6
3
i
There is a one to one correspondence between element displacement dofs in the global reference and
structural displacement dofs. The following figure shows an example for the dofs at the middle node of the
gable frame.
We have
u6
u4
U6
u5
u3
u1
U4 u2
U5
b
c
c
u 4(b) =U 4
u1(c) = U 4
u5(b) =U 5
u 2(c) = U 5
u 6(b) =U 6
u3(c) = U 6
u1(a) = U11
u1(b) =U1
u1(c) = U 4
u1(d) =U 7
u 2(a) = U12
u 2(b) =U 2
u 2(c) = U 5
u 2(d) =U 8
u 3(a) = U13
u3(b) =U 3
u3(c) = U 6
u3(d) =U 9
u 4(a) = U1
u 4(b) =U 4
u 4(c) = U 7
u 4(d) =U14
u 5(a) = U 2
u 5(b) =U 5
u 5(c) = U 8
u 5(d) =U15
u 6(a) = U 3
u 6(b) =U 6
u 6(c) = U 9
u 6(d) =U10
11
12
13
id (a) = id
1
2
With this array as index the correspondence of element
and structural displacements can be compactly written
3
(el)
u =U (el)
We introduce the incidence or id array of each
element which provides the correspondence
between element and structural dofs. We list this
array for each of the elements in the gable frame.
id
Page 129
1
2
3
(b)
= id
4
5
6
4
5
6
(c)
= id
7
8
9
7
8
9
(d)
=
14
15
10
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
the relation between element and structural displacement dofs can also be written in terms of a matrixvector
multiplication by a Boolean compatibility matrix (Boolean is a matrix with terms of 1 and 0); this is not used in
computing but furnishes a convenient way of writing the displacement correspondence relations
u (el) =U
(el)
id
can be written as
0
0
(el)
where A b = reorder columns
0
0
(el)
(el)
= Ab U
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(el)
according to id
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
the size of the Boolean compatibility matrix is 6 x nt for a planar model with nt total degrees of freedom and
for the example it becomes 6 x 15 as shown.
0
0
(a)
for element a the Boolean compatibility matrix is A b =
1
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
note that the transpose of the Boolean compatibility matrix arises from
(a)T
reordering the rows instead of the columns; we write here explicitly the A b = 0
0
0
0
0
Page 130
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
p (b) 0 0
(a)
P1 p4 1
(b) 0
0
(a)
P
2 p5
2 0 0
P (a) p (b)
3 p6 3 p (c) 0
P4 0 p (b) 1
4 (c)
0
P
p2
(b)
5 = 0 + p +
5
(c) + 0
P6
0
P
(c) p2(d)
8
0
0 p5
P9 0
(c) p3(d)
P
0 p6 (d)
10 0
p
0 0 6
p (a)
0
1
P11 (a) 0 0 0
p2
P
12 (a) 0 0 0
P = p3 + 0 + 0 +
p (d)
13
P14 0 0 0 4(d)
P 0 0 0 p5
15
0
0
(a)T
P = Ab
P=
or, simply
(a)
(b)T
+ Ab
(b)
(c)T
+ Ab
(c)
el =1
u (b) = A (b)
b U
u (a )
u (b)
= AbU
u (c)
u (d)
(d)
(el)
p
A(el)T
b
u (a) = A (a)
b U
ne
u (a)
u (b)
= A bU
u (c)
u (d)
(d)T
+ Ab
A (a)
b
A (b)
where A b = b
A (c)
b
A (d)
b
P = A (a)T
b
p (a)
p (b)
T
P = Ab
p (c)
p (d)
Page 131
u (c) = A (c)
b U
u (d) = A (d)
b U
A (b)T
b
A (c)T
b
p (a)
p (a)
p (b)
p (b)
= A bT
A (d)T
b
p (c)
p (c)
p (d)
p (d)
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u5
u4
u4
j
Y
u5
u
5
u5
Y
L
u4
u4
X
Y
+ u5
L
L
Y
X
u 5 = u4 sin + u5 cos = u4
+ u5
L
L
u 4 = u4 cos + u5 sin = u4
or, compactly
X
u4 L
=
u5 Y
L
Y
L
X
L
u
4
u 5
X
L
u1 Y
u2 L
u 0
u = 3 =
u4
u 0
5
u
6 0
Y
L
X
L
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
L
Y
0
L
0
0
0
Y
L
X
L
0
0
u
1
0 u
2
0 u3
u = ar u
0 4
u5
0 u6
br = ar
It remains now to relate the element end displacement components in the local reference system to the
relative element displacements or element deformations. We derive this relation on the following page.
Second instance of a contradient transformation
The relation between local and global components of the element displacement vectors is u = a r u
then the corresponding forces obey the following relation
Page 132
p = aTr p
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u6
u y = u 5 u 2
u x = u 4 u1
u5
Ln
u3
Ln
u y
u4
L
y
u2
i
u1
x
X
u x
(a)
v2
(c)
u6
u3
v3
u x
v1 = L = Ln L
v2 = u3
at node j
v3 = u 6
the change in distance between nodes i and j and the angle between node tangent and chord in
the displaced position at node i and j make up the components of the element deformation vector v
under large displacements we have the following relations
for the change of distance L and the chord rotation angle
L =
( L + u x )
= arctan
Page 133
( )
+ u y
u y
L + u x
u y
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
L =
( L + u x )
( )
+ u y
L
2
2
u x u y
L
L = L 1 +
+
L
L
2
u x u y
L = L 1 + 2
+
+
L
L 0 L
u x
u x 1 u x
1 u y
L = L 1 +
+
+
L
2 L
2 L
1+ x =1+
1 2u x 2
+ higher order terms L
8 L
1
1
x x 2 + higher order terms for
2
8
x 1
u x 1 u y
L L 1 +
+
L
2 L
u x
L L 1 +
L = u x = u 4 u1
L
u x
u y
u y
u y
L = L u x + 1
L
2 L
5 103
5 103
5 102
We can show that the relative transverse displacement ratio is approximately equal to the chord rotation
angle. To this end we expand the trigonometric arctan function into a power series
= arctan
u y
L + u x
u y
= arctan
1+
L
u x
L
u y u
u x
x
1
higher
order
terms
+
L
L
L
u x
L
5 103
it follows that
u y
L
We conclude that the chord rotation angle is approximately equal to the relative transverse displacement
ratio. This is known as tranverse "drift" in professional engineering practice, or, as lateral drift or interstory
drift for vertical members.
Page 134
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u x
L
5 10
and
u y
L
v1 = u x = u 4 u1
v 2 = u3
v3 = u 6
u y
L
u y
5 103
1
v1
v = v2 = 0
v
3
0
0
1
L
1
L
0 1
0
1
1 0
L
1
0 0
L
u
1
0 u 2
u
0 3 = au
u
4
1 u5
u
6
we note again that the relation between element deformations and the end displacement
components in the local reference system is the transpose of the transformation of the
element force components from the local to the basic reference system
b = aT
v = au
then the relation between basic forces and local components of the
element force vector is
p = aTq
We note that the relation between relative element displacements and end displacement components in
the local reference system is linear under the small displacement assumption. We speak of linear
kinematics. The matrix a in the above relation is known as the rigid body kinematic matrix, since it
removes the three (3) rigid body components from the set of six (6) element end displacements leaving
only three (3) relative displacements for the 2 node element in a planar model.
It is worth pointing out at this stage that the rigid body kinematic matrix reveals
the uncoupled nature between the relative translation in the direction of the
chord, and the chord rotation angles at the element ends; this means that
transverse translations and rotation do not cause a change of distance
between the nodes, and that translations in the direction of the chord do not
cause the chord to rotate under linear kinematic considerations..
0
1
L
1
L
0 1
1
L
1
0 0
L
1 0
v = a u with
u = ar u
gives
( )
v = a gu
p = ag q
Page 135
= aTg
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
L = X 2 + Y 2
Y
u2
L
Y
v = agu with ag = 2
L
Y
u5
2
L
u4
j
L2
X
L2
0
1
0
X
L
Y
L2
Y
L2
Y
L
X
2
L
X
2
L
u 2 = 1 deformations are
L
X
2
L
X
2
L
u1 = 1
L
Y
2
L
Y
2
L
L
X
u5 = 1 deformations are 2
L
X
2
L
L
Y
2
L
Y
2
L
Y
L
X
L
Y
L
X
L
Y
L
Y
L
deformations are
j
1
X
L
Y =Y j Yi
X =X j X i
u1 i
Y
L
X
j
X
L
u 4 = 1 deformations are
i
Page 136
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
2
3
A (a)
u (a)
b
(b)
A (b)
U
=
A
=
model and then combine it with
b
(c)
A (c)
u
b
7
u (d)
A (d)
b
we write v = agu
10
13
14
11
to obtain
15
12
=
=
U
v (c) a(c) u (c) a(c) A (c)
g
g
b
a g u a g A b
We collect the element deformations into the deformation vector V for the elements of the entire structure.
Similarly, the compatibility matrices on the right hand side which are stacked one on top of the other are
collected to the kinematic or compatibility matrix A for the entire structure. We get
V = AU
with
v (a)
v (b)
V =
v (c)
v (d)
and
a(a) A (a)
g b
a(b) A (b)
b
g
A=
(c) (c)
ag A b
(d) (d)
a g A b
We partition the displacement vector into free and restrained dofs, as we have already discussed. The
kinematic or compatibility matrix of the structure gets partitioned accordingly into a set of columns that
correspond to the free dofs and another set that corresponds to the restrained dofs. We write
where Vd = A d U d the element deformations due to displacements
at the restrained dofs (e.g. support settlements)
are known at the start of the analysis
We express the equilibrium equations in terms of the basic forces of the structure and get
V = A f U f + A d U d = A f U f +Vd
p (a)
(b)
T p
= A (a)T
P = Ab
b
(c)
p
p (d)
(b)T
Ab
(c)T
Ab
a(a)Tq (a)
g
(b)T (b)
a
q
(a)T (a)T
(d)T g
= A a
A b
a(c)Tq (c) b g
g
a(d)T
q (d)
g
(b)T (b)T
ag
Ab
(c)T (c)T
A b ag
q (a)
(b)
(d)T (d)T q
A b ag
q (c)
q (d)
or, after introducing the structure kinematic matrix on the right hand side and
T
P=A Q
collecting the basic forces into a vector Q for the entire structure we get
We partition the applied force vector into free and restrained dofs, as we have already discussed. The
transpose of the kinematic or compatibility matrix of the structure gets partitioned accordingly into a set of
that correspond to the free dofs and another set that corresponds to the restrained dofs. We write
T
T
Pf A f we have encountered the first equation already in the form Pf = Bf Q we note that Bf = A f
= T Q
R A d we note that R are the forces at the restrained dofs or support reactions
Page 137
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
V = Af U f + Ad U d
Pf
T
Af
= T Q
A d
Limiting ourselves to the free dofs only by assuming that the displacements at the restrained dofs are all
zero, we set aside the support reactions and get the following important pair of relations
kinematic or compatibility relation for structure
V = Af U f
Pf = B f Q
or Pf = A f Q
The properties of the static matrix Bf that we have discussed in Part I are also properties of the transpose
of the kinematic matrix. In particular, a statically determinate structure has a square kinematic matrix with
as many element deformations as global dof displacements. Thus, any set of element deformations is
compatible with a unique set of global dof displacement values, as we can see in Examples 10, 11, 12
A statically indeterminate structure has more element deformations than global dof displacements. This
means that an arbitrary set of deformations will, in general, not be compatible with a set of global dof
displacement values, since the compatibility relations have more equations than unknowns. The only way
that such a system will have a unique solution is, if the deformation vector V lies in the column space of
the kinematic matrix Af (Strang, pp. 66). For this to be the case, the deformation vector V needs to be
orthogonal to the nullspace of the transpose of the kinematic matrix (Strang, pp. 135139). Since the latter
is equal to the static matrix, we have already determined the nullspace of the static matrix in Part I as the
force influence matrix for the redundant basic forces (see Examples 5 and 6). Thus, the necessary and
sufficient condition for a set of given element deformations to be compatible with a unique set of global
dof displacement values, is that
BTx V = 0
Page 138
CE220Theory of Structures
Y
1
2
8
5
4
2
a
Page 139
CE220Theory of Structures
If rotations at the nodes are of no significance, then the only "deformation" between nodes of interest here
is the change in the original distance. In the following we wish to establish a relation between this change of
distance between nodes and the deformed element length. If there are no gaps in the structure after
deformation, then the element deformation must be equal to the change in node distance. For a truss
element the only element deformation is the change of its length denoted by v1 .
To set up the compatibility relation between free dof displacements and element deformations we proceed
in the following systematic way: (1) set each dof in turn to a unit value, while holding the other dofs equal
to zero, (2) determine the change in distance between the nodes in the deformed configuration assuming
small displacements and deformations, (3) record this change of distance in a column vector with each row
number corresponding to the number of the element that connects the corresponding nodes (recall that
there is only one "deformation" of interest for each element, the change in distance of the nodes). The
column number corresponds to the number of the dof we "activate". The corresponding array or matrix is
known as compatibility or kinematic matrix Af
Preliminary geometric calculation: original distance between nodes numbered according to the
corresponding element number.
La := 8
La = 8
Lb := 8
Lb = 8
Lc :=
6 +8
Lc = 10
Ld := 6
Le :=
Ld = 6
2
6 +8
Le = 10
dof 1
1
1
Af 1 := 0
0
0
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CE220Theory of Structures
dof 2
0
0
Af 2 := 0
1
0
why??
very small displacements
dof 3
0
1
0
Af 3 :=
0
8
L
e
Page 141
CE220Theory of Structures
dof 4
0
0
Af 4 := Lc
8
Le
dist change
btw 1 and 4
dist change
btw 3 and 4
dof 5
0
0
6
Af 5 := Lc
1
6
Le
Page 142
CE220Theory of Structures
The change in node distances when all dof's are "activated" is the linear combination of the individual dof
effects. Since the dof translation values are parameters to be determined, we collect them into the
free dof displacement vector Uf and write for the change in node distances the following general relation.
We restate that the change in distance between the nodes is the linear combination of the columns of
the kinematic matrix for the free dofs Af with the free dof displacement values serving as parameters.
Af Uf with
Af
1
1
=0
0
0.8
0.6
we note that matrix Af is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix Bf for the same truss structure in Example 2.
This is a consequence of the principle of virtual work, as we prove later.
Now let us look at the elements that are supposed to connect the nodes of the truss structure.
In general, elements may have different lengths than those resulting on the basis of the original
(undeformed) configuration of the structure. One reason is that the elements are fabricated longer or
shorter than specified. This happens in prefabricated structural systems like most steel and timber
structures where the elements are fabricated in a shop or plant and delivered to the site for installation.
Elements may be longer or shorter either intentionally (we will see why), or unintentionally due to
unavoidable fabrication errors (fabrication tolerances are usually prescribed for a structure). Even if the
element length can be assumed as "perfect", another reason that it may not match the actual distance
between the corresponding nodes during installation is a temperature change between fabrication and
installation time, particularly in severe climate sites like underwater, arctic, desert etc. Finally, it is known
from earlier courses that elements change length due to stress (forces cause stress at every material point
which gives rise to strain which results in change of the element length). For now we will limit ourselves to
the first two causes for change of element length, the so called nonmechanical causes: intentional or
unintentional fabrication "error", and temperature.
We denote the difference between the actual and the ideal or original element length the element
deformation and denote it by the lower case letter v. A truss element has only this one deformation. We will
see in the following example that beam elements have two and frame elements have 3 deformation
measures. It is, therefore, justified to use already a vector to contain the element deformations.
Exactly as we have done for the basic forces of the element we collect the element deformations for the
entire structure into a single vector which we denote with the upper case letter V. It contains the
deformations of all elements in the structure numbered in element sequence, i.e. deformations of element a
stacked on top of deformations of element b and so on.
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CE220Theory of Structures
Compatibility states that in order for the elements to fit perfectly in the space between the displaced nodes
the element deformations V need to be equal to the change in the distance between nodes. We write this
equality relation as follows:
V = Af Uf
let us write it out in full to appreciate it
better for this small structure
V1 = U1
V 2 = U 1 + U 3
V3 = 0.8 U4 + 0.6 U5
V 4 = U 2 + U 5
V5 = 0.8 U3 0.8 U4 + 0.6 U5
Let us look at these compatibility relation in some more detail. First, we reiterate that the coefficients
multiplying the displacements at the free dof's are the same as those of the equilibrium equations for the
same structure but in transpose form, i.e. the rows of the equilibrium matrix have now become columns.
We will see that this relation holds for every structure in this course and we will prove it by the principle of
virtual work in a later lecture. Secondly, we note that if the element deformations V are given on the left
hand side of the compatibility equations, then we have exactly as many unknown global dof displacement
values on the right hand side as equations of compatibility. In such case if the matrix Af is nonsingular
there is a unique solution. This is the case for a stable structure and we can confirm this by checking the
rank of the kinematic matrix Af. (recall a similar argument for the static matrix Bf, which is the transpose of
the kinematic matrix).
rank ( Af) = 5
Let us then solve an example. Let us assume that elements c, d and e are fabricated longer or shorter than
required by the specified geometry such that c is longer by 0.02 units, d is shorter by 0.006 units and e is
longer by 0.01 units of length. We assume that elements a and b have ideal length according to the
undeformed geometry of the structure. For this scenario the element deformation vector becomes
0
0
V := 0.02
0.006
0.01
Uf := lsolve ( Af , V)
Uf
0
0.031
= 0
0.006
0.025
We can easily solve the 5 compatibility equations by hand and gain more insight into how the nodes
displace due to the element deformations, e.g.
from the first equation we conclude that U1 is zero, and then from the second that U3 is zero, if V1 =V 2 =0.
Then, we can use the third and fifth equation to determine U4 and U5 and locate the displaced position of
node 4. In fact, because elements c and e have the same direction cosine values the solution is easy.
By addition of eq. (3) and (5) we get
V3 + V5 = 1.2U5
and by subtraction
V3 V5 = 1.6U4
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CE220Theory of Structures
U2 = U5 V4
The resulting deformed shape of the truss structure looks as follows (magnification factor is 50)
The geometrical relations we noted are clear in the figure (i.e. node 4 "at the intersection of elements c
and e each pivoting about the supports that do not move; vertical translation of node 2 is the difference
between vertical translation of node 4 and the deformation of element d)
CONCLUSIONS
In a statically determinate structure there are as many element deformations (rows of Af) as there are free
global dof displacements (columns of Af). Consequently, Af is a square matrix. In a stable structure the
rank of the matrix is equal to the number of columns (or rows for a determinate structure). This means
that it is always possible to find a deformed configuration of the structure that matches any given element
deformations. It also means that the only way to match the original length of the elements, i.e. a zero
deformation vector on the left hand side of the compatibility equations, is with zero displacement values at
all free dof's, i.e. only the undeformed configuration results in noelement deformations. We will see later
that the kinematic matrix of an unstable structure is "rank deficient", meaning that the rank is smaller than
the number of columns. In such case it is possible to find deformed positions of the structure without
deforming any of the elements at least under the assumption of small displacements. This is clearly not
desirable for structures, unless we plan to "deploy a folded structure" in which case these considerations
need to be extended to large displacements.
Corollary
In a statically determinate structure it is possible to have any element deformations (and thus element
lengths) and "fit them together" without "forcing" the elements. This is not possible in a statically
indeterminate structure, as later examples will demonstrate.
The above structure is not subjected to any forces at the free global dof's. This means that there are no
basic element forces and, of course, no support reactions.
The nodes displace due to the nonmechanical element deformations while the elements are stressfree!
Page 145
Create model
% specify node coordinates
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 8
0]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 16
0]; %
XYZ(4,:) = [ 8
6]; %
% connectivity array
CON { 1} = [ 1
2];
CON { 2} = [ 2
3];
CON { 3} = [ 1
4];
CON { 4} = [ 2
4];
CON { 5} = [ 3
4];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = [ 1 1];
BOUN(3,:) = [ 0 1];
% specify element type
ne = length(CON);
0 = free)
% number of elements
Page 146
[ElemName{1:ne}] = deal('Truss');
% truss element
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
= zeros(Model.ne,1);
= 0.02;
= 0.006;
= 0.01;
Page 147
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
section deformations
( x)
e ( x) = a
( x)
( x)dx
reference axis h
a ( x) dx
dx
section x
section x+ dx
section deformations may be caused by mechanical and nonmechanical effects; section forces, such
as the normal force, shear and bending moment, cause mechanical effects; we can quantify these only
after studying the material response in Part IV. For now we limit ourselves to nonmechanical effects.
These effects arise from environmental causes, or from intentional camber or lackoffit considerations.
As an example, we look at the effect of differential temperature in the following.
Assume a temperature difference between the time of
fabrication of the element and the time of installation.
Then, the axial strain at the reference axis is
If there is a different temperature difference at the
top than at the bottom of the cross section, then
there is not only an axial strain at the reference
axis, but also a curvature. The latter is given by
the following expression
( Tb Tt )
h
( T )
a = Ta
Tt
Tt
h
Ta
reference axis
Tb
x
Tb
temperature increment
Shrinkage of a material produces similar effects to temperature. On the other hand, it is common to
fabricate or build members with intentional camber or different length then specified so as to induce a
desired level of prestressing in the structure. We will investigate this in later lectures.
In order to distinguish nonmechanical deformations from mechanical deformations later in the course we
denote the former with a subscript 0. We leave this out for the moment, since we focus exclusively on
nonmechanical deformations and there is no danger of confusion.
Page 148
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
v1
we write
a ( x)
v1 = a ( x)dx
0
v1 = a L
The axial deformation of a force release device needs to be added to the above deformation. We will
investigate this later, after first discussing the effect of the curvature on the deformations.
The following figure shows the element chord connecting nodes i and j and the deformed reference axis of
the element. In determining the angle between the element chord and the tangent to the deformed axis of
the element at the end nodes we make use of the height of the highlighted triangle and the total distance at
node i and node j that it covers as x increases from 0 to L. For small deformations we have
j
( x)dx
v3
element chord
v2
L
x ( x)dx
L x ) ( x)dx
Lx
L
L
1
x
v 2 = ( L x ) ( x) dx = 1 ( x) dx
L
L
0
0
L
L
1
x
v3 = x ( x) dx =
( x) dx
L
L
0
0
Note: the deformed axis has a positive curvature, since the angle of the tangent to the horizontal
increases with increasing x. For this case the deformation at node i is negative and that at node j is
positive, as shown. Recall that the deformation angle is measured from the chord of the element to
the tangent of the deformed reference axis at the end node.
Page 149
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
Element deformations
The expressions for the deformations v2 and v3
involve integrals of the type
x ( x) dx
which is equal to
x A
where A
Because of this interpretation of the integral and the fact that curvatures are proportional to bending
moments for linear elastic material response, this geometric method for determining beam deformations is
known in the literature as "moment area method". Unfortunately, this is not the most appropriate name;
curvaturearea method would be a lot better and completely general for small deformations. With this
definition the deformation at node i and node j becomes
for the deformation at node i
v2 =
v3 =
L x
L
x
L
A =
x
L
with
For the case of a constant curvature with value the deformations become
i
( x) = const=
v2 =
1
( L )
2
v2
v3 =
v3
1
( L )
2
For the case of a linear curvature with value i at node i the deformations become
i
i
21
1
v2 = i L = i L
32
3
v3
v2
v3 =
11
1
i L = i L
3 2
6
and we note that the angle at node j is one half the value of the angle at node i, but of opposite sign
Page 150
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
11
1
v2 = j L = j L
3 2
6
v2
v3 =
v3
21
1
j L = i L
32
3
For the case of a parabolic curvature with value m at midspan the deformations become
i
12
1
v2 = m L = m L
23
3
v2
v3
v3 =
12
1
mL = m L
23
3
Other cases can be obtained with the help of integration tables, or numerical integration
Page 151
10
10
4
6
La := 10
Lb := 10
Lc := 5
We want to set up a relation between the displacements (i.e. translations and rotations) of the nodes
and the angle that forms between the node tangent and the node connector line for nodes connected by
elements (this will be called a node connector line in the course). To display this angle without ambiguity
we make use of the following figure
node i
node j
Page 152
2
3
dof 1
dof 2
dof 3
dof 4
dof 5
dof 6
Page 153
dof 1
1
0
0
1
Af :=
0
0
0
1
La
1
La
1
2
Af :=
L
b
1
Lb
0
0
dof 2
Note: we limit ourselves to small displacements in this course (linear geometry). In such case the arctan of
the angle is a very close approximation of the angle itself.
0
1
1
Af 3 :=
0
0
0
dof 3
0
0
0
Af 4 :=
1
1
0
dof 4
Page 154
Af 5 :=
1
L
c
1
Lc
dof 5
0
0
0
Af 6 :=
0
0
1
dof 6
After establishing the individual relations we can conclude that the combined effect of all free dof
displacements on the angles between node tangents and node connector lines can be written in the form
Af Uf
with
Af
0
0
=
0
0
0.1 0 0
0.1 1 0
0.1
1 0
0.1
0 1
0 1 0.2 0
0 0 0.2 1
we note that matrix Af is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix Bf for the same beam structure in Example 3
(case B without longitudinal basic forces).
Page 155
Element deformations
Now we look at the elements connecting the nodes. Elements that are supposed to be straight in ideal
conditions may end up curved either by intentional or unintentional fabrication, or by thermal effects.
The following figure shows the effect of curvature on the element deformation. Note that curvature means
the change of angle of the tangent to the deformed shape of the element at two infinitesimally adjacent
sections ((x) dx in the figure). We see that the element curvature results in an angle between the tangent
to the deformed shape of the element at each end and the line connecting the ends of the element. The
latter is known as the element chord. These angles can be expressed by curvature integrals as shown in
the figure.
j
( x)dx
v3
element chord
v2
L
x ( x)dx
L x ) ( x)dx
Lx
Recalling that the change of length of the element is counted as the first element deformation v1 , the angle
between tangent and chord at end i represents element deformation v2 , and the angle between tangent and
chord at end j represents element deformation v3 . Noting that the angle is measured from the chord to the
tangent, as shown in the figure and that CCW is positive we have
L
1
v2 = ( L x) ( x) dx
L 0
and
1
v3 = x ( x) dx
L 0
after bringing the length L of the element into the integral we can write
L
x
v2 = 1 ( x) dx
L
0
and
x
v3 =
( x) dx
L
0
Page 156
We note that the above integrals represent the "moment" of the area under the curvature function about
end i (for v2 ) and about end j (for v3 ) divided by the element length. This interpretation of the geometric
facts is, therefore, known in the history of structural analysis as "moment area" method.
for the case of constant curvature, which we denote with 0 , we have
0 L
2
0 L
2
0 ( x) = const=0
A constant curvature arises from a temperature field with a difference in the change of temperature between
the bottom and top fiber of the section as the following figure shows
thermal field
beam element
L
in this case
Tt
Tt
h
Ta
reference axis
Tb
x
Tb
temperature increment
Page 157
0 =
Tb Tt
h
Continuity requirement
Assuming now that the elements are not straight but deformed we state that the continuity of tangents at
nodes with rigid or continuous connections requires that, when the element chord is placed so as to line up
with the line connecting the corresponding nodes, each element deformation should match the
corresponding angle between the node tangent and the node connector line in the structural model. We
show this state of continuity in the following figure for each dof separately.
3
1
2
a
6
b
dof 1
dof 2
dof 3
dof 4
dof 5
dof 6
We can see from the above figure that the final deformed shape of the structural model will be the linear
combination of the deformed shapes for each dof scaled by the displacement value of the corresponding dof
Page 158
Compatibility relations
To write the compatibility statement of angle equality in compact form we put the element deformations in a
single vector V starting with the deformation at end i for element a, then deformation at end j for element a
and so forth, so that there is perfect agreement in numbering between the complete set of element
deformations and the angles between node tangents and node connector lines in the structural model.
The compatibility or geometric continuity statement then reads
V = Af Uf
v( a )
b)
(
V =v
(c)
v
or,
V1
V2
V
3
V=
V4
V5
V
6
V1 = U1
V2 =
V3 =
V4 =
V5 =
V6 =
U2
10
U2
+ U3
10
U2
+ U3
10
U2
+ U4
10
U5
U4
5
U5
+ U6
5
We note that there are as many compatibility equations as variables on the right hand
side of the equations V = Af Uf.
Page 159
Numerical results
Let us assume that element a is deformed due to a uniform curvature field of
0 := 1.2 10
while elements b and c are in their ideal condition, i.e. perfectly straight. What is the resulting deformed
shape of the structure that ensures tangent continuity at all nodes?
0.006
0.006
0
V :=
Given
note
La
2
= 0.006
we obtain Uf := lsolve ( Af , V)
Uf
0.009
0.03
0.003
=
0.003
0.015
0.003
it is worth noting that the translation values are roughly an order of magnitude greater than the rotations.
The system of compatibility equations can be readily solved by hand allowing insight into the deformation
behavior of the beam. Since V 3 through V6 are zero we conclude that
U6 =
U4 =
U5
5
U5
and thus
5
U2
U4 =
10
U2
U3 =
10
and thus
U4 = U6
U3 = U4
thus, in the absence of any deformations in elements b and c the rotations U3 , U4 and U6 are equal.
U2 = 5 V2
finally,
U1 = V1 +
and
U2
10
The deformed shape of the structure under a magnification factor of 50 is shown below. The geometric
interpretation of the above equations is clear from the figure.
U2
U1
V1 +
5V2
U2
10
10
10
Page 160
Page 161
V1 = U1
V2 =
V3 =
V4 =
V5 =
V6 =
U2
(*)
10
U2
+ U3
10
U2
+ U3
10
U2
+ U4
10
U5
U4
5
U5
+ U6
5
(*)
Because we intend to use this reduced set of dofs in future problems we number the reduced set of free
dofs and the corresponding element deformations from scratch. We have
1
2
a
Page 162
La
1
L
b
Af :=
1
L
b
Af
0.1
0.1
=
0.1
1 0
1 0
1 0
0
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
1
0 1
Lc
0 1
0 1 0.2
It is worth noting in the preceding figure that the end nodes are free to rotate with the node connector line
emanating from them, since there is no rotation dof present at the end.
We restate that the kinematic matrix Af for the reduced set of dofs can be obtained directly from the matrix
for the full set of dofs by setting aside rows 1 and 6 and columns 1 and 6. With the renumbered dofs and
element deformations the compatibility relations become.
V1 =
U1
+ U2
10
U1
V2 =
+ U2
10
U1
V3 =
+ U3
10
U4
V4 = U3
5
0.006
V :=
0
Uf := lsolve ( Af , V)
Uf
0.03
0.003
=
0.003
0.015
which, of course, match the earlier values for the same dofs. How can we calculate the rotation
at node 1 and node 4? Quite simply, using the rows of the complete kinematic matrix that we have set aside.
We renumber the corresponding deformation and dof: the rotation at node 1 is U5 and that at node 4 is U6 .
The deformation at end i of element a is V5 and that at end j of element c is now V6 . We have the following
two compatibility relations that we set up earlier (see equations with asterisk):
V5 = U5
V6 =
U4
5
U1
10
+ U6
(*)
solve for U5
(*)
solve for U6
U5 = V5 +
U6 = V6 +
U1
10
U4
5
U5 := 0.006 +
U6 := 0 +
Uf
Uf
10
U5 = 0.009
U6 = 0.003
the values are of course the same as before (compare with dofs 1 and 6 of the complete dof solution).
We can see the geometric interpretation of the above equations in the deformed shape of the structure.
The rotation of node 1 is equal to the deformation of element a at the corresponding node added to the
rotation of the chord connecting node 1 and 2. Because element c does not deform, the rotation of node 4
is equal to the rotation of the chord connecting nodes 3 and 4. Thus, for a quick determination in the
future we can simply add the element deformations to the chord rotations at the node of interest.
The deformed shape of the structure under a magnification factor of 50 is shown below.
U5
V5 +
U1
U1
10
10
10
Page 163
With the reduced set of dofs the deformed shape of the structural model will be the linear combination of
the following deformed shapes for each independent dof after factoring these by the corresponding
displacement value.
2
a
Page 164
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 10
0]; % second node, etc
= [ 20
0]; %
= [ 25
0]; %
0 = free)
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
Page 165
Page 166
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
vah
v1h
we see that v1h = v ah
i
v 2h
v3h
we see that v 2h =
v 3h =
v fh
x
v
L fh
Lx
Lx
v fh
L
If the moment release is located at node i or node j we obtain two special cases:
at node i
v2h = v fh
v 3h = 0
at node j
v2h = 0
v3h = v fh
v 2h
v fh
i
v fh v3h
It is important to recall at this point that the element deformations are measured from the chord to the
tangent at the node, which is shown in the above figures as a short line.
Shear force release or transverse translation device
we see that
vth
v3h
v 2h
vth
L
Lx
v2h = v3h =
L
Page 167
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
Element deformations
We generalize the relations on the preceding page by stating that the total element deformations v are
made up of two contributions: the deformations resulting from the integration of continuous section
deformations (we call these straindependent deformations in the following), and the deformations
resulting from the effect of concentrated relative translations or rotations due to the presence of force
release devices. We denote the former with v and the latter with vh. With this notation we write for the
element deformations
v = v + v h
V = V +Vh
the kinematic or compatibility relation for the structure then becomes V =V +Vh = A f U f
here is an example with a moment release at end j
v2
v 2
v3
v 3
v h3
In a statically determinate structure there are as many free dof displacements on the right hand side of
the
above kinematic relations, as there are straindependent element deformations and concentrated hinge
deformations. Examples 10 and 11 provide good examples without a release, and Example 12 provides a
good example with a release. In the absence of releases we use V instead of V for the straindependent
element deformations, since Vh = 0.
In a statically indeterminate structure there are more element deformations on the left hand side than there
are free global dof displacements on the right hand side of the above kinematic relations. The element
deformations will be compatible if they satisfy the compatibility constraint we have encountered earlier, i.e.
BTx V = 0
or, else NOS axial or rotational devices need to be introduced in the redundant elements of the structure,
so as to increase the number of unknown hinge deformations on the left hand side of the above equations
for a unique solution. Example 13 is a good case in point illustrating both cases.
Page 168
12
10
5
1
We make the following observations: the vertical translation of dofs 2 and 4 is zero (or restrained) on
account of the assumption that elements a and d are inextensible. Similarly, the horizontal translation of
nodes 2, 3 and 4 is equal on account of the assumption about elements b and c being inextensible. After
these observations we realize that there are seven independent global dofs, as shown in the following figure
4
3
b
5
c
d
a
7
1
Page 169
Length of elements
La := 12
Lb := 8
Lc := 8
Ld := 10
Before setting up the relation between the free dof displacements and the angles that form between the
node tangents and the node connector lines in the structural model we note that dofs 1 and 7 affect only
one angle at the corresponding node. We have already encountered this case in the preceding example for
the statically determinate beam. The same is also true for dof 5, because the angle at the left end of
element c is of no interest for the lack of continuity at that location due to the rotational hinge. We will return
to this issue subsequently to determine the hinge rotation at the left end of element c. We, therefore, set
aside these dofs and plan to determine their values separately at the end, just in case their are of interest.
The new set of reduced dofs is shown in the following figure
3
1
b
d
a
We proceed as follows: we activate each dof in turn and give it a unit value; during activation of a particular
dof the others remain "locked". We measure the angle between the node tangents and the node connector
lines in the structural model. We number the angles systematically starting with end i of element a, to end j
of element a, end i of element b, etc. as shown in the following figure for dof 1. We skip angles at locations
where continuity will not be enforced or is of no interest, as is the case with the hinge and the supports. We
record the angle values for a unit displacement of the particular dof in a column of the kinematic matrix Af
(one column for each dof with corresponding number). The following figures show the concept and the
angle numbering
1
dof 1
3
2
1
Page 170
1
La
0
Af 1 :=
0
1
L
d
dof 2
1
2
1
1
2
Af :=
0
0
1
2
1
dof 3
1
Lb
Af 3 :=
L
c
3
1
2
1
dof 4
Page 171
0
0
Af 4 :=
1
1
After establishing the individual relations we can conclude that the combined effect of all free dof
displacements on the angles between node tangents and node connector lines can be written in the form
Af Uf
with
Af
1
12
=
0
10
1
8
1
8
we note that matrix Af is the transpose of the static matrix Bf for the same frame model after setting aside
the equilibrium equations that involve axial forces in Example 4. In fact, we observe that it may be a little
easier to set up the kinematic matrix under the assumption that the elements are inextensible than to
combine the equilibrium equations so as to eliminate the axial forces. We will make ample use of
this fact through the principle of virtual displacements later on in the course.
To write the compatibility statement of angle equality in compact form we put the element deformations in a
single vector V starting with the deformation at end i for element a, then deformation at end j for element a
and so forth, so that there is perfect agreement in numbering between the set of element deformations
and the angles between nodes and lines connecting nodes in the structural model. We note again that in
this example we do not include in vector V the deformations at the element ends that are of no interest
(like end i of element a, or end j or element d, and at the element end with no continuity because of the
presence of a rotational hinge, i.e. end i of element c
The compatibility or geometric continuity equations then read
V = Af Uf
V1
V2
V=
V
3
V4
V1 =
U1
12
+ U2
V2 = U2
V3 =
V4 =
U3
8
U1
10
U3
8
+ U4
+ U4
Page 172
Numerical results
Let us assume now that elements a and b are curved or cambered with uniform curvature 0 (curving
outward). The deformations are thus equal to
v = 0
L
2
0 := 6 10
La
2
= 0.0036
for element a
Lb
2
= 0.0024
for element b
T
V := ( 0.0036 0.0024 0 0 )
where we use the transpose on the right hand side to save some space in specifying the vector!
We can now solve for the displacements at the free dofs of the model
Uf := lsolve ( Af , V)
Uf
32.73
0.87
10 3
=
26.18
3.27
Noting that V3 and V4 are zero, we can determine the free dof displacements easily by hand and thus gain
insight into the interplay between element deformations and global dof displacements.
from (1) and (2) we get
V1 V2 =
0=
U3
8
U1
12
U1
10
U3
8
(*)
combining we get
V1 V2 =
U1
12
U1
10
and we can solve for U1 and then substitute back to equation (*) to get U3
U3 = 0.8 U1
Finally, we can get the rotations U2 and U4 from the original equations namely:
U4 =
U1
10
U2 = V2 +
adding the last two equations up and noting the earlier relation (*) we get
U3
8
U2 + U4 = V2
Finally, the rotations at the supports can be readily determined by adding the element deformation to
the rotation of the chord at the corresponding node, as we have already remarked for the preceding
example of the statically determinate beam.
Page 173
The deformed shape of the structure under a magnification factor of 50 is shown below
The geometric interpretation of the earlier relations is left as an exercise. Note that elements c and d
displace as a unit that pivots about the right support
Page 174
12
10
5
1
4
b
d
a
Page 175
The figures with the angles that result under a unit displacement of each free global dof do not change,
with the exception of dof 3 and the new rotation dof. We insert these below and pay particular attention to
the fact that we also choose to record the angle between node 3 and the node connector line 23 as well
as the node connector line 34. Thus, the angles to be monitored are now 6, as labeled in the figures.
4
3
1
1
dof 3
dof 4
We write the structure kinematic matrix, i.e. the relation between the angles at the six locations in the
above figures and the global dof displacements (you may like to consult the earlier figures about dofs 1, 2,
and 5). We obtain
Page 176
1
La
Af :=
0
Ld
1
0
Lb
0 0
1
0
1
Lb
0
1
Lc
1
Lc
V1
V2
V
3
V=
V4
V5
V
6
Af
0.083
0
0
=
0
0
0.1
0 0
1 0.125 0 0
0 0.125 1 0
0 0.125
0 0.125
1 0
0 1
0 1
The compatibility relations now state that the angles need to match at five locations, namely 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6.
We write these compatibility relations explicitly,
V1 =
U1
La
+ U2
V2 = U2
V3 =
U3
Lb
U3
Lb
+ U4
V4 = V4 + V4h =
V5 =
V6 =
U3
Lc
U3
Lc
U1
Ld
+ U4
(**)
+ U5
+ U5
(**) at end i of element c, i.e. at number 4 we do not have continuity; instead we can only calculate the
lack of continuity by subtracting the element deformation from the angle of the node relative to the line
connecting nodes 3 and 4. Thus, instead of
V4 =
U3
Lc
+ U4
U3
+ U4 V4
Lc
Page 177
Numerical results
Elements a, b and c are curved or cambered with uniform curvature 0 (curving outward). The
deformations are thus equal to
v = 0
L
2
0 := 6 10
La
0
0
2
Lc
2
= 0.0036
for element a
= 0.0024
for element c
Lb
2
= 0.0024
for element b
0.0036
0.0024
0.0024
:=
0.0024
0.0024
We need to satisfy continuity or compatibility relations at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6. We set up the coefficient matrix for
the displacements at the free dofs and the corresponding left hand side deformation vector by extracting
rows 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 from Af and V, respectively. We have
Af
0.083
0
0
=
0
0
0.1
0 0
1 0.125 0
0 0.125 1
0 0.125
0 0.125
1
12
Coeff_Matrix := 0
0
1
10
0
0
0
1
1
0
0 0
1 0.125 0
0 0.125 1
0 0.125
0
0
3.6
2.4
2.4 3
=
10
2.4
2.4
3.6
2.4
3
LHS := 2.4 10
2.4
Page 178
We can now solve for the displacements at the free dofs of the model
Uf := lsolve ( Coeff_Matrix , LHS)
3
T
Uf = ( 19.64 1.96 34.91 6.76 1.96 ) 10
With these displacement values, which represent a unique solution of the compatibility equations for the
given element deformations for the statically determinate frame we can determine the hinge rotations at all
locations of the structural model, i.e. 1 through 6. We have
Vh := Af Uf V
Vh
continuity!!
0
0 3
=
10
13.53
hinge rotation
The figure shows that the hinge rotation is measured from the tangent of the deformed element at end i
to the line following the node rotation. Since CCW is defined as positive for rotations and moments in this
course, the rotation as shown is negative, in perfect agreement with the numerical result.
CONCLUSION
In a statically determinate structure there are as many deformation continuity conditions as independent
free global dofs. Including compatibility conditions at locations with rotational hinges permits the
determination of the hinge rotations with the equation Vh = Af Uf V where Vh are the hinge
rotations.The hinge rotations Vh are zero at locations of continuity between node and element. Thus, in
general the kinematic matrix may have more rows than columns, but continuity in a statically determinate
structure can be enforced only at as many locations as available free global dofs.
Page 179
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 0 12]; % second node, etc
= [ 8 12]; %
= [ 16 12]; %
= [ 16
2]; %
0 = free)
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
2
= zeros(3*Model.ne,1);
= 0.0036;
= 0.0036;
= 0.0024;
= 0.0024;
Page 180
V(8) = 0.0024;
V(9) = 0.0024;
determine hinge rotation at left end of element c (consult pages 191195 of reader)
Vh = Af*Uf  V;
disp('the hinge rotation is');
disp(Vh(ih));
the hinge rotation is
0.0135
Page 181
Page 182
CE220Theory of Structures
We focus on the number of independent ways that the nodes of the structure can displace. Since rotations
are of no interest in this case, there are two independent translations at each node, except for the
translations that are restrained by supports. There are 5 independent free global dofs in this case.
3
Page 183
CE220Theory of Structures
To set up the compatibility relation between free dof displacements and element deformations we proceed in
the following systematic way: (1) set each dof in turn to a unit value, while holding the other dofs equal to
zero, (2) determine the change in distance between the nodes in the deformed configuration, (3) record this
change of distance in a column vector with each row number corresponding to the element number that
connects the corresponding nodes. The column number corresponds to the number of the dof we "activate".
The corresponding array or matrix is known as compatibility matrix Af
Preliminary geometric calculation: original distance between nodes numbered according to the
corresponding element number.
La := 8
Lb := 6
Lc := 6
Ld := 8
La = 8
Lb = 6
Lc = 6
Ld = 8
Le :=
6 +8
Lf :=
Le = 10
6 +8
Lf = 10
dof 2
1
dof 1
8
dof 3 1
dof 4
1
Page 184
CE220Theory of Structures
1 dof 5
d
1 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 1 0
Af :=
8
8 6
L L L
e
e
e
0 0 0
0
0
0
1
8 6
Lf Lf
The change in node distances when all dof's are "activated" is the linear combination of the individual dof
effects. Since the dof translation values are parameters to be determined, we collect them into the
free dof displacement vector Uf and write for the change in node distances the following general relation
Af Uf
with
Af
1 0
0 0
0 0
=
0 1
0.8 0.8
0 0
0
1
0.6
0
0
0.8 0.6
we note that matrix Af is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix Bf for the same truss structure in Example 5.
There are now six element deformations for the five free global dofs and the compatibility matrix is 6 x 5.
Compatibility states that for the elements to fit perfectly in the space between the displaced nodes the
element deformations V need to be equal to the change in the distance between nodes. We write this
equality relation as follows:
V = Af Uf
let us write it out in full to appreciate it
better for this small structure
V1 = U1
V2 = U3
V3 = U5
V 4 = U 2 + U 4
V5 = 0.8 U1 0.8 U2 + 0.6 U3
V6 = 0.8 U4 + 0.6 U5
Page 185
CE220Theory of Structures
There are now more compatibility relations for the global free dof displacements to satisfy, than there are
available free global dofs. Thus, if an arbitrary set of element deformations V were supplied, it is most likely
that a solution to all compatibility relations could not be found. The linear system of compatibility relations
has a unique solution only if the V's satisfy extra conditions, which we call deformation constraints or
compatibility conditions. The number of these conditions is equal to the difference between the number of
rows and the number of columns under the assumption that the structural model we are dealing with is
stable. Recall from the equilibrium discussion that this means that the rank of matrix Af is equal to the
number of columns, which amounts to saying that the rank of its transpose matrix Bf is equal to the number
of rows (recall discussion about equilibrium matrix in examples 16).
rank ( Af) = 5
the rank of this truss structure is indeed 5, as is the number of columns; it is, therefore,
stable and the element deformations need to satisfy a single constraint or compatibility
condition. We embark on finding this constraint. To do this we proceed as follows:
we select the first 5 compatibility relations and use them to express the free global dof
displacements U 1 through U5 in terms of element deformations V1 V5 . Since this is a
system of five linear equations in five unknowns, it has a unique solution as long as the
rank of the coefficient matrix is equal to the number of equations. We try this and then
form the inverse symbolically.
1 0
0 0
Coeff_Matrix := 0
0
0 1
0.8 0.8
Coeff_Matrix
0 0
0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0.6 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0.75 0 0 1.25
= 0 1 0 0
0
1 0.75 0 1 1.25
0 0 1 0 0
rank ( Coeff_Matrix) = 5
U1 = V1
i.e.
U2 = V1 + 0.75 V2 1.25 V5
U3 = V2
U4 = V1 + 0.75 V2 + V4 1.25 V5
U5 = V3
of course, we note that the original 5 compatibility relations were simple enough that we could have
obtained the same answer "by hand". Can you try?
We take now the last two equations for U4 and U5 and substitute into the 6th compatibility relation above
to obtain
Page 186
CE220Theory of Structures
Let us simplify the above condition and collect all terms on the left hand side. We get
We have:
V1
V2
V
3
( 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 1 ) = 0
V4
V5
V
6
and we note that the vector multiplying the element deformations is the transpose of the force influence
matrix Bbarx from example 5. Thus, the deformation constraint or compatibility condition that ensures that all
compatibility relations can be satisfied with a unique set of global dof displacements is
T
Bbarx V = 0
This is such a well known result in linear algebra that MIT Professor Gilbert Strang calls it the
fundamental theorem of linear algebra, Part II. You can read about all this when you read Chapter 2 from
page 62 to page 99 and Chapter 3 from pages 132 to 139 of his outstanding book "Linear Algebra and
its Applications", 3rd edition (on reserve in the Engineering Library).
We conclude our example by stating the following results:
In a statically indeterminate structure the compatibility matrix Af has more rows than columns. In fact, since
the compatibility matrix is always the transpose of the equilibrium matrix for the same structural model (to
be proven later), the difference between number of rows and number of columns of the compatibility matrix
is the degree of static indeterminacy or redundancy NOS. For a stable structure the rank of the
compatibility matrix is equal to the number of columns, which means that the rank of the equilibrium matrix
is equal to the number of rows.
Since the compatibility matrix Af has more rows than columns in a statically indeterminate structure, there are
more compatibility relations than available free global dof displacements. The latter need to satisfy all
compatibility relations so that the deformed structure is continuous without gaps and angle discrepancies. For
an arbitrary set of element deformation values V this is not possible, unless NOS "hinges" are inserted and
NOS redundant forces are released. If this is not the case, then the element deformation vector V satisfies the
T
deformation constraint or compatibility condition that Bbarx V = 0
Recall that for a degree of static indeterminacy NOS, there are NOS linearly independent selfstress states
that make up the columns of matrix Bbarx . Thus, NOS independent compatibility constraints are imposed
T
on the element deformations through the compatibility condition that Bbarx V = 0. We will see this in the
following example 14.
Linear algebra specialists (like Professor Strang) say that the column space of the compatibility matrix is
always orthogonal to the nullspace of the equilibrium matrix (which is its transpose). If the element
deformations V lie in this column space then a unique solution of the compatibility relations exists.
Page 187
CE220Theory of Structures
Let us see now what happens if an arbitrary set of element deformations is given. We assume the
following values
T
V := ( 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 )
We use the first 5 compatibility equations to determine the set of global dof displacement values that
satisfy these. We obtain
1 0
0 0
Ai := 0
0
0 1
0.8 0.8
0 0
0.6 0
1
0
0.02
0.05
Vi := 0.02
0.05
0.02
Uf := lsolve ( Ai , Vi)
Uf
0.02
0.033
= 0.05
0.083
0.02
The distance between nodes 1 and 4 then can be obtained from the 6th row of the kinematic matrix Af
U1 0.02
U2 0.033
U3 := 0.05
U4 0.083
0.02
U5
since the corresponding element deformation, i.e. the deformation of element f, is only 0.02 an axial
gap or slip of an axial translation device results. It is equal to 0.0540.02. The formal way of expressing
this is that between nodes 1 and 4 we have the following relation
with
V6 := 0.02
Page 188
V6h = 0.034
CE220Theory of Structures
The following figure provides the representation of the deformed shape of the structural model with
the gap in the in the axial translation device in element f.
0.034
Page 189
Create model
% specify node coordinates
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 8
0]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 0
6]; %
XYZ(4,:) = [ 8
6]; %
% connectivity array
CON { 1} = [ 1
2];
CON { 2} = [ 1
3];
CON { 3} = [ 2
4];
CON { 4} = [ 3
4];
CON { 5} = [ 2
3];
CON { 6} = [ 1
4];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = [ 1 1];
BOUN(2,:) = [ 0 1];
% specify element type
ne = length(CON);
[ElemName{1:ne}] = deal('Truss');
0 = free)
% number of elements
% truss element
Compatibility relations
kinematic matrix for all dofs in structural model
A = A_matrix (Model);
% extract free dofs
Page 190
Af = A(:,1:Model.nf);
% specify the element deformations
V = [0.02;0.05;0.02;0.05;0.02;0.02];
% extract nf rows of kinematic matrix
Ai = Af(1:5,:);
% extract corresponding deformations
Vi = V(1:5);
Page 191
dof 2
dof 1
dof 4
b
La := 6
Lb := 4
Lc := 4
2
Ld :=
1
4
8 +6
We are interested in the angle between node tangent and node connector line at 5 locations. These are
systematically numbered in the following figures. We are also interested in the change of distance between
node 1 and 4, since there is an axially deformable element at this location. The relation between global dof
displacements and these deformations for the translation dofs can be inferred from the following figures
dof 3
dof 1
3
4
2
6
1
4
Page 192
1
6
1
6
0
Af :=
0.8
0
1
0
0
1
4
1
0
4
0
1
4
P1 =
Q1 + Q2
6
+ 0.8 Q6
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
P3 =
Q3 + Q4
4
Q5
4
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
There are now 5 angles and one change of distance that reflect the effect of the free global displacements.
Compatibility is satisfied if the element deformations match these 5 angles and the change of distance.
We can write
V = Af Uf
V1 =
or, written out in full
V2 =
U1
6
U1
6
+ U2
V3 = U2
V4 =
V5 =
U3
4
U3
4
U3
4
+ U4
+ U4
V6 = 0.8 U1
There are now 6 equations in involving 4 variables, the free global dof displacement values. The difference
between the number of compatibility equations and the variables is NOS, the degree of static indeterminacy,
something to be expected, of course, since we noted that the kinematic matrix Af is the transpose of the
static matrix Bf, which has NOS more columns than rows. If the left hand side vector is given, such a system
of equations does not have a solution, unless the vector satisfies certain conditions. We set out to determine
these conditions now. To do so, we select four linearly independent compatibility relations and solve for the
global dof displacements in terms of the element deformations (we assume that the latter will be given). In
this example we have quite a choice of which four equations to select, but because we need to prove a
certain relation of the resulting equations with a result from Example 6, we select the compatibility equations
2, 3, 5 and 6. We solve for the free global dof displacement values by hand and get
Page 193
from eq (6)
U1 = 1.25 V6
from eq (2)
U2 = V2
from eq (3)
from eq (5)
U1
5
V6
6
24
5
U3 = 4 U2 4 V3 = 4 V2 V6 4 V3
6
U4 = V5
U3
4
= V2
= V5 V2 +
5
V6 + V3
24
To ensure that the two deformation values that we did not use above are compatible with the rest, we
substitute the free global dof displacement values into the compatibility equations 1 and 4 and get
from eq (1)
from eq (4)
5
V6 = 0
24
5
5
5
V 4 = V 2 +
V6 + V3 + V5 V2 +
V6 + V3 = 2 V2 + 2 V3 + V5 +
V6
24
24
12
V1 =
i.e.
5
V6
24
I.e.
V1
2 V2 2 V3 + V4 V5
5
V6 = 0
12
V1
V2
1 0 0 0 0 5
24 V3 0
5 V4 0
0 2 2 1 1 12
V5
V
6
T
Bbarx V = 0
Thus, we conclude that in order for a solution of the compatibility equations V = Af Uf to exist for a given
deformation vector V, the element deformations V need to satisfy NOS conditions, which take the form
T
Bbarx V = 0. These conditions are known as compatibility conditions. There are no compatibility conditions
in a stable, statically determinate structure (NOS=0), which means that any given deformation vector is
compatible with a unique set of free global dof displacements.
Linear algebra deals with the solution of linear systems of the form V = Af Uf extensively. If there are more
equations than unknowns, then it is stated that a solution exists only if the vector V lies in the column space
of Af. (Strang, 3rd ed, pp. 66). To prove that a vector V lies in the column space of a matrix Af, it is often
easier to show that the vector is orthogonal to the socalled left nullspace of the matrix, i.e. the nullspace of
the transpose of the matrix. Since Bf = transpose (Af) and the vectors of Bbarx span the nullspace of Bf, this
T
results in the condition that Bbarx V = 0, as stated earlier. This is the necessary and sufficient condition
for V to lie in the column space of the matrix Af, so that a solution exists to the compatibility equations
V = Af Uf (Strang, 3rd ed, pp. 138139).
Page 194
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
Recall that
start with V = A fU f or
A f = Bf
Pf Pfw = Bi Qi + B x Qx
Qi = Bi
Vi Ai
= U f
Vx A x
P Pfw ) B xQx
( f
U f = Ai1Vi
V
0 i
Vx
or U f = Ai
Qx = Qx
U f = BiTV
B 1B
Qi B 1
x Q
= i Pf Pfw + i
x
Q
I
x 0
noting that Ai = Bi
A x Ai1Vi +Vx = 0
Vx = A x Ai Vi
A A 1 I V = 0
x i
Bx V = 0
V
A A 1 I i = 0
V
x i
x
T
noting that A x = B x
and
U f
Q = Bi Pf Pfw + B x Qx
Page 195
T
Bi
= T V
B x
( CD )T = DTCT
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u5
j
L = X 2 + Y 2
Y
u2
u1 i
X
v =
L
Y =Y j Yi
X
L
Y
L
X
Y
u 4 u1 +
u5 u 2
L
L
X = X j X i
X
Y
u 4 u1 +
u5 u 2
L
L
0=
Y
L
u4
v=
u1
u2
u
0 3
u4
u
5
u
6
v2 L2
=
v3 Y
2
L
0=
For an inflexible element both deformations are zero, i.e.
0=
X
2
L
X
L2
1
0
Y
2
L
Y
L2
X
2
L
X
L2
)
u1
u2
0
u
3
u
1 4
u5
u
6
(u 4 u1 ) X2 (u5 u 2 ) + u3
(u 4 u1 )
L
Y
L
u3 = u 6 =
Y
2
L
X
2
(u5 u 2 ) + u 6
(u 4 u1 ) + X2 (u5 u 2 )
L
the constraint equations for an inflexible element show that the end rotations are equal; furthermore, the
relative end translations satisfy a specific linear relation
From the above two cases we conclude that an inextensible element introduces one constraint equation,
while an inflexible element introduces two constraint equations. In general, in a structural model constraint
equations are independent. In such case the number of indepedent free dof's is reduced by the number of
available constraint equations. We can be more specific. An inextensibility condition involves only
translation dof's. Thus, it reduces the number of independent translation dof's, but does not constrain the
rotation dof's in any way. By contrast, the inflexibility constraint involves both rotation and translation dof's.
Page 196
8
9
V = Af Uf
with
11
10
12
Page 197
1
5
1
5
1
0
Af :=
0
1 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 1 0
0 0
0 0 1
0 0
1
0 0
4
1
1 0
4
1
0 0
4
1
4
1 0
0
0
0 0 1
0 1
0 0 0
1
4
1 0
1
4
0 0 0
1
4
0 0
1
4
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
1
5
0 0 0
1
5
We assume now that elements a, b, c and d are inextensible. This means that
V1 = 0
0 = U2
V4 = 0
0 = U 1 + U 4
U1 = U4
V7 = 0
0 = U 4 + U 7
U4 = U7
V10 = 0
0 = U8
These 4 linearly independent linear constraints establish 4 linearly independent linear relations between
the original set of 9 free global dofs. Consequently, only 5 independent free dofs remain. We select the
original dofs 1, 3, 5, 6 and 9 as the independent free global dofs and denote them with a new symbol Utild,
which stands for constrained free global dofs (we cannot insert a tilde in Mathcad, so we need to resort to
the spelled out version). We have the following relations between the original and the constrained dof set
U1 = Utild1
Uf = Ac Utildf
U2 = 0
U3 = Utild2
U4 = Utild1
U5 = Utild3
U6 = Utild4
U7 = Utild1
U8 = 0
U9 = Utild5
with
1
0
0
1
Ac := 0
0
1
0
0
Page 198
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
We can now obtain the following compatibility relations in terms of the constrained free global dofs
V = Af Uf = Af Ac Utildf = Atildf Utildf
where
Atildf
1
5
1
5
0
0
=
0
1
5
1
0 0
1
0
1
4
1
1
4
1
4
1
4
Atildf := Af Ac
with
Page 199
Since we know that the axial deformations are zero, we can write the compatibility matrix for the constrained
free global dofs with only 8 deformation entries (note that the difference between deformations and
constrained free global dofs is NOS, i.e. 3) in this case. We have
1
5
1
5
Atildf :=
1
5
1
0
1
0
0
0 0
0
1
0
4
1
1
4
1
4
1
4
P1 =
Q1 + Q2
Q7 + Q8
5
5
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 + Q4 Q5 + Q6
P3 =
+
4
4
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
P5 = Q 6 + Q 7
0.2
0
Bf := 0
0
Bf
1
5
0
=
0
0.2
0.2 0.2
0
0
1 1
5 5
1
5
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1
1 1 1
0 0
4
4 4 4
0
1 1 0 0 0
Page 200
0
0
0
0
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
0 =U 2
0 =U 4 U1
0 =U 5
becomes
b
1
with constraints
8
6
U 4 U1 +
U U 2
10
10 5
8
6
U 7 U 4
U U 5
0=
10
10 8
0 =U 8
0=
0 =U 2
12
=0
U1 U 4 U 5 U 7
Page 201
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
with constraints
0 =U 3
U1 = U 4 =
a
U2
H 0 = U U
5
2
rigid
0 =U 6
becomes
0 =U 2
0 =U 2
2
3
becomes
with constraints
0 =U1
e
2
1
0 =U 2
d
c
0 ="
0 ="
d
c
becomes
a
Thus, the number of independent free dofs is equal to the number of unconstrained free dofs minus the
number of linearly independent constraint conditions. This number corresponds to the rank of the
constraint matrix, as we will see subsequently.
Page 202
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
0 = A LCU
(1)
The rank of the constraint matrix ALC is equal to the number of independent constraints.
Thus, the number of indepedent free dof's is equal to the number of original free dof's of the structural
model (the number of unconstrained dof's) minus the rank of the constraint matrix.
We can use equation (1) to select a set of independent dof's and express the remainder in terms of
these. We have seen this process already in action with the equilibrium equations and the determination
of the force influence matrix for the redundant basic forces, but we repeat it here for review's sake.
We select a set of independent dof's among the global dof displacement vector U and denote them with subscript i (for
independent). The remainder are denoted with subscript c (for constrained). From (1) we get
0 = A LCi U i + A LCc U c
A LCi U i
U = A cU i
we get U f = reorder
= reorder
i
U i
I
for better identification we denote the independent free dof's under constraints with a new symbol U f
and write U f = A cU
f
Page 203
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
U RX
R'
U RY
LR
YR
LR
U RX
U RY
X R
LR
Y
LR
LR
U RX = YR
U RY = X R
YR
LR
X R
2. Step: change of distance of two nodes rotating infinitesimally about common instantaneous center
of rotation IC
u1 = YC
u4
u5
j
u 2 = X C
)
u5 = ( X + X C )
u 4 = Y + YC
u1
u2
IC
u 4 u1 = Y
u5 u 2 = X
YC
X X C
(u4 u1 ) X + (u5 u2 ) Y = Y X + X Y = 0
Infinitesimal rotation of the line connecting two nodes is equivalent to inextensible response; thus,
inextensible elements rotate about an instantaneous center of rotation; how to locate this center?
Page 204
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u4
u5
u 4 u1
Y
u5 u 2
X
Y coordinates of IC
u1
u2
IC
YC =
u1
X C =
u2
after subtitution of
YC
YC =
X X C
u1
u 4 u1
X C =
u2
u5 u 2
or, better =
u1
YC
or,
u 4 u1
u2
X C
Y
or,
u5 u 2
X
=
u4
Y + YC
or,
u5
X + X C
i.e. with the translation at either end of the element determine the rotation angle by dividing this
translation with the distance normal to the translation direction from the point of translation to the
instantaneous center of rotation
Page 205
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
u5
j
u5
u4
j u4
Case b
Case a
u2
u2 = 0
IC
i u =0
1
i u =0
1
IC is located somewhere on the line parallel to X
through node i; rotation can be determined from
horizontal translation at node j
IC
u4
or
u5
u4
Y
u5
j
IC
u4
Case c
u2
i u1 = 0
u1
u5
X
Page 206
IC
u4
Case d
u2 = 0
u5 = 0
u4
Y
or
u2
X
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
V = A fU f
Tranlated to our structural problem this means, that V=0 implies Uf = 0 in a stable structure (the
undeformed configuration), while V=0 can result in nonzero vector Uf, which constitutes a collapse
mechanism and is unacceptable. (Note that the stability of a structure at the undeformed configuration is a
property of the compatibility matrix!).
Answering this question becomes very important for statically indeterminate structures, when we select the
basic force redundants, hoping that we can solve the equilibrium equations for the primary basic forces.
The system that remains when the redundants are set equal to zero is called the primary system, and it
needs to be stable.
To apply the stability check in practice we ask the following question:
Is it possible for global dof displacements to take place without element deformations?
The answer is yes, if a set of consistent IC's of rotation for the different elements or blocks of the
structural model exist.
The answer is no, if the IC locations contradict, in which case the structure is stable.
Let us look at a few examples
IC B
RC CD
NOS=4
IC D
RC BC
IC C
IC C @
IC C
Alternative A: unstable
2
Page 207
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
RC BC
A
NOS=4
IC A
RC AB
IC B
IC C
IC B
IC B
Alternative B: stable
stable
stable
D
A
A
IC C
IC A
stable
unstable
Page 208
Example 16  Compatibility Relations for Gable Frame with Constraints  Analytic Method
In this example we set up the compatibility relations for a gable frame structure. We start will all free global
dofs and then constrain them by inextensibility and then inflexibility conditions.
The gable frame structure is the same as in Example 1. The following figure shows the geometry.
5
4
2
1
6
node 3
node 2
9
node 4
10
node 1
node 5
8
5
4
2
1
6
8
Y
X
Page 209
12
To set up the compatibility matrix Af we study a pair of nodes after translation and rotation. We note that
there are the following measures of relative displacement: the change in the distance between the nodes,
and the angles between the node tangent and the node connector line. We number these in order 1, 2 and
3.
v1
u6
v3
Ln
v2
u3
u5
u4
Y
L
i
y
u2
i
u1
v1 = L n L
v2 = u3
=
v1 =
and
X
Y
( u4 u1) +
( u5 u2)
L
L
u3 = u6
1 X
Y
( u5 u2)
( u4 u1)
L L
L
Page 210
collecting all these relations into a matrix relation we get the compatibility matrix that expresses the relation
between the change of distance and the angles between the node tangent and the node connector line on
the one hand and the end node displacements in the global reference on the other. We have
v = ag u
X Y 0 X Y 0
L
L
L
L
Y X 1 Y X 0
ag =
2
2
2
2
L
L
L
L
Y X
Y
X
1
0
2
2
2
2
L
L
L
L
where
We apply this relation systematically to the above frame noting the following:
element a will be placed between nodes 1 and 2
X := 0
Y := 12
L := 12
X := 8
Y := 6
L := 10
X := 8
Y := 6
L := 10
X := 0
Y := 12
L := 12
0
12
1
0
12
0.8 0.6
0.6 0.8
10 10
0.6 0.8
Af :=
10 10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0.6
0.6
10
0.8
0
10
0.8
0.6
0.6
10
0.8
10
0 0.8
0.6
0.6
10
0.8
10
0.6
0.8
10
10
1
12
0
0
0.8
0.6
10
10
0.6
10
0.8
10
Page 211
We observe that the compatibility matrix is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix for the same structure with
the same numbering of equilibrium equations and basic forces. For a stable structure the rank of the
compatibility matrix should be equal to the number of columns, i.e. equal to the number of independent free
global dofs. Here we have
rank ( Af) = 9
The degree of static indeterminacy NOS of the structure is equal to the difference between the number of
continuity conditions and the number of independent free dofs, assuming that the latter is equal to the rank.
Thus, if we enforce continuity in all 11 locations, as the detailing of the structural model suggests, then the
degree of static indeterminacy of this structure is NOS=119 = 2.
Inextensible element  Linear constraints
Let us now assume that the nodes are constrained to translate so that the distance between nodes with
elements does not change. These introduces as many constraints as elements. These constraints are linear
under small displacements. For the structure in this example we have 4 constraints
using the first two equations and simplifying we have
0 = U2
0=
8
6
( U4 U1) +
( U5 U2)
10
10
0=
6
8
U4 U1) +
U5
(
10
10
0=
8
6
( U7 U4)
( U8 U5)
10
10
0=
8
6
( U7 U4) +
U5
10
10
0 = U8
thus, we are left with 2 linear equations for 4 translation dofs. These equations constrain the 4 translation
dofs, so that only 2 are independent and the other 2 need to have values that satisfy the two equations
(recall the discussion about basic and free variables in linear algebra, or the discussion about primary
and redundant basic forces for the equilibrium equations; the situation here is entirely analogous).
Let us pick the following independent free dof's
Page 212
set
U1 = 1
U1 = 0
and
U4 = 0
and
U4 = 1
U5 =
U7 = 1 U1 = 1
4
4
U5 = U4 =
3
3
U7 = 2 U4 = 2
U1 =
We are now ready to write the linear transformation relation between the original and the constrained set
of free dof's. For the latter we use the symbol Utildf and the numbering on the right figure above. We have
4
Utild1
Utild3
U1 = Utild1
U5 =
U2 = 0
U6 = Utild4
U3 = Utild2
U7 = Utild1 + 2 Utild3
U4 = Utild3
U8 = 0
U9 = Utild5
clearly, the rotation dofs are not affected by these constraints (just renumbered), but the translation dofs are
we can write the above relation between Uf and Utildf in compact from
Uf = Ac Utildf
with
0
0
0
4
Ac :=
3
0
1
0
0 0
0 0
4
3
0
0
0
0
since we plan to work with the constrained set of dofs in the future we like to express the structure
compatibility matrix in terms of the constrained set of free dofs. We call this matrix Atildf
in other words the changes in length and angles are expressed in terms of the displacements of the
constrained set of dofs by the relation
Atildf Utildf
and since
Af Uf = Af Ac Utildf
Page 213
we conclude that
Atildf = Af Ac
For the structure in this example the compatibility matrix Atildf becomes
0
0.083
0.083
0
0.167
Atildf = 0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0
0.083
Atildf := Af Ac
0 0
0.167
0.167
0 0.167 1
0 0.167 0
0
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
we confirm from the above that the distance between nodes 12, 23, 34 and 45 does not change.
Thus, we plan to drop the corresponding rows from future uses of the structure compatibility matrix Atildf for
the constrained set of free dofs.
We will see later that the entries of the structure compatibility matrix Atildf for the constrained set of free
dofs can be established by geometry in a much more straightforward way for small structures.
Inflexible element  Linear constraint
Let us now assume that element be is not only inextensible, but quite inflexible relative to the other
elements in the model. This means that the rotations of nodes 2 and 3 are constrained to be equal to the
angle as the following figure shows for an extensible, but inflexible element
v1
u6
u3 = =
Ln
u3
u5
u4
u2
i
u1
u6 = =
X
L
X
L
( u5 u2)
( u5 u2)
Y
i
x
X
Page 214
( u4 u1)
( u4 u1)
u6 = u3
To introduce the inflexibility constraint between nodes 2 and 3 after having introduced the inextensibility
constraints for the structure in this example we can proceed in one of two ways: (a) we can return to the
linear constraint conditions for inextensibility and add the inflexibility conditions, or, (b) we can introduce the
inflexibility conditions on the already constrained set of free global dofs. Let us show both methods:
Method a: introduce inextensibility and inflexibility constraints in one step
We have 4 inextensibility and 2 inflexibility conditions. We use 2 inextensibility conditions to conclude that
U2 and U8 are equal to zero, as before. We have:
remaining inextensibility conditions
0=
0=
set
(U4 U1) +
10
8
10
( U7 U4) +
U1 = 1
6
10
U5
6
10
U3 =
U5
and
inflexibility conditions
U6 =
U4 = 0
8
10 10
8
10 10
U5
U5
6
10 10
6
10 10
( U4 U1)
( U4 U1)
U1 = 0
and
U4 = 1
U5 =
U7 = 1 U1 = 1
U3 =
U6 =
set
1
6
1
6
U1 =
U1 =
U1 =
1
6
1
6
4
4
U5 = U4 =
3
3
U7 = 2 U4 = 2
1
1
U3 = U4 =
6
6
1
1
U6 = U4 =
6
6
Page 215
The independent free dofs are now three, as shown in the following figure. We denote them with U'fTto
distinguish them from the Utildf in method (b) later. The above relations give
U1 = U'1
U2 = 0
U3 =
1
1
U'1 U'2
6
6
U4 = U'2
a
12
U5 =
4
4
U'1 U'2
3
3
U6 =
1
1
U'1 U'2
6
6
U7 = U'1 + 2 U'2
U8 = 0
U9 = U'3
1 0 0
0 0 0
1 1
6 6 0
0 1 0
4 4
A'c :=
0
3
3
1 1
6 6 0
1 2 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
this is the matrix that relates the original set of nine independent free dofs to
the constrained set of 3 independent free dofs, which displace under
consideration of 4 inextensible and 1 inflexible element
Page 216
The compatibility matrix Atild'f for the three independent free dofs becomes
Atild'f := Af A'c
0
0.083
0.25
0
0
Atild'f = 0
0
0.333
0.167
0
0.083
0
0
0.167
0
0
0
0
0.333
0.167
0
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
We note that the change in distance between nodes 12, 23, 34 and 45 is now equal to zero, as is
the angle between nodes 2 and 3 and the chord connecting them. Thus, we plan to drop the corresponding
rows from future uses of the structure compatibility matrix Atild'f for the constrained set of free dofs.
Method b: introduce inflexibility constraints after having introduced inextensibility constraints
in this case we plan to constrain the following set of 5 independent free dofs to 3
4
b
To establish the relation between these two sets of dofs in the most direct way possible we look at the rows
of the structure compatibility matrix that correspond to the angles between nodes 2 and 3 and the chord
connecting them for the case of 5 independent free dofs (top of page 6). We have
1
1
Utild1 + Utild2 + Utild3
6
6
1
1
Utild1 + Utild3 + Utild4
6
6
for the angle between node 2 and the line connecting 23
for the angle between node 3 and the line connecting 23
Page 217
For an inflexible element b these two angles need to be zero, i.e. there is no angle between the node
and the chord connecting it to the next node, because the node is forces to rotate with the chord.
Thus, we get
Utild2 =
1
1
Utild1 Utild3
6
6
1
1
Utild4 = Utild1 Utild3
6
6
Utild2 = Utild4
After renumbering the new set of constrained dofs, as shown in the figure on the right and denoting them
with U'f we have:
Utild1 = U'1
Utild2 =
1
1
U'1 U'2
6
6
Utild4 =
1
1
U'1 U'2
6
6
Utild5 = U'3
Utild3 = U'2
this means that the constraint matrix from 5 to 3 dofs (call it A''c ) is
1 0 0
1 1 0
6 6
A''c := 0 1 0
1 1 0
6 6
0 0 1
and we now have for the compatibility matrix Atild'f for the three independent free dofs
0
0.083
0.25
0
0
0
Atild'f =
0
0.333
0.167
0
0.083
0
0
0.167
0
0
0
0
0.333
0.167
0
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
which, of course, is the same result as for method a. In the latter we went in a single step from the original 9
independent free dofs to the three constrained free dofs. In method b we went in two steps: first from 9 to 5
free dofs by invoking the inextensible element constraints, and then from 5 to 3 by invoking the inflexible
element constraints.
Page 218
Create model
% specify node coordinates (could only specify nonzero terms)
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 0
12]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 8
18]; %
XYZ(4,:) = [ 16
12];
XYZ(5,:) = [ 16
0]; %
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 3
4];
CON {4} = [ 4
5];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
dof's)
BOUN(1,:) = [1 1 1];
BOUN(5,:) = [1 1 0];
% specify element type
[ElemName{1:4}] = deal('2dFrm');
% 2d beam element
Page 219
Page 220
Page 221
Page 222
Page 223
Page 224
6
8
b
3
12
Y
X
With four inextensible elements a through d there are 4 independent linear constraint conditions between
the 6 translation dofs, while the rotation dofs are not affected. It is quite obvious that the displacement
values at dofs 2 and 8 are zero. We can, therefore, select any two of the other 4 translation dofs as the
independent free global dofs for the structural model with inextensible elements.
Thus, we select the following 5 independent free dofs for the structural model with inextensible elements.
3
5
3
2
6
7
Page 225
IC b
1.33
IC c
1.33
IC b
dof 3
IC a
ICd
IC d
Conclusion: The IC's of two adjoining elements and their common node lie on a straight line.
From the unit value at the particular dof determine the rotations of the element chords.
IC c
IC b
IC c
1.33
1.33
IC b
b = 1 6
b = 1 6
c = 1 6
c = 1 6
IC a
a = 0
a = 1 12
d = 1 12
d = 1 6
IC d
Page 226
IC d
The angles between the node tangent and the chord are equal to the opposite of the chord rotation, since
the angles are measured from the chord to the tangent.
<1>
A
f
 a 1 12
 a 1 12
 b 1 6
=  b = 1 6
 1 6
c
 c 1 6
 1 12
<3>
A
f
 a 0
 a 0
 b 1 6
=  b = 1 6
 1 6
c
 c 1 6
 1 6
The complete compatibility matrix for the 5 independent free dofs of the structural model with inextensible
elements becomes.
1
12
1
12
1
6
1
Atildf :=
6
1
6
1
6
1
12
1
6
1
6
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
6
1
6
1
6
0 0
0
0
1
4
2
3
4
5
1
6
7
Page 227
6
7
2
c
1.33
IC c
IC c
1.33
IC b
IC a
12
IC b
IC d
IC d
1.33
1.33
Page 228
The figures on the preceding page show that the inflexible element b forces the nodes 2 and 3 to rotate with
the chord. This induces a rotation of the node tangent at the ends of elements a and c, as shown. The
compatibility matrix for the two dofs becomes.
Recalling
IC c
IC b
IC c
1.33
1
1.33
IC b
a = 0
a = 1 12
b = 1 6
b = 1 6
c = 1 6
c = 1 6
IC a
d = 1 6
d = 1 12
IC d
IC d
1.33
1
1.33
<1>
A
f
1 12
 a
 a + b 1 12 + 1 6
0
= 0 =
0
 + 1 6 + 1 6
c b
16
c
 1 12
< 2>
A
f
Page 229
0
 a
 a + b 1 6
0
0
= 0 =
0
 + 1 6 1
b
c
 c 1 6

16
d
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
Vh = A f U f
V = 0 and thus Vh = V
since
with
Vh
The columns of the compatibility matrix describe the independent elementary collapse mechanisms.
3
dof 3
beam mechanism
dof 1
sidesway mechanism
dof 5
joint mechanism
Page 230
dof 2
dof 1
dof 4
b
dof 5
dof 5
dof 4
b
dof 3
dof 2
dof 1
Assuming that all elements are inextensible there are 5 independent free global dofs, as shown.
We determine the angles between the nodes and the lines connecting the nodes at all element ends.
The compatibility matrix is then equal to the transpose of the equilibrium matrix of example 8. We have
encountered this matrix in Example 15
1
5
1
5
0
Af :=
0
1
5
1
5
0 0
1
0
0
1
4
1
1
4
1
4
1
4
Page 231
With hinges at locations 5, 6 and 8 whose rotations are unknown at this stage we use the compatibility
relations at locations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 where no hinges are present and we are only dealing with strain
dependent element deformations. We extract the corresponding rows of the compatibility matrix and call it Ai
1
5
1
5
Ai := 0
1
5
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0 0
0
1
0
4
1
4
1
0
rank ( Ai) = 5
and this means that the structure is stable, since the rank of the matrix is
equal to the number of columns; furthermore, the number of columns is equal
to the number of rows meaning that we are dealing with a statically
determinate structure. How can we "prove" that the structure is stable, if we
do not have access to the rank function?
We set Vi = 0 and seek to find a set of nonzero displacement that satisfy
Vi = Ai * Uf. If this is possible, the structure is unstable (instability means that
the nodes of the structural model are able to displace infinitesimally without
deforming any elements, i.e. "without resistance"). If the only solution of the
set of compatibility relation is the trivial solution Uf=0, then the structure is
stable. Linear algebra says that the nullspace of kinematic matrix Ai consists
of the null vector only.
For the example at hand we write the compatibility equations out in full. We have:
V1 =
1
U1
5
V2 =
1
U1 + U2
5
V3 = U2
1
U3
4
1
V4 = U3 + U4
4
V7 =
1
U1 + U5
5
Setting all V's equal to zero it is easy to see that all the U's are zero as well (proceed from the first to the last
equation). Thus, the structure is stable. Of course, we have an intuitive understanding that this is indeed the
case, but what we do with our "intuition" is precisely what this algebraic process illustrates: we try to see if it
is possible to "move" the nodes without deforming the elements. If so, we call the structure unstable. We will
see soon that we can do this geometrically with the method of instantaneous centers of rotation.
Page 232
Let us now assume that an additional hinge is inserted at end 1. The structure now looks like this.
The compatibility matrix for the continuous element ends now has only four rows (it lost the first row)
0
Ae :=
0
1
5
0 0
0 0
1
1 0
0
4
0 0 0 1
rank ( Ae) = 4
which is to be expected since there are now only four rows. Since the rank
of the matrix is smaller than the number of free dof's, we have an unstable
structure. The question is: what are the displacement values that satisfy the
condition 0 = Ae * Uf ? We may recall that the solution of these homogeneous
linear equations is known as the nullspace of the compatibility matrix. Let us
find this solution.
Note that strain dependent deformation increments are zero for an unstable structure as well as for the
collapse mechanism of a fully plastic structure. Thus, the more accurate way of interpreting the above
equation is that 0 = Ae * Uf in such case. The reason for the deformation increments being zero past the
point at which the collapse load is reached is that the basic forces do not change for perfectly plastic
behavior.
V2 = 0 =
1
5
U1 + U2
V3 = 0 = U2
1
4
setting
U1 = 1
we get
U3
1
5
1
5
U3 = 4 U2
1
V4 = 0 = U3 + U4
4
V7 = 0 =
U2 =
U4 =
U1 + U5
1
4
U5 =
Page 233
U3
1
5
U3 =
4
5
U4 =
1
5
1
1
5
4
5 U
Uf =
1
1
5
1
5
0.2
0.8
We note that the elements maintain continuity of tangents at the four locations 2, 3, 4 and 7 without
deforming. We also note that the collapse mechanism is the linear combination of the columns of the
compatibility matrix with factors 1, 1/5, 4/5, 1/5, 1/5.
Page 234
We return to the compatibility relations in order to calculate the hinge rotations in terms of U 1
We have in general
Vh = Af Uf V
Uf = Acp U1
with
1
1
5
4
Acp := 5
1
5
1
5
since the element deformations in our case are all zero, we have
Afp := Af Acp
0.2
0
0
0
Afp =
0.4
0.4
0
0.2
V := ( 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 )
0.2
0
0
0
Vh =
U1
0.4
0.4
0
0.2
Page 235
Create model
% specify node coordinates (could only specify nonzero terms)
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 0
5]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 4
5]; % third node, etc
XYZ(4,:) = [ 8
5]; %
XYZ(5,:) = [ 8
0]; %
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 3
4];
CON {4} = [ 4
5];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = ones(1,3);
BOUN(5,:) = ones(1,3);
[ElemName{1:4}] = deal ('2dFrm');
0 = free)
% 2d beam element
Analysis
% set up linear constraint equations for inextensible elements
LC_Eqs = LinConEqs(Model);
% form compatibility matrix Ac from linear constraint equations
% reorder horizontal translation at node 2 and vertical translation at node 3
last
pick_dof = [Model.DOF(2,1) Model.DOF(3,2)];
dof_reord = [setdiff(1:Model.nt,pick_dof) pick_dof];
Ac = Ac_matrix (LC_Eqs,dof_reord);
% set up compatibility matrix A of structural model
A = A_matrix(Model);
% compatibility matrix for constrained independent free dofs Aftild (drop tild
in the following)
Af = A*Ac;
% set up linear constraint equations from the deformations at the locations w/o
hinge
LC_Eqs = Af([3 5 6 11],:);
% derive constrained collapse mechanism: put horizontal translation last for
scaling
dof_reord = [2:5 1];
Acp(dof_reord,:) = Ac_matrix(LC_Eqs(:,dof_reord));
Acp
Page 236
Page 237
2
1
Under the assumption that elements a through e are inextensible the structure has only 4 independent free
dofs, as shown in the following figure (the rotations at nodes 3, 4 and 6 are set aside). The locations for
recording the angles between nodes and the lines connecting them as well as the change of length between
nodes 3 and 5 are numbered in the figure.
dof 1
dof 4
dof 3
4
1
3
dof 2
Page 238
1
6
1
6
1
0
Af :=
6
1
6
0.8
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
1
0
8
1
1
8
1
0
1
0
0.6 0
We now assume that the following releases are inserted: a circle indicates a flexural hinge or moment
release, while a telescope connection indicates an axial hinge or axial force release.
d
2
1
For this structure the continuity conditions between element deformations and angles between nodes and
lines connecting the nodes or changes of distance between nodes are:
1
V2 = U1 + U2
6
V4 = U2 +
1
8
U3
V5 =
1
8
U3 + U4
1
V6 = U1 + U4
6
Page 239
0
Ae :=
0
1
6
1 0 0
1
1
8
1
0
8
0 0
rank ( Ae) = 3
linear dependence!
Setting all V's equal to zero in the above equation, we can determine the vector of the displacement values
for the collapse mechanism. Setting U1 = 1 we get
1
0 = U1 + U2
6
1
0 = U2 + U3
8
0=
1
U3 + U4
8
1
1
6
4
U3 = thus the collapse mechanism is represented by Acp U1 with Acp := 4
3
3
1
U4 =
1
6
6
U2 =
1
6
1
6
0
1
3
0
with Afp =
V =
0 h
0
1
3
8
5
1
6
0
1
3
0 U
0 1
0
1
3
8
5
Page 240
Create model
% specify node coordinates (could only specify nonzero terms)
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 6
0]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 12
0]; % third node, etc
XYZ(4,:) = [ 0
8]; %
XYZ(5,:) = [ 6
8]; %
XYZ(6,:) = [ 12
8]; %
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 2
5];
CON {4} = [ 4
5];
CON {5} = [ 5
6];
CON {6} = [ 3
5];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = ones(1,3);
BOUN(3,:) = [0 1 0];
BOUN(4,:) = [0 1 0];
BOUN(6,:) = [0 1 0];
[ElemName{1:5}] = deal ('2dFrm');
ElemName{6} = 'Truss';
0 = free)
% 2d beam element
%
truss element
Analysis
% set up linear constraint equations for inextensible elements
LC_Eqs = LinConEqs(Model,1:5);
% form compatibility matrix Ac from linear constraint equations
% reorder horizontal translation at node 4 and vertical translation at 5 last
pick_dof = [Model.DOF(4,1) Model.DOF(5,2)];
dof_reord = [setdiff(1:Model.nt,pick_dof) pick_dof];
Ac = Ac_matrix (LC_Eqs,dof_reord);
% set up compatibility matrix A of structural model
A = A_matrix(Model);
% compatibility matrix for constrained independent free dofs Aftild
Af = A*Ac;
% set up linear constraint equations from deformations at locations w/o hinge
LC_Eqs = Af([3 6 8 9 11 12 15],:);
% derive collapse mechanism: put vertical translation last for unit scaling
dof_reord = [1:4 6:7 5];
Acp(dof_reord,:) = Ac_matrix(LC_Eqs(:,dof_reord));
Acp
Page 241
Page 242
A :=
B :=
CW
CCW
C :=
1
1
5
CW
5
A
C
8
ICC
ICA
The plastic hinge rotations are the deformations at 1, 5, 6 and 8. Note that V = 0, since the basic forces
do not change past the point at which the collapse load is reached.
We have:
V1 := A
V1 = 0.2
V5 := B + A
V5 = 0.4
V6 := B + C
V6 = 0.4
V8 := C
V8 = 0.2
Page 243
We treat the second structure as a mechanism, i.e. we assume that the inserted hinges do not carry any
forces. There are again 3 rigid bodies that can rotate relative to each other and the supports, denoted with
A, B and C. The instantaneous centers of rotation are shown in the following figure. Selecting the vertical
translation as the reference value, we obtain the value of 4/3 for the horizontal translation, as shown.
ICB
8
4/3
A :=
1
6
B :=
1
6
C :=
1
6
ICA
ICC
3
1
6
The hinge rotations are the deformations at 1, 3 and 7. Moreover, we also have a hinge with axial
deformation at 8. We denote the hinge deformations with subscript h and note that there are no strain
dependent element deformations, since the model is a mechanism that is unable to resist any loading.
Vh1 = 0.167 CW when measured from chord to node tangent
We have: Vh1 := A
Vh3 := C + A
Vh3 = 0.333
Vh7 := B + A
Vh7 = 0.333
4 V = 1.6
h8
3
Page 244
CE220Theory of Structures
Kinematics
Compatibility
Equilibrium
nf equations
Pf = BfQ + Pfw
A Tf = Bf
nf unknowns
V = A fU f +Vd
NOS unknowns
Q = Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Qx
NOS conditions
B Tx (V Vd ) = 0
Page 245
CE220Theory of Structures
Objective: relation between static and kinematic variables through virtual work statements;
incremental plastic work for upper bound theorem of plastic analysis
Page 246
We = U f T Pf + U d T Pd
and the internal virtual work takes the form
Wi = V T Q
The principle of virtual work states:
If a structure is in a state of equilibrium, then the external virtual work is equal to the internal
virtual work under any set of virtual displacements that satisfy the conditions of compatibility.
This is a necessary and sufficient condition meaning that the reverse is also true, i.e. if the
external work of the applied forces is equal to the internal work of some basic element forces for
all sets of virtual displacements and deformations that satisfy the conditions of compatibility,
then the applied forces are in equilibrium with the basic element forces.
In practice we use the principle of virtual work for determining individual force values and,
later on, individual stiffness coefficients in hand calculations (Note that a stiffness coefficient
K ij is the force at dof i due to a unit displacement at free dof j only). To this end we select a
virtual displacement field with a unit displacement value at the particular dof of interest and zero
values at all other dofs. The corresponding deformations can be determined with the methods of
the preceding section. In the process we simplify the compatibility problem as much as possible
by introducing constraints among the global dofs, so as to eliminate certain element forces from
the internal work. For example, in order to eliminate the contribution of axial forces we select a
virtual displacement field with zero virtual axial deformations.
Page 247
The external work of element loads can be obtained by integration of the inner product of
element forces with corresponding virtual displacements over the element length and summation
over all elements. Alternatively, we express the element loads through equivalent end forces that
get assembled into nodal forces Pfw due to element loads. In the latter case we write for the
external virtual work
We = U f T ( Pf Pfw ) + U d T Pd
3.2
and their compatible deformations and an independent set of applied forces and the basic element
forces in equilibrium with these. The forces represent the virtual set that has no causal relation
with the real displacement/deformation set. We call the work complementary and have for the
external complementary virtual work
We = Pf T U f + Pd T U d
and for the internal complementary virtual work
Wi = QT V
The principle of complementary virtual work states:
If a structure is in a state of compatible deformation, then the external complementary virtual
work is equal to the internal complementary virtual work under any set of virtual forces that
satisfy equilibrium. This is a necessary and sufficient condition meaning that the reverse is also
true, i.e. if the external complementary virtual work of the virtual forces is equal to the internal
complementary virtual work of the corresponding virtual basic element forces for all sets of
virtual applied forces and corresponding element forces in equilibrium, then the actual
deformations and the global dof displacements are compatible.
In practice we use the principle of virtual forces for determining individual displacement
values and, later on, individual flexibility coefficients in hand calculations (Note that a flexibility
coefficient Fij is the displacement at dof i due to a unit force at free dof j only). To this end we
select a virtual force field with an applied unit force value at the particular dof of interest and
zero values at all other dofs. We select a set of basic element forces in equilibrium with the unit
Page 248
force. The simplest set of basic element forces (i.e. with the most zero values in basic force
vector Q ) is the most convenient choice, because it involves the least amount of arithmetic
operations for determining the internal virtual work. Because of the presence of a unit applied
force at the dof of interest, the principle of virtual forces is sometimes called the dummy unit
load method.
3.3
collapse mechanism the plastic work increment of the external forces on the corresponding
displacement increments of the collapse mechanism is
W pe = U Tf ( Pref )
The internal work increment of the basic element forces on the plastic deformation increments is
a bit harder to express. Because Q pl represents the absolute values of the plastic capacity of the
elements, we need to distinguish between positive and negative plastic deformation increments
and change the sign of the latter. We define these as follows
Vpl + = Vpl
if
Vpl > 0
otherwise
Vpl + = 0
Vpl = Vpl
if
Vpl < 0
otherwise
Vpl = 0
c = min
Vpl + Vpl = A f U f
It turns out that this is the dual linear programming problem to the lower bound theorem. Thus,
both formulations produce the same answer, i.e. a unique collapse load factor for the structural
model under the given applied force pattern.
Page 249
c
8
0.181
16.04
32.97
Page 250
38.02
16.04
0.18
0.18
Q :=
32.97
32.97
38.02
To determine the magnitude of the applied force we select a virtual displacement field with the following
characteristics:
1. it has a unit value in the direction of the applied force (positive global Ydirection at node 3)
2. it has zero displacements at the supports in the direction of unknown support reactions
3. it does not involve axial deformations in elements a, b, and c, since the axial forces under the unknown
applied force are not given.
First choice
We select the virtual displacement field in the following figure. It meets all requirements above.
0.75
IC's as shown
Virtual chord rotations
a :=
1
8
b :=
1
8
c :=
1
8
ICa=ICb
ICc
8
V = Af Uf
V :=
b
c
c
0.125
0.125
0.125
V =
0.125
0.125
0.125
the principle of virtual displacements says that the external work equal the internal work
P1 U1 = P1 ( 1)
T
V Q = 15
Page 251
Second choice
We select the virtual displacement field in the following figure. It meets all requirements above.
0.75
IC's as shown
Virtual chord rotations
1
a :=
b :=
1
8
1
8
c :=
1
8
ICa=ICb
ICc
8
Vh = Af Uf
a + b
b + b
Vh :=
b + c
c + c
1
8
0
0
Vh = 1
4
0
1
8
Note that this virtual deformation field is a lot more convenient, since it has only 3 nonzero terms.
the principle of virtual displacements says that the external work equal the internal work
P1 U1 = P1 ( 1)
T
Vh Q = 15
Page 252
Example b
Given the same structure as above we want the vertical support reaction at node 1. It is not clear whether we
can depend or not on the magnitude of the applied force (after all we may have an error in the above
calculations) and so we choose a virtual displacement field with zero translation at node 3, so as to avoid
including the external work of the applied force of uncertain value.
2
c
8
IC's as shown
Virtual chord rotations
a :=
1
8
b :=
1
8
c := 0
1
ICa=ICb
R
8
ICc
8
Page 253
V :=
b
c
c
V = Af Uf
0.125
0.125
0.125
V =
0.125
0
0
the principle of virtual displacements says that the external work equal the internal work,
if all forces are in equilibrium.
R U1 = R ( 1)
T
V Q = 6.126
Second choice
We select the virtual displacement field in the following figure. It meets all requirements above.
0.75
IC's as shown
Virtual chord rotations
a :=
b :=
1
8
1
8
c := 0
1
ICa=ICb
ICc
8
8
the corresponding virtual deformations are
Vh = Af Uf
Page 254
a
a + b
b
b
Vh :=
0.125
0
0
Vh =
0.125
0
0
Note that this virtual deformation field is a lot more convenient, since it has only 2 nonzero terms.
the principle of virtual displacements says that the external work equal the internal work
R U1 = R ( 1)
T
Vh Q = 6.126
Third choice
We select the virtual displacement field in the following figure. It meets all requirements except #4 above.
This means that we have to know the magnitude of the applied force in this case.
ICc
15
8
R U1 15 ( 1) = R 15
T
V Q = 8.874
0
0
0
0
V :=
1
8
1
8
R := 15 8.874
R = 6.126
Page 255
Example c
Given the same structure as above under the effect of a uniformly distributed load in element a.
w=?
2
c
8
24.29
76.45
56.94
Page 256
59.68
76.45
24.29
24.29
Q :=
56.94
56.94
59.68
We proceed exactly as for example a. Let us first look at the external work done by the uniformly distributed
element load. Assuming a linear virtual displacement field as in the following figure we have
external work We
L
x
u ( x) =
L
x
We = w dx
w 2
w L
We = x dx =
L 0
2
We can think of the following interpretation of the above result: the external work is equal to the work
of the resultant of the uniformly distributed load times the translation that its centroid undergoes (see
following figure)
wL
We = wL
0.5
8w
10 w
6w
1
8
4
c
8
Page 257
0.75
IC's as shown
Virtual chord rotations
1
a :=
b :=
1
8
1
8
c :=
1
8
ICa=ICb
ICc
8
8
the corresponding virtual deformations are
Vh = Af Uf
a + b
b + b
Vh :=
b + c
c + c
a 3 = 0.375
a 4 = 0.5
1
8
0
0
Vh = 1
4
0
1
8
units in negative X
units in positive Y
The components of the resultant of the uniformly distributed element load are
6w units in the positive X direction
8w units in the negative direction
Page 258
Vh Q = 31.251
31.251
6.25
w=5
40
30
4
2
1
Page 259
dof 1
dof 4
dof 3
4
1
3
dof 2
The inextensibility requirement for elements a through e results in the independent free dofs of the above
figure. With these dofs we write the compatibility equations (consult Example 9). Setting the deformations at
locations 2, 4, 5 and 6 equal to zero gives us four equations for the four independent dofs. However, as
explained in Example 9, only three of these equations are linearly independent and there exists a nonzero
displacement vector that satisfies these four compatibility relations. This vector is the collapse mechanism of
the structural model. We pursue first the analytical solution, which is lengthier, and tackle the faster
geometric solution subsequently.
Example 9 shows that the collapse mechanism is given by the following displacement vector.
4/3
1
Page 260
1
1
6
Uf = 4 U1
3
1
6
we use the same vector with
a unit value for U1 as the
virtual displacement vector
1
6
1
6
1
Vh = Af Uf
0
with Af :=
6
1
6
0.8
0.167
0
0.333
0
Vh =
0
0
0.333
1.6
1
1
6
Vh := Af 4
3
1
6
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
1
0
from example 9
8
1
1
8
1
0
1
0
0.6 0
We have to assume at this point that we know the sign of the basic forces at the plastic hinge locations. We
will show in the following example how to get these from the consideration of real plastic work. The Q values
at the other locations are of no significance, since the corresponding virtual deformations are zero and no
contribution to the internal work results. We set them equal to the value 99 in the vector Q
We have:
100
99
100
99
Q :=
99
99
100
20
Uf ( Pref)
T
Vh Q = 115.333
40
Pref :=
30
with
:=
Vh Q
T
Uf Pref
Page 261
= 1.442
1
1
6
Uf := 4
3
1
6
We can also derive the mechanism by geometric considerations, as shown in the following figure. We are not
worried about the scaling of the collapse mechanism and the direction.
ICC
A :=
B :=
1
3/4
3
4
ICB
ICA
2
A
B + A
Vh :=
C + A
3
1 0.6 0.8
4
0.125
0
0.25
0
Vh =
0
0
0.25
1.2
3
4
1
Uf := 8
1
1
8
:=
Vh Q
T
Uf Pref
Page 262
1 3
6 4
C := B
= 1.442
as before
B = 0.125
a
2
8
We assume that the vector of element deformations is supplied. We take it for granted that the given
deformations are compatible and, thus, do not bother to check that they satisfy the compatibility conditions
before starting the problem. We will do so, at the end of this example.
The axial deformations are assumed negligible. Under this assumption there are 4 independent free dofs,
as shown in the following figure. The supplied element deformations are ordered as shown in italics.
dof 1
dof 3
dof 4
4
3
5
dof 2
Page 263
0.002530
0.002846
0.002846
V :=
0.002530
0.02580
0.02580
The structure compatibility matrix Af for the given free dofs is (we show the deformations only for
the translation dofs 1 and 3):
1
8
0
Af :=
8
0.6
0.6
dof 1
dof 3
1
V1 = U1 + U2
8
1
V2 = U2 + U3
6
1
V3 = U3 + U4
6
1
V4 = U1 + U4
8
V5 = 0.6 U1 + 0.8 U3
V6 = 0.6 U1 + 0.8 U3
Page 264
1
6
1
6
0 0.8
0 0.8
We make the following general observation from these equations: rotation dofs do not affect the change of
distance between nodes, or, conversely, truss element deformations only depend on translation dofs.
Thus, if we are interested in calculating the vertical translation of dof 1 under the given element
deformations, we are well advised to use the last two compatibility relations which do not involve the rotation
dofs. By subtracting equation 6 from equation 5 we get:
V5 V6 = 1.2 U1
U1 :=
and consequently
V V
5
6
1.2
U1 = 43 10
V5 + V6 = 1.6 U3
U3 :=
V +V
5
6
1.6
U3 = 0
Interestingly, under the given element deformations the horizontal translation of dof 3 is equal to zero.
if we like to determine one of the rotation dofs, we can use any of the other 4 compatibility relations, e.g.
for dof 2 we can use the first one.
U2 := V +
1
1
U1
8
U2 = 2.845 10
We can use the second compatibility relation to check that the values for dofs 2 and 3 satisfy it as well.
We have
1
6
V U 2 U 3 = 1 10
2
6
We can use the third compatibility equation to determine the rotation of dof 4. We have
U4 := V
3
1
U3
6
U4 = 2.846 10
and after substituting into the fourth relation we confirm that it is also satisfied
1
6
V U 1 U 4 = 1 10
4 8
Since the given six element deformations give a single solution for the global dof displacement values, they
are compatible.
Page 265
2
1
P1 = 1
Since axial deformations are negligible, it is in our best interest to use the equilibrium equations that do not
include axial forces. To this end we use the transpose of the above compatibility matrix. We have
P1 =
Q1
8
Q4
8
+ 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
Q2 + Q3
P3 =
+ 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
P4 = Q 3 + Q 4
for the given virtual force at dof 1 we have
1=
Q1
8
Q4
8
P1 = 1
+ 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
0 = Q1 + Q2
0=
Q2 + Q3
6
+ 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
0 = Q3 + Q4
Page 266
What is the simplest choice of Q that satisfies all these four equations?
Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Q4 = 0
We set
1 = 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
0 = 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
Q5 =
The vertical translation at dof 1 is obtained from the principle of virtual forces
with the choice Pf = P1 = 1
5
6
Q6 =
T
5
6
Pf Uf = Q V
we ensured that U f = U 1 is the only nonzero entry on the left hand side
U1 :=
5
5
V V
6 5 6 6
U1 = 0.043
the negative sign signifies that dof 1 moves in the direction opposite to the applied virtual force for the
given deformations V. Since we took care to apply the virtual force in the positive Ydirection, the
negative sign means that the translation is in the negative Ydirection, i.e. downward.
We see that the resulting equation for the translation of global dof 1 is the same as the one we obtained
by the combination of the last two compatibility relations.
Is there another choice of virtual force system in equilibrium with the virtual unit force at dof 1? Sure there
are a few. Here is another one
1=
Q1
8
Q4
8
+ 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
0 = Q1 + Q2
0=
Q2 + Q3
6
+ 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
0 = Q3 + Q4
We set
Q5 = Q6 = 0
Q1 = Q2
Q3 = Q4
1=
0=
Q2
8
Q4
8
Q2 Q4
from which
Q2 = Q4 = 4
Page 267
Q2 = Q4
4
4
4
:=
4
0
0
T
U1 := Q V
U1 = 0.043
P4 = 1
0=
Q1
8
Q4
8
+ 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
0 = Q1 + Q2
0=
Q2 + Q3
6
+ 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
1 = Q3 + Q4
Page 268
We set
Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = 0
and
Q4 = 1
0=
1
+ 0.6 Q5 0.6 Q6
8
0 = 0.8 Q5 + 0.8 Q6
Q5 =
The rotation at dof 4 can be obtained from the principle of virtual forces
U4 := 1 V
V +
V
4 9.6 5 9.6 6
1
9.6
Q6 =
T
1
9.6
T
Pf Uf = Q V
3
U4 = 2.845 10
which is the same as the result we obtained from the compatibility relations.
In conclusion, the principle of virtual forces with an applied unit virtual force at the dof whose displacement
is of interest can be used in lieu of the compatibility relations. To this end we need to find any set of virtual
basic forces that satisfy the equilibrium equations under the applied unit virtual force. The simplest choice
involves the smallest number of nonzero terms. This method is often referred to in the literature as
"dummy unit load method".
Page 269
120
120
a 150
150 d
Assuming that all elements are inextensible there are 5 independent free global dofs, as shown in the
following figure. The figure also shows the locations of the angles between node tangents and chords.
dof 3
dof 2
2
dof 5
dof 4
dof 1
3
Page 270
We determine the angles between the nodes and the lines connecting the nodes at all element ends.
The compatibility matrix is then equal to the transpose of the equilibrium matrix of example 8. We have
1
5
1
5
0
Af :=
0
1
5
1
5
0
1
0 0
0
0
1
0
1
4
0
0
0
1
4
Vh = Af Uf
Uf = Ac Uref
and with Vh the plastic deformation increments (in this case only rotations)
With the above compatibility relations the columns of the compatibility matrix
represent elementary collapse mechanisms as shown in the following figures.
Page 271
1
5
1
5
0
1 0
Af =
0
0
1
5
1
5
0
0
1
4
1
3 4
Af =
1
4
1
4
0
0
Wpe = 30 ( 1)
Wpi = 4 150
note that the plastic deformation increments are all positive and the corresponding moments have always
the same sign
1
4 150
5
The collapse load factor for the sidesway mechanism is therefore
:=
=4
30 ( 1)
Page 272
The next elementary mechanism is the beam mechanism. In this case we note that the applied force is in the
negative Ydirection. Thus, to induce positive external work (nothing else makes sense) we use a unit
displacement in the negative direction of dof 3. We take then the negative values of the angles from column
three of the compatibility matrix.
for a negative unit displacement value at dof 3 the external plastic work increment is
Wpe = ( 50) ( 1)
1 + 2 ( 120) 1
4
4
Wpi = 2 120
1
+ 2 ( 120)
4
4
2 120
The collapse load factor for the beam mechanism is therefore
:=
( 50) ( 1)
= 2.4
We note that the beam mechanism is much more critical in this structure under the given loading. In trying
to reduce the collapse load factor we realize that we can use the sidesway mechanism with hinges in the
beam instead of the columns, since the plastic capacity there is only 120 units. We accomplish this by the
following elementary collapse mechanism combination = sidesway  1/5 of joint mechanism at dof 2  1/5
of joint mechanism at dof 5. Here are the corresponding columns of the compatibility matrix
1
5
1
5
0
1 0
Af =
0
0
1
5
1
5
0
1
1
2 0
Af =
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5 0
Af =
0
1
1
0
thus,
1
5
0
1
5
1 1 2 1 5 0
Af Af Af =
0
5
5
1
5
0
1
5
we see that the plastic deformations now appear at locations 3 and 6, i.e. in the beam instead of the
columns.
The external work of this combined mechanism is the same as for the sidesway mechanism
the internal work is now a bit smaller
1 + 2 ( 120) 1
5
5
Wpi = 2 150
1
+ 2 ( 120)
5
5
2 150
and the collapse load factor becomes
:=
Page 273
30 ( 1)
= 3.6
i.e. a bit smaller than the sidesway mechanism, but still larger than the beam mechanism.
The question now is: is there a way of combining the beam mechanism with the last sidesway+joint
mechanism so as to maximize the external work (both applied forces will do work), while minimizing the
internal work. Note that if we just added the two mechanisms without canceling any plastic hinge rotations
we would get a value between 2.4 and 3.6. Let us show this
beam mechanism in
negative dof 3 direction
0
0
1
4
1
3 4
Af =
1
4
1
4
0
0
1
5
0
1
5
0
0
1
5
0
1
5
1
1
1
+ 2 ( 120) + 2 ( 120) + 2 ( 120)
4
4
5
Wpe = 50 ( 1) + 30 ( 1)
:=
Wpi
50 ( 1) + 30 ( 1)
= 2.85
It is clear that something strange is going on at location 3, where we have inserted the plastic capacity with
a positive value for the beam mechanism and then with a negative value for the sidesway+joint mechanism.
Obviously, we need to combine the two mechanisms so that the plastic deformation cancels at that location.
For this to happen we add 4/5 x the beam mechanism to the sidesway+ joint mechanism. In this case we get
1
0 1 5
0 5
0
1 0 0
4 1
1 5 1
5
4 4 0
+
=
1
5 1 0
4 5
1 2
1 5 5
4 0
0 0
1 1
0 5
5
1
1
2
+ ( 120) + ( 120) + ( 120)
5
5
5
5
Wpi := 2 150
Wpe = 50
+ 30 ( 1)
5
Page 274
:=
Wpi
4
50 + 30 ( 1)
5
= 2.229
and we have managed to reduce the collapse load factor a little bit. There does not seem to be much else
that we can do with this simple structure and we decide to call this the result. How can we be sure? By
determining the other basic forces and drawing the moment diagram of the structure. If the plastic flexural
capacity is not exceeded anywhere in the structure, then we have also found a lower bound, which then
implies that we have found the unique value of the collapse load factor. Fortunately, we have done this in
example 8 and we display the results one more time in the following figure
2.229*30
54
12.86
2.229*50
51.43
2.229*30
54
54
60
51.43
12.86
60
54
60
51.43
85.71
12.86
120
51.43
51.43
120
60
60
54
12.86
54
150
150
4
We have concluded that the final collapse mechanism is the following combination of elementary collapse
mechanisms
note that this combination shows a "double hinge"
1
at location 45. To avoid confusion we add 1/5 x joint
5
mechanism of dof 4 to get the following final result
0
0
1
5
1 1 2 4 3 1 5
Af Af Af Af =
1
5
5
5
5
2
5
0
1
5
1
5
0
0
0
1 1 2 4 3 1 4 1 5 2
Af Af Af Af Af =
5
5
5
5
5
2
5
0
1
5
Page 275
We can confirm this result with geometric considerations once we know the location of the plastic hinges
(recall Example 19).
ICB
collapse displacement
increments
1
1
5
4
Uf = 5 U1
1
5
1
5
B
A
C
ICA
ICC
0.2
collapse plastic
deformation increments
50
30
0.4
0.8
0.4
Page 276
0.2
1
5
0
0
0
2
Vh = U1
5
2
5
0
1
5
c = min
T
+T
T
for Pref
U f = Q pl
Vpl+ + Q pl
Vpl
Vpl+ Vpl = A f U f
Pref := ( 30 0 50 0 0 )
Qplp := Qpl
Qpln := Qpl
Uf := 0
5
Vplp := 0
Vpln := 0
We then specify the equality and inequality constraints in a "Given" block, as follows
Given
T
equality constraints
Pref Uf = 1
inequality constraints
Vplp 0
and
Vplp Vpln = Af Uf
solution
Vpln 0
= 2.229
Displacement increments of collapse mechanisms (values can be scaled at will, one independent dof)
Uf := Sol1
Page 277
Page 278
model geometry
= [ 0
0]; % first node
= [ 0
5]; % second node, etc
= [ 4
5]; %
= [ 8
5]; %
= [ 8
0]; %
% number of elements
% 2d frame element
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
% plot and label model for checking (optional)
Create_Window (0.80,0.80);
% open figure window
Plot_Model (Model);
% plot model
Label_Model (Model);
% label model
2
Page 279
specify loading
Pe(2,1) = 30;
Pe(3,2) = 50;
Page 280
d
100
La := 6
100
Lb := 6
c 150
20
Lc := 8
Ld := 6
Le := 6
100
100
Lf :=
6 +8
Lf = 10
The independent free global dofs under the assumption that elements a through e are inextensible are
shown in the following figure along with the numbering of the locations where relative displacements and
element deformations are determined for the compatibility relations.
dof 1
dof 4
dof 3
4
1
3
dof 2
Page 281
We write the compatibility relations and identify the elementary collapse mechanisms.
1
La
1
La
1
Lb
Af :=
0
1
Ld
1
Le
8
Lf
Af
1
6
1
6
1
6
0
=
1
6
1
6
4
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
1
0
Lc
1
1
Lc
0 1
0 1
0
Lf
0
1
8
1
8
3
5
40
30
Page 282
We start with the determination of the collapse load factor for the elementary collapse mechanisms. Since
there are no applied moments at dofs 2, and 4, the corresponding load factor is infinitely large and a
definite upper bound. We look at the double beam mechanism
Wpe = ( 40) ( 1)
for a negative unit displacement at dof 1 the external plastic work increment is
the internal plastic work increment for
this mechanism is
1
1
4
Wpi := 3 100 + 2 ( 100) + ( 20)
6
6
5
note that the plastic deformation increments and the corresponding basic forces have the same sign
The collapse load factor for the double beam mechanism is
:=
Wpi
( 40) ( 1)
= 2.483
Wpe = ( 30) ( 1)
1
3
Wpi := 2 150 + ( 20)
8
5
note that the plastic deformation increments and the corresponding basic forces have the same sign
The collapse load factor for the sidesway mechanism is
:=
Wpi
( 30) ( 1)
= 1.65
Clearly, the sidesway mechanism is more critical. The question now is: can we find a combination of these
two elementary collapse mechanisms that will reduce the collapse load factor by minimizing the internal
plastic work increment and maximizing the external plastic work increment?
Page 283
We list the columns of the compatibility matrix for the two elementary mechanisms side by side
1
6
1
6
1
6
0
Af1 =
0
1
6
1
6
4
5
0
0
0
1
8
1
Af 3 =
8
0
0
3
5
1
8
0
1
4
3 A 1 + 1 A 2 + A 3 + 1 A 4 = 0
f
f
f
f
4
8
8
0
0
1
4
6
5
The external plastic work increment for this combined mechanism is: Wpe = ( 40)
1
1
Wpi := 100 + 2 ( 100)
8
4
Page 284
3
+ ( 30) ( 1)
4
6
+ ( 20)
5
:=
Wpi
3
( 40) + ( 30) ( 1)
4
= 1.442
and this agrees with the answer of Example 9 obtained with the lower bound theorem of plastic analysis;
we conclude, therefore, that this is the collapse load factor of the model under the given loading.
The collapse mechanism is shown in the following figure.
ICC
1
1
8
U f = 3 U1
4
1
8
collapse mechanism
1
C
plastic deformation
increments of collapse
mechanism
3/4
3
4
displacement increments
of collapse mechanism
ICA
ICB
1
8
0
1
4
0
V h =
U1
0
0
1
4
6
5
We recall that this is a partial collapse mechanism and that there is no unique set of basic forces in
elements a, c and d when the collapse load factor is attained (consult Example 9). Can we still hope to
determine the displacements and deformations at incipient collapse? Not without a statically indeterminate
analysis with basic force Q6 as redundant (recall that we selected Q6 for the homogeneous solution in
Example 9). We will return to this after presenting the force method of analysis.
Page 285
Create model
% specify node coordinates (could only specify nonzero terms)
XYZ(1,:) = [
0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [
6
0]; % second node, etc
XYZ(3,:) = [ 12
0]; %
XYZ(4,:) = [
0
8]; %
XYZ(5,:) = [
6
8]; %
XYZ(6,:) = [ 12
8]; %
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 2
5];
CON {4} = [ 4
5];
CON {5} = [ 5
6];
CON {6} = [ 3
5];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained, 0 = free)
BOUN(1,:) = [1 1 1];
BOUN(3,:) = [0 1 0];
BOUN(4,:) = [0 1 0];
BOUN(6,:) = [0 1 0];
% specify element type
[ElemName{1:5}] = deal('2dFrm');
% 2d frame element
ElemName{6}
= 'Truss';
%
truss element
% create model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Page 286
define loading
Pe(4,1) = 30;
Pe(5,2) = 40;
Loading = Create_Loading (Model,Pe);
% extract vector Pref at free dofs from Loading field Pref
Pref = Loading.Pref;
Page 287
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
DEFORMATIONFORCE RELATIONS
FOR
MATERIAL, SECTION, ELEMENT AND STRUCTURE
Objective: cause and effect relation between static and kinematic variables for linear elastic
material response; deformation force relation for material; forcedeformation for
section under Bernoulli assumption; deformationforce for basic element and
collection of elements; displacementforce relation for statically determinate
structures; force method of analysis and displacementforce relation for
indeterminate structures
Page 288
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
= (, , )
where we see that the stress tensor may depend not only on
the strain, but also on the strain rate and on internal variables
Different types of constitutive models are available for the description of the behavior of specific materials:
linear elastic, linear viscolelastic, perfectly plastic, viscoplastic, etc... Here we restrict ourselves to the
relatively simple case of linear elastic material response. Moreover, we limit ourselves to uniaxial
behavior. Thus, both stress and strain are scalars.
The most natural way of describing the linear elastic response of a material is in strainstress form, where
we distinguish the mechanical and nonmechanical contribution. An example of the latter is the thermal
and shrinkage strain. We write
= m + 0
with
m =
0
E is the elastic modulus of the material and can be thought of as material stiffness
its inverse 1 E
We can invert this relation to obtain the stiffness relation at the material level = E 0
The stiffness relation in this form shows clearly that the stress is proportional to the mechanical strain
Less clear is the following common form of the stiffness relation = E + 0 with 0 = E 0
0 is the required initial stress to compensate the nonmechanical strain before the total strain is applied.
for a summary of material relations consult chapter 5 in S. Crandall, "An introduction to the Mechanics of
Solids", 2nd edition
Page 289
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
(
)
M = EI ( 0 )
N = EA a a 0
where A is the cross sectional area and I is the moment of inertia or second moment of area
is the curvature of the beam which is defined as change of tangent rotation per unit length
The axial strain at the reference axis and the curvature are components of the section deformation vector
e, which in more advanced applicationsincludes shearing and torsional deformations. This notation will
be useful in CE221.
Note that we have introduced nonmechanical section deformations by analogy with the stressstrain
relation. Note also that the section forcedeformation relation comes out of the EulerBernoulli theory in
stiffness form with EA the axial and EI the flexural section stiffness. We can invert these relations to the
flexibility form
N
+
EA a 0
a =
=
M
+ 0
EI
with 1 EA
We have now expressed the section deformations as the superposition of two effects: the mechanical
effect which is proportional to the section (internal) forces, and the nonmechanical effect which we have
already studied on page 13 of Part II. We recall the effect of a differential temperature field on the
nonmechanical section deformations and introduce now the subscript 0 for the nonmechanical effect
a 0 = Ta
0 =
( T )
h
Page 290
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
x
x
M ( x) = 1 q 2 + q 3 + M p ( x)
L
L
from kinematics
v1 = a ( x) dx
0
v 2 = 1 ( x) dx
L
v3 =
x
( x) dx
L
N ( x)
for linear elastic material response we use the relations on the preceding page a ( x) =
+ a 0 ( x)
EA( x)
( x) =
M ( x)
+ 0 ( x)
EI ( x)
Substitute the section deformationforce into the kinematic relations and then substitute the internal
forces in terms of the basic forces of the element and the element loading. We get
L
v1 =
N ( x)
dx
+ a 0 ( x) dx = q1
+ a 0 ( x) dx
EA( x)
EA( x)
x M ( x)
v2 = 1
+ 0 ( x) dx = q 2
L EI ( x)
v3 =
x M ( x)
+ 0 ( x) dx = q 2
L EI ( x)
L
1 L
dx q
3
EI ( x)
xx
L
L
1 L L
dx 1 x ( x) dx 1 x M p ( x) dx
EI ( x)
L 0
L EI ( x)
x
x
L
1
L
L
dx + q 3
EI ( x)
x
L
dx +
EI ( x)
x
( x) dx +
L 0
x M p ( x)
dx
L EI ( x)
These relations express the deformationforce behavior of a 2d frame element. For a tapered element
with variable section properties along its length (tapered element), the integrals need to be evaluated
numerically. We do not pursue this further but write the deformationforce relation in compact form on the
following page.
Page 291
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
EA( x)
xx
1 L L
dx
EI ( x)
2
x
EI ( x)
1 L
EI ( x)
xx
1 L L
EI ( x)
a 0 ( x) dx
0
L
L
x
+ 1
=
v
1
(
)
x
dx
and the initial deformations 0
L 0
0
0
L
L
x
x
0 ( x) dx
L
L
0
0
x M p ( x)
dx
L EI ( x)
M p ( x)
dx
EI ( x)
nonmechanical effects
element load effects
For a prismatic 2d frame element (uniform properties) under uniform nonmechanical effects and under
a uniformly distributed element load these expressions simplify to
L
EA
initial deformations
0
L
3EI
L
6 EI
6 EI
L
3EI
0
0
L
a 0 w L3
1
y
v0 = 0 L +
2
24 EI
1 L wy L3
2 0
24 EI
Page 292
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
q1
end i
q1
end j
q1
v1 EA
v2 = 0
v
3
0
N ( x)
N ( x)
a ( x)
q1
q1
EA
for uniform EA
L
q
EA 1
q1
0
L
3EI
L
6 EI
q
L 1
q
6 EI 2
q
L 3
3EI
0
q1
q3
q2
q2
L
q2
L
q3
L
q3
L
q3
q2
q2
L
q2
L
M ( x)
q3
L
M ( x) = q 2 1
L
q2
q3
L
M ( x)
q3
M ( x)
M ( x) = q3
M ( x)
x
L
q3
q2
( x)
EI
( x)
q2
L
q
6 EI 3
for uniform EI
L
q
6 EI 2
L
q
3EI 2
q2
L
EI
for uniform EI
L
q
3EI 3
q3
L
q2
L
q3
L
L
Page 293
q3
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
wy
a 0 ( x ) = const=a 0
wy L
end i
0 ( x ) = const=0
v0
M ( x)
wy L
end j
wy
v0
wy L
wy L
V ( x)
wy L2
8
M ( x)
parabola
2
wy L
( x)
v0 = a 0 L
8EI
for uniform EI
1
v0 = 0 L
2
2
1
v0 = 0 L
3
2
wy L
wy L
24 EI
24 EI
v0 = 0
1
Page 294
v0
v0
wy L3
1 wy L
L=
=
3 8EI
24 EI
wy L3
1 wy L
L=
=
3 8EI
24 EI
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
q1
q1
q2 q2
L
q2
L
end i
end j
initial deformations
v = f q + v0
L
EA
f =
L
3EI
a0 L 0
+
3
v0 = 1
L wy L
2 0 24 EI
3
0 L wy L
L
strain dependent deformation at release (for hinge rotation determination) v =
q +
+
3
6 EI 2
2
24 EI
Page 295
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
Combine the deformationforce relations for all elements in the structural model v
v
v
v ( a ) f ( a )
(b)
v 0
(c) =
v 0
( ne )
v
0
0
f
( b)
0
0
0
(c)
0
0
(a )
( b)
(c)
=f
=f
(a ) (a )
q
( b) ( b)
( c) ( c)
=f
+ v0
( ne ) ( ne )
q
( b)
(c)
+ v0
( ne )
(a )
(a )
0 q v0
(b) (b)
0 q v0
( c) + (c)
0 q v0
( ne ) ( ne ) v ( ne )
f
q
0
v(a )
q (a )
f ( a )
( b)
(b)
v
q
0
( ne )
( ne )
0
f
( b)
0
0
0
(c)
0
0
blockdiagonal
V = Fs Q +V0
Page 296
(a )
+ v0
=f q
( ne )
+ v0
0
0
( ne )
f
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
Equilibrium
1
where B is the force influence matrix B = B f
Compatibility V = A fU f
T
1
for stable, statically determinate structures solve for Uf U f = A f V or U f = B V since Af = Bf
T
V = Fs Q +V0
Combine U f = BTV
{Fs Q +V0 }
T
= B {Fs B ( Pf Pfw ) +V0 }
=B
U f = FPf +U 0
with
F = B Fs B
U 0 = FPfw + BTV0
U f = BT Fs B Pf BT Fs B Pfw + BTV0
Page 297
15
1
2
15
The structure is statically determinate: there are 2 free global dofs (or equilibrium equations) and 2
unknown basic forces, as shown in the following figure.
dof 2
dof 1
Q2
Q1
P1 = Q 1 + Q 2
P2 =
We solve with ease and obtain
Q2 := 75
with
Q2
P1 = 0
P2 = 15
Q1 := 75
The following figure shows node and element equilibrium and the bending moment diagram.
15
15
75
5
15
20
75
M(x)
Page 298
We wish to calculate the vertical translation under the applied force at the tip of the cantilever. To this end
we use the compatibility relations (we can use the transpose of the above equilibrium equations, or simply
write them down directly). We have
V1 = U1
V2 = U1
U2
5
U2 = 5 ( V1 V2)
The following figure gives a geometric interpretation of this relation. Note that the deformation is measured
from the element chord to the tangent at each end.
15
V1
V2
5( V1 V2 )
We determine the element deformations from the element deformationforce relation of each element, i.e.
v = f q
where
f=
L 2 1
6 EI 1 2
instead of worrying about specifying a stiffness value EI, we will assume that both elements have the same
section stiffness EI. We will then calculate the EIfold element deformations. We have:
15
( 2 Q1 )
6
5
EIV2 := ( 2 Q2 )
6
EIV1 :=
EIV1 = 375
EIV2 = 125
With the EIfold deformation values we can get the EIfold translation value.
EIU2 = 2500
If we know the value of the stiffness EI, we can obtain the actual vertical translation value at the end.
Since EI is a very large number (e.g. in the range of 20,000 to 100,000 for consistent units of force and
length), it is clearly better to leave this division to the end and not divide every element deformation by EI,
since it is error prone dealing with very small numbers in hand calculations. The computer by contrast does
not mind at all.
What would be a reasonable value of stiffness EI for this structure? The tip of the cantilever may deflect
1/200 of the cantilever length. This means that the vertical translation is 0.025 in consistent units. For this
to be true, the stiffness EI should be 100,000 consistent units. We will see numbers in this range for the
flexural stiffness EI in this course.
Page 299
Let us now try to determine the midspan deflection in element a under the given applied force of 15 units at
the tip of the cantilever. How do we proceed?
First, we draw the moment diagram in element a. Since we wish to determine the translation at midspan we
insert a node m into the middle of element a, as shown in the following figure. This splits the element into two
elements a1 and a2. We denote the degrees of freedom at the new node with m1 and m2.
15
1
a
7.5
a2
37.5
7.5
m2
a1
7.5
Um1
via2 = Um2 +
m1
Um1
vja1 = Um2
7.5
2
75
Um1 =
7.5
( via2 vja1)
2
To determine via2 and vja1 we use the end moments in element a1 and a2. We obtain:
EIvia2 :=
7.5
[ 2 37.5 ( 75) ]
6
EIUm1 :=
EIvja1 :=
7.5
[ 2 ( 37.5) ]
6
7.5
( EIvia2 EIvja1)
2
EIUm1 = 1054.688
and we observe that the translation is positive, which means that the point moves upward under the applied
force of 15 units at the tip of the cantilever.
The following figure shows a different geometric interpretation for the determination of the translation Um1
via1
via
7.5
EIvia :=
15
[ ( 75) ]
6
7.5
EIvia1 :=
7.5
[ ( 37.5) ]
6
Page 300
EIUm1 = 1054.688
same as above!
w=10
1
15
P1 = Q 1 + Q 2
P2 =
Q2 := 125
Q2
5
with
+ 25
P1 = 0
P2 = 0
Q1 := 125
The following figure shows node and element equilibrium and the bending moment diagram.
50
83.33
125
66.67
83.33
66.67
50
133.33
wL2 8 = 281.25
125
M(x)
218.75
We can repeat the previous calculations for the vertical translation at the tip of the cantilever and the
midspan of element a noting, however, the that forcedeformation relation for each element needs to
include the effect of the distributed load according to
v = f q + v0
where
L 2 1
f=
and
6 EI 1 2
w L 1
v0 =
24 EI 1
15
10 15
EIV1 :=
( 2 Q1 ) +
6
24
3
5
10 5
EIV2 := ( 2 Q2 )
6
24
EIU2 := 5 ( EIV1 EIV2)
EIV1 = 781.25
EIV2 = 156.25
EIU2 = 3125
Page 301
The geometric interpretation of this calculation is shown in the following figure of the deformed
shape of the beam
via
V2
V1
5( V1 V2 )
v ja1 via2
via1
7.5
7.5
Um1 =
with
7.5
( via2 vja1)
2
10 7.5
7.5
EIvia2 :=
[ 2 ( 218.75) ( 125) ]
6
24
3
EIvja1 :=
With this we get:
10 7.5
7.5
( 2 218.75) +
6
24
EIUm1 :=
7.5
( EIvia2 EIvja1)
2
EIUm1 = 4833.984
10 15
15
EIvia :=
[ ( 125) ]
6
24
According to the figure
10 7.5
7.5
EIvia1 :=
( 218.75)
6
24
Page 302
EIUm1 = 4833.984
same result!!
B  Propped cantilever
We consider a relatively simple structure, known as a propped cantilever beam. The structure is subjected
to a concentrated force of 5 units at the tip of the cantilever.
5
a
10
30
The structure is statically indeterminate. Can you tell why? There are 2 free global dofs (or equilibrium
equations) and 3 unknown basic forces, as shown in the following figure.
dof 2
dof 1
a
3
NOS=1
Q1
Q2
Q3
P1 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3
P2 =
10
with
P1 = 0
P2 = 5
There is something very interesting going on here! There are two equations, and only two unknown basic
forces appear in these. Thus, given the applied forces it is possible to solve for the two unknown basic
forces and we get:
Q3 := 50
and
Q2 := 50
We have seen a similar case in the reduction of the free dofs in Example 3 (see page 34 and 35).
How are we supposed to determine the basic force Q1 ? By looking at the deformations of element a.
Recall from the forcedeformation relations of the beam element that
Page 303
V1 = Q1
L
L
Q2
3 EI
6 EI
Q1 :=
V1 = 0
Q2
Q1 = 25
Thus, the moment at the fixedend of a prismatic beam element is equal to 1/2 the moment acting at the
opposite end. This is known as carryover moment and the factor 1/2 is known as carryover factor
(tapered elements have different carryover factors). The following figure displays this fact
0.5 M
We wish to calculate the vertical translation at the tip of the cantilever under the applied force of 5 units.
Let us first calculate the element deformations from the basic forces. To this end we use the element
deformationforce relation, i.e.
v = f q
where
f=
L 2 1
6 EI 1 2
instead of worrying about specifying a stiffness value EI, we will assume that both elements have the same
section stiffness EI. We will then calculate the EIfold element deformations. We have:
30
( 2Q1 Q2)
6
30
EIV2 :=
( 2Q2 Q1)
6
EIV1 :=
EIV3 :=
10
( 2 Q3 )
6
EIV1 = 0
EIV2 = 375
EIV3 = 166.67
In order to calculate the vertical translation at the tip of the cantilever we write the compatibility relations
(we can use the transpose of the above equilibrium equations, or simply write them down directly).
V2 = U1
V3 = U1
U2
10
thus, we can determine the translation U2 from the second compatibility relation after substituting U1 from
the first into the second. We get
U2 = 10( V2 V3 )
Page 304
Since we have the EIfold deformation values we can only get the EIfold translation value.
EIU2 = 5416.67
If we know the value of the stiffness EI, we can obtain the actual vertical translation value at the end.
Since EI is a very large number (e.g. in the range of 20,000 to 100,000 for consistent units of force and
length), it is clearly better to leave this division to the end and not divide every element deformation by EI,
since it is error prone dealing with very small numbers in hand calculations. The computer by contrast does
not mind at all.
There is some important information in the final result that we would like to bring to light. We have
determined the vertical translation at the tip of the cantilever under a force of 5 units. We now ask the
following question: what is the vertical translation value under a unit force? It is easy to see that the
basic forces are proportional to the applied force and would therefore be equal to 1/5 the values above.
The deformations would then also be equal to 1/5 the above values and the final translation would also be
equal to 1/5 of the above value. Assuming that the unit force acts in the positive direction (i.e. upward),
the translation would also be positive (i.e. upward) and have the value of 5416.67/5 = 1083.33/EI.
Thus, under a unit force at the tip of the cantilever the vertical translation is equal to 1083.33/EI. This is
known as the flexibility coefficient F22 of the propped cantilever. Why are there two subscripts for the
flexibility coefficient? The first subscript denotes the dof where the effect is measured and the second
subscript denotes the dof where the cause acts. Thus, F22 indicates the translation at dof 2 under a unit
force acting at dof 2. If this is the only dof where forces act in this structure (i.e. there is never a
concentrated moment acting at dof 1), then we will not be interested in any flexibility coefficients with second
subscript equal to 1.
How about if we are interested in the effect of a force at dof 2 on the rotation at dof 1. We have this value
already from the above analysis. It is equal to U1 for a force of 5 units.
EIU1 := EIV2
EIU1 = 375
thus, the rotation at dof 1 under a unit positive force acting at dof 2 will be equal to 375/5 = 75/EI.
Therefore, the flexibility coefficient F12 of this structure is 75/EI. Flexibility coefficients play an important role
in condition assessment of structures (think for example that the propped cantilever is a bridge, that you
place a truck at the tip and are able to measure the tip translation and the rotation at the free support; this
allows you to determine the stiffness of the bridge; by comparing with the ideal stiffness value you may be
able to determine how much damage the bridge has sustained (note that stiffness reduction is a common
damage measure in structures).
Let us now think of another interesting
application of the flexibility coefficient. Say
that we want to estimate the vibration
frequency of the propped cantilever under
the assumption that the vibratory mass is
located at the tip. In this case we need the
spring stiffness under the mass. This means
that we only care about the causeeffect
(forcedisplacement) relation at dof 2. This
is supplied by flexibility coefficient F22. The
inverse of this coefficient is the spring
stiffness K. Given the mass M we may recall
from Physics that the frequency of vibration
of this single dof springmass system is
EI
EI
30
10
single dof
M
Page 305
K
M
K = EI/1083
Let us now try to determine the midspan deflection in element a under the given applied force of 5 units at
the tip of the cantilever. How do we proceed?
First, we draw the moment diagram in element a. Since we wish to determine the translation at midspan
we insert a node m into the middle of element a, as shown in the following figure. This splits the element
into two elements a1 and a2. We denote the degrees of freedom at the new node with m1 and m2.
5
2
b
10
30
m1
a1
a2
vja1 = Um2
via2 = Um2 +
Um1
15
Um1
15
m2
1
30
50
12.5
Um1 =
15
( via2 vja1)
2
25
15
[ 2 12.5 ( 50) ]
6
15
EIvja1 :=
[ 2 12.5 ( 25) ]
6
EIvia2 :=
EIUm1 :=
15
( EIvia2 EIvja1)
2
EIUm1 = 1406.25
and we observe that the translation is positive, which means that the point moves upward under the applied
force of 5 units at the tip of the cantilever. If we were interested in the flexibility coefficient between the
vertical translation dof m1 and the applied force dof 2, we can obtain it from
Fm1.2 =
1406.25
281.35
=
5 EI
EI
Page 306
Create model
% specify node coordinates (could only specify nonzero terms)
XYZ(1,:) = [ 0
0]; % first node
XYZ(2,:) = [ 7.5
0];
XYZ(3,:) = [ 15
0]; %
XYZ(4,:) = [ 20
0]; %
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 2
3];
CON {3} = [ 3
4];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = [1 1 0];
BOUN(3,:) = [0 1 0];
% specify element type
ne = length(CON);
[ElemName{1:ne}] = deal('Lin2dFrm');
0 = free)
% create model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
define loading
% 1. Load case: vertical nodal force at tip of overhang
Pe(4,2) = 15;
Loading = Create_Loading (Model,Pe);
% nodal forces at free dofs
Pf = Loading.Pref;
Page 307
solution
% determine basic forces from equilibrium equations
Q = Bf\Pf;
% display basic forces
disp('the basic forces are')
disp(Q)
the basic forces are
0
0
37.5000
0
37.5000
75.0000
0
75.0000
0
plotting
% open window and plot moment diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
% observe that the second argument is empty [] in the following function call
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,[],Q);
Page 308
0
0.0038
0
0.0250
0.0056
solution
% determine basic forces from equilibrium equations
Q = Bf\Pf;
% display basic forces
disp('the basic forces under distributed element loading are')
disp(Q)
the basic forces under distributed element loading are
0
0
218.7500
0
218.7500
125.0000
0
Page 309
125.0000
0
plotting
% open window and plot moment diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
% observe that the second argument is ElemData in this case
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,ElemData,Q);
Page 310
15
Q5
Q2
Q3
Q1
EA := 10000
Q4
La := 8
Lb := 6
Lc := 6
Ld := 8
Le := 10
Equilibrium equations
P1 = Q1 + 0.8 Q5
1
0
Bf := 0
0
P2 = Q4 0.8 Q5
P3 = Q2 + 0.6 Q5
P4 = Q 4
P5 = Q 3
0 0 0
0.8
1 0 0
0.6
0 0 1 0.8
0 0 1
0 1 0
Generic solution of equilibrium equations (i.e. for a force at any dof) yields the force influence matrix Bbar
Bbar := Bf 1
Bbar
1 1 0 1
0 0.75 1 0.75
= 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 1
0 1.25 0 1.25
Page 311
1
0
0
0
The force influence matrix identifies the most highly stressed elements and plays important role in
optimization, system identification, damage detection, etc. We have already encountered this matrix in the
first example of this course.
Typically, in homework problems we solve for a specific load case , while we may be interested in several
load cases in practice. In this example the applied loading consists of a force of 15 units at dof 4. Having
the force influence matrix Bbar we can obtain the corresponding truss element forces by multiplication. For
a single load case it is more expedient to solve the equilibrium equations "by hand" and obtain Q directly.
However, the force influence matrix plays an important role in the determination of the flexibility matrix for
the structure, so we keep it under consideration for a little longer.
0
0
Pf := 0
15
0
Q := Bbar Pf Q
15
11.25
= 0
15
18.75
Note that the basic forces for this load case are equal to the 4th column of the force influence matrix
multiplied by 15. We reiterate that the columns of the force influence matrix represent the effect of a
unit force at the corresponding dof on the basic forces of the structural model.
Element deformations
With all basic force values established we obtain the corresponding element deformations from the
forcedeformation relation of each element. We can do this "long hand" or we can write it in compact
form, as we will see in a moment. For reasons of computational convenience in hand calculations we
determine the EAfold value of the element deformations and delay the division by EA until the end.
Applying the forcedeformation relation element by element means:
V1 =
V2 =
V3 =
V4 =
V5 =
Q1
EA
Q2
EA
Q3
EA
Q4
EA
Q5
EA
La
Lb
Lc
Ld
Le
La
0
0
0
0
EA
V 1 0 Lb 0 0 0 Q 1
EA
Q2
V2
Lc
V = V3 = 0
0
0
0 Q3 =
EA
Q
V4
4
0 0 0 Ld 0
Q5
V5
EA
Le
0 0 0 0 EA
Fs Q
Since each truss element deformation only depends on the corresponding basic force, the resulting matrix
is diagonal. We call this matrix Fs . It represents the collection of element flexibilities f = L/EA for the truss
elements of the entire structural model.
Page 312
We can see from the above relations that it is convenient to factor out EA from the Fs matrix and write it as
La
0
1
Fs =
0
EA
0
Lb 0
Lc 0
0 Ld
0
0
Le
This leads to the idea of determining the EAfold element deformations, i.e. the EAfold matrix F s . We have:
EAV1 = Q1 La
EAV2 = Q2 Lb
EAV3 = Q3 Lc
or in compact form,
EAV = EAFs Q
EAV4 = Q4 Ld
EAV5 = Q5 Le
with
La
0
EAFs = 0
Lb 0
0
0
0
Lc 0
0 Ld 0
0 0 Le
Q1
Q2
Q3 :=
Q4
Q5
EAV1 := Q1 La
EAV1 = 120
EAV2 := Q2 Lb
EAV2 = 67.5
EAV3 := Q3 Lc
EAV3 = 0
EAV4 := Q4 Ld
EAV4 = 120
EAV5 := Q5 Le
EAV5 = 187.5
Note: Mathcad has a nice feature that allows us to express any numerical value in terms of any variable
(just like units). If we have Mathcad around for all our calculations, we can therefore proceed as follows:
Page 313
Define the collection of element flexibility matrices for the entire structure
La
Fs := 0
Lb 0
1
0
EA
0 Ld 0
Lc 0
Le
12
6.75
3
V = 0
10
12
18.75
120
67.5
1
V = 0
120 EA
187.5
V := F s Q
in which case we obtain the EAfold values of the element deformations in the vector (compare with the
values in the preceding page).
Page 314
dof 5
dof 2
d
dof 4
V1 = U1
V2 = U3
V3 = U5
V 4 = U 2 + U 4
V5 = 0.8 U1 0.8 U2 + 0.6 U3
or,
dof 1
V = Af Uf
1 0
0 0
Af := 0
0
0 1
0.8 0.8
with
0 0
0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0.6 0 0
and we observe again that the compatibility matrix is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix
to solve for the displacements in terms of the element deformations we need to solve the system of the
compatibility relations; we do this by hand and in the process obtain the inverse of the compatibility matrix
U1 = V1
U3 = V2
U5 = V3
U2 = U1 + 0.75 U3 1.25 V5 = V1 + 0.75 V2 1.25 V5
U4 = U2 + V4 = V1 + 0.75 V2 + V4 1.25 V5
Page 315
1 0 0 0 0
1 0.75 0 0 1.25
Uf := 0
1 0 0
0 V
1 0.75 0 1 1.25
0
0
1
0
0
thus,
Af
1 0 0 0 0
1 0.75 0 0 1.25
= 0 1 0 0
0
1 0.75 0 1 1.25
0
0
1
0
0
and we get, of course, the same answer, which means that we can compete with Mathcad for this small
problem. For a larger one, we are unfortunately completely outmatched.
We also note that the inverse of the compatibility matrix is equal to the transpose of the force influence
matrix Bbar.
Bbar
1 0 0 0 0
1 0.75 0 0 1.25
= 0 1 0 0
0
1 0.75 0 1 1.25
0
0
1
0
0
T
Uf = Bbar V
and note that we have obtained this relations from the solution of the compatibility relations.
T
We can explain the relation Uf = Bbar V directly with the principle of virtual forces.
Given the element deformations V we seek a system of virtual basic forces in equilibrium with a unit virtual
force at the dof whose displacement we wish to determine. For a unit force at dof 1 the virtual basic force
values are equal to the first column of the force influence matrix (after all we reiterate that the entries of
that column represent the basic forces in the structure under a unit force at dof 1). For a unit force at dof 2
we get the second column, etc, etc. If we are interested in the displacement of a particular dof only, this
may be for some a slightly faster way of getting the answer than solving the compatibility relations. Let us
demonstrate for dof 2.
The equilibrium equations to solve with a unit force at dof 2 are:
0 = Q1 + 0.8 Q5
1 = Q4 0.8 Q5
0 = Q2 + 0.6 Q5
0 = Q4
0 = Q3
Page 316
1
0.75
:= 0
0
1.25
3
U2 = 40.5 10
U2 = 405
or in terms of EA
1
EA
EAU2 = 405
same as above
Since we have obtained the complete force influence matrix, we can determine all dof displacements. We get
T
Uf := Bbar V
Uf
12
40.5
3
= 6.75 10
52.5
Uf
120
405
1
= 67.5
525 EA
This leads to the following generalization: we have obtained the displacements at all dofs under a force of
15 units at dof 4. If there was only a unit force acting at dof 4, then the displacements would be 15 times
smaller. Let us calculate these for later reference
1
Uf
15
8
27
1
= 4.5
35 EA
0
we reiterate that these are the displacements at all five dofs under a unit force at
dof 4. Let us summarize how we determined them: (a) a unit force at dof 4 gives
basic force values Q equal to the 4th column of the force influence matrix Bbar; (b)
with these values we calculate the deformations in all elements by Fs *Q, (c) finally,
T
we obtain the displacements at all dofs by the relation Bbar V. Putting the whole
process together we conclude that the displacements under a unit force at dof 4
are given by
8
27
1
T
Bbar F s Bbar 4 = 4.5
35 EA
0
Repeating the process for a unit force at dof 1 will give another 5 displacement values, and another 5 for dof
2 and so on. Thus, for a unit force acting at any one of the 5 free global dofs of the structural model we get
T
F := Bbar Fs Bbar
0.8
0.8
= 0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0 10
0.6
Page 317
or, F
8
8
= 0
8
4.5
27 4.5 27 0
4.5 0
27 4.5 35 0
0
EA
K := F
1.89
0.64
= 0.48
0
0
0
0
1.667
0.64 0.48
The usefulness of the flexibility matrix comes into full play, however, if we are interested in the interaction
between a few specific dofs among the many dofs of the structural model. Let us say, for example, that we
are only interested in the interaction between dofs 2 and 3 (e.g. when forces are applied only at these dofs
of the structural model).
To extract the corresponding flexibility matrix all we have to do is extract the terms at the intersection
of the second and third row and column. We have
flexibility matrix for dofs 2 and 3
F2 , 2
F23 :=
F3 , 2
F
F
2,3
3,3
F23 =
2.7 0.45 3
10
0.45
0.6
F23 =
27 4.5 1
4.5 6 EA
Now, the inverse of the flexibility matrix for dofs 2 and 3 is known as the condensed stiffness matrix of the
structural model for dofs 2 and 3. We obtain
Condensed stiffness matrix for specific dofs
condensed stiffness matrix for dofs 2 and 3
1
K23 := F 23
K23 =
0.423 0.317 3
10
0.317
1.905
We note that the stiffness coefficients are very different from those at the intersection of the second and
third row and column of the complete stiffness matrix. Why? Let us explain with the help of the entry at the
intersection of the third row and third column. In the complete stiffness matrix this coefficient (2027)
represents the force at dof 3 necessary to impose a unit displacement at the same dof 3, while all other dofs
are held fixed. In the condensed stiffness matrix, this coefficient (1905) represents the force at dof 3
necessary to impose a unit displacement at the same dof 3, while dof 2 is held fixed, but all other dofs are
relaxed to assume the values that satisfy force equilibrium at dofs 1, 4 and 5. Consequently, the stiffness
coefficient on the diagonal of the condensed stiffness matrix is smaller.
Conclusion: Static condensation of a stiffness matrix is very conveniently performed with access to the
flexibility matrix of the structural model.
Page 318
Create model
% specify node
XYZ(1,:) = [
XYZ(2,:) = [
XYZ(3,:) = [
XYZ(4,:) = [
% connectivity array
CON {1} = [ 1
2];
CON {2} = [ 1
3];
CON {3} = [ 2
4];
CON {4} = [ 3
4];
CON {5} = [ 2
3];
% boundary conditions (1 = restrained,
BOUN(1,:) = [1 1 0];
BOUN(2,:) = [0 1 0];
% specify element type
[ElemName{1:5}] = deal('Truss');
0 = free)
% create model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Page 319
define loading
% horizontal force at node 4
Pe(4,1) = 15;
Loading = Create_Loading (Model,Pe);
% nodal forces at free dofs
Pf = Loading.Pref;
solution
determine basic forces from equilibrium equations
Q = Bbar*Pf;
% display result
disp('truss forces Q under applied horizontal force')
disp(Q);
truss forces Q under applied horizontal force
15.0000
11.2500
0
15.0000
18.7500
plotting
open window and plot axial force diagram
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
Plot_AxialForces (Model,Q);
Page 320
Uf = Bbar'*V;
disp('the free dof displacements are')
disp(Uf)
the free dof displacements are
0.0120
0.0405
0.0067
0.0525
0
determine flexibility matrix (gives global dof displacement to applied force relation)
F = Bbar'*Fs*Bbar;
% display flexibility matrix
disp('flexibility matrix of truss (x 1000)')
disp(F.*1000);
% determine displacements at free dofs for this particular loading (should be
the same as above)
Uf = F*Pf;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal force')
disp(Uf);
flexibility matrix of truss (x 1000)
0.8000
0.8000
0
0.8000
0
0.8000
2.7000
0.4500
2.7000
0
0
0.4500
0.6000
0.4500
0
0.8000
2.7000
0.4500
3.5000
0
0
0
0
0
0.6000
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal force
0.0120
0.0405
0.0067
0.0525
0
Page 321
5
2
12
10
5
1
8
Length of elements
La := 12
Lb := 8
Lc := 8
Ld := 10
Under the assumption that axial deformations can be neglected in all elements, we have the independent
free global dofs in the following figure.
4
3
b
5
c
d
a
7
1
Page 322
The compatibility relations are (the numbering of the locations for these is shown in the following figure)
V1 = U1 +
V2 =
U2
La
(*)
La
U4
U4
Lb
d
a
+ U5 (*)
Lb
U4
V5 =
+ U6
Lc
U2
V6 =
+ U6
Ld
U2
V7 =
+ U7
Ld
7
1
(*)
Af := 0
+ U3
V3 = U3
V4 =
U2
1
0
La
1
1
La
0 0 0
0 0
1
0 0
Lb
1
1 0
Lb
1
Lc
0 1
1
0
Ld
0 1
1
0
Ld
0 0
Af
= 0
Page 323
1
0
12
1
1
12
0 0 0
0 0
1
0 0
8
1
1 0
8
1
8
0 1
1
0
10
0 1
1
0
10
0 0
The equilibrium matrix Bf for the corresponding dofs and basic forces is the transpose of the structural
compatibility matrix Af.
T
Bf := Af
Bf
1
12
0
=
0
0
0
1
12
1 1
0
10 10
1
1 1
8
8 8
P1 = Q 1
P2 =
Q1
La
Q2
La
Q6
Ld
Q7
Ld
P3 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 Q4 Q5
P4 =
+
Lb Lb Lc
P5 = Q 4
P6 = Q 5 + Q 6
0
5
0
Pf := 0
0
0
0
Pfw
0
0
0
:= 20
0
0
0
P7 = Q 7
there are three uncoupled equations above, namely #1, #5 and #7, which we solved by inspection in
Example 4, concluding that the corresponding basic forces are zero in the absence of applied moments at
the corresponding dofs. This led us in Example 4 to a system of 4 equations in 4 unknowns which could be
readily solved. Here we do not bother with this simplification and let Mathcad's lsolve function do the work.
With the system of linear equilibrium equations to be solved
we obtain the solution for the basic forces Q with
Pf = Bf Q + Pfw
Q := lsolve [ Bf , ( Pf Pfw ) ]
and we list the transpose of the basic force vector Q to save space
T
Q = ( 0 60 60 0 100 100 0 )
Page 324
With these basic forces we can determine the corresponding deformations by the deformationforce relation
of each element. We have under the assumption that the flexural stiffness is EI = 50,000
EI := 50000
V1 :=
V2 :=
V3 :=
V4 :=
V5 :=
V6 :=
V7 :=
La
w := 5
6 EI (
La
2 Q Q
6 EI (
Lb
2 Q Q
6 EI (
Lb
6 EI
Ld
2 Q Q
6 EI (
Ld
2 Q Q
6 EI (
Lc
2 Q
1
EI
2)
V1 = 120
1)
V2 = 240
4)
V3 = 160
1
EI
V4 = 80
1
EI
w Lc
+
5)
24 EI
V5 = 160
1
EI
3
V3 = 3.2 10
1
EI
1
V6 = 333.33
EI
2 Q Q
6)
V7 = 166.67
2 Q Q
6 EI (
1
EI
or, in a vector
V1
V2
V3
V := V 4
V5
V6
V7
Page 325
With the element deformation values we can use the compatibility relation to determine the global dof
displacement values. We can do this by hand, working carefully to isolate individual dofs by elimination of
the others, but we will do this later when we work with the smaller set of dofs, and so here we just use the
capabilities of Mathcad to give us the result.
from
V = Af Uf
Uf := lsolve ( Af , V)
we get
Uf
77.58
509.09
282.42
1
= 3539.39
EI
522.42
282.42
217.58
We can express the whole process in very compact form noting that we solved a system of linear equations
involving Bf or its transpose Af twice (once for the equilibrium equations and the second time for the
compatibility equations). Recalling from Example 2 that the inverse of the equilibrium matrix Bf is the force
influence matrix Bbar we can write the process in very compact form as follows.
for the solution of the equilibrium equations
Q = Bbar ( Pf Pfw )
V = Fs Q + Vo
( )
T
T 1
Uf = Af 1 V = Bf
V = Bf 1 V = BbarT V
the expression
T
Uf = Bbar V
T
T
Uf = Bbar Fs Bbar ( Pf Pfw ) + Bbar Vo
T
Bbar F s Bbar represents the flexibility matrix F of the structural model
T
F = Bbar F s Bbar
T
Uf = F ( Pf Pfw ) + Bbar Vo
So, let us see how this flexibility matrix looks. For this let us first get Bbar
Page 326
Bbar := Bf 1
La
La
0
0
0
0
3 6 0
La La
0
0
0
0
0
6 3
Lb
Lb
0
0
0
0
0
3
6
Lb Lb
1
Fs :=
0
0
0
0
0
EI
6
3
Lc
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
Ld
Ld
0
0
0
0
0
3
6
Ld Ld
0
0
0
0
0
6
3
T
F := Bbar Fs Bbar
8.44
42.31
0.29
= 12.03
2.11
2.72
4.99
4.99
2.72
12.23
19.5 46.78
9.59
2.98
14.15
1.16
0.56
1.72
39.67
14.15 206.28
31.6
16.09
2.09
12.23
1.16
7.34
2.74
0.47
3.47
1.19
46.78 1.72
1.19
8.92
31.6
2.09
0.47
1
EI
What do all these numbers mean? A matrix is a doubly subscripted array. In the case of the flexibility matrix
both subscripts correspond to dof numbers: the first subscript corresponds to the displacement dof and the
second subscript to the force dof. Thus, the flexibility coefficient Fij expresses the effect of a unit force at dof
j on the displacement at dof i. The larger this number the "softer" is the corresponding interaction, i.e. the
larger the effect under a unit force at dof j.
Studying the above matrix we note that the diagonal terms are positive and this is always the case. A unit
force at a certain dof causes a translation in the direction of the unit force. By contrast, off diagonal terms
can be either positive or negative. We also note that a few terms are a lot larger than others, e.g. the
second and 4th diagonal term. These correspond to the translation dofs and they are larger because
translations have units of length, while rotations are dimensionless (i.e. length/length). So, while rotations
can be scaled from a structure of one size to another, translations always carry the dimensions of the
structure which makes for the discrepancy in the magnitude of the flexibility coefficients. We have already
noted this difference in magnitude when commenting on the values of the free dof displacement vector.
Page 327
The most important property of the flexibility matrix is, of course, its symmetry! This means that a unit force
at dof i produces the same effect at dof j, as a unit force at dof j produces at dof i. This is known as
Maxwell's Reciprocal Theorem (this is the same James Clerk Maxwell of electromagnetic fame).
Another interesting property of the flexibility matrix is that we can isolate the effect of dofs of interest by
simply extracting them from the matrix. As an example let us say that we are not interested in the effect of
moments on the portal frame (e.g. because there will not be such actions ever). In this case we are only
interested in the effect of forces at the translation dofs. We can set up a reduced force influence matrix
Bbar' that contains only the second and fourth column, since the other columns are irrelevant and will
never be of use. Let us see what this looks like
0
5.45
5.45
Bbar 2 = 0
5.45
5.45
0
4.36
4.36
Bbar 4 = 0
3.64
3.64
Bbar' 1 := Bbar 2
Bbar' 2 := Bbar 4
now we can calculated the flexibility matrix for the effects of interest. We denote this flexibility matrix F', since
it does not involve all dofs of the structural model. We have
T
F' := Bbar' F s Bbar'
F' =
376.86 39.67 1
39.67 206.28 EI
and we observe that it corresponds exactly to the coefficients (2,2), (2,4), (4,2) and (4,4) of the complete
flexibility matrix. If had known from the beginning that applied moments at dofs 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 were of no
interest, we would have set up just the flexibility matrix F' (and of course just the reduced force influence
matrix Bbar').
Having focused attention on just the dofs of interest we can study the flexibility coefficients for dofs 2 and 4
more carefully. We observe two things:
1. Dof 2 is more flexible than dof 4, i.e. a unit force a dof 2 causes a larger translation in that direction than
is the case with a unit force at dof 4 (in fact, a little more than 1.5 times larger as we can tell from the
flexibility coefficients 376.86 and 206.28).
2. The "coupling" between dofs 2 and 4 is not particularly strong, i.e. a unit force at dof 2 causes a relatively
small effect on dof 4 and vice versa. Interestingly, if the column on the right (i.e. element d) were as tall as
the column on the left, there would be no coupling on account of symmetry and antisymmetry (more on the
subject later in the course).
Page 328
dof 2
dof 4
Q3
Q2
dof 1
Q4
Q1
d
a
P1 =
Q1
La
Q4
Ld
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
Q2 Q3
P3 =
+
Lb Lc
with
P4 = Q 3 + Q 4
1 0 0 1
Ld
La
1 1 0 0
Bf :=
0 1 1 0
Lb Lc
0 0 1 1
5
0
Pf :=
0
0
Pfw
0
0
:=
20
0
or, numerically
Page 329
Bf
1
12
1
=
0
1 1
8 8
0
10
0
V1 =
U1
La
+ U2
V2 = U2
V3 =
U3
V4 =
Lb
U3
Lc
U1
Ld
+ U4
+ U4
La
0
Af :=
1
Ld
1
1
0
Lb
1
0
1
Lc
0 0 1
T
Af
1 0 0
12
1 1 0
=
0 1 1
8 8
0 0 1
We determine the basic forces for the given loading. "By hand" we have
5=
Q1
12
Q4
10
0 = Q1 + Q2
Q2 Q3
0=
+
+ 20
8
8
20 =
0 = Q3 + Q4
from equations #1 and #3 solve for Q1 and Q4
so that
Q1 := 60
Q4 := 100
Q2 := Q1
Q3 := Q4
Q1
Q2
Q :=
Q3
Q4
Page 330
Q1
8
Q4
8
10
0
V1 :=
V2 :=
V3 :=
V4 :=
La
6 EI (
2 Q
Lb
6 EI (
2 Q
Lc
6 EI (
2 Q
Ld
6 EI (
2 Q
1)
V1 = 240
2)
V2 = 160
w Lc
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
+
3)
24 EI
V3 = 160
4)
V4 = 333.33
1
EI
If we are interested in the horizontal translation at dof 1 and vertical translation at dof 3 we can obtain
these from the compatibility relations
V1 =
U1
12
+ U2
V2 = U2
U3
8
V3 =
V4 =
U3
8
U1
10
+ U4
+ U4
V1 V2 =
V3 V4 =
U1
12
U3
8
U3
8
U1
10
V1 V2 ( V3 V4) =
U1
12
U1
10
U1 :=
and finally
120
( V1 V2 V3 + V4)
22
U1 = 509.09
1
EI
U3 := 8 ( V1 V2 )
same as before
8
U1
12
U3 = 3539.394
Returning to the four original compatibility relations we can then obtain U2 and U4 , if interested.
Page 331
1
EI
How can we determine the node rotations that have not been included in the free dofs? By geometry
The following figure shows the deformed shape of the structural model under the given loading. We can
see that the rotation of an "unrestrained" node, i.e. a node with only one continuous element connection
can always be determined from the chord rotation of the element with the continuous connection to the
node and the element deformation (i.e. the node rotation is equal to the tangent rotation of the element)
1
Thus, for rotation of node 1:
U1
La
( Q 1 ) La
6 EI
= 77.58
1
EI
U3
Lb
for rotation of node 5
( Q 2 ) Lb
6 EI
= 522.42
1
EI
U1
Ld
( Q 4 ) Ld
6 EI
= 217.58
1
EI
The hinge rotation at node 3 can be determined from the difference of the angles of the tangent to the
deformed shape of element c and the tangent to the deformed shape of element b (the latter is equal to
the rotation of node 3).
Page 332
Page 333
determine flexibility matrix (gives global dof displacement to applied force relation)
F = Bbar'*Fs(iq,iq)*Bbar;
% display flexibility matrix
disp('flexibility matrix of truss (x 1000)')
disp(F.*1000);
flexibility matrix of truss (x 1000)
0.0844
0.4231
0.0000
0.0029
0.4231
0.0000
0.0272
0.0499
0.4231
3.7686
0.0000
0.0959
3.7686
0.0000
0.1950
0.4678
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0029
0.0959
0.0000
0.0298
0.0959
0.0000
0.0056
0.0172
0.4231
3.7686
0.0000
0.0959
3.7686
0.0000
0.1950
0.4678
0.1203
0.3967
0.0000
0.1415
0.3967
0.0000
0.1609
0.0209
0.0211
0.1223
0.0000
0.0116
0.1223
0.0000
0.0274
0.0047
0.4231
3.7686
0.0000
0.0959
3.7686
0.0000
0.1950
0.4678
0.0000
0.0000
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0272
0.1950
0.0000
0.0056
0.1950
0.0000
0.0347
0.0119
0.0499
0.4678
0.0000
0.0172
0.4678
0.0000
0.0119
0.0892
Page 334
0.1203
0.0211
0.4231
0.3967
0.1223
3.7686
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.1415
0.0116
0.0959
0.3967
0.1223
3.7686
2.0628
0.3160
0.3967
0.3160
0.0734
0.1223
0.3967
0.1223
3.7686
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.1609
0.0274
0.1950
0.0209
0.0047
0.4678
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
Vi = Ai U f
with
Vi = Fsi Qi +Vi0
U f = BiTVi
since
AiT = Bi and
Bi = Bi 1
Since the location of the last hinge to form is not known from the lower or upper bound theorem of plastic
analysis, trial and error is required: we guess the location of the last plastic hinge to form and then determine
the plastic deformations and the free global dof displacements. The correct guess for the last plastic hinge to
form corresponds to the case with no contradiction between the sign of the plastic deformations and the
corresponding basic forces, which also results in the largest value for the translation dofs.
consult examples 27 and 28.
Case of partial collapse mechanism
In this case the structure is still statically indeterminate before the last plastic hinge forms. Recall that there
are less than NOS+1 hinges at collapse, thus less than NOS hinges before the last plastic hinge forms. Let
us call the number of plastic hinges at collapse NP. Before the last plastic hinge forms there are, therefore,
NOS+1  NP redundant basic forces and a statically indeterminate analysis, as discussed in the preceding
page is required to determine the redundant values and then all basic forces just before the last plastic
hinge forms. Following this we can follow the same procedure as for the case of the full collapse
mechanism above to determine the displacements at incipient collapse.
consult example 33
Page 335
L1 := 8
b
L2 := 10
L3 := 6
We investigate the collapse load determination of this simple truss by the lower bound theorem of plastic
analysis in Example 7. Here we determine the displacements at incipient collapse by guessing the location
of the last hinge to form.
We state the equilibrium and compatibility relations
P1 = Q1 + 0.8Q2
P2 = 0.6 Q2 + Q3
V1 = U1
V2 = 0.8 U1 + 0.6 U2
V3 = U2
Q1 := 8
c := 1.6
Q2 := 10
Q3 := 10
with hinges forming at elements b and c; we do not know which of the two is the last hinge to form, and we
plan to determine this along with the corresponding global dof displacement values in this example.
We assume now that the behavior of the material is linear elasticperfectly plastic and that the axial stiffness
of all truss elements is equal to EA = 10,000.
EA := 10000
Page 336
We assume first that the last hinge to form is in element c. If this is the case, then element c is still elastic at
the instant the last hinge forms and we can use the deformationforce relations for elements a and c to
determine the deformations from the given forces.
We have:
V1 := Q1
V3 := Q3
L1
EA
L3
V1 = 6.4 10
EA
V3 = 6 10
V1h := 0
V1 := V1 + V1h
V3h := 0
V3 := V3 + V3h
we use the first and third compatibility relation to determine the global dof displacements
3
U1 := V1
U1 = 6.4 10
U2 := V3
U2 = 6 10
now we substitute into the second compatibility relation to determine the plastic deformation
V2 := Q2
L2
EA
V2 = 10 10
V2h = 1.28 10
and the plastic deformation in element b is negative, which contradicts the fact that the corresponding basic
force in element b is positive (tension). We conclude that the guess of the last hinge forming in c is not
physically correct. We assume then that the last hinge forms in b. We use now the first two compatibility
relations to determine the global dof displacements, since we know the deformations V1 and V2 .
We have now:
V2h := 0
V2 := V2 + V2h
3
U1 := V1
U2 :=
U1 = 6.4 10
V2 0.8 U1
0.6
U2 = 8.133 10
substituting into the third compatibility relation we get the plastic deformation in c
V3h := U2 V3
V3h = 2.133 10
Since there are only two plastic hinges forming in this example, we know now the complete sequence:
element c reaches its capacity first, followed by element b. Once element b reaches its capacity, the entire
structure has reached its capacity under the given loading.
Page 337
We like to demonstrate now that the relative axial stiffness of the elements affects the hinge sequence, while
it does not affect the collapse load factor, which obviously depends only on the plastic capacities (we
assume here that we can change the stiffness of a member without changing its capacity).
We make element b twice as stiff axially as the other two, i.e.
EAb := 20000
Using the solution from the last case with the last hinge forming in element b we get
V2 := Q2
L2
EAb
V2h := 0
V2 = 5 10
V2 := V2 + V2h
3
U1 := V1
U2 :=
U1 = 6.4 10
V2 0.8 U1
U2 = 0.2 10
0.6
substituting into the third compatibility relation we get the plastic deformation in c
V3h := U2 V3
V3h = 6.2 10
Thus, in this case the last hinge forms in c and not in b. We determine the global dof displacements and the
plastic deformation in c. We get
V3h := 0
V3 := V3 + V3h
we use the first and third compatibility relation to determine the global dof displacements
3
U1 := V1
U1 = 6.4 10
U2 := V3
U2 = 6 10
now we substitute into the second compatibility relation to determine the plastic deformation in b
V2h = 3.72 10
and this time it is positive in agreement with the sign of the basic force in element b.
Conclusion: if we make element b stiffer, it "attracts" a larger portion of the applied loads and yields
before element c.
Page 338
Page 339
Q1
Q2
Q
3
Q4
:=
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q
8
150
85.71
85.71
120
120
120
120
150
EI := 50000
Q1
Q2
Q
3
Q4
Q :=
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q
8
La := 5
Lb := 4
Lc := 4
Ld := 5
V2 :=
V3 :=
V4 :=
V5 :=
V6 :=
V7 :=
V8 :=
La
6 EI
La
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
6 EI
Ld
6 EI
Ld
6 EI
1
EI
( 2 Q1 Q2)
V1 = 321.43
( 2 Q2 Q1)
V2 = 267.85
( 2 Q3 Q4)
V3 = 34.28
( 2 Q4 Q3)
V4 = 102.86
( 2 Q5 Q6)
V5 = 80
1
EI
( 2 Q6 Q5)
V6 = 80
1
EI
( 2 Q7 Q8)
V7 = 75
( 2 Q8 Q7)
V8 = 150
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
We recall that the collapse mechanism involves plastic hinges at locations 1, 5, 6 and 8. Let us assume that
the last hinge to form is at 6, meaning that there is no hinge deformation at this location. With this
assumption we have the following deformations
V2h := 0
V2 := V2 + V2h
V3h := 0
V3 := V3 + V3h
V4h := 0
V4 := V4 + V4h
V6h := 0
V6 := V6 + V6h
V7h := 0
V7 := V7 + V7h
Page 340
V2 =
1
5
U1 + U2
V3 = U2
1
4
U3
1
V4 = U3 + U4
4
V6 =
V7 =
1
4
1
5
U3 + U5
U1 + U5
these are 5 equations in the five unknown global dof displacements and we can
solve them relatively easily. Let us focus on the translations
subtract equation #2 from #1 to get
V2 V3 =
V7 V6 =
U1 := 2.5 ( V2 V3 + V7 V6)
then we obtain
1
5
1
5
U1 +
U1
1
4
1
4
U3
U3
U1 = 367.825
1
EI
which clearly does not make sense, since it moves opposite to the applied force;
this is not a good guess therefore
V5h := 0
V5 =
1
4
U3 + U4
V5 := V5 + V5h
1
U3 := 2 ( V5 V4)
V5 V4 =
U1 := 5 ( V2 V3)
U3
5
4
U3
U3 = 365.72
U1 = 1053.5
1
EI
1
EI
again not possible because of the sign of U1 opposite to the applied force
We, therefore, concentrate now on the two easiest choices, i.e. 1 or 8 that we should have looked at first
from the beginning (they give us directly the displacement at dof 1). We have the following continuity
relations from before
V2 =
1
5
U1 + U2
V3 = U2
1
4
U3
1
V4 = U3 + U4
4
V7 =
1
5
V1 =
V8 =
1
5
1
5
U1
U1
U1 + U5
U1 = 5 V1
V1h := 0
V1 := V1 + V1h
U1 = 5 V8
V8h := 0
V8 := V8 + V8h
which value is the right one? the one resulting in a larger displacement for dof 1
Page 341
1
EI
why do we select the larger value? because in the opposite case, the hinge rotation at node 1 would be
negative, while the corresponding moment is positive and this does not make sense.
in this case the larger value is V1 and thus
U1 := 5 V1
U1 = 1607.125
with the dof 1 displacement determined we can use the other four continuity relations to get the other dof
displacement values. We get
U2 := V2
1
U1
5
U2 = 589.275
1
EI
U3 := 4 ( U2 V3)
U3 = 2494.22
U4 := V4 +
U5 := V7
1
U1
5
U5 = 246.425
1
EI
1
U3
4
U4 = 520.695
1
EI
1
EI
element deformations
V1
V2
V
3
V4
V :=
global dof displacements
V
5
V6
V7
V
8
0
0
0
0 3
Vh =
10
21.29
15.8
0
3.43
U1
U2
Uf := U3
U4
U
5
Vh := Af Uf V
Page 342
32.14
11.79
3
Uf = 49.88 10
10.41
4.93
150
85.71
85.71
120
Q=
120
120
120
150
Remark: the quick solution with matrices gives (see Example 18 and page Part II48)
compatibility matrix for deformations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 where no hinges have formed and corresponding
deformation vector
1
5
1
5
Ai := 0
1
5
0 0
1
0
0
1
4
1
1
4
0 Vi :=
V1 + V1h
+
V
V
2
2h
V4 + V4h
Uf := lsolve ( Ai , Vi) Uf =
V + V
7h
7
if we had selected the smaller displacement value for dof 1, we would have
U2 := V2
1
5
U1
U2 = 417.85
EI
U3 = 1808.52
U4 := V4 +
U5 := V7
U1
U2
U'f := U3
U4
U
5
U1
U5 = 75
U1 = 750
U3 := 4 ( U2 V3)
U1 := 5 V8
32.14
11.79
3
49.88 10
10.41
4.93
1
4
U3
EI
15
8.36
3
U'f = 36.17 10
6.99
1.5
1
EI
V'h := Af U'f V
U4 = 349.27
1
EI
3.43
0
0
0 3
V'h =
10
14.43
8.94
0
and this result does not make sense, because the first plastic deformation is of opposite sign relative
to the corresponding basic force at incipient collapse
Page 343
1
EI
The following figure shows the deformed shape of the portal frame at incipient collapse.
it is worth observing that the hinge at 1 is about to form and that the element tangent is still vertical.
It is also worth observing that the hinge rotations dominate the deformations of the rest of the structure so
that the element deformations are almost indistinguishable from the chord, even though the magnification
factor is 25.
Determination of displacements and deformations of collapse mechanism
After the last hinge forms the portal frame displaces incrementally with the collapse displacement vector
that we have established earlier. During this process the lateral load remains constant under the
assumption that displacements and deformations are small and that the equilibrium is satisfied in the
original, undeformed configuration. The latter is not true, of course, and as the lateral displacements
increase it is necessary to consider the equilibrium in the deformed configuration, which leads to a
nonlinear geometric analysis (we will postpone this discussion until the Nonlinear Analysis course).
Let us say that we would like to determine the displacements and deformations of the portal frame at a
horizontal displacement of 0.1 units. How do we proceed? In two stages: first we know from above what
happens until incipient collapse. We restate
32.14
11.79
3
Uf = 49.88 10
10.41
4.93
0
0
0 3
Vh =
10
21.29
15.8
0
3.43
Page 344
Then from the horizontal displacement of 0.032143 to the displacement of 0.1 the portal frame displaces
according to the collapse displacement vector. We have
U1 := 0.1 Uf
U1 = 67.858 10
1
1
5
4
Uf := 5 U1
1
5
1
5
1
5
0
0
0
2
Vh := U1
5
2
5
0
1
5
67.86
13.57
3
Uf = 54.29 10
13.57
13.57
13.57
0
0
0 3
Vh =
10
27.14
27.14
0
13.57
Ufinal := Uf + Uf
Ufinal
100
25.36
3
and
= 104.17 10
23.99
or,
18.5
Page 345
Vhfinal := Af Ufinal V
Vhfinal := Vh + Vh
13.57
0
0
0 3
Vhfinal =
10
48.43
42.94
0
17
Page 346
determine the plastic hinge rotations at a specific value of the horizontal translation
index of plastic hinge locations
ih = [2 8 9 12];
% index of plastic hinge locations
ie = setdiff(1:12,ih);
% extract the rows of the compatibility matrix with elastic deformations only
Ae = Af(ie,:);
% set displacement increment for horizontal translation to 1 and solve for the
other displacements
% (constrained motion of collapse mechanism)
% dof index for horizontal translation
ir = Model.DOF(2,1);
% index for dependent dofs of collapse mechanism
id = setdiff(1:Model.nf,1);
% compatibility matrix (vector) of collapse mechanism
Acp = zeros(Model.nf,1);
Acp(ir) = 1;
Acp(id) = Ae(:,id)\Ae(:,ir);
Page 347
plot deformed shape with plastic hinge locations at a horizontal translation of 0.1
% use the same plotting window for comparison put free dof displacement values
in complete displacement vector
U = zeros(Model.nt,1);
U(1:Model.nf) = Uft;
% it is necessary to insert Ve in the argument list for the plastic hinge
discontinuities
Plot_DeformedStructure(Model,[],U,Ve);
Page 348
Equilibrium
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
V = Af Uf
Bf = A fT
Q = Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Q x
B Tx V = 0
Element deformationforce
V = FsQ + V0
Vgp + Fxx Q x = 0
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
Q = B i ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Q x
(1)
B Tx V = 0
V = Af Uf
V = FsQ + V0
In the force method of analysis the unknowns of the problem are the redundant basic forces
from (1) and (3)
V = Fs Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Q x + V0
BTx ( Fs Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + B x Q x + V0 ) = 0
Qx
(3*)
B Tx Fs Bi ( Pf Pfw ) + V0 + B Tx Fs B x Q x = 0
Vgp + Fxx Q x = 0
with
Fxx = B Tx Fs B x
Vgp = B Tx FsBi ( Pf Pfw ) + V0
Page 349
(2)
(3)
Equilibrium
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
V = Af Uf
B f = A fT
Q = Qp + Bx Qx
NOS redundants
NOS equations
B Tx V = 0
Element deformationforce
V = FsQ + V0
Vgp + Fxx Q x = 0
Pf = B f Q + Pfw
Q = Qp + Bx Qx
(1)
V = Fs Q + V0
In the force method of analysis the unknowns of the problem are the redundant basic forces
from (1) and (3)
V = Fs ( Q p + B x Q x ) + V0
BTx Fs ( Q p + B x Q x ) + V0 = 0
(3*)
BTx ( FsQ p + V0 ) + B Tx Fs B x Q x = 0
Vgp + Fxx Q x = 0
B Tx V = 0
V = Af Uf
with
Fxx = B Tx Fs B x
Vgp = BTx ( FsQ p + V0 )
Page 350
Qx
(2)
(3)
Bf
or
T
A
f
with constraints
Step 2: identify redundants making sure that primary structure is stable (primary structure = structure with redundants equal to zero)
Step 3: solve equilibrium equations under the given loading with redundants set equal to zero > particular solution
Bx
Qp
B x FsQ p + V0
and
BTx Fs Q p + V0 + Fxx Q x = 0
Step 7: determine basic forces under given loading by superposition of NOS+1 stress states
Q = Qp + B xQ x
Step 8: with Q determine other element forces by equilibrium (forces in inextensible or inflexible elements, shear forces)
Step 9: with Q determine support reactions from equilibrium at restrained dof's
Step 10: with support reactions and applied forces check global equilibrium on complete structure free body
Step 11: (if necessary) determine element deformations
V = FsQ + V0
Step 12: (if necessary) determine displacements by compatibility or principle of virtual forces
Page 351
U f = Bi V
Fxx = B x Fs B x
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
Pf = Bf Q + Pfw
Equilibrium
express basic forces in terms of applied loads and NOS redundants Q = Bi Pf Pfw + B x Qx
Compatibility V = A fU f
T
0 = Bx V
V = Fs Q +V0
use compatibility conditions to obtain unique solution for redundant basic forces
T
0 = Bx V
T
= B x Fs Q +V0
}
)
0 = B x Fs Bi Pf Pfw + B xV0 + B x Fs B x Qx
Fxi = BTx Fs Bi
with
Fxx = B x Fs B x
return to equilibrium equations and substitute for the redundant basic forces
(
)
1
T
= Bi ( Pf Pfw ) B x Fxx
Fxi ( Pf Pfw ) + B xV0
Q = Bi Pf Pfw + B x Qx
we recognize the force influence matrix for a statically indeterminate structure B = Bi B x Fxx Fxi
1 T
B V = B x Fxx
Bx
and can express the basic forces in compact form in terms of the applied loading
1 T
Q = B Pf Pfw B x Fxx
B xV0
Page 352
Q = B Pf Pfw + B VV0
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
U f = BTV
substitute the deformationforce relation for linear elastic material response and the basic force expression
U f = BTV
{Fs Q +V0}
T
1 T
= B {Fs B ( Pf Pfw ) B x Fxx B xV0 +V0 }
=B
F = BT Fs B
1 T
U f = F Pf Pfw + BT I Fs B x Fxx
B x V0
with
1
B = Bi B x Fxx
Fxi
U 0 = FPfw + B
(I F B F
s
1 T
x xx B x
)V
and
Note that
1 T
B Fs B x Fxx B x = 0
Recall that
Thus,
1 T
BT Fs B x Fxx
Bx = 0
1
B = Bi B x Fxx Fxi
T
U f = F Pf Pfw + BTV0
U 0 = FPfw + BTV0
1 T
T T
T
BT = Bi T Fxi T Fxx
BxT
consequently
1 T
)F B F
1 T
x xx B x
T T
1 T
T T
1 T
T 1 T
T T T
Fxi = BTx Fs Bi
and thus
Fxx = B x Fs B x
Fxx
Page 353
Fxi = Bi Fs B x
15
Q5
Q2
Q6
Q3
Q1
Q4
La := 8
Lb := 6
EA := 10000
Lc := 6
Ld := 8
Le := 10
Lf := 10
Page 354
Pf
as given
Q6 = 0
15
11.25
0
Qp :=
15
18.75
15
11.25
Q6 = 0
15
e
6
11.25
Q6 = 1
and
Pf = 0
Q6 = 1
e
b
Bbarx
f
Page 355
0.8
0.6
0.6
:=
0.8
The general solution of the equilibrium equations is a one parameter expression of the form
15 0.8
11.25 0.6
0 0.6
Q=
+
Q6
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
Compatibility relations
In a statically indeterminate structure there are more compatibility relations than available displacements
at the free global dofs of the structural model. As we have seen in Example 13, the compatibility relations only
T
have a unique solution when the element deformations satisfy the condition Bbarx V = 0
The element deformations are dependent on the basic element forces, and these depend for the case at
hand on the unknown value of the redundant basic force Q6 . There is one unknown redundant force and
one equation that needs to be satisfied for the element deformations. This completes the loop and allows
the determination of the unique value of Q6 that satisfies the compatibility condition.
We write this condition out in detail
15 0.8
11.25 0.6
0 0.6
V = Fs Q = F s ( Qp + Bbarx Qx) = F s
+
Q6
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
with
La
1 0
Fs :=
EA 0
0
0
Lb 0
Lc 0
0
0
0
0
0 Ld 0 0
0 0 Le 0
0 0 0 Lf
Page 356
15 0.8
11.25
0.6
0 0.6
( 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 1 ) Fs
+
Q6 = 0
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
we identify two contributions, one for the applied forces, and one for the redundant. We write them out
15
0.8
11.25
0.6
0
0.6
( 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 1 ) Fs
+ ( 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 1 1 ) Fs
Q6 = 0
15
0.8
18.75
1
0
1
Because Fs is diagonal in this case, the evaluation of these expressions is relatively straightforward by hand:
we multiply the six corresponding terms of the row and column and then add them up. We demonstrate
0.8
La
EA
La
EA
15 0.6
2
( 0.8) +
Lb
EA
Lb
EA
11.25 0.8
2
( 0.6) +
Lc
EA
Ld
EA
15 + 1
2
( 0.6) +
Le
EA
Ld
EA
1
EA
( 18.75) = 420
2
( 0.8) +
Le
EA
1 +
Lf
EA
1 = 34.56
1
EA
for the
second
1
T
Bbarx Fs Qp = 420
EA
Page 357
1
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx = 34.56
EA
The compatibility condition for the element deformations is a scalar equation for the case at hand
T
T
Bbarx Fs Qp + Bbarx Fs Bbarx Q 6 = 0
Q6 :=
T
Bbarx F s Qp
Q6 = 12.15
Bbarx Fs Bbarx
with this result the final forces in the truss elements under the applied force of 15 units are
15 0.8
11.25
0.6
0 0.6
Q :=
+
Q6
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
and the element deformations V are
we confirm that
5.28
3.96
7.29
=
5.28
6.6
12.15
42.22
23.75
43.75 1
V =
42.22
EA
65.97
121.53
V := F s Q
T
Bbarx V = 0
and we can use any five of the six compatibility relations to determine the
displacements at the free global dofs
Recall e.g. from Example 13 that
1
EA
1
U2 = 142.5
EA
U1 := V
U1 = 42.22
U2 := V + 0.75 V 1.25 V
1
U3 := V
U4 := V + 0.75 V + V 1.25 V
1
1
EA
1
U4 = 184.72
EA
1
U5 = 43.75
EA
U3 = 23.75
U5 := V
Note: the value of the redundant force Q6 does not depend on the axial stiffness value EA, since the latter
appears both in the numerator and in the denominator of the expression for Q6 . This is a general result for
statically indeterminate structures. The force distribution does not depend on the absolute, but only on the
relative stiffness value, i.e. the relation of the axial stiffness values of the different elements. In this case they
are all the same and we could have left out EA from the intermediate terms leading to the determination of
Q6 . We demonstrate this once more
Page 358
La
0
0
EAFs :=
0
0
0
Lb 0
Lc 0
0
0
0
0
0 Ld 0 0
0 0 Le 0
0 0 0 Lf
T
Bbarx EAFs Qp = 420
T
Bbarx EAFs Bbarx = 34.56
or, by hand
to solve for the redundant we divide the negative value of the first term by the second
Q6 :=
420
34.56
Q6 = 12.15
for hand calculations this approach is a lot more convenient, since we do not need to bother about division
through a very large number like EA=10,000.
Physical interpretation of results
It remains to discuss the meaning of the results for the compatibility condition. We recall that the general
solution of the equilibrium equations is a one parameter expression of the form
15 0.8
11.25 0.6
0 0.6
Q = Qp + Bbarx Qx =
+
Q6
15
0.8
18.75 1
0 1
Let us investigate the effect of the forces Qp on the deformations V and then on compatibility. We have
V1 := 15
La
EA
V2 := 11.25
Lb
EA
V3 := 0
V4 := 15
Ld
EA
V5 := ( 18.75)
Le
EA
V6 := 0
Recall from Example 13 that after solving the first five compatibility relations for the unknown displacements
at the free global dofs we obtain
Page 359
U1 = V1
U2 = V1 + 0.75 V2 1.25 V5
U3 = V2
U4 = V1 + 0.75 V2 + V4 1.25 V5
U5 = V3
V6 = 0.8 U4 + 0.6 U5
let us then determine the two displacement values needed for the sixth compatibility relation
U4 := 15
La
Lb
Ld
Le
U4 = 525
1
EA
U5 := 0
thus, the right hand side of the sixth compatibility relation reads
1
EA
this is the necessary deformation for element f so that it fits exactly between nodes 1 and 4. However,
element f does not deform under the forces Qp and this creates a gap or release deformation V6h equal to
the difference between the distance of nodes 1 and 4 and the element deformation (consult pages Part I 182183 for Example 13). This release deformation is equal to 420
We conclude that
1
T
Bbarx Fs Qp = 420
EA
1
under the applied force.
EA
420
Page 360
1
EA
Now we investigate the state of deformation and the global dof displacements under the selfstress
state that results under a unit value of the redundant basic force Q6
V1 := ( 0.8)
V4 := ( 0.8)
La
EA
Ld
EA
V2 := ( 0.6)
V5 := ( 1)
Lb
V3 := ( 0.6)
EA
Le
V6 := ( 1)
EA
Lc
EA
Lf
EA
We determine again the displacement values for the sixth compatibility relation
U4 := ( 0.8)
U5 := ( 0.6)
La
EA
Lc
+ 0.75 ( 0.6)
Ld
Le
+ ( 0.8) 1.25( 1)
EA
EA
EA
Lb
U4 = 28
1
EA
EA
thus, the right hand side of the sixth compatibility relation reads
the left hand side of the equation is not equal to zero this time. We have
V6 = 10
1
EA
1
EA
subtracting the deformation of element f from the distance between the nodes 1 and 4 gives again the gap
between the end of element f and node 4.
1
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx = 34.56
EA
10
1
EA
Page 361
We, therefore, conclude that the compatibility condition furnishes an equation for determining the value of
the redundant basic force Q6 that will close the gap between the end of element f and node 4.
Note: in the compatibility equations we have used the sixth equation because the redundant of the
problem is Q6 , but this is not really necessary, just convenient.
Support reactions and global equilibrium
Since the selfstress state does not produce any support reactions for the problem at hand, the support
reactions are those of the particular solution.
15
11.25 8 15 6 = 0
15
11.25
11.25
8
Page 362
ok!
0
0
0
Qp :=
0
0
0
0.8
0.6
0.6
Q=
Q6
0.8
1
Element deformations and compatibility relations
Under the particular solution (i.e. the applied loading) the only deformation present is the nonmechanical
deformation of element e. We, therefore, have
V = V0
with
0
V0 :=
0
0.005 Le
V0
0
=
0
0.05
The solution of the compatibility relations for this deformation vector gives the following gap between
element f and node 4 (see earlier discussion)
T
Bbarx V0 = 0.05
in fact, in this case the gap is equal to the amount of element e deformation !
can you explain why geometrically?
note that in this case the axial stiffness EA does not enter into the expression (it only appears for
mechanical deformations!). Thus, we need to be careful when calculating the redundant basic force!
Page 363
The selfstress state due to a unit value of the redundant basic force Q6 produces the same deformations
and the same gap between element f and node 4 as before. Thus, we determine the value of Q6 to satisfy
the compatibility condition that there is no gap between element f and node 4, i.e.
T
T
Bbarx V0 + Bbarx F s Bbarx Qx = 0
Q6 :=
T
Bbarx V0
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx
Q6 = 14.47
The final stress state in this structure under the effect of a thermal deformation of element e are
0.8
0.6
0.6
Q :=
Q6
0.8
1
11.57
8.68
8.68
=
11.57
14.47
14.47
Q6 :=
T
Bbarx V0
T
Bbarx EAFs Bbarx
Q6 = 14.47
1
EA
This means that in a statically indeterminate structure the selfstress state induced by nonmechanical
element deformations (i.e. thermal, shrinkage etc) is proportional to the stiffness of the elements.
It is worth noting that the final force in element f is a compression of 14.47 units. We will discuss this further
in the following, but it is worth remembering that the deformationforce relation for any element is
v = f q + vo
which implies that we may have a positive total deformation with a negative force in the
element; the latter is proportional to the mechanical deformation only!
Page 364
0.05
10000
= 50
Lf
vo
EA
L
units of force
Upon release this force drops to 14.47 according to our analysis. For the example at hand this is a very
large loss of initial prestressing force. How can we assess how much force we will loose during installation?
Look at the contribution of the prestressed element and the rest of the structure to the gap caused by the
selfstress state.
24.56
1
EA
10
1
EA
Element f contributes
10
1
EA
24.56
1
EA
10
( 50) = 14.47
10 + 24.56
24.56
( 50) = 35.53
10 + 24.56
In typical structures the prestressing element is very flexible relative to the rest of the structure and
prestress loss amounts to 35%.
Page 365
continuation of Example 5
Example_5
the rank of the equilibrium matrix of the primary structure is 5
Qp =
15.0000
11.2500
0
15.0000
18.7500
0
Bbarx =
0.8000
0.6000
0.6000
0.8000
1.0000
1.0000
% define element properties and set up Fs matrix for structure
EA = 10000;
% axial stiffness
L = [8 6 6 8 10 10];
% element lengths
for el=1:6
f{el} = L(el)/EA;
end
% set up Fs matrix
Fs = blkdiag (f{:});
% determine indetermediate term for compatibility equation
Fxx = Bbarx'*Fs*Bbarx;
Page 366
Page 367
Page 368
Page 369
Page 370
6.5972
12.1528
free dof displacements Uf under applied horizontal force
0.0042
0.0143
0.0024
0.0185
0.0044
Page 371
Page 372
La := 6
Lb := 4
Lc := 4
Ld :=
4
8 +6
Under the assumption that elements a, b and c are inextensible, there are four independent free global
dofs, as shown in the following figure.
dof 3
dof 2
dof 4
c
dof 1
The equilibrium and compatibility equations are the same as in Examples 6 and 14, respectively.
Reference:C:\Drive D\COURSES\CE220\Classnotes\Mathcad files\Example 6_Equilibrium for Hyperstatic Braced Frame.xmcd(R)
Page 373
P1 =
Q1 + Q2
6
+ 0.8 Q6
V1 =
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 + Q4 Q5
P3 =
+
4
4
V2 =
U1
6
U1
6
+ U2
V3 = U2
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
V4 =
V5 =
U3
4
U3
4
U3
4
+ U4
+ U4
V6 = 0.8 U1
We note that there are four equilibrium equations and 6 unknown basic forces. The degree of static
indeterminacy of the structural model is therefore NOS=2. Correspondingly, there are NOS more
compatibility relations to satisfy than available displacement values at the free dofs. Such a problem will not
have a solution unless NOS linearly independent constraints are imposed on the deformations. These
furnish NOS compatibility conditions for determining the NOS redundant basic forces.
We select the basic forces Q1 and Q4 as redundants. We establish three equilibrium states: one equilibrium
state is known as the particular solution and satisfies equilibrium with the applied forces while the
redundants are equal to zero; the other two equilibrium states are homogeneous solutions with no applied
loading and each redundant set equal to a unit value in turn.
First loading case
20
30
We state here the results since the answers are the same as those of example 6 (note that the equivalent
nodal forces at nodes 2 and 4 from the distributed load of example 6 do not affect the basic forces of
interest).
Page 374
Q1 = 0
20
30
Q4 = 0
30 =
Q2
6
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
20 =
Q3
4
Q5
4
0 = Q5
80
80
Qp :=
0
30 80
0.8 4.8
Q1 = 1
Q4 = 0
Q1 = 0
Q4 = 1
Bbarx
0
1
2
0
0 2
:= 0
1
0 1
5
5
24 12
Q1
Bbarx
Q4
Bf Bbarx
0
=
0
0
0
thus, the general solution of the equilibrium equations consists of the linear combination of three
stressstates that satisfy equilibrium: the particular solution and two homogeneous solutions with unknown
parameters
Q1
Q
4
Page 375
Q = Qp + Bbarx Qx
For each of the equilibrium states we proceed to calculate the element deformations and try to check the
compatibility conditions. We assume that the flexural and axial stiffness values are given. Let us say
EI := 50000
EA := 10000
and
for element d
Let us first proceed to solve the problem by matrix operations following Example 29 while providing
commentary on the physical meaning of the terms. We will return subsequently and repeat the process "by
hand" so that we can see the terms one by one.
La
La
0
0
0
0
3
6
La La
0
0
0
0
6 3
L
L
b
b
0
0
0
0
3
6
1
Fs :=
EI
Lb Lb
0
0
0
0
6
3
L
c
0
0
0
0
0
EI
0
0
0
0
0 Ld
EA
We note that we have factored out 1/EI on the right hand side, so that only relative stiffness values appear in
the matrix. This is quite convenient for hand calculations, as we have already discussed.
80
160
106.67 1
F s Qp =
53.33
EI
0
2708.33
T
Bbarx Fs Qp =
484.24 1
1715.14 EI
In fact, the above expression represents the angle between node tangent and element tangent at locations
1 and 4 in the structural model. This angles need to be zero for tangent continuity at locations 1 and 4.
Page 376
Fs Bbarx
1
0
=
0
0
10.42
4
3.33 1
2.67 EI
1.33
20.83
note that we obtain two sets of deformations, of course, one for each homogeneous solution or selfstress
state. The first column represents the element deformations for Q1 = 1 and the second for Q4 = 1
each of these deformation states does not satisfy compatibility either as we can tell immediately from
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx =
4.17 2.34 1
2.34 27.347 EI
We now obtain a 2 x 2 matrix. The first column corresponds to the compatibility error at locations 1 and 4 for
the deformations caused by the first selfstress state (Q1 = 1), and the second column represents the
compatibility error at locations 1 and 4 for the deformations caused by the second selfstress state (Q4 = 1)
The above expression appears in every analysis by the force method and we give it a special name.
T
Fxx := Bbarx Fs Bbarx
The compatibility conditions require that there be no compatibility error at locations 1 and 4 under the final
stress state. This means that
T
Bbarx Fs Qp + Fxx Qx = 0
T
Bbarx Fs Qp
and Vhp := BbarxT F s Qp
and these are exactly two equations for the two unknown redundants
the compatibility error under the particular solution
the hinge deformation if a hinge were inserted at 1 or 4
Qx := lsolve ( F xx , Vhp)
Qx =
85.01
55.44
We can see from the above solution that the value of the redundant basic forces is selected so that it
eliminates the release deformation at locations 1 and 4 under the given loading.
Note that the values for the redundants do not change if we change EI and EA, but keep the ratio the same.
This has important ramifications in preliminary design. During this stage we may not know the exact sizes of
the different structural elements, but we may have an idea about their relative sizes.
Page 377
We can approach this problem also in a more step by step fashion. To this end let us find the element
deformations under the particular solution. We have
V1p
V
2p
V
3p :=
V4p
V5p
V
6p
F s Qp
V1p = 80
1
EI
V2p = 160
1
EI
V3p = 106.67
1
EI
V5p = 0
1
EI
V4p = 53.33
1
EI
V6p = 2708.33
1
EI
We recall the compatibility relations from above noting that these cannot be satisfied, in general, for which
reason we insert a hinge or release at locations 1 and 4.
V1 =
V2 =
U1
6
U1
6
V3 = U2
+ U2
V4 =
U3
4
U3
4
+ U4
V5 =
U3
4
+ U4
V6 = 0.8 U1
We solve the four compatibility equations without a release deformation, namely at 2, 3, 5 and 6
U1p
6
U3p
4
1
EI
1
U2p = 724.24
EI
1
U3p = 3323.61
EI
1
U4p = 830.9
EI
U1p = 3385.42
We now determine the release deformations at 1 and 4 from the first and fourth compatibility relations.
V1hp :=
U1p
6
V1p
U3p
+ U4p V4p
4
V4hp :=
V1hp = 484.24
1
EI
V4hp = 1715.14
Vhp =
1
EI
484.24 1
1715.14 EI
Thus, the compatibility conditions furnish the necessary values for the redundant basic forces to close the
hinges at locations 1 and 4.
Page 378
The following figures show the bending moment distribution and the deformed shape of the structural model
for the particular solution with the release deformations at 1 and 4.
80
80
Page 379
We can continue this process for each homogeneous solution and obtain release deformations at locations
1 and 4 for each selfstress state with unit redundant value. As we have mentioned earlier, these are the
columns of the flexibility matrix Fxx. Finally, we scale the redundant values so that the release deformations
at 1 and 4 are zero, since there are physically no such releases at these locations. This means
T
Bbarx Fs Qp + Fxx Qx = 0
We can now determine the unique set of basic forces that satisfies equilibrium and compatibility under the
given linear elastic deformationforce relation of the elements. With the given values for the redundant basic
forces we obtain
Q := Qp + Bbarx Qx
85.01
30.89
30.89
=
55.44
55.44
13.36
30.89
30.89
55.44
85.01
Page 380
With the final basic forces we can determine the element deformations
V := F s Q
139.13
23.23
78.14 1
V =
94.51
EI
73.92
667.8
Q1
Q2
Q
3 :=
Q4
Q5
Q
6
V1
La 2 1 Q 1
:=
EI
V
1
2
2
Q2
or,
V1 :=
V2 :=
V3
Lb 2 1 Q 3
:=
V4 6 EI 1 2 Q4
or,
V3 :=
V4 :=
V5 :=
V6 :=
Lc
3 EI
Ld
EA
Q5
La
6 EI
La
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
( 2 Q1 Q2)
V1 = 139.13
1
EI
( 2 Q2 Q1)
V2 = 23.23
1
EI
( 2 Q3 Q4)
V3 = 78.14
1
EI
( 2 Q4 Q3)
V4 = 94.51
1
EI
V5 = 73.92
Q6
V6 = 667.8
1
EI
1
EI
It is worth noting that the deformation of the brace, which is a change of length is several times larger than
the deformations of the beam elements, since the latter are angles, i.e. have units of length over length. It
is good to think of the element lengths as a rough estimate of this scaling.
Page 381
With the element deformations we can determine the global dof displacements as we have done earlier.
We can use the same four compatibility relations as before
U1 := 1.25 V6
U2 := V2
U1
6
U3 := 4 ( U2 V3 )
U4 := V5
U3
4
1
EI
1
U2 = 162.36
EI
1
U3 = 336.87
EI
1
U4 = 10.3
EI
U1 = 834.75
U1
6
V1 = 0
1
EI
U3
1
+ U 4 V 4 = 0
EI
4
The deformed shape of the structure with a magnification factor of 50 is shown in the following figure.
Page 382
How do we draw the deformed shape? In three steps: 1. locate the nodes with the determined translations
(just show points, no black squares yet!). Make sure to respect the scale, e.g. in the drawing above
horizontal translation should be a bit more than twice than vertical translation. 2. draw the chords and
using the element deformations sketch the deformed shape of each element noting that the angles at the
nodes must be respected (e.g. right angle at node 2, continuous tangent at node 3, etc). 3. after step 2 it
should be easy to draw the little black squares according to the determined joint rotations (in an ideal
case, the black squares should "fall in place" respecting the element tangents, but checking the
determined rotation values (if we have bothered to calculate these!) is extra security.
Second load case: prestressing of brace
We would like to investigate now the case that the brace is prestressed or prestrained. We treat this as an
initial deformation problem in the force method of analysis, since it is much easier to understand it this way.
We assume, thus, that the brace will be delivered longer or shorter than its required length of 10 units.
Since we would like to customize the amount of prestressing so as to control either the final moment
distribution or the deformed shape of the structure under the earlier loading, we assume a unit value of
prestrain at the start.
The basic forces of the particular solution are all zero, since there is no external forces at the global dofs.
0
0
0
Qp :=
0
0
0
0
0
0
Vo :=
0.01
but the deformations are not all zero, because of the prestrain of element d. We have
we use a value of 1/100 as a "unit" value for the initial prestrain, since a value of 1 would
produce extremely large forces and displacements.
104.17 1
208.33 EI
BbarxT ( F s Qp + Vo) =
Page 383
104.17 1
208.33 EI
this result is very easy to interpret from the compatibility relations, since all element deformations except V6
are zero. We recall
V1 =
V2 =
U1
6
U1
6
V3 = U2
+ U2
V4 =
U3
4
U3
V5 =
4
+ U4
U3
4
+ U4
V6 = 0.8 U1
and get
U1o
6
U3o := 4 U2o
U4o :=
U3o
4
U1o = 625
1
EI
1
EI
1
U3o = 416.67
EI
1
U4o = 104.17
EI
U2o = 104.17
U1o
U3o
4
= 104.17
1
EI
+ U4o = 208.33
1
EI
but we could have obtained these answers much faster from the geometry of the deformed shape
Page 384
We denote the release deformation due to prestressing (or, initial deformation) with Vho
T
Vho := Bbarx Vo
Vho =
104.17 1
208.33 EI
In reality there is no release; to reduce the deformation at the release to zero we need the following
redundant force values
Vho + Fxx Qx = 0
Qx := lsolve ( F xx , Vho)
Qx =
21.75
5.76
We conclude that initial deformations produce a selfstress state in a statically indeterminate structure. The
basic force values of the structure for an initial deformation value of 0.01 in the brace are
Q := Bbarx Qx
21.75
11.51
11.51
=
5.76
5.76
6.93
The bending moment diagram in the structure under an initial deformation value of 0.01 in the brace is
11.51
11.51
5.76
21.75
Note that support reactions arise under the load case of initial deformation. These are selfequilibrating.
You should determine these and check global equilibrium for practice.
It is worth noting that F xx in the compatibility equation depends on the absolute value of the stiffness. By
contrast, Vho does not ! Thus, the redundant basic forces and the resulting selfstress state are directly
proportional to the absolute value of the stiffness.
Conclusion: In a statically indeterminate structure self stressstates generated by initial deformations are
proportional to the absolute value of the stiffness ! The element deformations, however, only depend on the
relative stiffness and not on the absolute stiffness value. The same is then true for the displacements!
Page 385
There is another aspect that if of some interest in prestressed structures. Even though the initial
deformation is positive (0.01 units), the axial force in the brace is compressive. We should think of this as
the necessary force to "push back" the brace to fit into the frame, which at the same time gets "pushed
out" at the location of the brace to meet the end of it. This is synergy at work!!
Interestingly the final deformation of the brace element is
V6 :=
Ld
EA
Q + 0.01
6
V6 = 0.0031
this "recoiling" of the brace from its initial deformation value is known as "prestress loss during installation".
It depends on the ratio EI/EA since this ratio controls the contribution of the frame vs. the brace in the gap
closing operation.
Calibration of prestressing (prestraining) value
Let us determine how much is the horizontal translation for the initial deformation case. This is rather
straightforward.
from
V6 =
4
U1
5
we get
U1 := 1.25 V6
U1 = 191.9
1
EI
We recall that the horizontal translation for the loading of the first load case was
834.75
1
EI
this means that if we selected the prestressing (prestraining) value just right we could eliminate the
horizontal translation under the applied forces of 30 units at dof 4 and 20 units at dof 2. Let us summarize
first
under the applied forces the horizontal translation is
834.75
1
EI
under an initial deformation value of 0.01 in the brace the horizontal translation is
thus, if we select an initial deformation of
191.9
1
EI
834.75
0.01 = 0.0435
191.9
we can cancel out the horizontal translation under the applied forces.
We determine the corresponding forces by superposition of the basic forces from the two load cases, i.e.
85.01
21.75 9.6
30.89
11.51 19.18
30.89
11.51 19.18
+ ( 4.35)
=
55.44
5.76
30.38
55.44
5.76 30.38
13.36
6.93 43.51
Page 386
19.18
30.38
9.6
We observe now a better balance between positive and negative bending moment values in the girder
(note that the maximum value is now 30.38 in the girder and 19.18 in the column, while it was 55.44 in the
girder and 85.01 in the column under the applied forces alone. Thus, prestressing allows us to fine tune
the moment distribution to our heart's content and achieve more economical values and, thus, smaller and
lighter cross sections. We also noted that it helps control the displacements. Not only is the horizontal
translation eliminated, but the vertical translation at girder midspan is 336.87 1/EI without prestress
and 136.5 1/EI with prestress (value from computer analysis, since it was not obtained above).
Page 387
The following figure represents schematically the equivalent nodal forces for the distributed element load, as
well as the effect of the distributed element load on the element deformations.
w=5
10
0=
10
10
10
10
20
10
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
Q1 + Q2
0=
Q3 + Q4
4
Q5
4
+ 20
0 = Q4 + Q5
6
or,
0=
Q1 + Q2
6
+ 0.8 Q6
0 = Q2 + Q3
Q3 + Q4 Q5
20 =
+
4
4
0 = Q4 + Q5
Page 388
0 = Q2 + Q3
20 =
Q2 = 80
Q3 + ( 0)
4
Q5
0 = ( 0) + Q5
0=
( 0) + Q2
6
Q3 = 80
4
Q5 = 0
Q6 =
+ 0.8 Q6
Bf Qp =
20
100
6
80
80
Qp := 0
0
100
and it is correct.
the following figure shows the moment diagram under the particular solution
80
80
In determining the deformations under the particular solution we should make sure to include the
deformations under the distributed element load in vector Vo. This effect is indicated with the gray hatched
area in the moment diagram above.
Page 389
w := 5
0
0
3
w Lb
24
1
Vo :=
w Lb 3
EI
24
3
w
c
24
Vo
13.33 1
=
13.33
EI
13.33
and
Fs Qp + Vo
80
160
93.33 1
=
40
EI
13.33
833.33
note that Vo is caused by the curvatures due to the gray hatched area in the moment diagram above
93.61 1
880.56 EI
BbarxT ( F s Qp + Vo) =
Page 390
Qx =
4.6
31.81
the final forces under the uniformly distributed element load are the superposition of NOS+1 stress states
Q := Qp + Bbarx Qx
4.6
16.39
16.39
=
31.81
31.81
2.46
the following figure shows the moment diagram under the uniformly distributed load
16.39
31.81
4.6
the maximum moment occurs in element c
Vj :=
maxM :=
Vj
2 w
w Lc
2
Lc
Vj = 17.95
maxM = 32.23
all that remains is to determine the support reactions and check global equilibrium. Take it as exercise!
Page 391
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces')
disp(Uf);
% store displacement value at first dof for later use
U1_1 = Uf(1);
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces
1.6695e002
3.2472e003
6.7375e003
2.0590e004
Page 392
determine displacements
Uf = Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under initial deformation')
disp(Uf);
% select displacement value of first dof
U1_2 = Uf(1);
free dof displacements Uf under initial deformation
3.8380e003
6.1407e004
9.2111e004
7.6759e005
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces and prestressing')
disp(Uf);
Page 393
Page 394
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
element properties
for el=1:3
ElemData{el}.E = 1000;
ElemData{el}.A = 1e6;
ElemData{el}.I = 50;
end
ElemData{4}.E = 1000;
ElemData{4}.A = 10;
% "inextensible"
Page 395
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces
1.6695e002
3.6836e008
3.2472e003
1.6695e002
6.7375e003
2.0591e004
1.6695e002
2.4236e003
Page 396
U = zeros(Model.nt,1);
U(1:Model.nf) = Uf;
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model (Model);
MAGF = 100;
Plot_Model (Model,U);
Plot_DeformedStructure (Model,[],U);
% store displacement value at first dof for later use
U1_1 = Uf(1);
Page 397
determine displacements
Uf = Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under initial deformation')
disp(Uf);
% select displacement value of first dof
U1_2 = Uf(1);
free dof displacements Uf under initial deformation
3.8379e003
8.6354e009
6.1407e004
3.8380e003
9.2110e004
7.6758e005
3.8380e003
3.0703e004
Page 398
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf + Bbar'*V0;
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces and prestressing')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces and prestressing
0
7.4400e008
5.7600e004
1.3920e007
2.7307e003
1.2799e004
2.7840e007
1.0880e003
Page 399
Page 400
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,ElemData,Q,2);
determine displacements
Uf = F*(PfPfw) + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load
3.0703e003
1.3229e007
1.2592e003
3.0703e003
4.0223e003
1.0924e004
3.0703e003
1.6963e003
Page 401
w=10
w=10
4
18
15
La := 18
EI := 100000
Lb := 15
k := 5000
There are two free dofs or equilibrium equations and three basic forces, as shown in the following figure
Q1
Q3
18
Q2
b
4
15
The degree of static indeterminacy is thus NOS=1. The equilibrium equations are
P1 =
Q1
La
Q2
Lb
+ Q3
P2 = Q 1 + Q 2
We select Q1 as redundant basic force.
Page 402
90
75
75
90
165
18
0=
Q2
0
+
+ Q3 + 165
La Lb
0 = ( 0) + Q2
15
165 =
or
Q2
Lb
+ Q3
0 = Q2
0
Qp := 0
165
In determining the deformations under the particular solution we should make sure to include the
deformations under the distributed element load in vector Vo.
w La3
24
1
w := 10 Vo :=
w L 3
b
EI
24
0
The compatibility equations are
La
0
3
Lb
1
Fs :=
0
EI
3
0 0
V1 =
EI
k
0
V := F s Qp + Vo
2430
1
V = 1406.25
3300 EI
U1
+ U2
La
U1
V2 =
+ U2
Lb
V3 = U1
We use the last two to solve for the displacements and substitute into the first to find the compatibility error
or discontinuity under the applied loading. We get
Page 403
U1 := V
U1 = 3300
U2 := V
2
U1
1
EI
U2 = 1186.25
Lb
1
EI
U1
La
+ U2 V = 3432.92
1
1
EI
which is the hinge rotation at location 1. The compatibility error is the negative value of the hinge rotation
(or the hinge closing value), and we will confirm this later. This hinge closing value is shown in the following
figure which shows the moment diagram and the deformed shape of the continuous beam.
M(x)
3432.9
1
EI
Q1 = 1
1
Q2
b
Q3
4
18
15
Fxx
1
Page 404
0=
Q1
La
Q2
Lb
+ Q3
Q3 =
0 = Q1 + Q2
and thus,
Bbarx
:=
1
1
+
L L
b
a
Bbarx
1
= 1
0.122
1
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx = 11.3
EI
V := F s Bbarx
1
EI
1
U2 = 5.163
EI
U1 := V
U1 = 2.444
3
2
1
1
+
La Lb
Q 2 = 1
U2 := V
U1
Lb
U1
La
+ U2 V = 11.3
1
1
EI
which gives again the hinge rotation; the compatibility error is the negative value of the hinge rotation
defining
T
Fxx := Bbarx Fs Bbarx
Qx :=
T
Bbarx ( F s Qp + Vo)
T
Bbarx ( Fs Qp + Vo) + F xx Qx = 0
Qx = 303.83
F xx
the final forces under the uniformly distributed element load are the superposition of NOS+1 stress states
Q := Qp + Bbarx Qx
303.83
= 303.83
202.13
V := F s Q + Vo
Page 405
607.01
1
V = 112.91
4042.7 EI
with these we can obtain the displacements at the free dof's from the compatibility relations
U1 := V
U2 := V
2
1
EI
1
U2 = 382.42
EI
U1 = 4042.7
U1
Lb
U1
+ U2 V = 0
1
La
1
EI
the following figure shows the bending moment diagram and the deformed shape
303.8
405
281.25
IP
IP
w La
8
w Lb
8
303.83
= 253.09
2
for span a
303.83
= 129.34 for span b
2
the maximum moment, however, occurs closer to the outer supports and have the following value
shear at left support
Vl :=
w La
Vr :=
303.83
La
w Lb
2
maxMa :=
303.83
Lb
Vl
2 w
maxMa = 267.33 @
maxMb :=
Page 406
Vr
2 w
maxMb = 149.85 @
Vl
w
Vr
w
= 7.31
= 5.47
m1
1
2
m2
a2
a1
18
vja1 =
via2 =
Um1
9
Um1
9
15
+ Um2
+ Um2
via2 vja1 = 2
Um1
9
U1
9
U1
9
3
with
( 253.09) ( 9) w 9
vja1 :=
+
3 EI
24 EI
and finally
Um1 :=
U1
9
( via2 vja1) +
2
2
( 253.09) ( 9) ( 303.83) ( 9) w 9
via2 :=
3 EI
6 EI
24 EI
Um1 = 9537.68
1
EI
the effect of the flexible middle support on the midspan deflection is clear from the following figure
Um1 = 95.38 10
U1 = 40.43 10
Page 407
Lb = 15;
=
=
=
=
10;
[w*La^3/(24*EI);w*Lb^3/(24*EI);0];
zeros(2,1);
[165;0];
determine displacements
Uf = F*(PfPfw) + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under distributed load')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under distributed load
4.0427e002
3.8242e003
Page 408
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
element properties
for el=1:2
ElemData{el}.E = 1000;
ElemData{el}.A = 1e6;
ElemData{el}.I = 100;
end
ElemData{3}.E = 1000;
ElemData{3}.A = 5;
% "inextensible"
Page 409
determine displacements
Uf = F*(PfPfw) + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load
1.7431e002
0
4.0427e002
3.8242e003
0
9.1619e003
Page 410
Page 411
Example 32  Force method for frame with inextensible elements and brace
Problem description
In this example we will analyze the frame with inextensible elements and a brace in the following figure. It is
assumed that elements a through d are inextensible and have flexural stiffness EI, while the brace element
e has axial stiffness EA.
3
b
Lb := 10
4
La := 6
Lc := 10
10
Ld := 10
Le := 16
5
6
Under the assumption that the elements a through d are inextensible, their axial flexibility is zero. This
means that axial forces do not cause axial deformations, so that the latter have no contribution to the
compatibility conditions of the force method. It is, therefore, advisable to avoid solving for the axial forces
with the equilibrium equations. To this end we make use of the principle of virtual displacements: we use
virtual displacement fields with inextensible elements a through d in setting up the equilibrium equations.
We have four equilibrium equations in 6 unknown basic forces as shown in the following figures.
2
4
3
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q6
Q4
Q5
Page 412
for the translation dofs we have the following relation between global dof displacements, chord rotations
and relative displacements between nodes or between node tangents and chords.
a :=
dof 2
d := 0
ICc ICb
10
ICc
6
ICb
dof 3
d :=
10
IC
4
3 6
1
b :=
6
c := 0
4/3
ICa
Af 2 :=
d
d
a :=
1
8
1
c :=
8
b :=
ICa
2
6
Page 413
1
10
Af 3 :=
d
d
with the following values of the compatibility matrix for the translation dofs
we can write all equilibrium equations
2
9
1
6
0
Af 3 =
1
10
1
10
1
1
3
1
8
Af 2 = 1
8
0
0
0
Q3
Q2
Q1
Q6
Q4
Q5
P1 = Q 1 + Q 2
P2 =
P3 =
Q1
3
2Q1
9
Q2
Q2
6
Q3
8
Q4
10
Q5
10
+ Q6
P4 = Q 3 + Q 4
We select Q2 and Q5 as redundant basic forces and obtain first the homogeneous solution (thus making
also sure that the selection results in a primary structure that is stable)
3
Qx1
1
c
4
Page 414
Qx 2
we solve
Q2 = 1
0 = Q1 + ( 1)
Q5 = 0
0=
0=
Q1
3
2Q1
9
Q 1 = 1
1 Q3
+
8
8
Q3 =
1 Q4
0
+
+
+ Q6
6 10 10
Q4 =
0 = Q3 + Q4
then we solve
P= 0
Q2 = 0
0 = Q1 + ( 0)
0=
0=
Q1
3
2Q1
9
34
45
Q6 =
1
10
11
3
Q1 = 0
Q3 = 0
0 Q4
1
+
+
+ Q6
6 10 10
Q4 = 0
0 = Q3 + Q4
1
1
3
Bf :=
2
9
0
Q6 =
Q5 = 1
0 Q3
+
8
8
11
3
1 0
1 1
8 8
1
1 1
0
6
10 10
0 1
Bf Bbarx
0
=
0
Page 415
0
0
good!
Bbarx
1 0
0
1
11
:= 11
0
3
0
1
34 1
45 10
We will now solve for two load cases by determining the particular solution of the equilibrium equations and
satisfying the compatibility conditions for the element deformations.
1. Load case: concentrated force
20
3
b
c
4
10
5
8
Q2 = 0
Q5 = 0
0 = Q1 + ( 0)
Q1
20 =
0=
2Q1
9
Q1 = 0
0 Q3
+
8
8
Q3 = 160
0 Q4
0
+
+
+ Q6
6 10 10
Q6 = 16
0 = Q3 + Q4
Q4 = 160
0
160
Qp :=
160
16
with this we are ready to determine the element deformations and then set up the compatibility conditions to
determine the values of the redundant basic forces. We have
EI := 40000
EA := 10000
Page 416
La
0
0
3 0 0 0
b
0
0
0 3 0 0
L
c
0 0
0
0
0
3
1
Fs :=
EI
0 0 0 Ld Ld
3
6
L
L
d
d
0 0 0
0
6
3
EI
0 0 0 0
0 Le
EA
533.33 1
F s Qp =
533.33
EI
266.67
1024
T
Bbarx Fs Qp =
Fs Bbarx
4684.8 1
164.27 EI
0
2
0
3.33
12.22 0 1
=
12.22
1.67
EI
6.11 3.33
48.36 6.4
each of these deformation states does not satisfy compatibility either as we can tell immediately from
T
Bbarx Fs Bbarx =
131.498 1.276 1
1.276 3.973 EI
Page 417
T
Vhp := Bbarx F s Qp
T
Fxx := Bbarx Fs Bbarx
Qx := lsolve ( F xx , Vhp)
Qx =
35.34
30
the final stress state is the superposition of NOS+1 stress states (one particular and NOS homogeneous)
Q := Qp + Bbarx Qx
35.34
35.34
30.44
=
30.44
30
7.7
the following figure shows the resulting moment diagram under the applied force of 20 units
30.44
35.34
30
Page 418
70.67
117.78
101.46 1
V =
51.46
EI
49.27
492.67
V := F s Q
and we can use the compatibility relations to determine the two translations and then draw the deformed
shape of the structural model under the applied force of 20 units. We have
T
Bf
0
=
1
2
0
3
9
1
8
1
6
1
8
1
10
1
10
U2
V1 = U1
3
U2
V2 = U1 +
V3 =
V4 =
V5 =
U2
8
U3
10
U3
2
+
U3
6
+ U4
+ U4
U3
10
V6 = U3
U3 := V
V3 V4 =
U2
8
U3
10
U3 = 492.67
+ 0.8 U3
4)
U2 := 8 V V
3
1
EI
U2 = 829.2
1
EI
and with this information and the given element deformations we should be able to draw the deformed shape
of the structure.
Note: the horizontal translation of node 3 can be found from U2 and U3 according to the earlier derivations
for the compatibility matrix
Uhor :=
3
U2 + U3
4
Uhor = 129.23
1
EI
Uver := 2 U2 +
Page 419
4
U3
3
Uver = 1001.5
1
EI
downward
the deformed shape is shown in the following figure; it is clear from the tangent continuity that node 2
rotates clockwise (CW) and node 3 counter clockwise (CCW). The rotation of node 4 is so small that it is
not possible to make out from the deformed shape. Indeed, numerical calculations reveal that it is roughly
50 times smaller than the rotation at the other nodes and thus, insignificant in the scale of the figure.
CCW
?
CW
Page 420
w := 5
3
w=5
c
4
10
5
8
Equivalent nodal forces (on the left hand side of equilibrium equations)
equivalent nodal forces for
constrained translation dofs
20
15
3
b
20
15
( 20) 2 + ( 20) 1 + 15
dof 2:
3
= 48.75
4
dof 3:
10
( 20)
5
6
Page 421
4
+ 15 1 = 11.67
3
thus,
48.75
Pf :=
11.667
Q2 = 0
Q5 = 0
0 = Q1 + ( 0)
48.75 =
11.67 =
Q1 = 0
Q1
3
2Q1
9
0 Q3
+
8
8
Q3 = 390
0 Q4
0
+
+
+ Q6
6 10 10
Q6 = 50.667
0 = Q3 + Q4
Q4 = 390
3
w Lb
24 EI
Vo :=
0
0
T
Vhp := Bbarx ( F s Qp + Vo)
V := F s Qp + Vo
390
Qp :=
390
0
50.667
208.33
1300 1
V =
1300
EI
650
3242.69
T
Fxx := Bbarx Fs Bbarx
Qx := lsolve ( F xx , Vhp)
Qx =
89.03
53.4
the final stress state is the superposition of NOS+1 stress states (one particular and NOS homogeneous)
Q := Qp + Bbarx Qx
89.03
89.03
63.57
=
63.57
53.4
11.26
V := F s Q + Vo
Page 422
178.05
505.09
211.89 1
V =
122.89 EI
72.05
720.52
the following figure shows the moment diagram; can you determine the maximum moment in element b?
63.57
89.03
53.4
Page 423
We determine again the values for the translation dofs from the compatibility relations
U3 := V
U3 = 720.52
+ 0.8 U3
4)
U2 := 8 V V
3
1
EI
U2 = 2101.84
1
EI
and derive the other translation values from the constraints used in setting up the compatibility matrix
for the horizontal translation of node 3 we have
the vertical translation of node 2 is
Uhor :=
Uver := 2 U2 +
4
U3
3
3
U2 + U3
4
Uver = 3243
Uhor = 855.87
1
EI
1
EI
downward
CCW
CCW
CW
the effect of the distributed load on the deformation V2 and the deformed shape of element b is very
pronounced.
can you determine the deflection (horizontal and vertical translation) of element b at its midspan?
Page 424
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
element properties
for el=1:4
ElemData{el}.E = 1000;
ElemData{el}.A = 1;
ElemData{el}.I = 40;
end
ElemData{5}.E = 1000;
ElemData{5}.A = 10;
Page 425
Id = Idef_index(Model,ElemData,1:4);
% retain only deformation modes in compatibility matrix
Aftild = Aftild(Id,:);
% equilibrium matrix w/o axial forces is the transpose of the compatibility
matrix
Bf = Aftild';
% remove Release field from ElemData before setting up flexibility matrix
ElemData{2} = rmfield(ElemData{2},'Release');
% collection of element flexibility matrices
Fs = Fs_matrix(Model,ElemData);
Fs = Fs(Id,Id);
% invoke single function for force method of analysis
[Bbar,Bvbar,F] = ForceMethod(Bf,Fs);
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces
5.0563e003
2.4062e003
2.0730e002
3.8595e003
1.2317e002
5.4813e005
Page 426
Pe(2,2) = 20;
Pe(3,1) = 15;
Pe(3,2) = 20;
Loading = Create_Loading(Model,Pe);
Pfw = Loading.Pref;
% determine final forces
Q = Bbar*(Ac(1:Model.nf,:)'*(PfPfw))+ Bvbar*V0;
% display final forces
disp('basic forces Q under distributed girder load')
disp(Q);
% determine displacements
Uf = F*(Ac(1:Model.nf,:)'*(PfPfw)) + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load')
disp(Uf);
basic forces Q under distributed girder load
0
8.9027e+001
8.9027e+001
0
6.3568e+001
6.3568e+001
5.3400e+001
1.1258e+001
free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load
1.5738e002
9.0612e003
5.2546e002
9.2169e003
1.8013e002
1.2710e003
Page 427
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
element properties
for el=1:4
ElemData{el}.E = 1000;
ElemData{el}.A = 1e6;
% "inextensible"
ElemData{el}.I = 40;
end
ElemData{5}.E = 1000;
ElemData{5}.A = 10;
% area for brace element
ElemData{2}.Release = ['n';'y'];
Page 428
Pf = Loading.Pref;
% determine final forces
Q = Bbar*Pf;
% display final forces
disp('basic forces Q under applied nodal forces')
disp(Q);
basic forces Q under applied nodal forces
6.0436e+000
0
3.5335e+001
1.4527e+001
3.5335e+001
1.9459e+001
0
3.0437e+001
1.4111e+001
3.0437e+001
2.9999e+001
7.6979e+000
determine displacements
Uf = F*Pf;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under applied nodal forces
5.0563e003
3.6261e008
2.5038e002
2.4062e003
3.2307e003
2.0730e002
3.8595e003
1.2317e002
1.4111e007
5.4825e005
Page 429
Page 430
% put basic forces back into complete vector that includes hinge Id index
Qf = zeros(sum(Model.nq));
Qf(Id) = Q;
Plot_2dMomntDistr (Model,ElemData,Qf,0.75);
determine displacements
Uf = F*(PfPfw) + Bbar'*V0;
% display displacements
disp('free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load')
disp(Uf);
free dof displacements Uf under distributed girder load
1.5738e002
1.0982e007
8.1075e002
9.0612e003
2.1396e002
5.2547e002
9.2169e003
1.8013e002
2.5162e007
1.2710e003
Page 431
CE220Theory of Structures
DeformationForce Relations
Vi = Ai U f
with
Vi = Fsi Qi +Vi0
U f = BiTVi
since
AiT = Bi and
Bi = Bi 1
Since the location of the last hinge to form is not known from the lower or upper bound theorem of plastic
analysis, trial and error is required: we guess the location of the last plastic hinge to form and then determine
the plastic deformations and the free global dof displacements. The correct guess for the last plastic hinge to
form corresponds to the case with no contradiction between the sign of the plastic deformations and the
corresponding basic forces, which also results in the largest value for the translation dofs.
consult examples 27 and 28.
Case of partial collapse mechanism
In this case the structure is still statically indeterminate before the last plastic hinge forms. Recall that there
are less than NOS+1 hinges at collapse, thus less than NOS hinges before the last plastic hinge forms. Let
us call the number of plastic hinges at collapse NP. Before the last plastic hinge forms there are, therefore,
NOS+1  NP redundant basic forces and a statically indeterminate analysis, as discussed in the preceding
page is required to determine the redundant values and then all basic forces just before the last plastic
hinge forms. Following this we can follow the same procedure as for the case of the full collapse
mechanism above to determine the displacements at incipient collapse.
consult example 33
Page 432
La := 6
Lb := 6
Lc := 8
Ld := 6
Le := 6
Lf := 10
1
3
Q7
Q6
Q5
Q8
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
We recall from Example 9 that we obtained the following basic forces at incipient collapse
Q2
Q4
=
Q5
Q6
Qei + Bbarxe Q 6
with
50
150
Qei :=
100
and
1
1
Bbarxe :=
1
1
A unique solution was not possible, because there were four unknown basic forces with three independent
equilibrium equations, as is typical of a partial collapse mechanism (review discussion of Example 9).
Page 433
A unique solution of this problem is only possible if we introduce a deformationforce relation for the
elements and then seek to satisfy the compatibility relations. Let us assume the following stiffness values
elements a through e are inextensible and have flexural stiffness EI
EI := 50000
EA := 10000
we need the element deformations at locations 2, 4, 5 and 6; we note that the element deformation at 2 also
depends on the basic force Q1
We recall from Example 9 that
Q1 := 100
we introduce the collection of flexibility matrices for elements a, c, and d only (note that we are not interested
in the deformation at 1, which is why the flexibility matrix for element a has only one row)
La
0
0
0
3 EI
Lc
Lc
0
0
3 EI
6 EI
Fse :=
Lc
Lc
0
0
6 EI 3 EI
Ld
0
0
0
3 EI
100 La
50
6 EI
150 +
0
Vei := F se
100
0
0
Vei
200
266.67
1
=
66.67 EI
@2
@4
@5
@6
1
T
Bbarxe Vei = 400
EI
1
T
Bbarxe F se Bbarxe = 12
EI
Q6 :=
400
12
Q2
Q4
:=
Q5
Q6
Page 434
400
1
1
+ 12 Q6 = 0
EI
EI
Q6 = 33.333
Qei + Bbarxe Q 6
Q2 16.67
Q4 116.67
=
Q5 133.33
Q6 33.33
and we note that the forces satisfy the yield condition since Q2 and Q6 do not exceed 100
and Q4 and Q5 do not exceed 150.
We have, therefore, obtained a unique solution under the assumption that the material is linear elastic.
It turns out that the value of the flexural stiffness EI does not affect the result, since it appears in both terms
of the compatibility condition (note that the axial stiffness does not appear because the brace has yielded).
With the unique solution for the basic forces, we can now determine the element deformations and then
proceed to determine the displacements at incipient collapse. For the given stiffness values the last hinge
forms at location 1 in element a, as an eventtoevent analysis reveals (note that the sequence of plastic
hinge formation depends on the relative stiffness value EI/EA, while the plastic hinge location and collapse
load factor does not; to prove this use the upper and lower bound theorem of plastic analysis).
Recalling the compatibility matrix from Example 18 we write
1
La
1
La
1
Lb
Af :=
0
1
Ld
1
Le
8
Lf
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
1
0
Lc
1
1
Lc
0 1
0 1
0
Lf
Af
1
6
1
6
1
6
0
=
1
6
1
6
4
1
8
1
8
3
5
V1 =
V2 =
U1
6
U1
6
V4 = U2 +
+ U2
U3
8
U3
+ U4
8
U1
V6 =
+ U4
6
V5 =
we know, of course, that even though we have 5 compatibility relations only 4 are linearly independent. We
can, therefore, obtain a unique solution for the global dof displacements from these equations. We have
from 1
U1 = 6 V1
from 2
U2 = V2 +
from 6
U4 = V6 +
Page 435
U1
6
U1
6
= V2 V1
= V6 V1
U3 = 8 ( V5 U4) = 8 ( V5 V6 + V1 )
from 5
V4 = V2 V1 + V5 V6 + V1
1
1
Bbarxe :=
1
1
therefore, the given continuity relations result in a unique set of global dof displacements that we now
determine; to this end we need to determine the deformations
recall that
Q1 := 100
V1 :=
Q2 = 16.67
V2 :=
Q4 = 116.67
V4 :=
Q5 = 133.33
V5 :=
Q6 = 33.33
V6 :=
La
6 EI
La
6 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
6 EI
Ld
3 EI
1
EI
( 2 Q1 Q2)
V1 = 216.67
( 2 Q2 Q1)
V2 = 133.33
( 2 Q4 Q5)
V4 = 133.33
( 2 Q5 Q4)
V5 = 200
Q6
V6 = 66.67
1
EI
U1 := 6 V1
U1 = 1300
U2 := V2 V1
U2 = 350
U3 := 8 ( V5 V6 + V1)
U3 = 3866.67
1
EI
U3 = 77.33 10
U4 := V6 V1
U4 = 283.33
1
EI
U4 = 5.667 10
1
EI
U1 = 0.026
3
U2 = 7 10
Page 436
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
1
EI
and we can determine the plastic deformations at incipient collapse from the relation
Vh = Af Uf V
relevant are only the deformations at 3, 7 and 8 (since the other locations are all continuous)
recall from Example 9
then
Q3 := 100
V3 :=
Q7 := 100
V7 :=
Q8 := 20
V8 :=
1 1 0 0
6
U1
U V3
2
1
0 0 1 V7
Vh :=
6
U3
4
V8
3
0 0 U4
5
5
Q 3 Lb
3 EI
Q 7 Le
3 EI
Q 8 Lf
EA
@3
@7 Vh
@8
Page 437
V3 = 200
1
EI
V7 = 200
1
EI
V8 = 1000
7.333
3
= 6 10
47.2
1
EI
or,
Vh
366.67
1
= 300
2360 EI
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
FORCEDEFORMATION RELATIONS
FOR
ELEMENT AND STRUCTURE
Page 438
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
L
EA
v =fq
with
L
EA
f = 0
0
L
3EI
L
6 EI
6 EI
L
3EI
0
q1 = 1
L
3EI
L
6EI
q2 = 1
1
L
6 EI
L
3EI
1
q3 = 1
q = f 1v = kv
v =fq
EA
L
1
k =f = 0
0
4 EI
L
2 EI
L
2 EI
L
4 EI
L
v1 = 1
j
EA
L
EI
L
v2 = 1
EI
L
EI
L
4
v3 = 1
L
Page 439
EI
L
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
v = f q + v0
q = f 1 v v0 = k v v0 = kv + q 0
with
q 0 = k v0
Initial forces (or fixedend forces) due to uniformly distributed element load
q 0 = k v0
EA
L
q 0 = 0
0
4 EI
L
2 EI
L
0
0
w L3
2 EI
y
L 24 EI
4 EI w L3
y
L
24 EI
0
wy L2
=
12
2
wy L
12
wy
wy L
12
wy L
wy L
w y L2
12
q 0 = k v0
EA
L
q0 = 0
0
4 EI
L
2 EI
L
0
a0 L
EA a 0
2 EI 1
0 L = EI 0
2
L
EI 0
4 EI 1
L
L 2 0
EAa 0
a 0 ( x ) = const=a 0
EAa 0
EI 0
0 ( x ) = const=0
EI 0
no shear forces
Page 440
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
v =fq
q1 = 1
L
EA
with f =
L
3EI
q2 = 1
L
3EI
1
and
1
v3 = v 2
2
v =fq
L
6 EI
1
L
L
q = f 1v = kv
v1 = 1
with
EA
k= L
0
3EI
L
EI
L
v3 =
v2 = 1
Page 441
EA
L
1
2
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
Initial forces (or fixedend forces) for element with moment release at node j
v = f q + v0
q = f 1 v v0 = k v v0 = kv + q 0
q 0 = k v0
with
Initial forces (or fixedend forces) due to uniformly distributed element load
q 0 = k v0
EA
q0 = L
0
0 0
w L3
3EI y
L 24 EI
0
2
= wy L
8
wy
wy L2
8
note additional shear forces
due to fixedend moment
wy L
wy L
2
wy L
2
wy L
8
q 0 = k v0
EA
q0 = L
0
0 a 0 L EA a 0
=
1
3
3EI 0 L EI 0
2
2
1.5 EI 0
note shear forces due to
fixedend moment
0 ( x ) = const= 0
1.5EI 0
L
Page 442
1.5EI 0
L
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
from
4 EI
q= L
2 EI
L
2 EI
2 EI 2 1
L
v=
v
4 EI
L 1 2
L
we derive
1
v = L
1
L
6 EI
2
q = L
6 EI
2
L
1
v =
0
4 EI
q = L
2 EI
1
v = L
1
L
6 EI
2
q = L
6 EI
2
L
0
v =
1
2 EI
q = L
4 EI
EI
L2
12
EI
4
L
EI
6 2
L
1
L 4 EI
0 L
1 2 EI
L L
1
EI
6 2
L
1
L
1
0
L
EI
L2
EI
L
EI
L2
12
EI
L3
EI
L2
2 EI 1
L L
4 EI 1
L L
EI
L3
1
L
1
T
a ka =
1
L
0
EI
L3
EI
L2
12
EI
2
L
12
EI
L3
EI
12 3
L
EI
0 6 2
= L
EI
1 12 3
L
EI
6 2
L
EI
2
L
EI
4
L
EI
6 2
L
EI
2
L
12
6
12
EI
3
L
EI
L2
EI
L3
EI
L2
gives the beam stiffness matrix in local coordinates (axial effects are not present)
Page 443
EI
2
L
EI
2
L
EI
6 2
L
EI
4
L
6
EI
L2
1
EI
L
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
from
we derive
3EI
q = 2
L
1
v =
L
3EI
q = 2
L
1
v =
L
EI
3
L
3EI
q =
v = (1)
EI
L2
3
3
EI
L3
EI
L2
EI
L3
EI
L2
EI
L3 1
EI
L2
EI
L3
1
L
1
1 3EI 1
T
a ka =
1
1
L
L L
L
0
EI
3 3
L
EI
3 2
0 = L
EI
3 3
L
0
EI
2
L
EI
3
L
EI
3 2
L
0
3
3
3
EI
3
L
EI
2
L
EI
3
L
0
gives the beam stiffness matrix in local coordinates (axial effects are not present)
Page 444
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
q = kv + q 0
Combine the deformationforce relations for all elements in the structural model q
q
q
(a )
( b)
( c)
(a ) (a )
=k v
=k
(b) (b)
v
(c) (c)
=k v
+ q0
(a )
+ q0
+ q0
( b)
(c)
#
q
v(a )
( b)
v
with V = ( c )
v
#
( ne )
v
q ( a ) k ( a )
( b)
q 0
(c) =
q 0
# 0
( ne )
q
0
q (a )
(b)
q
Q = (c)
q
#
( ne )
q
0
k
( b)
0
0
0
( ne )
=k
( ne ) ( ne )
v
( ne )
(a )
(a )
0 v q 0
( b) (b)
0
0
0 v q0
( c) + ( c)
(c)
0
0 v q0
k
0 %
0 # #
( ne ) ( ne ) q ( ne )
0
0 k
v
0
q (a )
0
( b)
q0
Q0 = q ( c )
0
#
( ne )
q0
and
k ( a )
0
Ks =
0
0
0
k
( b)
0
0
0
0
0
0
(c)
k
0
0
0 %
0
( ne )
0
0 k
blockdiagonal
we get
+ q0
Q = KsV +Q0
Page 445
Equilibrium
Pf = B fQ + Pfw
V = A fU f +Vd
Element forcedeformation
Q = K sV +Q0
Pf = A Tf K s A fU f + Pfw + A Tf Q0 + A fT K sVd
or
Pf = K fU f + Pf0
nf equations in nf unknowns
nf = number of free degrees of freedom
P = KU f + P0
(1)
note
V = Af Uf
(2)
Q = K s V + Q0
(3)
B f = A Tf
In the displacement method of analysis the unknowns of the analysis problem are the displacements at free dof's
from (2) and (3)
Q = K s ( A f Uf ) + Q0
Pf = A fT [ K s ( A f U f ) + Q 0 ] + Pfw
Uf
(3*)
Pf = A fT K s A f U f + Pfw + A fT Q 0
Pf = K ff U f + Pf0
for brevity
P = KU f + P0
with
K = A Tf K s A f
P0 = Pfw + AfT Q 0
Page 446
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
Pf = BfQ + Pfw
V = A fU f +Vd
(1) note
(2)
are the element deformations due to imposed displacements at the restrained dofs
Q = K sV + Q0
Q = K s A fU f +Vd + Q0
Uf
(3*)
T
Pf = A f K s A fU f +Vd + Q0 + Pfw
for brevity
with
Bf = A Tf
K = Af K s Af
Page 447
(3)
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
(a) by computer:
K = Af K s Af
K = Af K s Af
P0 = Pfw + A f Q0 + A f K sVd
P0 = Pfw + A Tf Q0 + A Tf K sVd
Step 3: solve system of equilibrium equations for the unknown displacements at free dofs
Pf P0 = KU f
Uf
Q = K s V V0 = K sV + Q0
(a) by computer:
element by element
(b) by hand:
q = k v v0 = kv + q 0
R = BdQ + Pdw
Step 8: with support reactions and applied forces check global equilibrium on complete structure free body
Page 448
5
5
U2
a
3
c
1
U1
EAa := 30000
EAb := 10000
EAc := 10000
Geometric information
2
La = 9.43
Lb = 5.66
Lc = 5.66
La :=
5 +8
Lb :=
4 +4
Lc :=
4 +4
Ld := 8
Page 449
EAd := 20000
Step 1: Set up the compatibility relations between independent free global dofs and element deformations.
dof 1 corresponds to first column of the compatibility matrix Af
4
La
Af 1 :=
4
Lc
U1 = 1
U2 = 1
Page 450
4
Lb
Af 2 :=
4
Lc
5
4
Q1
Q2
b
P2
Q2
Q3
c
Q1
1
Q4
Q3
P1
Q4
8
5
4
P1 = Q 1
Q3
+ Q4
La
Lc
thus Bf :=
4
4
P2 = Q 2
+ Q3
Lb
Lc
5 0 4 1
L
Lc
a
4
4
0
0
Lb Lc
we note
Bf = A f
We set up the collection of element stiffness matrices. It consists of the individual basic element stiffness
matrices arranged on the diagonal (block diagonal form, in the case of the truss diagonal)
Collection of element stiffness matrices Ks
with
ka :=
EAa
La
kb :=
EAb
Lb
kc :=
EAc
Lc
kd :=
EAd
Ld
we have
ka
0
Ks :=
0
0
kb 0 0
0 kc 0
0 0 kd
for hand calculations it is better to factor out a reference stiffness and then include only relative stiffness
terms in Ks. We demonstrate
0
0
0
EAb La
0
0
0
EAa Lb
EAa
EAc La
Ks :=
La 0
0
0
EAa Lc
EA
L
d
a
0
0
0
EAa Ld
Page 451
Ks
0
0
1 0
0 0.556
0
0 EAa
=
0 0 0.556 0 La
0
0.786
0 0
T
K := Af Ks Af
K =
4.28 0.88 3
10
0.88 1.77
or, better K =
0.28 0.56 La
Method B: Let us identify the contribution of each element to the stiffness matrix. We do this as
follows: we isolate the deformation of each element in the compatibility matrix.
Afa :=
5 0
L
Afb :=
0 4
Lb
Afc :=
4 4
L L
c c
Afd := ( 1 0 )
T
The operation Af Ks Af now breaks down in the following element contributions:
element a
T
Ka := Afa ka Afa
element b
T
Kb := Afb kb Afb
element c
T
Kc := Afc kc Afc
element d
T
Kd := Afd kd Afd
0.89 0 3
10
0 0
0 0 3
Kb =
10
0 0.88
Ka =
0.88 0.88 3
10
0.88 0.88
2.5 0 3
Kd =
10
0 0
Kc =
0.28 0 EAa
0 0 La
0 0 EAa
Kb =
0 0.28 La
or, Ka =
or,
0.28 0.28 La
0.79 0 EAa
Kd =
0 0 La
or, Kc =
or,
K := Ka + Kb + Kc + Kd
Although Method A of determining the structure stiffness matrix K is compact and convenient by
computer, it is not advisable for "hand" calculations. Method B is faster for "hand" calculations.
For determining individual stiffness coefficients the most suitable method will be presented later under
the section "physical interpretation of stiffness coefficients".
Page 452
5
L
a
K=
5
L
5
a
K = k (a)
La
0
k
1
0
0
0
0
(a)
Lc
4
Lb
4
Lc
(b )
k
0
0
k (c)
5
L
a
0
0
0
0 4
k ( d ) Lc
4
0
k (b) 0 4 + c k (c ) 4
0 +
Lb 4
4
Lc
L
L
b
c
Step 3: Set up the applied nodal force vector; for load case 1 we have
4
Lb
4
Lc
4 1 ( d )
k [1 0]
+
Lc 0
Pf :=
5
8
Solve for the unknown displacements of the global dof's (use Gauss elimination instead of inverse!)
Uf := lsolve ( K , Pf)
Uf =
2.35 3
10
5.7
if we do not include the term EAa /La in the stiffness we get global dof displacements with EAa /La factor
Uf =
7.46 La
18.12 EAa
Note: we use Gauss elimination or another suitable solution method for linear system of equations.
We do not use multiplication by the inverse of the stiffness matrix !! (even though the latter approach is
not a crime for very small matrices)
Page 453
Step 4: Determine the deformations of all elements from the compatibility relations
V := Af Uf
1.24
4.03 3
V =
10
2.37
2.35
va
vb
:=
vc
vd
or,
Af Uf
va 3.955
vb 12.814 La
=
vc 7.538 EAa
vd 7.462
Q := Ks V
3.96
7.12
=
4.19
5.87
Even though this way of determining is compact and convenient for computer use, particularly,
since we have already established Ks, it is strongly advisable to use the following elementby element
determination of the basic force in "hand" calculations.
qa := ka va
qa = 3.96
qb := kb vb
qb = 7.12
qc := kc vc
qc = 4.19
qd := kd vd
qd = 5.87
If we had not included the term EAa /La in the stiffness we get the element forces by multiplication with the
relative stiffness only. We demonstrate
qa := ( 1) 3.96
qa = 3.96
qb := 0.556 ( 12.814)
qb = 7.12
qc := 0.556 ( 7.538)
qc = 4.19
qd := 0.786 ( 7.462)
qd = 5.87
It is clear that basic element forces do not depend on the reference stiffness value, but only on the relative
stiffness ratios. Global dof displacements and element deformations on the other hand, are proportional to
the reference stiffness value, as the above results clearly demonstrate.
Step 6:
Page 454
R7
R8
R6
R5
Q1
Q2
b
P2
Q2
R4
Q3
c
Q1
R1
R2
Q4
Q4
Q3
P1
R3
With all basic element forces known it is now straightforward to determine the support reactions. Each one
of these appears in a separate equilibrium equation. We can thus determine them one at a time.
In Mathcad it may be convenient to use matrix multiplication with an
equilibrium matrix Bd
R1 = Q 4
R2 = 0
8
4
Q3
La
Lc
4
4
R4 = Q 2
+ Q3
Lb
Lc
R3 = Q 1
4
R5 = Q 2
Lb
4
R6 = Q 2
Lb
R7 = Q 1
5
La
8
R8 = Q 1
La
0
0
0
0
0
0
8 0 4
La
Lc
4
4
0
Lc
Lb
0
Bd := 0
Lb
4
0
0
Lb
0
0
La
8
0
0
L
a
Page 455
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R := Bd Q
5.87
6.32
2.07
=
5.04
5.04
2.1
3.35
3.354
2.096
5.037
4
7.124
3.955
b
7.124
8
2.074
3
4.19
c
3.955
1
5.867
4.19
5.867
5.867
6.317
R8
R6
R5
4
8
a
3
R1
R2
R3
8
force equilibrium in X
R +5+R +R +R = 0
1
4
5
7
force equilibrium in Y
R +8+R +R +R = 0
2
3
6
8
R 8 + 5 8 + 8 4 + R 4 R 5 = 0
1
4
8
Page 456
R4
0
0
We note, however, that the elements undergo initial deformations due to nonmechanical effects. These are
0.001 La
0.001 Lb
V0 :=
0
in the displacement method of analysis, these initial deformations result in initial element forces (also known
as "fixed end forces", because they arise for the case that the global dofs are "held fixed" so that the global
dof displacements are zero, while the nonmechanical effects are applied). These initial element forces are
collected in a vector Q 0 , which can be obtained either by the operation
Q0 := Ks V0
T
Q0 = ( 30 10 0 0 )
q0 = EA 0
EAa 0.001
EAb 0.001
Q0 :=
T
P0 := Af Q0
P0 =
Q0
30
10
=
0
15.9
7.07
even though this way of determining the initial force vector Pf0 is compact and convenient by
computer, it is not advisable for "hand" calculations. The method that is suitable for hand calculations
will be shown later under the section "physical interpretation of stiffness coefficients and initial force vector"
Solve for the unknown displacements of the global dof's
Uf := lsolve [ K , ( Pf P0) ]
Uf =
3.22 3
10
2.39
Page 457
Uf =
10.25 La
7.59 EAa
1.71
1.69
10 3
V =
3.97
3.22
V := Af Uf
va
vb
:=
vc
vd
or,
Af Uf
va 5.434
vb 5.37 La
EAa
v
12.619
c
vd 10.252
Step 5: Determine the basic force of all elements. This can be done in a number of ways, each with its
advantages and drawbacks. Let us look at the methods.
(a)
From the physical understanding point of view the best approach is to realize that the element forces
are proportional to the mechanical deformations, not the total deformations. Thus, we subtract the initial
deformations from the total deformations and then multiply by the element stiffness matrix. The most
convenient computer solution is by multiplication with Ks. By "hand" it is advisable to proceed element
by element.
T
Q = ( 24.57 7.01 7.01 8.06 )
Q := Ks ( V V0)
computer solution
(b)
EAa
qa := ka ( va 0.001 La)
qa = 24.57
qb := kb ( vb 0.001 Lb )
qb = 7.01
qc := kc vc
qc = 7.01
qc := ( 0.556) ( 12.619)
qc = 7.02
qd := kd vd
qd = 8.06
qd := ( 0.786) ( 10.252)
qd = 8.06
or,
qa := ( 1) 5.434 0.001 La
qa = 24.57
La
EAa
If we have already set up the element initial force vector for determining the structure initial force
vector, then we can simply write
Q := Ks V + Q0
24.57
7.01
=
7.01
8.06
In this case we can think of the final element forces as the linear superposition of the initial forces
that we obtained without any global dof displacements (remember the name "fixed end forces"!) and
the additional forces that result from the deformations due to global dof displacements.
Step 6:
Page 458
Step 7: With all element forces known the determination of support reactions is the same as for the first
load case with the interesting footnote that there are no applied forces at the applied dofs, but, the
support reactions are not zero, if there are more than 3 support forces!
4.96
20.832
4.96
5
13.02
4
7.015
24.566
b
a
7.015
3
7.015
9.921
7.015
c
24.566
1
8.06
7.015
d
8.06
8.06
25.793
4
R := Bd Q
8.06
25.79
9.92
=
4.96
4.96
13.02
20.83
R7
R8
R6
R5
4
8
a
3
R1
R2
R3
force equilibrium in X
R +R +R +R = 0
1
4
5
7
force equilibrium in Y
R +R +R +R = 0
2
3
6
8
R 8 + R 4 R 5 = 0
1
4
8
Page 459
R4
b
0
K 21
EA 5
La La
c
EA 4
Lc Lc
K11
EA
1
Ld
U1 = 1
The force at dof 1 due to a unit displacement at dof 1 is stiffness coefficient K 11. Obtain it by equilibrium
K11 := ( 1)
EAd
Ld
5 EAa 5 4 EAc 4
+
La La La Lc Lc Lc
( 1) +
K11 = 4.28 10
as above
The force at dof 2 due to a unit displacement at dof 1 is stiffness coefficient K 21. Obtain it by equilibrium
4 EAc 4
Lc Lc Lc
K21 :=
K21 = 0.88 10
Page 460
as above
Impose a unit value at displacement dof 2 and determine element deformations and forces
EA 4
Lb Lb
K 22
U2 = 1
0
EA 4
Lc Lc
K12
The force at dof 2 due to a unit displacement at dof 2 is stiffness coefficient K 22. Obtain it by equilibrium
4 EAc 4 4 EAb 4
K22 :=
+
L
L
L
L
L
c
c
c
b
b
Lb
K22 = 1.77 10
as above
The force at dof 1 due to a unit displacement at dof 2 is stiffness coefficient K 12. Obtain it by equilibrium
4 EAc 4
K12 :=
L
L
c
c
Lc
K21 = 0.88 10
as above
Clearly for hand calculations this is the most direct way to set up the coefficients of the stiffness matrix.
All free displacement dofs are set to zero ('locked') and the members are heated up. The forces at dofs 1
and 2 are the initial (or fixed end) forces P0 . They are determined by equilibrium
EAb T
T := 0.001
P20
EAa T
U2 = 0
0
c
d
U1 = 0
P10 :=
5
EAa T
La
P10 = 15.9
as above
4
P20 := EAb T
Lb
P10
Clearly for hand calculations this is the most direct way to set up the initial force vector.
Page 461
P20 = 7.07
as above
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
Page 462
for el=[2:3]
ElemData{el}.E = 1000;
ElemData{el}.A = 10;
end
ElemData{4}.E = 1000;
ElemData{4}.A = 20;
Page 463
Page 464
2.5121e015
The support reactions under thermal heating of elements a and b are
8.0598e+000
0
2.5793e+001
9.9207e+000
4.9603e+000
4.9603e+000
1.3020e+001
2.0832e+001
Page 465
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
Page 466
ElemData{4}.A = 20;
Page 467
Page 468
100
c
3
4
15
15
20
There are only two free global dofs as shown in the following figure
2
c
We can proceed as in earlier examples and set up the compatibility matrix Af for the free dofs.
The result is:
U1 = 1
c
b
U2 = 1
b
c
0
1
Af := 1
0
0
0
0
1
Page 469
La := 20
Lb := 15
Lc := 15
EI := 60000
4 EI 2 EI 0
0
0
La La
2 EI 4 EI
0
0
0
La La
4 EI 2 EI
0
0
Ks := 0
Lb
Lb
2 EI 4 EI
0
0
0
Lb
Lb
3 EI
0
0
0
0
Lc
Lb
Lb
4
L
La
a
Lb
Lb
4
2
La
EI La
Ks :=
Lb 0
0
0
0
0
0
T
K := Af Ks Af
K =
0 0
0 0
4 2
2 4
0 0
0
Lb
3
Lc
28000 8000
8000 28000
It is much more straightforward to set up the stiffness matrix directly from the following figure
2 EI
La
K11
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
K 21
c
b
4 EI
La
K12
a
K 22
2 EI
Lb
3EI
Lc
b
c
K11 :=
4 EI 4 EI
+
La
Lb
K11 = 28000
K12 :=
2 EI
Lb
K12 = 8000
K21 :=
2 EI
Lb
K21 = 8000
K22 :=
4 EI 3 EI
+
Lb
Lc
K22 = 28000
K12 :=
EI
( 2)
Lb
K22 :=
Lb
EI
4 + 3
Lb
Lc
K11 :=
EI Lb
4
+ 4
Lb La
K21 :=
EI
( 2)
Lb
Page 470
We can set up the equations of equilibrium at the free dofs in the form:
Pf = K U f + P0
and solve for the displacement values at the free dofs. The only difficulty arises with the moment of 100
units acting at the end of the beam.
According to the following figure the fixedend moment at the left end of element c is one half the
applied end moment of 100 units. How did we obtain this?
L
100
6 EI
100
50
100
First we determined the initial deformation v0 for the completely unrestrained beam in the upper figure.
it is
L
times the value of the end moment and of opposite sign.
6 EI
Then the fixedend moment of the beam with one end unrestrained becomes
with
k :=
3 EI
L
we obtain
q0 =
q0 = k v0
Mend
3 EI L
Mend =
L 6 EI
2
Thus, one half of the moment at the unrestrained end "carries over" to the restrained end. 1/2 is known
as the carryover factor of the prismatic beam.
Page 471
Pf :=
80
0
P0 :=
and
P20
a
50
0
50
100
c
We solve the linear system of equilibrium equations for the unknown displacement values
U := lsolve ( K , Pf P0)
U =
3.67 3
10
2.83
We can determine the end moments of members a, b and c directly from the stiffness coefficients and the
initial (fixedend) moments (superposition of different compatible states)
Q2
Q1
K11
2 EI
La
Q5
Q4
Q3
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
K 21
c
b
4 EI
La
K12
a
2 EI
Lb
3EI
Lc
K 22
b
c
4 EI
Lb
P20
a
50
100
c
2 EI
Q :=
U
1
La 1
4 EI
Q :=
U
2
La 1
Q = 22
1
Q = 44
2
4 EI
2 EI
2 EI
4 EI
Q :=
U +
U
3
Lb 1
Lb 2
Q :=
U +
U
4
Lb 1
Lb 2
3 EI
Q :=
U + 50
5
Lc 2
Page 472
Q = 36
3
Q = 16
4
Q = 16
5
K11 :=
EI Lb
4
+ 4
Lb La
K21 :=
EI
( 2)
Lb
Lb
2
4 L + 4
K' :=
Lb
2
4
+
3
Lc
K' =
7 2
2 7
U' =
14.67
11.33
Lb
Q' := 2
U'
1
La 1
Lb
Q' = 22
1
Q' := 4
U'
2
La 1
Q' = 44
2
Q' = 36
3
Q' = 16
4
Lb
Q' := 3
U' + 50
5
Lc 2
Q' = 16
5
Page 473
K12 :=
EI
( 2)
Lb
K22 :=
Lb
EI
4 + 3
Lb
Lc
16
36
22
44
100
IP
IP
80
22
22
44
36
3.3
3.3
1.33
100
16
1.33
7.73
7.73
22
6.40
1.97
3.3
15
15
20
80
100
22
3.3
global equilibrium
1.97
ok
Page 474
7.73
6.40
ok
6
a
15
15
20
Pf :=
Set up the applied force vectors directly. There are no nodal forces, therefore,
0
0
the initial (fixedend) forces can be obtained from the following figure
P20
P10
b
a
1 200
w := 6
w Lc
8
168.75
200
w La
= 168.75
12
= 200
P0 :=
200
168.75
We solve the linear system of equilibrium equations for the unknown displacement values
U := lsolve ( K , Pf P0)
U =
9.65 3
10
8.78
We can determine the end moments of members a, b and c directly from the stiffness coefficients and the
initial (fixedend) moments (superposition of different compatible states):
Q2
Q1
2 EI
La
K11
Q5
Q4
Q3
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
K 21
c
b
4 EI
La
K12
a
2 EI
Lb
K 22
3EI
Lc
b
c
4 EI
Lb
Page 475
200
200
P20
P10
b
168.75
2 EI
Q :=
U + 200
1
La 1
Q = 257.92
1
4 EI
Q :=
U 200
2
La 1
4 EI
2 EI
2 EI
4 EI
Q = 84.17
2
Q :=
U +
U
3
Lb 1
Lb 2
Q = 84.17
3
Q :=
U +
U
4
Lb 1
Lb 2
Q = 63.33
4
3 EI
Q :=
U + 168.75
5
Lc 2
Q = 63.33
5
Lb
Q' := 2
U' + 200
1
La 1
Lb
U' =
38.61
35.14
Q' = 257.92
1
Q' := 4
U' 200
2
La 1
Q' = 84.17
2
Q' = 84.17
3
Q' = 63.33
4
Lb
Q' := 3
U' + 168.75
5
Lc 2
Q' = 63.33
5
Page 476
84.1
257.9
63.3
IP
IP
IP
w=6
257.9
68.7
257.9
63.3
84.1
51.3
1.39
1.39
40.8
49.2
257.9
68.7
20
52.7
68.7
global equilibrium
15
15
w=6
257.9
40.8
47.8
52.7
w=6
47.8
40.8
Page 477
OK!!
0
a
c
15
15
20
with
0 := 2 10
Pf :=
Set up the applied force vectors directly. There are no nodal forces, therefore,
the initial (fixedend) forces can be obtained from the following figure
0
0
P20
P10
b
a
1 120
EI 0 = 120
180
120
1.5 EI 0 = 180
P0 :=
120
180
We solve the linear system of equilibrium equations for the unknown displacement values
U := lsolve ( K , Pf P0)
U =
6.67 3
10
8.33
We determine the basic forces (bending moments) by superposition of the different compatible states.
Q2
Q1
2 EI
La
K11
Q5
Q4
Q3
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
K 21
c
b
4 EI
La
K12
a
2 EI
Lb
K 22
3EI
Lc
b
c
4 EI
Lb
Page 478
P20
P10
b
a
1 120
180
120
2 EI
Q :=
U + 120
1
La 1
Q = 160
1
4 EI
Q :=
U 120
2
La 1
4 EI
2 EI
2 EI
4 EI
Q = 40
2
Q :=
U +
U
3
Lb 1
Lb 2
Q = 40
3
Q :=
U +
U
4
Lb 2
Lb 1
Q = 80
4
3 EI
Q :=
U + 180
5
Lc 2
Q = 80
5
Lb
Q' := 2
U' + 120
1
La 1
Lb
U' =
26.67
33.33
Q' = 160
1
Q' := 4
U' 120
2
La 1
Q' = 40
2
Q' = 40
3
Q' = 80
4
Lb
Q' := 3
U' + 180
5
Lc 2
Q' = 80
5
Page 479
80
160
40
80/EI
40/EI
40/EI
80/EI
120/EI
IP
6
160
80
40
2.67
5.33
5.33
2.67
160
6
8.67
8
15
20
5.33
15
160
6
global equilibrium
8.67
6 8.67 + 8 5.33 = 0
160 8.67 20 + 8 35 5.33 50 = 0.1
Page 480
OK!!
5.33
6 EI
La 2
0.05
P10
1
0.05
6 EI
La 2
6 EI
Lb 2
P20
3
0.05
6 EI
Lb 2
Pf :=
0
0
the initial (fixedend) forces can be determined from the figure above
0.05 6 EI 0.05 6 EI
2
2
La
Lb
P0 :=
EI
0.05
2
Lb
P0 =
35
80
We solve the linear system of equilibrium equations for the unknown displacement values
U := lsolve ( K , Pf P0)
U =
0.47 3
10
2.72
We determine the basic forces (bending moments) by superposition of the different compatible states.
Q2
Q1
2 EI
La
K11
Q5
Q4
Q3
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
K 21
c
b
4 EI
La
K12
a
2 EI
Lb
K 22
3EI
Lc
b
c
4 EI
Lb
Page 481
0.05
6 EI
La 2
0.05
P10
1
0.05
2 EI
6 EI
4 EI
6 EI
6 EI
La 2
0.05
Q :=
U + 0.05
2
2
La 1
La
2 EI
6 EI
Lb 2
Q = 47.83
1
Q = 50.67
2
2 EI
Q :=
U +
U 0.05
3
Lb 1
Lb 2
4 EI
Q :=
U +
U 0.05
4
Lb 1
Lb 2
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
Lb
3 EI
Q :=
U
5
Lc 2
Q = 50.67
3
Q = 32.67
4
Q = 32.67
5
U' =
Lb
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
Q' := 2
U' + 0.05
1
2
La 1
La
Lb
Q' := 3
U'
5
Lc 2
Q' = 50.67
2
6 EI
Lb
1.89
10.89
Q' = 47.83
1
Q' := 4
U' + 0.05
2
2
La 1
La
P20
c
3
Q :=
U + 0.05
1
2
La 1
La
4 EI
6 EI
Lb 2
Q' = 50.67
3
Q' = 47.33
4
Q' = 32.67
5
Page 482
50.67
0.05
IP
IP
4.93
4.93
47.83
47.83
4.93
32.67
50.67
5.56
5.56
10.49
2.18
7.74
15
15
20
2.18
2.18
47.83
4.93
global equilibrium
10.49
7.74
Page 483
OK!!
2.18
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
set up compatibility matrix by hand (note that we include the trivial dof!)
Af = [0 1 1 0 0 0;
0 0 0 1 1 0;
0 0 0 0 0 1]';
Page 484
L
= ElmLenOr(xyz);
k{el} = 2*EI/L*[2 1;1 2];
end
Ks = blkdiag(k{1:Model.ne});
Page 485
1.4211e014
Page 486
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
Page 487
Page 488
Page 489
Page 490
Geometric properties:
Lb := 10
La := 8
Lc := 10
a
d
12
Ld := 12
2@10 = 20
If all elements are assumed to be inextensible, there are five free independent global dofs as shown
3
2
Material properties
EI := 80000
a
d
U1 = 1
b
a
d
Page 491
1
La
1
La
0
0
Af 1 :=
0
0
1
Ld
1
Ld
U2 = 1
c
a
d
0
1
1
0
Af 2 :=
0
0
0
0
U3 = 1
a
d
U4 = 1
b
0
0
1
Lb
1
L
b
Af 3 :=
1
L
c
1
Lc
0
0
0
0
0
1
Af 4 :=
1
0
0
0
a
d
Page 492
0
0
0
0
Af 5 :=
0
1
1
0
U5 = 1
c
a
d
Q4
Q3
Q5
c
Q2
Q6
Q7
a
d
Q1
Q8
The free body for the first equilibrium equation is shown in the following figure
Q3
1
Q2
a
Q5
Q4
Q6
Q1 + Q 2
8
Q7
Q 7 + Q8
12
Q1
Q8
We have:
P1 =
Q1 + Q2
8
Q7 + Q8
12
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
P3 =
Q3 + Q4
10
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
P5 = Q 6 + Q 7
Q5 + Q6
10
1
8
0
Bf :=
0
Page 493
1
8
1 1
12 12
1 1 1
1
0
10 10 10
10
Bf
1
8
0
=
0
1
8
1 1
12 12
1
1 1 1
10
10 10 10
T
Af
1
8
0
=
0
1
8
1 1
12 12
1
1 1 1
10
10 10 10
and we observe that the two are identical. Thus, equilibrium equations can also be written as
T
Pf = Af Q
4 EI 2 EI 0
0
0
0
0
0
La La
EI
EI
0
0
0
0
0
2 La 4 La 0
EI
EI
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
4
Lb
Lb
EI
EI
0
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
Lb
Lb
Ks :=
EI
EI
0
0
0
4
0
0
2
0
Lc
Lc
EI
EI
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
0
L
L
c
c
EI
EI
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
4
L
L
d
d
EI
EI
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
Ld
Ld
Page 494
T
K := Af Ks Af
2.43
7.5
= 0
0
3.33
7.5
3.33
3
4.8 1.92 0 4.8 10
16
0 64 16
0
4.8 16 58.67
72
4.8 16
Method 2(a): express element stiffness matrix in terms of global dof displacements and add up
Determination of individual element stiffness contributions
ka :=
EI 4 2
La 2 4
kb :=
EI 4 2
Lb 2 4
kc :=
1 0 0 0 0
L
Afa :=
1
L 1 0 0 0
a
0 1 1 0 0
Lb
Afb :=
1
0 0 L 1 0
b
0 0 1 1 0
Lc
Afc :=
1
0
0
0
1
Lc
1 0 0 0 1
L
Afd :=
1
0
0
0
0
L
element a
element b
T
Ka := Afa ka Afa
T
Kb := Afb kb Afb
Ka
1.88
7.5
= 0
0
EI 4 2
Lc 2 4
7.5 0 0 0
3
0 0 0 0 10
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
40 0 0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0 32 4.8 16 0
3
Kb = 0 4.8 0.96 4.8 0 10
0 16 4.8 32 0
0
0
0
0
0
Page 495
kd :=
EI 4 2
Ld 2 4
element c
element d
0
0
= 0
0
0
0
3
0 0.96 4.8 4.8 10
0 4.8 32 16
0 4.8 16 32
Kc := Afc kc Afc
Kc
T
Kd := Afd kd Afd
0.56
0
Kd = 0
0
3.33
0 0 0 3.33
3
0 0 0
0 10
0 0 0
0
0 0 0 26.67
0 0 0
K := Ka + Kb + Kc + Kd
1 La 1 La
0
1
0
K= 0
0
0
0
0
1 La 1 La
0
1
1 La
K= 0
0 k (a)
1 La
0
0
0
0
1 La 1 La
6 EI
0
1 2
La
K= 0
0
6
EI
0 2
0
La
0
0
12 EI
L3
a
6 EI
2
K = La
0
0
0
6 EI
La 2
4 EI
La
0
0
0
2 EI
La
4 EI
La
0
1
1 Lb
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 Lb 1 Lc 1 Lc
1
1
0
0
1
0 0 0 0
+ 1 Lb
1 0 0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0 1
+ 1 Lb
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0
4
EI
0
Lb
0 0 0
6
EI
+ 0 L 2
b
0 0 0
2 EI
0
0 0 0
Lb
0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 1 1 Lb
1 Lb k (b )
0 0 1 Lb
1
0
0
0 0
1 Lb
1 0
6 EI
Lb 2
2 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
6 EI
Lb 2
4 EI
Lb
0
2 EI
Lb
12 EI
Lb 3
6 EI
2
Lb
6 EI
Lb 2
4 EI
Lb
0 0
0
0
0
0 +
0
0
0
0
0
kb
0
0
0
0
kc
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0 1 Lc
+ 1 L 1 Lc k ( c )
1 0 c
0 0 1 Lc
0
1
0
1
4 EI
Lb
6 EI
2
Lb
1 Ld
k a
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 Ld
0
1 La
1 L
a
0 0
0 0
0 0
kd 0
1 L
d
1 Ld
0
0
6 EI
0 0
0 0 0
Lc 2
+ 1 Lc 1 Lc
EI
6
0 1
0 0 0
Lc 2
1
0
12 EI
Lc 3
6 EI
Lc 2
6 EI
Lc 2
4 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc 2
2 EI
Lc
Page 496
0
12 EI
0 3
Ld
6 EI
0
2
Lc
+ 0
2 EI
0
Lc
6 EI
4 EI 2
Ld
Lc
4 EI
Lc
2 EI
Lc
1 1 Lb
0 1 Lb
0
0
1 Lc
1 Lc
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
1 0
0 1
0 1
0 0
1 Ld 1 Ld
0
0
1 0
1 Ld
+ 0
0 k (d )
0 1
1 Ld
0
0
1
0
1 Ld
2 EI
0
Lc
+ 0
4 EI
0
Lc
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
6 EI
Ld 2
0
0
4 EI
Ld
1 Ld
6 EI
0 2
Ld
0
6
EI
0 2
Ld
0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
4 EI
Ld
2 EI
Ld
6EI
L2d
12 EI
L3d
K21 :=
6 EI
La
K21 = 7.5 10
K31 := 0
K41 := 0
K51 :=
6 EI
Ld
for dof 2
K12
K 22
4 EI
La
K12 :=
U2 = 1
6 EI
La
K 32
K 52
K 42
6 EI
L2b
K22 :=
4 EI 4 EI
+
La
Lb
K32 :=
6 EI
Lb
2 EI
La
K42 :=
2 EI
Lb
K52 := 0
Page 497
K51 = 3.33 10
K12 = 7.5 10
K22 = 72 10
K32 = 4.8 10
3
K42 = 16 10
for dof 3
K13
K 23
6 EI
L2b
12 EI
L3c
6 EI
L2c
6 EI
L2b
K13 := 0
K 33 K 43
12 EI
L3b
K23 :=
K 53
6 EI
Lb
6 EI
L2c
U3 = 1
K12 = 7.5 10
K33 :=
K43 :=
6 EI
Lb
K53 :=
12 EI
Lb
K23 = 4.8 10
12 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
K33 = 19.2 10
3
K43 = 0 10
K53 = 4.8 10
for dof 4
6 EI
L2c
K 34
K14
K 24
4 EI
Lb
2 EI
Lb
U4 = 1
2 EI
Lc
K24 :=
K 54
4 EI
K34 :=
6 EI
L2b
K15
K 35
K 45
K14 = 0 10
2 EI
Lb
K 44 L
c
6 EI
Lb
for dof 5
K 25
K14 := 0
2 EI
Lc
6 EI
L2c
4 EI
Lc
Page 498
K54 :=
2 EI
Lc
K54 = 16 10
6 EI
2
K15 = 3.33 10
K25 := 0
K35 :=
6 EI
Lc
2 EI
Ld
Lc
K34 = 0 10
K44 = 64 10
Ld
4 EI
Ld
6 EI
4 EI 4 EI
+
Lb
Lc
K 55
6EI
L2d
K44 :=
K15 :=
U5 = 1
K24 = 16 10
K35 = 4.8 10
K45 :=
2 EI
Lc
K45 = 16 10
K55 :=
4 EI 4 EI
+
Lc
Ld
K55 = 58.67 10
Step 3: Set up the applied nodal force vector and solve for global dof displacements
Load Case: Nodal Forces
25
20
2
20
0
Pf := 25
0
a
d
12
5
2@10 = 20
Solve for the unknown displacement values at the free global dof's
3
T
Uf = ( 18.79 3.73 24.09 0.76 0.7 ) 10
Uf := lsolve ( K , Pf)
3
T
V = ( 2.35 1.38 1.32 3.17 1.65 1.71 2.26 1.57 ) 10
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
T
Q = ( 66.28 8.36 8.36 80.21 80.21 81.21 81.21 71.92 )
Q := Ks V
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
1.38
8.36
V3
vb :=
V4
vb =
1.32 3
10
3.17
kb :=
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
qb := kb vb
qb =
8.36
80.21
V5
vc :=
V6
vc =
1.65 3
10
1.71
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
80.21
81.21
V7
vd :=
V8
vd =
2.26 3
10
1.57
kd :=
2 EI 2 1
Ld 1 2
qd := kd vd
qd =
81.21
71.92
Page 499
U +
2 EI
U
La 2
Q1 = 66.28
U +
4 EI
U
La 2
Q2 = 8.36
Q3 :=
4 EI
6 EI
2 EI
U
U +
U
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
b
Q3 = 8.36
Q4 :=
2 EI
6 EI
4 EI
U
U +
U
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
b
Q4 = 80.21
Q1 :=
6 EI
U := Uf
La
Q2 :=
6 EI
La
Q5 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q7 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q6 :=
6 EI
Ld
Q8 :=
6 EI
Ld
U +
4 EI
2 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q5 = 80.21
U +
2 EI
4 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q6 = 81.21
U +
4 EI
U
Ld 5
Q7 = 81.21
U +
2 EI
U
Ld 5
Q8 = 71.92
Page 500
Step 6: Determine shear forces by element equilibrium and then use the equilibrium equations that
involve the axial forces to determine the latter. Note that the axial forces cannot be determined from the
forcedeformation relations like the end moments, because the elements are inextensible and thus their
axial deformations are zero.
25
8.86
7.24
16.14
7.24
7.24
7.24
8.86
12.76
16.14
8.86
16.14
16.14
8.86
25
8.36
8.86
20
7.24
80.22
81.21
20
16.14
12.76
7.24
12
7.24
66.28
12.76
71.92
2@10 = 20
Page 501
81.21
8.36
80.22
66.28
71.92
deformed shape
Page 502
8.86
7.24
16.14
7.24
8.86
12.76
16.14
8.86
16.14
16.14
8.86
25
8.36
8.86
20
7.24
7.24
7.24
81.21
80.22
20
16.14
12.76
7.24
12
7.24
66.28
12.76
71.92
2@10 = 20
a
d
66.28
12
7.24
8.86
71.92
12.76
16.14
2@10 = 20
sum of forces in X:
20 7.24 12.76 = 0
sum of forces in Y:
8.86 + 16.14 25 = 0
Page 503
0
0
Pf := 0
0
0
Set up the applied nodal force vector: for load case 2 of thermal heating there are no
directly applied forces at the global dofs.
We note, however, that the elements undergo initial deformations due to nonmechanical effects.
A positive nonmechanical curvature causes element d to deform inwards
0 := 2 10
V0 :=
0
0.5
0 d
0.5 0 Ld
in the displacement method of analysis, these initial deformations result in initial element forces (also known
as "fixed end forces", because they arise for the case that the global dofs are "held fixed" so that the global
dof displacements are zero, while the nonmechanical effects are applied). These initial element forces are
collected in a vector Q 0 , which can be obtained either by the operation
Q0 := Ks V0
T
Q0 = ( 0 0 0 0 0 0 160 160 )
EI 0
q0 =
EI 0
Page 504
0
0
0
0
Q0 :=
0
EI
EI 0
3
1
P0 := Af Q0
0
0
= 0
0
160
P0
2
2
4
b
EI 0
or directly
d
1
EI 0
3
T
Uf = ( 6.69 0.29 9.81 1.13 4.22 ) 10
3
T
V = ( 0.84 0.54 1.27 0.15 2.11 3.24 3.66 0.56 ) 10
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
T
Q = ( 44.3 38.44 38.44 15.7 15.7 69.83 69.83 193.94 )
Q := Ks V + Q0
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
0.54
38.44
V3
vb :=
V4
vb =
1.27 3
10
0.15
kb :=
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
qb := kb vb
qb =
38.44
15.7
V5
vc :=
V6
vc =
2.11 3
10
3.24
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
15.7
69.83
V7
vd :=
V8
vd =
3.66 3
10
0.56
kd :=
2 EI 2 1
Ld 1 2
Page 505
vd0 :=
0.5 0 Ld
0.5 0 Ld
qd0 :=
or,
qd := kd ( vd vd0)
qd =
69.83
193.94
qd := kd vd + qd0
qd =
69.83
193.94
EI 0
EI 0
U +
2 EI
U
La 2
Q1 = 44.3
U +
4 EI
U
La 2
Q2 = 38.44
Q3 :=
4 EI
6 EI
2 EI
U
U +
U
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
b
Q3 = 38.44
Q4 :=
2 EI
6 EI
4 EI
U
U +
U
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
b
Q4 = 15.7
Q1 :=
6 EI
U := Uf
La
Q2 :=
6 EI
La
Q5 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q7 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q6 :=
6 EI
Ld
Q8 :=
6 EI
Ld
U +
4 EI
2 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q5 = 15.7
U +
2 EI
4 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q6 = 69.83
U +
4 EI
U + EI 0
Ld 5
Q7 = 69.83
U +
2 EI
U EI 0
Ld 5
Q8 = 193.94
Page 506
Step 6: Determine shear forces by element equilibrium and then use the equilibrium equations that involve
the axial forces to determine the latter. Note that the axial forces cannot be determined from the forcedeformation relations like the end moments, because the elements are inextensible and thus their axial
deformations are zero.
5.41
5.41
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
5.41
5.41
5.41
5.41
38.44
69.83
10.34
10.34
12
10.34
44.3
10.34
193.94
2@10 = 20
Page 507
moment distribution
69.83
38.44
44.3
193.94
Curvature distribution
Page 508
Curvature distribution
deformed shape
Page 509
5.41
10.34
10.34
10.34
10.34
5.41
5.41
5.41
5.41
38.44
69.83
10.34
10.34
12
10.34
44.3
10.34
193.94
2@10 = 20
a
44.3
12
10.34
5.41
193.94
10.34
5.41
20
sum of moments about left support:
Page 510
a
d
12
5
2@10 = 20
0
0
Pf := 0
0
0
Pfw
0
0
:= 20
0
0
In addition to these forces that arise at the global dofs by equilibrium, the elements suffer initial
deformations due to distributed element loads acting over their span (in this case only element b).
We denote these with vw and obtain with uniform transverse element load w (downward)
w := 4
w Lb3
24 EI
vw :=
3
w Lb
24 EI
Page 511
0
0
vw
1
vw
V0 := 2
0
0
in the displacement method of analysis, these initial deformations result in initial element forces (also known
as "fixed end forces", because they arise for the case that the global dofs are "held fixed" so that the global
dof displacements are zero, while the nonmechanical effects are applied). These initial element forces are
collected in a vector Q 0 , which can be obtained either by the operation
T
Q0 = ( 0 0 33.33 33.33 0 0 0 0 )
Q0 := Ks V0
w Lb2
12
q0 :=
2
w Lb
12
Collecting the initial element forces into a vector we get for all Initial (fixedend) forces
T
P0 := Pfw + Af Q0
P0
0
0
q0
1
q0
2
Q0 :=
0
0
0
0
0
33.33
= 20
33.33
or, better directly by keeping all free dofs "locked" and determining the forces at these dofs
4
2
33.33
33.33
1
20
20
P0
Page 512
0
33.33
= 20
33.33
3
T
Uf = ( 7.13 2.73 19.56 0.97 0.93 ) 10
V := Af Uf
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
T
Q = ( 1 55.51 55.51 47.95 47.95 48.58 48.58 36.18 )
Q := Ks V + Q0
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
1.83
55.51
V3
vb :=
V4
or,
vb =
0.77 3
10
2.93
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
kb :=
vw 1
vb0 :=
vw 2
qb := kb ( vb vb0)
qb =
55.51
47.95
q01
qb0 :=
q02
qb := kb vb + qb0
qb =
55.51
47.95
V5
vc :=
V6
vc =
0.99 3
10
1.03
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
47.95
48.58
V7
vd :=
V8
vd =
1.52 3
10
0.59
kd :=
2 EI 2 1
Ld 1 2
qd := kd vd
qd =
48.58
36.18
Q1 :=
6 EI
La
U +
1
U := Uf
2 EI
U
La 2
Q 1 = 1
Page 513
Q2 :=
6 EI
La
U +
1
4 EI
U
La 2
Q2 = 55.51
w Lb
4 EI
6 EI
2 EI
Q3 :=
U
U +
U +
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
12
b
w Lb
2 EI
6 EI
4 EI
Q4 :=
U
U +
U
Lb 2 L 2 3
Lb 4
12
b
Q5 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q6 :=
6 EI
Lc
Q7 :=
6 EI
Ld
Q8 :=
6 EI
Ld
Q5 = 47.95
U +
2 EI
4 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q6 = 48.58
U +
4 EI
U
Ld 5
Q7 = 48.58
U +
2 EI
U
Ld 5
Q8 = 36.18
Q4 = 47.95
4 EI
2 EI
U +
U
Lc 4
Lc 5
Q3 = 55.51
U +
3
Step 6: Determine shear forces by element equilibrium and then use the equilibrium equations that involve
the axial forces to determine the latter. Note that the axial forces cannot be determined from the forcedeformation relations like the end moments, because the elements are inextensible and thus their axial
deformations are zero.
30.35
9.65
7.06
7.06
7.06
7.06
9.65 9.65
7.06
30.35
7.06
9.65
4
9.65
30.35
47.95
55.51
7.06
9.65
48.58
7.06
9.65
12
1
7.06
7.06
36.18
2@10 = 20
Page 514
moment diagram
55.51
48.58
47.95
max M
36.18
determination of maximum moment:
shear at right end of element b
Vr :=
4 10 47.95 + 55.51
2
10
2
maximum moment
Mmax := 47.95 +
Vr
2 4
Deformed shape:
Page 515
Mmax = 59.6
Vr = 9.65
Step 7: Determine support reactions (trivial from nodal free bodies as before)
30.35
9.65
7.06
7.06
7.06
7.06
7.06
9.65 9.65
30.35
7.06
9.65
4
9.65
30.35
47.95
55.51
7.06
9.65
48.58
7.06
9.65
12
7.06
7.06
36.18
2@10 = 20
4
c
a
d
12
1
7.06
30.35
36.18
7.06
9.65
2@10 = 20
sum of moments about left support:
Page 516
OK!
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
Pf = BfQ + Pfw
(1) note
V = A fU f +Vd
(2)
Q = K sV + Q0
(3)
Introduce relation between unconstrained and constrained dofs from Part II, pp. 23
The compatibility relations become
Bf = A Tf
U f = A cU f
=A A
A
f
f c
U +V (2*) with
V = A f A cU f +Vd = A
f f
d
Premultiply both sides of the equilibrium equations by the transpose of the constraint matrix Ac
(recall Lecture 14, pp. 710) to derive the equilibrium equations for the constrained dofs by PVD
A Tc Pf = A cT A fTQ + Pfw
=A
T Q + A TP
P
f
f
c fw
)
(1*)
=A P
with P
f
c f
T
Proceeding as before and substituting (2*) into (3) and then into (1*) we obtain
T
=A
TK A
T
T
P
f
f s fU f + A f K sVd + A f Q0 + A c Pfw
=K
U + P
P
f
f
0
with
TK
=A
K
f s Af
= A TP + A
TQ + A
T K V the initial nodal force vector at the constrained free dofs
P
0
c fw
f 0
f s d
Page 517
0 = free)
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
2
% irrelevant
Page 518
Page 519
3.3333e+003
0
4.8000e+003
1.6000e+004
5.8667e+004
Page 520
Page 521
Page 522
create Model
Model = Create_SimpleModel (XYZ,CON,BOUN,ElemName);
Create_Window(0.80,0.80);
Plot_Model(Model);
Label_Model(Model);
2
% inextensible
Page 523
Page 524
Page 525
Page 526
b
1
Geometric properties:
Lc := 10
Ld := 12
12
Lb := 10
La := 12
Under the assumption that all elements are inextensible, there are five free independent global
degrees of freedom. We select these as shown in the following figure
Material properties
5
Page 527
EI := 80000
IC b
a :=
1
12
b :=
1
6
c :=
1
6
d :=
1
12
ICc
1.33
consult Example 17
IC a
ICd
0
1
1
Af 2 := 0
0
0
0
Page 528
Af := b
consult Example 17
a := 0
c :=
1.33
IC b
dof 3
IC d
0
0
0
Af 4 := 1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Af 5 := 0
0
1
1
Page 529
1
6
1
6
1
d :=
6
b :=
Af 3 := b
It is interesting to look at the equilibrium equations that do not involve axial forces.
To this end we use the principle of virtual displacements.
the transpose of the kinematic matrix is
T
Af
1 1 1
12 12 6
0 1 1
=
1
0 0
6
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
6
0
1
6
1
6
1
6
T
Pf = Af Q
1
12
1
1
6
6
the numbering of basic forces without axial forces is shown in the figure
Q4
Q3
Q2
Q5
Q6
P1 =
Q7
Q1 + Q2
12
P5 = Q 6 + Q 7
Page 530
Q3 + Q4
6
Q5 + Q6
P2 = Q 2 + Q 3
Q3 + Q4 Q5 + Q6 Q7
P3 =
+
6
6
6
P4 = Q 4 + Q 5
Q1
Q7
12
4
2
0
EI
Ks :=
La
0
0 4
0 2
La
Lb
La
Lb
2
4
La
Lb
La
Lb
La
Lc
La
Lc
La
Lc
La
Lc
0
La
3
Ld
0
T
K := Af Ks Af
= 5.61
8
5.89
0
16
0
0
4.67
6.33
6.33
3
0 4.67 10
64 16
16 52
16
Method 2(a): express element stiffness matrix in terms of global dof displacements and add up
Determination of individual element stiffness contributions
ka :=
EI 4 2
La 2 4
kb :=
1 0 0 0 0
12
Afa :=
1
12 1 0 0 0
Afd :=
EI 4 2
Lb 2 4
kc :=
EI 4 2
Lc 2 4
1 1 1 0 0
6
6
Afb :=
1
1
6 0 6 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
6
12
Page 531
kd :=
3EI
Ld
1 0 1 1 0
6
6
Afc :=
1
1
6 0 6 0 1
element a
element b
element c
element d
T
Ka := Afa ka Afa
T
Kb := Afb kb Afb
0.56 3.33 0 0 0
3.33 26.67 0 0 0
3
Ka = 0
0
0 0 0 10
0
0
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0
2.67 8 2.67 8 0
8 32 8 16 0
3
Kb = 2.67 8 2.67 8 0 10
8 16 8 32 0
0
0
0
0
0
2.67
0
= 2.67
8
T
Kc := Afc kc Afc
Kc
T
Kd := Afd kd Afd
0.14
0
Kd = 0.28
0
1.67
0 2.67 8
3
0 2.67 8 8 10
0 8 32 16
0 8 16 32
0
0 0.28 0 1.67
3
0 0.56 0 3.33 10
0
0
0
0
0 3.33 0 20
0
K := Ka + Kb + Kc + Kd
= 5.61
8
5.89
0
16
0
0
4.67
6.33
Page 532
6.33
3
0 4.67 10
64 16
16 52
16
same of course
0
= 0
K
0
1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
kb
0
0
0
0
kc
0
1 12
1 12
0
1 6
0
1 6
0
1 6
k d
16
1 12
0 0
0 0
1 1 6 0 0
0 1 6 1 0
0 1 6 1 0
0 1 6 0 1
0 1 6 0 1
0
1/12 1/12
1 6 1 6
16 16
1 12
0
1
0
0
( a ) 1/12 0 0 0 0
(b) 1 6 1 1 6 0 0
(c ) 1 6 0 1 6 1 0 0 ( d )
K= 0
0 k
+ 1 6 1 6 k 1 6 0 1 6 1 0 + 1 6 1 6 k 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 + 1 6 k [ 1 12 0 1 6 0 1]
1/12 1 0 0 0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1/12 1/12
6 EI 1
0
1
La 12
= 0
K
0
6 EI 1
0
0
L 12
0 a
0
2 EI
La
4 EI
La
1 6 1 6
6 EI
0 0 0 1
0
Lb
+ 1 6 1 6
6 EI
0 0 0 0
1
Lb
0
0
1
6
4 EI
Lb
6 EI 1
Lb 6
2 EI
Lb
1
6
2 EI
Lb
6 EI 1
Lb 6
4 EI
Lb
2
12 EI 1 2
6 EI 1
12 EI 1
Lb 6
Lb 6
12 EI 1 6 EI 1
Lb 6
0 0 0 6 EI 1
4 EI
6 EI 1
La 12
La 12
Lb 6
Lb
Lb 6
4 EI
6 EI 1
0 0 0
2
2
K = La 12
+ 12 EI 1
La
6 EI 1
12 EI 1
Lb 6
Lb 6
0
0
0 0 0 Lb 6
0
0
0 0 0 6 EI 1
2
EI
6
EI 1
0
0
0 0 0
Lb 6
Lb
Lb 6
0
0
0
3EI 1 2
3EI 1 1
3EI 1
0
0
Ld 12 6
Ld 12
Ld 12
0
0
0
0
0
2
3EI 1 1
3
1
3
1
EI
EI
+
0
0
Ld 6
Ld 6
Ld 12 6
0
0
0
0
0
3EI 1
3EI
3EI 1
0
0
Ld 12
Ld 6
Ld
16 16
6 EI
0 0
0
L
+ 1 6 1 6 c
6 EI
0 1
0
L
0
1 c
1
6 EI 1
0
6
Lc 6
4 EI
Lc
1
6 EI 1
0
6
Lc 6
2 EI
Lc
6 EI 1 12 EI 1 2
0
Lb 6 Lc 6
0
2 EI
0
12 EI 1 2
Lb
+
Lc 6
6 EI 1
0
EI
6
1
Lb 6
Lc 6
4 EI
0 6 EI 1
Lb
Lc 6
0
0
Page 533
12 EI
Lc
1 12
2 EI
0
Lc
Lc
1
1
6
6 EI
Lc
1
6
12 EI 1
Lc 6
6 EI
Lc
1
6
4 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
1
6
2 EI
Lc
6 EI 1
Lc 6
1
6
6 EI 1
Lc 6
2 EI
Lc
4 EI
Lc
6 EI
Lc
K
41
K
31
6 EI
Lc
6 EI 1
Lb 6
K
11
K
21
6 EI 1
Lb 6
1
6
6 EI 1
Lc 6
3EI 1
Ld 12
6 EI 1
La 12
K
51
6 EI 1
La 12
K11 =
Q'1 + Q'2
12
Q'3 + Q'4
6
Q'5 + Q'6
6
Q'7
12
Q'3 + Q'4
6
Q'5 + Q'6
6
Q'7
6
21 = 6EI 1 + 6EI 1
K
La 12 Lb 6
Page 534
41 = 6EI 1 + 6EI 1
K
Lb 6 Lc 6
51 = 6EI 1 + 3EI 1
K
Lc 6 Ld 12
Combining terms and evaluating we obtain the first column of the 5x5 structure stiffness matrix
2
12 EI 1
12 EI 1
12 EI 1
3 EI 1
K11 :=
+
+
+
La 12
Lb 6
Lc 6
Ld 12
K11 = 6.03 10
K21 :=
6 EI 1 6EI 1
+
La 12 Lb 6
K21 = 4.67 10
K31 :=
12EI 1 1 12 EI 1 1 3 EI 1 1
+
Lc 6 6
Ld 12 6
Lb 6 6
K31 = 5.61 10
K41 :=
6 EI 1 6 EI 1
+
Lc 6
Lb 6
K41 = 0 10
K51 :=
6 EI 1 3 EI 1
+
Ld 12
Lc 6
K51 = 6.33 10
Page 535
Step 3: Set up the applied nodal force vector and solve for global dof displacements
Load Case: Nodal Forces
30
from
= A TP
P
f
c f
= ( 30 ) 4 + 20 ( 1) = 60
P
1
3
20
=0
P
2
= ( 30 ) 4 + 20 ( 2 ) = 80
P
3
3
= 100
P
4
=0
P
5
60
0
Pf := 80
100
Solve for the unknown displacement values at the free global dof's
3
T
Uf = ( 56.66 6.81 75.88 3.56 1.19 ) 10
Uf := lsolve ( K , Pf)
3
T
V = ( 4.72 2.09 3.61 6.77 0.36 4.39 6.74 ) 10
Q := Ks V
Even though this way of determining is compact and convenient for computer use, particularly,
since we have already established Ks , it is strongly advisable to use the following elementby element
determination of the basic force in "hand" calculations.
V1
va :=
V2
va =
4.72 3
10
2.09
ka :=
2 EI 2 1
La 1 2
qa := ka va
qa =
98.02
7.19
V3
vb :=
V4
vb =
3.61 3
10
6.77
kb :=
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
qb := kb vb
qb =
7.19
158.81
V5
vc :=
V6
vc =
0.36 3
10
4.39
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
58.81
134.79
kd :=
3 EI
Ld
qd := kd vd
qd = ( 134.79 )
( )
vd := V
7
3
vd = ( 6.74 ) 10
Page 536
Step 6: Determine shear forces by element equilibrium and then use the equilibrium equations that involve
the axial forces to determine the latter. Note that the axial forces cannot be determined from the forcedeformation relations like the end moments, because the elements are inextensible and thus their axial
deformations are zero (this is left as an exercise)
Bending moment diagram
58.81
158.81
134.79
7.21
98.02
deformed shape
4.72
2.09
3.61
3
V = 6.77 10
0.36
4.39
6.74
(observe element deformations
as the angle between the tangent
and the chord)
Page 537
w=5
25
500/12
w=5
20
25
25
15
6
20
15
12
initial state
for the effect of end shear forces in element b review again Lecture 14, pp. 710
= A P
from P
fw
c
fw
T
= 30 3 + ( 40 ) 4 = 11.67
P
1w
6
6
P2w = 0
= 30 3 + ( 40 ) 4 = 41.67
P
3w
6
6
=0
P
4w
=0
P
5w
equivalent nodal forces due to distributed loads
Pfw
Q0 :=
0 0
w Lb
12
w Lb
12
0 0 0
Page 538
w := 5
11.67
0
:= 41.67
0
T
P0 := Pfw + Af Q0
P0
11.67
41.67
= 41.67
41.67
0
0
Pf := 0
0
0
or, better directly by keeping all free dofs "locked" and determining the forces at the free global dofs
20
25
15
20
15
P0
initial state
11.67
41.67
= 41.67
41.67
3
T
Uf = ( 82.71 7.93 94.6 3.28 2.59 ) 10
3
T
V = ( 6.89 1.03 5.94 5.26 1.3 4.57 6.28 ) 10
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
Q := Ks V + Q0
T
Q = ( 170.04 64.37 64.37 31.6 31.6 125.59 125.59 )
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
L
1.03
1
2
a
Page 539
170.04
64.37
V3
vb :=
V4
vb =
initial deformations
V5
vc :=
V6
( )
vd := V
7
5.94 3
10
5.26
kb :=
w Lb3
24 EI
vw :=
3
w Lb
24 EI
2
w Lb
12
q0 :=
2
w Lb
12
vc =
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
vw 1
vb0 :=
vw 2
1.3 3
10
4.57
3
vd = ( 6.28 ) 10
q01
qb0 :=
q02
qb := kb ( vb vb0)
qb =
64.37
31.6
qb := kb vb + qb0
qb =
64.37
31.6
31.6
125.59
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
kd :=
3 EI
Ld
qd := kd vd
qd = ( 125.59 )
125.59
64.37
170.04
Page 540
deformed shape
6.89
1.03
5.94
3
V = 5.26 10
1.3
4.57
6.28
(observe element deformations
as the angle between the tangent
and the chord)
Page 541
P
0,4
P
0,3
6
ICc
P
0,1
6 EI 0.1
Lc 8
6 EI 0.1
Lc 8
P
0,5
3EI 0.1
Ld 16
12
0.1
ICd
8
16
1
1 1
Vd := 0 0 0 0
0.1
8
8 16
(a) by computer
T
P0 := Af Ks Vd
P0
210.42
0
= 220.83
600
475
(b) directly from the basic element forces caused by the support displacement (see above figure)
We denote with Q` the forces due a unit displacement at dof 1
P01 =
Q'1 + Q'2
12
Q'3 + Q'4
6
Q'5 + Q'6
6
Q'7
12
Q'3 + Q'4
6
Q'5 + Q'6
6
Q'7
6
Page 542
we evaluate
P01 :=
12 EI 0.1 1 3 EI 0.1 1
Lc 8 6
Ld 16 12
P01 = 210.42
P02 := 0
P03 :=
P02 = 0
12 EI 0.1 1 3 EI 0.1 1
+
Lc 8 6
Ld 16 6
P03 = 220.83
P04 :=
6 EI 0.1
Lc 8
P04 = 600
P05 :=
6 EI 0.1 3 EI 0.1
+
Lc 8
Ld 16
P05 = 475
as above
0
0
Pf := 0
0
0
3
T
Uf = ( 37.86 5.73 77.63 6.77 4.7 ) 10
3
T
V = ( 3.15 2.57 0.9 0.14 0.9 1.18 1.16 ) 10
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
T
Q = ( 49.81 26.58 26.58 9.94 9.94 23.23 23.23 )
Q := Ks V
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
2.57
26.58
V3
vb :=
V4
vb =
0.9 3
10
0.14
kb :=
2 EI 2 1
Lb 1 2
Page 543
qb := kb vb
qb =
26.58
9.94
V5
vc :=
V6
( )
vd := V
7
vc =
0.9 3
10
1.18
3
vd = ( 1.16 ) 10
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
9.94
23.23
kd :=
3 EI
Ld
qd := kd vd
qd = ( 23.23 )
9.94
23.23
26.58
49.91
deformed shape
3.15
2.57
0.9
3
V = 0.14 10
0.9
1.18
1.16
(observe element deformations
as the angle between the tangent
and the chord)
Page 544
0 = free)
Page 545
= 30;
= 100;
= 20;
= Create_Loading(Model,Pe);
Page 546
Page 547
Page 548
Page 549
% inextensible
Page 550
Pe(3,3) = 100;
Pe(4,1) = 20;
Loading = Create_Loading(Model,Pe);
Page 551
Page 552
Ue(5,2) = 0.1;
Loading = Create_Loading(Model,Pe,Ue);
% erase uniformly distributed load in element b
ElemData{2}.w = [0;0];
Page 553
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
Geometric properties:
6
8
Lb := 10
Lc := 10
Ld := 12
12
Material properties
8
La := 12
EI := 80000
Under the assumption that all elements are inextensible and element b is inflexible, there are three
independent free global degrees of freedom. We select these as shown in the following figure
Page 554
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
a :=
1
12
consult Example 17
b :=
1
6
1
6
c :=
d :=
1
12
1.33
12
1
4
Af 1 =
3
1
6
1
12
a + b
Af 1 := c + b
a := 0
consult Example 17
b :=
1
6
c :=
1
6
d :=
1
6
1
1.33
Page 555
a + b
Af 2 := c + b
12
1
4
Af 1 =
3
1
1
12
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
0
0
3
Af := 0
1
1
It is interesting to look at the equilibrium equations that do not involve axial forces.
To this end we use the principle of virtual displacements.
T
Pf = Af Q
T
Af
1 1 1 1 1
12 4 3 6
12
=
1
1
1 1
0
6
3
6 6
0 0 0 1 1
the numbering of basic forces without axial forces and basic forces in element b is shown in the figure
Q3
Q4
Q2
P1 =
Q5
Q1
12
P2 =
Q2
6
Q2
4
Q3
P3 = Q 4 + Q 5
Q1
Page 556
Q3
3
Q4
6
Q4
6
+
Q5
6
Q5
12
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
0
EI
Ks :=
La
0
La
0 4
Lc
La
0 2
Lc
0
La
Lc
La
La
3
Ld
0
Lc
0
T
K := Af Ks Af
9
8.77 7.8
3
= 7.8 7.52 7.33 10
9 7.33 52
Method 2(a): express element stiffness matrix in terms of global dof displacements and add up
Determination of individual element stiffness contributions
ka :=
EI 4 2
La 2 4
1 0 0
12
Afa :=
1 1
4 6 0
element a
element c
kc :=
EI 4 2
Lc 2 4
kd :=
1 1 0
3 3
Afc :=
1 1
6 6 1
T
Ka := Afa ka Afa
T
Kc := Afc kc Afc
Ka
Kc
Afd :=
3EI
Ld
1 1 1
12 6
2.41 1.3 0
3
= 1.3 0.74 0 10
0
0 0
Page 557
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
T
Kd := Afd kd Afd
element d
K := Ka + Kc + Kd
9
8.77 7.8
3
= 7.8 7.52 7.33 10
9 7.33 52
same of course
6 EI
Lc
K
21
1 4 EI
+
6
Lc
1.33
6 EI
La
1
6
6 EI
Lc
1 2 EI
+
6
Lc
K
31
K
11
1 4 EI
+
12
La
1
6
3EI 1
Ld 12
6 EI 1 2 EI 1
+
La 12 La 6
K11 =
Q'1
12
K21 =
Q'2
6
Q'2
4
Q'3
3
Q'3
3
Q'4
6
Q'4
6
+
Q'5
12
Q'5
6
Page 558
1
6
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
12 La 12 La 6 4 La 12 La 6
1 6EI 1 4EI 1 1 6EI 1 2EI 1 1 3EI 1
+
+
+
+
3 Lc 6 Lc 6 6 Lc 6 Lc 6 12 Ld 12
etc. etc....
Step 3: Set up the applied nodal force vector and solve for global dof displacements
Load Case: Nodal Forces
30
=A P
from P
f
c f
T
100
= ( 30 ) 4 + 20 ( 1) + 100 1 = 43.33
P
1
3
6
= ( 30 ) 4 + 20 ( 2 ) + 100 1 = 63.33
P
2
3
6
=0
P
3
20
Solve for the unknown displacement values at the free global dof's
Uf := lsolve ( K , Pf)
3
T
Uf = ( 31.87 41.84 0.39 ) 10
3
T
V = ( 2.66 0.99 3.33 1.28 4.7 ) 10
T
Q = ( 84.05 61.88 126.85 94.08 94.08 )
Page 559
43.33
Pf := 63.33
0
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
Even though this way of determining is compact and convenient for computer use, particularly,
since we have already established Ks , it is strongly advisable to use the following elementby
element
determination of the basic force in "hand" calculations.
V1
2.66 3
2 EI 2 1
84.05
va :=
va =
ka :=
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
0.99
61.88
V3
vc :=
V4
( )
vd := V
5
vc =
3.33 3
10
1.28
3
vd = ( 4.7 ) 10
126.85
94.08
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
kd :=
3 EI
Ld
qd := kd vd
qd = ( 94.08 )
Step 6: Determine shear forces by element equilibrium and then use the equilibrium equations that involve
the axial forces to determine the latter. Note that the axial forces cannot be determined from the forcedeformation relations like the end moments, because the elements are inextensible and thus their axial
deformations are zero (this is left as an exercise)
Bending moment diagram
126.85
b
226.85
65.88
94.08
65.88
84.05
Note: the basic end moments of element b are obtained from node equilibrium at nodes 2 and 3;
to this end we use the basic forces of elements a and c and the applied load values.
Page 560
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
deformed shape
2.66
0.99
3
V = 3.33 10
1.28
4.7
(observe element deformations
as the angle between the tangent
and the chord)
Page 561
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
w=5
25
25
15
6
20
15
12
initial state
11.67
:= 41.67
0
w := 5
T
Q0 := ( 0 0 0 0 0 )
initial forces at global dofs
T
P0 := Pfw + Af Q0
P0
11.67
= 41.67
0
3
T
Uf = ( 47.25 53.99 0.56 ) 10
3
T
V = ( 3.94 2.81 2.25 1.69 4.5 ) 10
Page 562
0
Pf := 0
0
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
Step 5a: Determine the basic forces of all elements with a single operation
T
Q = ( 142.52 127.55 98.86 89.92 89.92 )
Q := Ks V + Q0
qa := ka va
qa =
10
V2
La 1 2
2.81
127.55
V3
vc :=
V4
( )
vd := V
5
vc =
2.25 3
10
1.69
3
vd = ( 4.5 ) 10
kc :=
2 EI 2 1
Lc 1 2
qc := kc vc
qc =
98.86
89.92
kd :=
3 EI
Ld
qd := kd vd
qd = ( 89.92 )
98.86
89.92
127.55
142.52
Note: the basic end moments of element b are obtained from node equilibrium at nodes 2 and 3;
to this end we use the basic forces of elements a and c and the applied load values.
Page 563
CE220  Theory of Structures Ex 38  Displacement method for gable frame with inflexible element Prof. Filip C. Filippou, 2000
deformed shape
3.94
2.81
3
V = 2.25 10
1.69
4.5
(observe element deformations
as the angle between the tangent
and the chord)
Page 564
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
(a)T
Ab
with
(a)
(b)T
+ Ab
(b)
(el)T
+ " + Ab
p = aTg q + aTr pw
we get
(el)
ne
p (el)
A(el)T
b
(1)
el =1
v = a gu
q = kv + q 0
P=
or
p = aTg q + aTr pw = aTg kv + q 0 + aTr pw = aTg kagu + q 0 + aTr pw = aTg kagu + aTg q 0 + aTr pw
p = k eu + p0
(2)
where
k e = ag kag
and
p0 = agTq 0 + aTr pw
is the initial element force vector (fixedend forces) in the global reference
P=
ne
(3)
el =1
We recall the relation between element end displacements and global dof displacements u
and substituting into (3) we get P =
(el)
(el)
= Ab U
ne
el =1
ne
ne (el)T (el) (el)
(el)T (el)
= A b k e A b U + A b p0
el =1
el =1
K=
P = KU + P0
ne
(el)
k (el)
A(el)T
b
e Ab
el =1
and
P0 =
ne
(el)
p0
A(el)T
b
el =1
The last two expressions reveal that the structure stiffness matrix and the initial force vector can be
obtained by direct summation of the element stiffness matrix and the initial force vector after the latter have
been transformed from the local to the global degrees of freedom by the Boolean matrix of the element.
This process is called "direct assembly", because in the computer implementation each term of the
structure stiffness matrix is updated by addition of the corresponding element stiffness term. The same is
true for the initial force vector. Before assembly the element stiffness matrix and initial force vector are
expressed relative to the global reference system according to the relations.
T
k e = ag kag
p0 = a g q 0 + a r p w
These operations can be done element by element, which makes the process modular and very effective.
Because of this fact, the direct stiffness implementation of the displacement method of analysis is the
exclusive method of analysis used in commercial software in structural engineering.
Page 565
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
X
L
L
0
T
k e = ag k ag =
X
L
Y
L
Y
2
L
X
2
L
1
Y
2
L
X
2
L
0
Y
2
L
X EA
2
L L
0
0
Y
2
L 0
X
2
L
X
0
L
2 EI Y
L L2
4 EI Y
L L2
0
4 EI
L
2 EI
L
Y
L
X
L
X
2
0
1
0
X
L
Y
2
L
Y
2
Y
L
X
2
L
X
2
L
The special cases of a 2d truss and a 2d frame element with an end moment release can be obtained by
suitable modification. The elegant way of accomplishing this is described on the following page.
2d truss
X
L
Y
L
0
k e =
X
L
Y
L
0
EA X
L L
Y
L
X
L
Y
L
X
L
L
0
ke =
X
L
Y
L
L2
X
L2 EA
1 L
Y
0
L2
X
2
L
X
0
L
3EI Y
L L2
Page 566
Y
L
X
L2
0
1
X
L
Y
L2
Y
L
X
2
L
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
v3
v 2 = v 2
v3
v 2
(a)
v
v
L
(b)
v3
v 2
v2
v3
1
= 1
2
0
v2 for hinge at end j
0 v3
v3 = v3
v2
v3
0 v2
=
2 for hinge at end i
0 1 v3
1
0
v1
1 mri
v2 = 0
v
3
0 1 1 mr mr
i
j
v1
1
1 mr j mri v2
2
v3
1 mr j
and
or, v = a hv
v = a hv
T
ah = I
mri = 0 or 1
mrj = 0 or 1
we get
q = ah k a hv + a h q 0 = kv + q 0
with
q = aThq
by PVD
k = aTh k a h
and q 0 = a h q 0
k = k
q 0 = q 0
which shows that the "strain" related stiffness and intial forces are those we defined in pages 36
Release? n
mri = 1 mr j = 0
1 0 0
0
0
a
=
and thus
h
2
0 0 1
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
con'd
With a release at end node i we get
mri = 1 mr j = 0
1 0 0
and thus a h = 0 0
2
0 0 1
1 0
k = 0 0
1
0
2
EA
0 L
0 0
1
0
0
4 EI
L
2 EI
L
1 0 0
1 0
2 EI
1
0 0
= 0 0
2
L
1
4 EI 0 0 1 0
2
EA
0 L
0 0
1 0
0
0
0
EA
0
L
0 = 0
3EI
0
L
0
0
0
0
3EI
same as on page 5
for the initial force vector due to uniformly distributed element load
1 0
q 0 = 0 0
1
0
2
0
0
2
wy L
0
12
1 w L2
y
12
0
= 0
wy L2
8
Page 568
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
Kf = Kf_matrix(Model,ElemData)
% number of elements
in structural model
% number of free dofs in structural model
% number of total dofs in structural model
The stiffness matrix of each element in global coordinates ke is supplied by the local function ke_matrix;
the function uses the end coordinates of the element, its name (or type) and the element properties as
input, as shown in the following page. This function separation illustrates the way of breaking down a
process into modules for "modular programming".
Page 569
CE220Theory of Structures
Displacement Method
L = X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2
direction cosines
X
L
Y
L
Z
L
E = ElemData.E;
A = ElemData.A;
EA = E * A;
switch ElemName
case 'LinTruss'
% linear truss element
% transformation matrix from basic system to complete system in global reference
ag = [dcx' dcx'];
Y X Y
X
for 2d
ag =
k = EA/L;
L
L
L
L
k e = agT k ag
ke = ag'*k*ag;
Y
Z X Y Z
X
ag =
case 'Lin2dFrm'
for 3d
L
L
L
L
L
L
Y
X
Y
0
0
dYL/L
dXL/L
1
dYL/L
dXL/L
0;
L
L
L
L
dYL/L
dXL/L
0
dYL/L
dXL/L
1];
Y
X
Y
X
ag = 2
1
2 0 for 2d
I = ElemData.I;
L
L2
L2
L
EI = E * I;
X
Y
X
Y
2
k = [ EA/L
0
0;
L2
L2
L2
L
0
4*EI/L 2*EI/L;
0
2*EI/L 4*EI/L];
1
0
0
% compatibility matrix in the presence of moment release(s)
1
ah = [ 1
0
0;
1 mri
a h = 0
1 mr j mri
0
1MRi
0.5*(1MRj)*MRi;
2
0 0.5*(1MRi)*MRj
1MRj
];
0 1 1 mr mr
1
mr
% transform basic stiffness matrix for moment release(s)
i
j
j
2
k = ah'*k*ah;
% transform basic stiffness to global reference
k = aTh k a h
ke = ag'*k*ag;
otherwise
k e = a Tg k a g
error ('element name not found in stiffness options')
end
Page 570
CE220Theory of Structures
Substructures  Symmetry
SUBSTRUCTURES
SYMMETRY
Page 571
CE220Theory of Structures
Substructures  Symmetry
U r Frr
=
U c Fcr
Frc Pr
Fcc Pc
U r = Frr Pr + FrcPc
since Pc is given
U r = FrrPr +U r0
v = f q + v0
q = f 1 v v0 = kv + q 0
add rigid body modes, if necessary, but relation is already
established in the global reference system
p = k eu + p0
Page 572
for substructure
CE220Theory of Structures
Substructures  Symmetry
2. Static condensation (logical, available in more advanced commercial software, e.g. aerospace, automobile industry)
Pr K rr
=
Pc K cr
K rc U r
K cc U c
U c = K cc Pc K crU r
1
1
Pr = K rr K rc K cc
K cr U r + K rc K cc
Pc
q = kv + q 0
with
1
k = K rr K rc K cc
K cr the condensed stiffness matrix of the substructure
1
q 0 = K rc K cc
Pc
p = k eu + p0
for substructure
Page 573
CE220Theory of Structures
Substructures  Symmetry
3. Set up flexibility matrix by typical structural engineering software program (can be a lot of work)
Apply a unit force in turn at each dof to be retained, determine the
displacements at all other dofs to retain and set up flexibilibility matrix
column by column; determine the displacements due to applied forces at
internal dofs to set up the initial displacement vector U0 (not shown below)
F51
F52
F41
F42
F31
F32
F21
F11
F22
1
F33
proceed as in case 1
F12
F55
F54
F53
F44
F43
U r = FrrPr +U r0
F34
F23
F24
F13
F14
Page 574
F45
F35
F25
F15
element
q1
axial spring ka
EA
q1
viewed as a substructure
L
2
free dofs
basic forces
Q1
Q2
Q2
basic forces of substructure
From the "outside" the element is a typical twonode truss element with a special forcedeformation relation.
From the inside it is a substructure with 3 nodes and 2 elements. The semirigid connector is a zero length
or point element, i.e. its end nodes have the same coordinates resulting in what is known in computer
models as a double node. The forcedeformation behavior of the spring is described by its axial stiffness.
The axial connector is assumed rigid in the transverse direction, so that no relative displacement normal to
the element axis is allowed.
The substructure is supported so that rigid body modes are eliminated. These can be added with the
procedure in page Part I136. The substructure has, thus, only two free dofs, as shown. Dof 1 is critical for
the interaction of the element with other elements in the structural model ("the outside world"). Dof 2 is
internal to the element. We are interested in establishing the forcedeformation relation at dof 1 only. This
can be done in one of two ways: first, by applying a unit force at dof 1 and determining the corresponding
displacement (i.e. establishing the flexibility of the substructure only for the relevant dof); secondly, by
setting up the stiffness matrix for the substructure and using condensation of the internal dof.
The substructure has only two free dofs and two basic forces, if we do not include for now flexural effects
(more on this later). The substructure is, therefore, statically determinate. The equilibrium equations are
P1 = Q 2
P2 = Q 2 + Q 1
Assuming that there is no nodal force at the "internal" dof 2, we have
we obtain
Q 1 = Q 2 = P1
P2 = 0
Page 575
There is only one dof to be retained in this case, i.e. dof 1. We determine the flexibility for this dof and
denote it with subscript r. To do so, we apply a unit force at dof 1 and determine the corresponding
displacement. Setting it up in general form we need the force influence matrix which expresses the effect
of a unit force at the global dof on the basic element forces. We have from above
Bbar :=
L 0
EA
Fs :=
1
0 ka
1
1
T
Frr := Bbar F s Bbar
Frr
L
1
+
EA ka
We observe that the substructure (element) flexibility is equal to the sum of the component flexibilities. Such
an element is known as a series element.
Conclusion: in a series element (i.e. an element with springs under constant axial force) the flexibility is
equal to the sum of the component flexibilities.
Let us try the stiffness method with condensation of the internal dof, which is more time consuming for a
statically determinate structure. There are two independent free global dofs, one to be retained (dof 1) and
one to be condensed out (dof 2). Let us write the stiffness matrix of the substructure.
with
0 1
Af :=
1 1
EA 0
L
Ks :=
0
k
a
K := Af Ks Af
ka
ka
K
ka EA + ka
L
Since there is no applied force at the "internal dof" 2 we have the following relation
P2 = 0 = K21 U1 + K22 U2
U2 = U1
ka
EA
+ ka
L
ka
we get
U2 = U1
substituting into the first equilibrium equation of the displacement method, i.e.
we get
P1 = K11 U1 + K12
1
1+
U1 = ka
1+
U1 =
1
1+
P1 = K11 U1 + K12 U2
EA 1
U1
L 1+
Thus, we have condensed out the internal dof by satisfying equilibrium and have obtained the condensed
stiffness matrix for dof 1. It is a scalar in this case. Denoting the condensed stiffness matrix with a star we
can write
K*rr =
EA 1
L 1+
It is obvious that the condensed stiffness matrix is not the same as the stiffness coefficient K 11 of the
original stiffness matrix of the substructure. Why? The stiffness coefficient K 11 of the original stiffness
matrix represents the force at dof 1 under a unit displacement of dof 1 with all other dof displacement
values equal to zero. By contrast, the condensed stiffness matrix coefficient K* 11 represents the force at
dof 1 under a unit displacement at dof 1 with the value of dof 2 adjusted to satisfy equilibrium at that dof.
Page 576
Observe that the result from the two approaches is, of course, the same.
Frr =
L
1
L
+
=
( 1 + )
EA ka
EA
rotational spring kr
EI
q2
q3
L
3
free dofs
viewed as a substructure
Q4
Q1
basic forces
Q2
Q3
The substructure now consists of three components, a flexible beam element with length L and flexural
section stiffness EI, and two semirigid connectors with different stiffness kri and krj in the general case.
Noting that the connectors do not allow relative axial and transverse displacement there are four basic
forces for the four free dofs of the substructure and the substructure is again statically determinate.
It is also again supported so that rigid body modes are restrained; these can be added with the procedure
in page Part I136.
The 4 equilibrium equations (dofs) for 4 basic forces Q are:
P1 = Q 1
note the definition of the basic force Q1 and Q4 for a point element!
P2 = Q 4
P3 = Q 1 + Q 2
P4 = Q 3 Q 4
Page 577
We need to retain dofs 1 and 2, with dofs 3 and 4 to be condensed out. We assume that there are no
forces acting at the internal dofs 3 and 4. Thus, we have:
P3 = 0
Q 2 = Q 1
P4 = 0
Q3 = Q4
and P2 = 0
Q 1 = 1
Q2 = 1
Q4 = 0
Q3 = 0
P1 = 0
and P2 = 1
Q1 = 0
Q2 = 0
Q4 = 1
Q3 = 1
and for
the force influence matrix and the collection of flexibility matrices are
Bbar
1
:=
0
0
1
1
0
0
kri
L
L
0
3 EI
6 EI
Fs :=
L
0 L
6 EI 3 EI
0
0
0
krj
0
left connector
1 0
1 1
( 1 0 ) kri
0 kri
0
0
right connector
1 L
1 0 L 2 1 1 0 3 EI
0 1 6 EI 1 2 0 1 1 L
6 EI
0 0
0 1
( 0 1 ) 1
0
1 krj
k
rj
The flexibility of the substructure is the sum of the component flexibilities "weighted" by the force influence
coefficients of each component. We obtain
Page 578
1 L
1 + 1 L
3 EI
6 EI
ri
Frr
1 L
1 L
1
+
6 EI
3 EI krj
1 0
L 2 1 kri
Frr =
+
6 EI 1 2
1
0
krj
We see from the last expression that the substructure flexibility is equal to the beam element flexibility plus
the flexibility of the connectors; the latter is a diagonal matrix, since each connector is located at the
corresponding end node of the substructure and does not affect the deformation at the opposite node.
Let us derive an expression for the stiffness matrix of this substructure as the inverse of the flexibility matrix;
for simplicity's sake we assume that the end connectors have the same stiffness.
After introducing the following stiffness ratio
f=
we have
then
6EI
L kr
L 2 + 1
k = f 1
k=
2 + 1
6 EI
1
L 3 + 4 + 2 1
2+
we make a quick check by setting =0 (infinitely stiff connectors). In this case we get
k=
2 EI 2 1
L 1 2
We can see clearly that the semirigid connectors reduce the stiffness of the substructure, since the
denominator is growing faster with increasing positive than the diagonal terms.
We pursue again the static condensation approach, which is more complicated in this case. We do this for
the case of connectors with equal stiffness only.
The compatibility matrix for the 4 free dofs of the substructure is the transpose of the equilibrium matrix
(coefficient matrix of Q's in earlier equilibrium equations). It is
0
Af :=
0
0 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 1
0
kr 0
0 4 EI 2 EI
L
L
Ks :=
0 2 EI 4 EI
L
L
0 0
0
kr
Page 579
T
K := Af Ks Af
kr
K k
r
kr
0
kr
EI
EI
0 kr + 4
2
L
L
EI
EI
kr
2
kr + 4
L
L
0
kr