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Lili Adi Wibowo

boswie2005@yahoo.com
Oce Ridwanudin
ocereeves@gmail.com

STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESS


Market, Segments and
Customer Value

Implementating
Managing MarketDriven Strategy

Market and Competitive


Space
Strategic Marketing
Segmentation
Strategic Customer
Relationship Management
Capibilities for Learning
About Markets

Designing Market-driven
Strategies
Market Targeting and Strategy
Positioning
Strategy Relationships
Innovad and New Product
Strategy

IMMS
Market-Driven
Program
Development

MPD

Pemasaran pada awal abad 20 berorientasi


kepada produksi.
Perusahaan tahu bahwa apa pun yang dapat
diproduksi dapat dijual, ketika barang siap
pakai sedikit jumlahnya, konsumen bersedia
membeli hampir apa saja dengan harga yang
masuk akal tanpa memperdulikan atribut atau
kualitas produk tersebut.
Namun memahami pelanggan dan
mengidentifikasi apa yang menjadi
kebutuhan pelanggan tidak pernah terdengar
dalam banyak bisnis di awal abad ke 20.
Masih sedikit perhatian diberikan kepada apa
yang diinginkan pelanggan

1.
2.
3.

Orientasi pada produksi berlangsung sampai pada tahun


1920-an, ketika para pembuat barang mulai menghadapi
persaingan yang makin meningkat, dan sebagai
konsekuensinya perusahaan mulai menekankan penjualan
sebagai fondasi inisiatif pemasaran mereka
Perusahaan mulai mengambil pandangan pemasaran yang
berfokus kepada pelanggan.
Banyak perusahaan yang mulai menyadari apa yang dibutuhkan
dan diinginkan oleh pelanggan.
Orientasi ini kemudian dikenal sebagai konsep pemasaran.
Konsep ini didasarkan pada 3 tujuan, yaitu:
Orientasi pelanggan,
Koordinasi dan integrasi dari semua aktivitas pemasaran,
Fokus pada kemampuan organisasi untuk menghasilkan
keuntungan jangka panjang

Pandangan baru pemasaran muncul pada tahun 1950-an,


yang sebagian besar dimotori oleh industri barang-barang
konsumtif cepat jual dan barang-barang dalam kemasan.
Pandangan ini merupakan suatu terobosan dalam pemikiran
pemasaran.
Tetapi sekarang, beberapa orang menganggap konsep
tersebut sebagai konsep yang sempit.
Ketika fokusnya seolah-olah pada pelanggan dan
kebutuhannya, sehingga kebutuhan biasanya diterjemahkan
sebagai produk yang baik dengan harga yang baik pula, dan
pemasaran dipandang sebagai sesuatu yang dilakukan
kepada orang-orang dengan memasarkan produk kepada
mereka

Pandangan baru pemasaran muncul pada tahun 1950an, yang sebagian besar dimotori oleh industri barangbarang konsumtif cepat jual dan barang-barang dalam
kemasan.
Pandangan ini merupakan suatu terobosan dalam
pemikiran pemasaran.
Tetapi sekarang, beberapa orang menganggap konsep
tersebut sebagai konsep yang sempit.
Ketika fokusnya seolah-olah pada pelanggan dan
kebutuhannya, sehingga kebutuhan biasanya
diterjemahkan sebagai produk yang baik dengan harga
yang baik pula, dan pemasaran dipandang sebagai
sesuatu yang dilakukan kepada orang-orang dengan
memasarkan produk kepada mereka

Selama 40 tahun berikutnya, konsep


pemasaran secara erat dihubungkan
dengan 4P dari McCarthy product,
price, promotion dan place (produk,
harga, promosi dan tempat).
Implikasi dari pandangan ini adalah
jika perusahaan dapat memadukan
keempat elemen pemasaran secara
tepat, maka perusahaan akan
menikmati sukses pemasaran

Nilai dari konsep pemasaran pada awalnya


terletak pada fakta bahwa akhirnya konsep
pemasaran bertujuan untuk memberi perhatian
kepada pelanggan.
Tujuannya adalah apa yang dapat dilakukan
oleh perusahaan untuk menarik pelanggan,
bahkan hanya menjual sesuatu kepada
pelanggan tersebut.
Asumsiinya adalah jika perusahaan dapat
membuat produk yang lebih baik, memberi
harga murah, dan melakukan promosi secara
luas maka sukses pemasaran akan tercipta

Pada akhir tahun 1960-an para tenaga


penjual mulai memberi perhatian lebih
pada pendekatan yang lebih strategis
pada pemasaran.
Dalam tahap perkembangan
pemasaran ini di dominasi oleh
kemajuan yang pesat didalam
pendekatan strategis terhadap
segmentasi pasar, produk, dan
memposisikan merek, diferensiasi
produk yang ditawarkan, dan
sungguh-sungguh mengerti apa yang
diinginkan dan dibutuhkan pelanggan

Konsep pemasaran yang terefleksi dalam


perpaduan 4P dalam pemasaran sangat
menonjol dalam pemikiran dan praktik
pemasaran sampai pertengahan tahun
1980-an.
Ketika referensi tentang hubungan
pelanggan dan membangun hubungan
mulai muncul dalam literatur dan
menjadi fokus dalam banyak penelitian.
Konsep pemasaran walaupun masih
relevan, telah dikembangkan untuk
ditambahkan dimensi hubungan

Pada awal abad ke-21 perusahaan


menyadari bahwa pelanggan adalah aset
jangka panjang bagi sebuah perusahaan.
Perusahaan penting untuk melakukan
investasi pada pelanggan untuk mengelola
investasi tersebut untuk memastikan bahwa
pelanggan tersebut akan kembali berbisnis
dengan perusahaan. (Barnes, 2003:12).
Oleh karenanya AMA (American Marketing
Association) menambahkan konsep
hubungan

Saat ini relationship menjadi topik utama dalam


aktivitas bisnis.
Kebanyakan perusahaan, secara financial, bertujuan
ingin mendapatkan profit yang maksimal dari hasil
operasinya dengan memaksimalkan nilai sahamnya.
Di sisi lain dalam pemasaran, loyalitas pelanggan
dan kepuasan pelanggan merupakan tujuan setiap
perusahaan.
Peningkatan kualitas atas produk serta layanan yang
superior kepada pasar (konsumen) merupakan usaha
untuk mewujudkan loyalitas pelanggan terhadap
produk dan layanan yang diberikan.

Usaha tersebut tidak terlepas dari adanya perubahan yang


terjadi dalam lingkungan bisnis, persaingan yang semakin
ketat, kemajuan teknologi, serta perubahan dalam
kebutuhan dan keinginan pasar, yang menuntut para
pemasar untuk mengubah strategi dan taktiknya dari
product-oriented menjadi market-oriented
Perusahaan yang sukses adalah perusahaan yang mampu
untuk menjalin relationship jangka panjang dengan
pelangganya. Relationship jangka panjang berarti
pelanggan yang loyal di mana kebutuhan dan
keinginannya terpuaskan.
Tugas pemasar di sini adalah bagaimana untuk tetap
mempertahankan pelanggannya agar tetap loyal terhadap
produk atau jasa yang ditawarkan.

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

The Future of
Marketing?
Relationship
Marketing
Services
Marketing
Non-profit and
societal marketing
Industrial
Marketing
Consumer
Marketing
Sumber: John Egan, 2001, Relationship Marketing: Exploring relationall stragies in marketing, p.5,
Pearson Education Limited, England

Industrial
(business to business)
marketing

Consumer goods
marketing
Services
marketing

Network approach to
industrial (business to
business) marketing

Nordic
School of
service
management
Anglo-Australian
approach to
integrating quality,
customer service and
marketing

Strategic
alliance and
partnerships
research

Relationships
in marketing

Relation ship
marketing

Relationships
in marketing

RM bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi


dan membentuk, memelihara dan
meningkatkan dan, apabila diperlukan
mengakhiri suatu hubungan dengan
pelanggan dan stakeholders lainnya,
pada suatu tingkat laba sehingga
sasaran hasil dari semua pihak yang
terlibat dapat tercapai; dan hal tersebut
dilakukan oleh pertukaran yang saling
menguntungkan dan pemenuhan janji.

Relationship marketing focuses on creating


NEW and MUTUAL VALUE between you and
your customers on a long-term basis.
Regis McKenna (marketing guru) puts it:
"Marketing is not a function, it is a way of doing
business . . . marketing has to be all pervasive, part
of everyone's job description, from the receptionist
to the board of directors."

Konsep relationship marketing menjadi kunci


utama dalam kegiatan bisnis perusahaan saat ini.
Konsep tersebut berkembang dari pandangan
tradisional yang memfokuskan pada transactional
marketing.
Fokus dari relationship marketing adalah untuk
mendapatkan dan mempertahankan konsumen.
Relationship dengan pelanggan yang meningkat
berarti memperlakukan mereka dengan baik,
meningkatkan layanan inti (core service)
perusahaan melalui penambahan nilai, dan yang
paling penting adalah memberikan layanan yang
sangat dibutuhkan oleh setiap individu (McIlroy &
Barnett, 2000).

Pelanggan menjadi inti dari relationship marketing.


Para pemasar perlu mengenal lebih banyak
informasi mengenai pelanggan,
siapa mereka?
Apa yang mereka lakukan?
Dan apa yang mereka inginkan?
Database pelanggan dan segmentasi pelanggan
diperlukan dalam menerapkan strategi relationship
marketing untuk mendapatkan informasi yang lebih
mengenai pelanggannya (Chan, 2003).

Relationship marketing merupakan


paradigma baru dalam pemasaran di
mana Grnroos (1991)
menggambarkannya sebagai marketing
strategy continuum, dengan maksud
untuk menyampaikan produk dan jasa
tanpa melalui discrete and causal
transaction (pandangan dari traditional
marketing) melainkan melalui
penyampaian yang berlanjut dalam
konteks relationship yang terus-menerus.

Transaction Marketing

Relationship Marketing

Fokus hanya pada penjualan tunggal

Berfokus pada pemeliharaan pelanggan

Orientasi pada karakteristik produk

Orientasi pada product benefit

Skala jangka waktu pendek

Skala jangka waktu panjang

Kurang menekankan pelayanan


pelanggan

Sangat menekankan pelayanan


pelanggan

Komitmen dengan pelanggan yang


terbatas.

Komitmen dengan pelanggan tinggi

Kontak dengan pelanggannya sedang

Memperhatikan kualitas secara


menyeluruh

Kualitas yang diperhatikan terutama


yang berkaitan dengan produksi

Kontak dengan pelanggan tinggi

Traditional model*
four P's of marketing
mix:

Current relationship
marketing model:
the 4 Cs

Pricing

Cost to the
Customer

Product Management

Customer Solution

Promotion

Communication

Placement

Convenience

*Replace with an alternative model where the focus is on


customers and relationships rather than markets and products.

Mutual
Interdependence

Relationship
Marketing
Competition
and conflict

Mutual
Cooperation

Transactional
Marketing
Mutual
Cooperation
Sumber: Svend Hollensen, 2003, Marketing Management: A Relationship Approach,
p. 11, Prentice Hall, Essex

Category

Transactional Marketing

Relationship Marketing

Focus

Economic transaction.
Decision focus on
product/brand and 4Ps.

Decision focus on relationships


between firms in a network and
individuals.

The marketing
Environment

Marketing rules are very clear,


defined and constant
Market is bound by countries
and regions

Marketing rules are relatively clear,


defined and constant.
Market is relatively bound by
network and alliances.
The boundaries between firms are
blurred, if not completely eroded.

Parties involved

A firm and buyers are involved


in a general market. Distant
and impersonal contact.

Dyadic relationships: sellers, buyers,


and other firms. Face-to-face, close
interpersonal contacts based on
commitment and trust.

Lanjutan Tabel 2.1

Goals

Each partys goals and


objectives, while similar, are
geared to what is best for
them.

Shared goals and objectives ensure


common direction.

Managerial intent

Transaction/sales volume and


creating new customers are
considered a success
Customer atraction (to satisfy
the customer at a profit)

Keeping the existing customers,


retention, is considered to be a
success.
Satisfy the customer, increase profit,
and attain other objectives such as
increased loyalty, decreased
customer risk, etc.

Production focus

Mass production

Mass customization

Communications structured and


guarded

Communication

Customers

Open communication avoids


misdirection and bolsters effective
working relationships.

Lanjutan Tabel 2.1

Low customer interactivity.


Customers are less knowledgeable
and informed

High customer interactivity


Customers are aware and informed.
Their feedback can be immediate.

Competitive
advantage/differentiation

The quality of the product is


important for differentiation. The
marketing mix can be used for the
differentiation.

Balance of power/sharing

Active seller less passive buyers.


Suspicion and Distrust. Each party
wary of the motives and action by t
he other.
Sharing limited by lack of trust and
different objectives. Often
opportunistic behaviour.

Seller and buyer mutually active and


adaptive (interdependent and
reciprocal).
Mutual trust forms the basis for strong
working relationships.
Sharing of business plans and
strategies.

Organization/managerial
level

Functional marketers (e.g sales


manager, product development
manager).
Marketing is a concern of the
marketing department.

Managers from across functions and


levels in the firm.
Everyone in the organization is a parttime marketer.
Specialist marketers (e.g key account
managers)

Formality

Formal (yet personalized via


technology).

Formal and informal(i.e. at both a


business and social level).

Duration

Discrete (yet perhaps over time).


Short term.

Continuous (ongoing and mutually


adaptive, may be short or long-term).

General
advantages/disadavantages

Advantage: independence of buyer


and seller.
Disadavantage: the firm is in a
vulnerable situation if a competitor
makes better offer to the customer.

Advantage: intimate knowledge of


needs and markets ( developed over
time), which has been likened to
reading the minds of customers.
Disadavantage: the firm is in a
vulnerable situation if its business

of differentiation.

Transactional
Marketing

Relationship Marketing

Single Sale

Customer Retention

Orientation

Product Features

Product Benefits

Time Scale

Short Time Scale

Long Time Scale

Little Emphasis

High Emphasis

Limited

High

Moderate

High

Product Quality

Total Quality

Focus

Customer Service
Commitment
Customer Contact
Quality

Sumber: Christopher, Payne and Ballantyn, 1991, Relationship Marketing: Bringing quality,
Customer Service and Marketing Together, ButterworthHeinemann Ltd, Oxford

Long-term customers tend to be less inclined


to switch, and also tend to be less price
sensitive.

Long-term customers may initiate free word of


mouth promotions and referrals.

Long-term customers are more likely to


purchase related products from you.

Regular customers tend to be less expensive to


service and tend to be consistent in their
purchase habits.
Increased customer loyalty makes employees'
jobs easier and more satisfying.

Grnroos (1991) dalam Palmer (1994)


yang menggambarkan relationship
marketing sebagai suatu marketing
strategy continuum yang bertujuan untuk
menyampaikan suatu barang dan jasa
tidak melalui discrete transactional
melainkan melalui penyampaian terus
menerus dalam konteks hubungan yang
berkesinambungan

Whereas the goal of traditional marketing is customer


acquisition, under relationship marketing the focus
shifts to creating value
The objective is to create more value through
interdependent, collaborative relationships with
customers, the outcome is customer retention
Relationship marketing is ongoing, constantly looking
for opportunities to generate new value
Retaining customers requires marketers to exhibit
care and concern after they have made a purchase
The sale often represents only the beginning of the
relationship between the buyer and seller

Directors

Shareholders

Suppliers

Sub-contractors

Distributors

Firm

Producers

Government

Employees

Intermediaries

Customers

Financial Partners

Public

Sumber: Bill Donaldson and Tom O Toole, 2002, Strategic Market Relationship:
From Strategy to Implementation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England.

TRUST
COOPERATION

INFORMATION
EXCHANGE

COMMITMENT

DEPENDENCE

Johnson, W. and Weinstein, A. (1999)


Based on a study of Motorola and Lucent Marketing
Managers.

Figure 11.3 - Information Sustains a Relationship

that the Buyer is willing to invest in the relationship

Information, Time, or Trust Level

Relationship
Selling

High
Account
Penetration

Transaction
Selling

TransactionBased
Relationship

Partnership
Relationship

Low Account
Penetration

Services that the seller is willing to provide the relationship

P
r
i
m
a
r
y
B
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n
d

C
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s
t
o
m
i
z
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d
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r
v
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c
e

C
o
m
p
e
t
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t
i
v
e
A
d
v
a
n
t
a
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e

F
I
N
A
N
C
I
A
L

L
O
W

L
O
W

S
O
C
I
A
L

M
E
D
I
U
M

M
E
D
I
U
M

S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
A
L
M
E
D
I
U
M
H
I
G
H H
I
G
H

*Source: Berry, L. (1995)

Definition of CRM
CRM is a business strategy that involves selecting
and managing customer relationships to optimize
the long-term value of a company
Goal of CRM
The goal of CRM is to acquire, grow, and retain the
right customer relationships -- those with the best
long-term profit potential
(Bob Thompson, founder of CRMGuru.com)

CRM is about collaborating with customers


and partners so they receive superior value
Interactions with customers regardless of
the sales channel should be constantly
managed to optimize the value of those
relationships
Effective CRM systems provide a 360
degree view of the customer, including the
frequency, response, and quality of
customer interactions

A good CRM system is capable of describing customer


relationships in sufficient detail so that management,
salespeople, customer service and even suppliers have
direct and real-time access to customer information
The information gathered should help match customer
needs with product/service offerings, remind customers of
service requirements, predict future purchases, and alert
the company when a customers purchase behavior has
changed
A key feature of CRM is sharing the customer experience
across the organization and supply chain

CRM BUSINESS DRIVERS

Automation/Productivity/Efficiency

33%

Competitive Advantage

22%

Customer Demands and Requirements

15%
14%

Increased Revenue
Cost or Price Reduction

10%
9%

Speed/Saving Time
Keeping Track of All Aspects of Business

7%

Customer Support

7%
6%
6%

Inventory Control/Resource Management


Better/Expanded Communication
Integration

6%

Customer Satisfaction

6%

Accessibility

4%

ConformityStandardization

4%
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

Source: AMR Research, 2002

Figure
11.5
Customer
Relationship
Model
Figure
11.5
Customer
Relationship
Model
MARKETING KNOWLEDGE

CUSTOMER STRATEGY
Customer centric
strategy

Customer
focused
strategies
drive
marketing
execution

BADI
Competitors value proposition

Clear value proposition

RFM

Channel bonding

Customer Lifetime Value

Dominate the segment (DTS)

Acquisition costs

Dominate the cycle (DTC)

Retention Rates

Integrated marketing processes


(internal)

Customer
experience
is shared
across the
organization
and supply
chain

Supply chain network


coordination

Planning

Relationship
Marketing
activities are
coordinated

Analysis

Direct Sales

Customer Service

Web Site

Cross-Sell

Call Center

Up-Sell

Implementation

Control
Adapted From Levine, S (1998)
Selling Smart Americas Network, Sept. 1, p. 3

Companies should continuously gather


critical customer data known as BADI

Behaviors (how often and where customers


visit)

service

Attitudes (customers satisfaction,


quality assessments)

Demographics
Insights (share of market,
share of wallet)

Marketing knowledge forms the basis of a


customer strategy by analyzing, planning,
implementing, and control re:

a customer-centric orientation
a clearly defined value proposition
alignment with key channel partners
dominating the segment (focused on a
particular market segment) or cycle (dominate
the evolving value proposition aimed a group
of customers)
internal and supply chain process integration.
the coordination and practice of relationship
marketing activities

Lack of focus
No change management policies
No buy-in
Business unit silos
Complicated procedures
Poor training

Careful planning
Appropriate use of people in the
organization
Get supply chain members involved
Using customer-driven processes
Have a sound platform for
introducing CRM systems and
activities

Customer relationships are improved by

responding to customer needs

Companies who successfully practice relationship marketing


have mastered mass customization
In many markets it is not only possible, but imperative to
mass customize for customers
New technology enables efficient customization of products
and services, even when the customer base is quite large

More and more companies are utilizing web


alliances in order to create superior customer
value.

These value webs now represent the


new economy supply chains
The key to creating superior value in the
new economy resides in understanding
and leveraging the power of supply chain
network relationships
Value is created (or captured) by a firm
moving upstream or downstream in the
supply chain

A value web can be described as an


inchoate network of customers, suppliers,
complement-ors, allies and competitors
whose services either enhance or drain a
firms value
These relationships can be vertical or
horizontal (or both) and are less enduring
than in traditional supply chains
Unlike conventional supply chains, adding
more users to a value web actually creates
more, not less value

Value webs are optimized to the extent


a firm understands its relationship with
other actors in the web, how its
activities will affect the network and how
the other actors will respond

True value creation takes place when


several organizations in the value web
share common technologies and/or
intellectual capital

eBay Value Web

Complements
Allies
Customers

eBay
Suppliers

Competitors
eBay primarily competes for these flows

A final key to practicing relationship marketing is to

track each relationship

LTV is simply a projection of what customers are


worth over a lifetime of doing business with them
Calculating LTV is important because of the impact
of retention levels on profitability
Companies successful at practicing relationship
marketing look for opportunities to add value
through their business relationships, offering new
features, services or customized offerings

GM Cadillac
Gateway

Computer
Pizza Hut
Proctor & Gamble
Safeway

$
$
$
$
$

426,000
25,000
12,400
10,000
4,800

Proof

The top 6% of cellular phone users represent 69% of total usage

The top 6% of the UK cola users represent 60% of all consumption


25% of cars are rented by the top 0.02% of clients
Source: Watt Solutions, Inc., 2002

Ikatan
Kedua belah pihak membentuk suatu
kesatuan untuk mencapai tujuan
Kepercayaan
Keyakinan masing2 pihak untuk menepati
janjinya dan tidak akan merugikan
Empati
Usaha memahami hasrat dan keinginan
seseorang
Resiprokal
Win-win solution

Relationship marketing merupakan


pemasaran yang didasarkan atas interaksi
antara berbagai jaringan hubungan yang
terdiri dari 30 hubungan (30 Rs)

Market Relationship

Classic
R1-R3

Special
R4-R17

Non-Market
Relationship

Mega
R18-R23

Nano
R24-R30

Classic market relationships


R1

The classic dyad the relationship between the supplier and the customer
This is the parent relationship of marketing, the ultimate exchange of value
which constitutes the basis of business

R2

The classic triad the drama of the customer supplier competitor triangle
Competition is centran ingredient of the market economy. In competition there
are relationships between three parties: between the customer and the current
supplier, between the customer and the suppliers competitors, and between
competitors.

R3

The classic network distribution channels


The traditional physical distribution and the modern channel management,
including goods, services, people and information, consists of a network of
relationships.

Special market relationships


R4

Relationships via full-time marketers (FTMs) and part-time marketers (PTMs)


Those who work in marketing and sales departments the FTMs are
professional relationship makers. All others, who perform other main functions
but yet influence customer relationships directly or indirectly, are PTMs. There
are also contributing FTMs and PTMs outside organization

R5

The service encounter interaction between the customer and service


provider
Production and delivery of services involve the customer in an interactive
relationship with the service provider, often reffered to as a moment of truth

R6

The many headed customer and the many-headed supplier


Marketing to other organizations industrial marketing or business marketing
often means contacts between many individuals from the suppliers and the
customers organization.

R7

The relationship to the customers customer


A condition for success is often the understanding of the customers customer,
and what suppliers can do to help their customers become successful.

R8

The close to the distant relationships


In mass marketing, the closeness to the customer is lost and the relationship
become distant, based on surveys, statistics, and written report.

Special market relationships (Cont)


R9

The relationship to the dissatisfied customer


The dissatisfied customer perceives a special type of relationship, more intense than
the normal situation, and often badly managed by the provider. The way of handling a
complaint the recovery can determine the quality of the future relationship.

R10

The monopoly relationship: the customer or supplier as prisoners


When competition is inhibited, the customer may be at the mercy of the supplier or
the other way around. One of them becomes prisoner.

R11

The customer as member


In order to create a long-term sustaining relationship, it has become increasingly
common to enlist customers as a members of various loyalty programmes

R12

The e-relationship
The electronic relationship, the e-relationship, represented by the internet, email and
mobile telephony, is set against the h-relationship, the human relationship. The
concept of high tech-high touch becomes increasingly more crucial to watch in RM
and CRM.

R13

Parasocial relationships relationships to brands and objects


Relationships do not only exist with people and objects, but also in the form of mental
images and symbols, such as brand and corporate indentities

Special market relationships (Cont)


R14

The non commercial relationships


This is a relationship between the public sector and citizens/customers, but it also
includes voluntary organizations and other activities outside of the profit-based and
monetarized economy, such as those performed in families

R15

The green relationship


Environmental and health issues have slowly but gradually increased in importance
and are creating a new type of customer relationship through legislation, the voice of
opinion-leading consumers, changing behaviour of consumers and an extension of
the customer-supplier relationship to encompass a recycling process.

R16

The law- based relationship


A relationship to a customer is sometimes founded primarily on legal contracts and
the threat of litigation.

R17

The criminal network


Organized crime is built on tight and often impermeable networks guided by an illegal
business mission.They exist around the world and are apparently growing but are not
observed in marketing theory. These networks can disturb the functioning of a whole
market or industry.

Mega relationships

R18

Personal and social networks


Personal and social networks often determine business networks. In some cultures,
business is solely conducted between friends and friends to friends

R19

Mega marketing the real customer is not always found in the market place
In certain instances, relationships must be sought with governments, legislators,
influential individuals and others, in order to make marketing feasible on an
operational level.

R20

Alliances change the market mechanisms


Alliances mean closer relationships and collaboration between companies. Thus,
competition is partly curbed, but collaboration is necessary to make the market
economy work.

R21

The knowledge relationship


Knowledge can be the most strategic and critical resource and
acquisition is often the rationale for alliances

knowledge

Mega relationships (Cont)


R22

Mega alliances change the basic conditions for marketing


The European Union (EU), or the North American Free Trade Organization
(NAFTA), are examples of alliances above the single company and industry.
They exist on government and supranational levels.

R23

The mass media relationships


The media can be supportive or damaging to marketing and they are
particularly influential in forming public opinion. The relationship to media is
crucial for the way media will handle an issue.

Nano relationships
R24

Market mechanisms are brought inside a company


By introducing profit centers in an organization, a market inside the company is
created and internal as well as external relationships of a new kind emerge.

R25

Internal customer relationships


The dependency between the different tiers and departments in a company is seen
as a process consisting of relationships between internal customers and internal
suppliers

R26

Quality and customer orientation: the relationship between operations


management and marketing
The modern quality concept has built a bridge between design, engineering,
manufacturing, and other technology-based activities and marketing. It considers
the companys internal relationships as well as its relationships to the customers.

R27

Internal marketing relationships with the employee market


Internal marketing can be seen as a part of RM as it gives indirect and necessary
support to the relationships with external customers.

Nano relationships (Cont)


R28

The two dimensional matrix relationship


Matrices are the simplest form of networks and exist in all large corporations, and
above all they are found in the relationships between product management and
sales

R29

The relationship to external providers of marketing services


External providers reinforce the marketing function by supplying a series of
services, such as those offered by advertising agencies and market research
institutes, but also in the area of sales and distribution.

R30

The owner and financier relationships


Owners and other financiers partly determine the conditions under which a
marketing function can operate. The relationship to them influences the marketing
strategy.

CUSTOMER
RELATIONSHIP

CRM

TRADITIONAL
TRANSACTION

MARKETING
PRODUCT

COMPETENCE

No

Nama

Definisi

1.

Petrissans (1999:95)

CRM is a new customer-centric business model that reorients firm


operations around customer needs (as opposed to products, resources or
processes) in order to improve customer satisfaction, loyalty and
retentition.

2.

Peppers & Rogers


(1999:7)

CRM is the integration of customer focus in marketing, sales, production,


logsistics and accounting,i.e. in all parts of the companys operations and
structure

3.

Galbreath & Rogers


(1999:162)

The activities a business performs to indentify, qualify, acquire, develop


and retain increasingly loyal and profitable customers by delivering the
right product or service, to the right customer, at the right time and the
right cost.

4.

Berry (1983:25)

Relationship marketing sebagai konsep modern pemasaran, yang


didefinisikan sebagai: Attracting, maintaining and enhancing customer
relationships.

5.

Grnroos (1994: 9)
dalam John Egan
(2001:23)

Relationship marketing yaitu: Identify and establish, maintain and


enhance and, when necessary, terminate relationships with customers
and other stakeholders, at a profit so that the objectives of all parties
involved are met; and this is done by mutual exchange and fulfilment of
promises.

6.

Dwyer, Schurr dan


Oh (1987) Dalam

RM refers to all marketing activities directed toward establishing,


developing and maintaining successful relationship. Artinya relationship

7.

Shani dan Chalasalani


(1992) dalam Sheth
et.al (2001:4),

Relationship Marketing as an integrated effort to identify, maintain, and


build up a network with individual consumers and to continuously
strengthen the network for that mutual benefit of both sides, trough
contacts over a long period of a long time. Artinya relationship
marketing merupakan usaha yang terintegrasi untuk mengenali,
memelihara, dan membangun kembali sebuah jaringan dengan konsumen
secara individu dan untuk memperkuat jaringan secara berkelanjutan
yang saling menguntungkan untuk kedua belah pihak (perusahaan dan
pelanggan), melalui kontak dalam jangka waktu yang lama.

8.

Berry (1995) dalam


Sheth et.al (2001:5)

Di dalam istilah yang lebih luas, juga memiliki pandangan strategis


mengenai CRM. Dia menitikberatkan bahwa menarik pelanggan baru
harus dipandang hanya sebagian tingkat menengah/perantara di dalam
sebuah proses pemasaran. Pengembangan hubungan yang lebih dekat
dengan pelanggan dan menjadikan mereka kepada pelanggan yang loyal
merupakan aspek yang sama penting dari sebuah proses pemasaran.
Lebih lanjut, Berry mengungkapkan bahwa Relationship Marketing
sebagai menarik, mempertahankan dan -didalam organisasi multi
service-mempertahankan hubungan pelanggan.

9.

Phillip Kotler
(2003:13)

Relationship marketing adalah proses menciptakan, mempertahankan,


dan memperkuat nilai hubungan dengan pelanggan dan pihak-pihak
stakeholders.

10.

Phillip Kotler
(2004:15)

CRM is the overall process of building and maintaining profitable


customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and
satisfaction.

11.

Sheth dan
Parvatiyar
(2001:6)

Customer
Relationship
Management
is
a
comprehensive strategy and process of acquiring,
retaining and partnering with selective customers to
create superior value for the company and the
customer.

12.

Evert Gummesson
(2002:3)

Relationship marketing is marketing based


interaction within networks of relationships.

13.

Evert Gummesson
(2002:3)

CRM is the values and strategies of relationship


marketing - with particular emphasis on customer
relationship - turned into pratical application.

14.

Syafruddin Chan
(2003:6)

Relationship Marketing (RM) dapat didefinisikan


sebagai: Pengenalan setiap pelanggan secara lebih
dekat dengan menciptakan komunikasi dua arah
dengan mengelola suatu hubungan yang saling
menguntungkan antara pelanggan dan perusahaan.

on

No

4.

5.

Nama

Burnett (2001)

Newell (2000)

Swift (2001)

Galbreath &
Rogers (1999)

Kalakota &
Robinson

Tujuan CRM

Meningkatkan pendapatan dari penjualan


Meningkatkan kemenangan dalam proses penjualan
Meningkatkan hasil dari magir
Meningkatkan derajat kepuasa pelanggan
Mengurangi biaya biaya administrasi penjualan dan pemasaran.

Mengidentifikasi nilai-nilai pelanggan yang penting terhadap suatu segmen.


Memahami kepentingan relatif dari nilai-nilai terhadap setiap segmen pelanggan.
Menentukan apakah penghantaran nilai mempengaruhi secara positif.
Mengkomunikasikan dan menghantar nilai-nilai yang tepat bagi pelanggan dengan cara yang
diinginkan pelanggan dalam memperoleh informasi
Mengukur hasil dan memperbaiki ROI (return-on-investment)

Meningkatkan proses komunikasi kepada konsumen yang tepat.


Menyediakan penawaran yang tepat kepada setiap pelanggan.
Menyediakan waktu yang tepat untuk setiap pelanggan

Customization: pelanggan menginginkan layanan yang sesuai atau melebihi kebutuhan pribadi
mereka, perusahaan harus dapat menjawab karakter unik pelanggan dan memenuhi kebutuhan
mereka dengan penawaran yang tepat bagi individu pelanggan yang membelinya.
Hubungan pribadi: perusahaan secara aktif menggunakan umpan balik untuk meningkatkan
hubungan dengan pelanggan.
Layanan purna jual: memperhatikan pelanggan setelah penjualan dengan layanan yang responsif
dan proactive memiliki dampak besar terhadap profitabilitas perusahaan.

Menggunakan hubungan dengan pelanggan yang ada untuk meningkatkan pendapatan.


Menggunakan sistem informasi agar dapat memberikan layanan yang excellent.
Mengenalkan saluran proses dan prosedur yang konsisten serta dapat direplikasi.

Relationship
Based Interfaces

Emphasis on
Quality

Setting Realistic
Targets &
Assessing
Performance

Customer
Relationship
Management

Maintaining
Dialogue with
Customer
Invest in
People

Measure
customer
satisfaction but
manage
Customer
Service

Direct Mail

Preferential
Treatment

Product
Category
Involvement

Interpersonal
Communication

Tangible
Reward

Perceived
Relationship
Invesment

Relationship
Quality

Behavioral
Loyalty

Consumer
Relationship
Proneness

Penyampain
nilai yang
meningkat
pada
pelanggan

Pelanggan
aquire dan
pelanggan
prospektif

Interaksi dengan
pelanggan dan
pelanggan
prospektif

Pelanggan retain
yang berharga

CRM
Penyesuaian
berdasarkan
segmen
pelanggan
Mengembangkan
produk, jasa,
saluran untuk
memenuhi
kebutuhan
pelanggan

Memahami
Kebutuhan

Deferensiasi
Berdasarkan
kebutuhan
karakteristik
dan perilaku
konsumen

Customer Types/
Program Types
Continuity Marketing

One To One
Marketing

Partnering/
Co-Marketing

Mass Marketing

Distributor

After Marketing
Loyalty Programs
Cross Selling

Permission
Marketing
Personalization

Affinity Partnering
Co Branding

Business To Bussines
Types

Special
Sourcing
Arrangement

Customer Business
Development

Key Account
Global
Account
Programs

Logistics
Partnering
Joint Marketing

Continuous
Replinshment
ECR Programs

Strategic
Partnering
Co-Design
Co-Development

ONE TO ONE MARKETING


COUNTINITY MARKETING
Ex. Ucapan Ultah, Perkawinan, Hari Raya
dll
PATNERING PROGRAM
Ex. Diskon/Potongan Harga pada
Outlet2 khusus yang menjadi relasi
Perusahaan tsb.