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IRC Standards:

The standard IRC loads specified in IRC : 6-2000 are grouped under four categories as described
below :
1. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Class A Loading
IRC class A type loading consists of a wheel load train comprising a truck with trailers of specified
axle spacing and loads. The heavy duty truck with two trailers transmits loads from 8 axles varying
from a minimum of 27 kN to a maximum of 114 kN. The Class A loading is a 554 kN train of
wheeled vehicles on eight axles. Impact has to be allowed as per the formulae recommended in
the IRC: 6-2000. The impact factor is inversely proportional to the length of the span and is
different for steel and concrete bridges. This type of loading is recommended for all roads on which
permanent bridges and culverts are constructed.
2. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Class B Loading
Class B type of loading is similar to Class A loading except that the axle loads are comparatively of
lesser magnitude. The axle loads of Class B are a 332 kN train of wheeled vehicles on eight axles.
This type of loading is adopted for temporary structures and timber bridges. Combinations of
different types of live loads are recommended for the design of bridges in clause 207.4 of IRC: 62000.
The IRC Code also provides for the reduction of the longitudinal effects on bridges accommodating
more than two traffic lanes due to the low probability of all lanes not subjected to the characteristic
loads simultaneously. The reduction in longitudinal effect recommended is 10 percent for three
lanes and 20 percent for four lanes or more. However, it should be ensured that the reduced
longitudinal effects are not less severe than the longitudinal effect resulting from simultaneous load
on two adjacent lanes.
3. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Class 70 R Loading
IRC 70 R loading consists of the following three types of vehicles : (a) Tracked vehicle of total load
700 kN with two tracks each weighing 350 kN. (b) Wheeled vehicle comprising 4 wheels, each with
a load of 100 kN totaling 400 kN (c) Wheeled vehicle with a train of vehicles on seven axles with a
total load of 1000 kN. The tracked vehicle is somewhat similar to that of Class AA, except that the
contact length of the track is 4.87 m, the nose to tail length of the vehicle is 7.92 m and the
specified minimum spacing between successive vehicles is 30 m. The wheeled vehicle is 15.22 m
long and has seven axles with the loads totaling to 1000 kN. The bogie axle type loading with 4
wheels totaling 400 kN is also specified.
The 700 kN tracked vehicle is common to both the classes, the only difference being the loaded
length which is slightly more for the Class 70 R. The second category is the wheeled type
comprising 1000 kN train of vehicles on seven axles for the Class 70 R and a 400 kN bogie axle
type vehicle for the Class AA. The Class A loading is a 554 kN train of wheeled vehicles on eight
axles. Impact is to be allowed for all the loadings as per the specified formulae which is !fferent for
steel and concrete bridges.
The various categories of loads are to be separately considered and the worst effect has 10 be
considered in design. Only one lane of Class 70 R or Class AA load is considered whereas both
the lanes are assumed to be occupied by Class A loading if that gives the worst effect
4. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Class AA Loading

Two different types of vehicles are specified under this category grouped as tracked and wheeled
vehicles. The IRC Class AA tracked vehicle (simulating an army tank) of 700 kN and a wheeled
vehicle (heavy duty army truck) of 400 kN.
All the bridges located on National Highways and State Highways have to be designed for this
heavy loading. These loadings are also adopted for bridges located within certain specified
municipal localities and along specified highways. Alternatively, another type of loading designated
as Class 70 R is specified instead of Class AA loading.
2.3 CLEARANCES
To avoid any possibility of traffic striking arty structural part clearance diagrams are specified. The
horizontal clearance should be the clear width and the vertical clearance the clear height, available
for the passage of vehicular traffic as shown in the clearance diagram in Fig. 2.1.
For a bridge constructed on a horizontal curve with superelevated road surface, the horizontal
clearance should be increased on the side of the inner kerb by an amount equal to 5 m multiplied
by the superelevation. The minimum vertical clearance should be measured from the
superelevated level of the roadway.
2.4 WIDTH OF CARRIAGEWAY
Width of carriageway required will depend on the intensity and volume of traffic anticipated to use
the bridge. The width of carriageway is expressed in terms of traffic lanes each lane meaning the
width required to accommodate one train of Class A vehicles.
Except on minor village roads, all bridges must provide for at least two-lane width. The minimum
width of carriageway is 4.25 m for a one-lane bridge and 7.5 m for a two-lane bridge. For every
additional lane, a minimum of 3.5 m must be allowed. Bridges allowing traffic on both directions
must have carriage ways of two or four lanes or multiples of two lanes. Three-lane bridges should
not be constructed, as these will be conducive to the occurrence of accidents. In the case of a wide
bridge, it is desirable to provide a central verge of et least 1.2 in width in order to separate the two
opposing lines of traffic; in such a case, the individual carriageway on either side of the verge
should provide for a minimum of two lanes of traffic. If the bridge is to carry a tramway or railway in
addition, the width of the bridge should be increased suitably.
From consideration of safety and effective utilisation of carriageway, it is desirable to provide
footpath of at least 1.5 m width on either side of the carriageway for all bridges. In urban areas, it
may be necessary also to provide for separate cycle tracks besides the carriageway.
2.5 VARIOUS TYPES OF LOADING FOR ROAD BRIDGES
The loads and forces to be considered in designing road bridges are described below:
1. WIND LOAD
Bridge structures are designed for the following lateral wind forces. These forces should be
considered to act horizontally and in such a direction that the resultant stresses in the member
under consideration are the maximum.
The wind force on a structure should be assumed as a horizontal force of the intensity specified
below and acting on an area calculated as follows: (i) For a Deck Structure. The area of the
structure as seen in elevation including the floor system and railings. (ii) For a Through or Half
Through Structure. The area of the elevation of the windward specified in (a) above plus half the
area of de vat ion above the deck level of all other trusses or girders.
The pressure given in Table 1 should be doubled for bridges situated in areas such as the
Kathiawar-peninsula and Orissa Coasts. The lateral wind force against any exposed moving load

should be considered as acting at 1.5 m above the roadway and should be assumed to have the
following values: Highway bridges ordinary 300 kg per linear metre. Highway bridges carrying
tramway 450 kg per linear metre.
The bridges should not be considered to be carrying any live load when the wind velocity at deck
level exceeds 130 km per hour.
The total assumed wind force should not be less than 450 kg per linear metre in the plane of the
loaded chord and 225 kg per linear meter in the plane of unloaded chord on through or half-through
truss, latticed or other similar spans and not less than 450 kg per linear metre on deck spans.
F = Horizontal velocity of wind in kilometres per hour at height H. A wind pressure of 240 kg per
square metre of the unloaded structure should be used if it produces greater stresses than those
produced by the combined wind forces as stated above.
2. LATERAL LOADS
Forces all Railings and Parapets.
The railings and parapets should be designed to resist a lateral horizontal force and vertical force
each of 150 kg/m applied simultaneously at the top of the railing or parapet. These forces need not
be considered in the design of the main structural members if footpaths are not provided. In case
where footpaths are provided, the effect of those forces should be considered in the design of
structural system supporting the railing and the footpath up to the face of the footpath Kerb only.
Forces on Kerbs.
Kerbs should be designed for lateral loading of 750 kg per metre run of the Kerb applied
horizontally at the top of the kerb. This load need not be taken for the design of supporting
structure.
3. LIVE LOAD
Indian Roads Congress has evolved the suitable loading standards for bridges commensurate with
the traffic needs of the highway system. The I.R.C. bridge loadings were originally of two types
one known as I.R.C. standard loading and the other as L.R.C. heavy loading both consisting of a
uniformly distributed load and a knife-edge load.
Later on in 1943 the present 1.R.C. class AA, class A and class B loading were introduced and all
of them are still in force.
I.R.C. Class AA Loading,
The I.R.C. class AA loading corresponds to the class 70 loading and is based on the original
classification methods of the Defence Authorities. This loading is to be adopted for design of
bridges within certain municipal limits, in certairn existing or contemplated industrial area, in other
specified areas and along National Highways and State Highways. Two types of vehicles are
specified : (i) Tracked Vehicle. (ii) Wheeled Vehicle. The choice is made, depending upon the
anticipated types of vehicles to travel on the bridge Bridges designed for Class AA loading should
be checked for Class A loading also, as unde certain conditions heavier stress may be obtained
under class A loading.
I.R.C. Class A Loading.
The class A loading was proposed by I.R.C. with the object of covering the worst combination of
axle loads and axle spacings likely to arise from the various types / vehicles that are normally
expected to use the road. This load train is reported to have beer arrived at aft ac an exhaustive
analysis of all lorries made in all the countries of the world. The load train is composed of a driving

vehicle and two trailers of specified axle spicing and loads. This loading is to be normally adopted
on all roads on which permanent bridges and culvert are constructed.
I.R. C. Class B loading.
The I.R.C. Class B loading is similar to class A train of vehicles wilt reduced axle loads and type
contact dimensions. This loading is to be normally adopted temporary structures and for bridges in
specified areas. Structures with timber spans are regarded as temporary structures.
Apart from these, the I.R.C. has also given a load classification of I.R.C. Standard Specification
east and Code of Practice for Road Bridge Section II (I.R.C. 6-1966) conforming to the revised
system of load classification by the Defence Authorities which gives loadings varying from class 3
to 7: I The new class 7,9 R loading given in this chart is nothing hut a revision of the class 70
loading: the original classification (in other words-the class AA loading) incorporating certain
changes
Notes : The nose to tail spacing between two successive vehicles should not be less than 90 m. z.
For multilane bridges and culverts, one train of class AA tracked or wheeled vehicles whichever
creates severer conditions should be considered for every two traffic lane widths. No "Other live
load should be considered on any part of the said 2-lane width carriageway of the bridge when the
above mentioned train of Tracked Vehicle crossing bridge. The maximum loads for the wheeled
vehicle should be 20 tonnes for a single axle or 40 tonnes for a bogie of two axles spaced not more
than 1.2 m centres.
4. DEAD LOAD
The dead load is the weight of the structure and the weight of the portion of the superstructure
which is supported wholly or in part by the structure. The dead load initially assumed should be
checked after the design is completed and the design should be revised if the actual calculated
dead load exceeds the assumed dead load by more than 2.5%. The dead load of the structure
depends upon the following factors: (1) Live load. (2) Type of design. (3) Working stresses
employed. (4) Length of span. (5) Character of the details.
On the basis of the above factors the approximate weight of the structure is roughly estimated by
means of the following empirical formulae :
Empirical Formulae/or R.C.C. Bridges (A) T-Beam Bridges. The formula is applicable only for 6-15
m span T -beam bridges: W= 415 +80L Here, W = Total weight in kg/m2 L = Clear span in metres.
(B) Spandrel Filled R. C. C. Arches. The average dead load in kg/m of road surface is given by the
following formulae: (i) Formula for rise-span ratio, 1: 4 ; W= 198.5 L (ii) Formula for rise-span ratio,
1: 5 ; W = 166 L (iii) Formula for rise-span ratio, 1 : 6 ; W= 144 L Here, L = Span in metres
W=Average dead load in kg/m.
Empirical Formula for Steel Bridges (a) Plate Girder Bridges: (i) Kempe's formula: Here, P = Weight
in kg of small plate girder. W = Total load supported in kg. L = Span in metres. d = Total depth of
girder in cm. (ii) Wisconsin Highway Commission Formula. For through plate girders of steel, the
weight it kg per metre run of span from 10.5 to 24.0 m is given by
(i) W = 446.4 + 15.8 L (for 5.4 m wide roadway) (ii) W= 476 + 19.5 L (for 6 m wide roadway) (iii)
Boston Bridge Work Standard Formulae. The weight of plate girder bridges in kg/m2 is given by (i)
For Deck Girders with side Walks: W = 122 + 3.64 L (ii) For through Girders with Side Walks : W=
16.1 + 2.86L (iii) For Through Girders without Side Walks : W = 14.6 + 3.78L Here, L = Span in
metres. (b) Truss Bridges (i) America Bridge Company Formula W = 275 + 171L (For 6.2 m wide
roadway) This formula is applicable for low truss spans of 10 m to 30 m without stringers. Here, W

= Weight in kg per metre run. (ii) Wisconsin Commission Formula W= 119 + 19.5L This formula is
applicable for load truss spans of 10 metres to 25 metres. (iii) Illinois Commission Formula This
formula is applicable for steel high truss spans of 30 metres to 50 metres.
5. LONGITUDINAL FORCES
in all road bridges, provision should be made for longitudinal forces arising from any one or more of
the following causes: (1) Tractive effort caused through acceleration of the driving wheels. (2)
Braking effect resulting from the application of the brakes to braked wheels. Braking effect is
invariably greater than tractive effort. (3) Frictional resistance offered to the movement of free
bearings due to change of temperature or any other cause. The braking effect on a simply
supported span or a continuous unit of spans or on any other type of bridge unit should be
assumed to have the following value:
(i) In the case of a single lane or a two lane bridge: Twenty per cent of the first train load plus
ten per cent of the load of the succeeding trains or part thereof, the train loads in one lane only
being considered for the purposes of this sub-clause. Where the entire first train is not on the full
span, the braking force should be taken as equal to twenty per cent of the loads actually on the
span.
(ii) In the case of bridges having more than two lanes: As in (i) above for first two lanes plus
five per cent of the loads on the loads in excess of two. Note. The loads in this clause should not
be increased on account of impact. The force due to braking effect should be assumed to act along
a line parallel to the, roadway and 1,20 metre above it: while transferring the force to the bearing,
the change in the vertical reaction at the bearings should be taken into account. The longitudinal
force at any free bearing should be limited to the sum of dead and live load reactions at the bearing
multiplied by the appropriate co-efficient of friction. The co-efficient of friction at the . bearing
should be assumed to have the following values:
For roller bearing 0.03 For sliding bearings of hard copper alloy 0.15 For sliding bearings of steel
on cast iron or steel on steel 0.25 For sliding bearings of steel en ferro asbestos 0.20 For other
types ........ To be decided by engineer in-charge.
The longitudinal force at the fixed bearing should be taken as the algebraic sum of the longitudinal
forces at the free bearings in the bridge unit under consideration and the force due to barking effect
on the wheels as mentioned above. The effect of braking force on bridge structures with out
bearings such as arches, rigid frames, etc. should be calculated in accordance with approved
methods of analysis of indeterminate structure. The effect of the longitudinal forces and ,dl other
horizontal forces should be calculated up to a level where the resultant passive earth resistance of
the soil below the deepest scour level (lower level in case of a bridge having pucca floor) balances
these forces.
6. FORCES DUE TO EARTHQUAKE
For the purpose of determining seismic forces, the country is divided into five zones (IS : 1893) cm.
Both horizontal and vertical seismic forces have to be taken into account for design of bridge
structures.
The horizontal seismic force to be resisted is computed from Equation 4.1.
Fh=Wm.h
where Fh= horizontal seismic force to be resisted; Wm= weight of mass under consideration
ignoring reduction due to buoyancy h= .1.0;

0= basic horizontal seismic coefficient, taken as 0.08, 0.05, 0.04, 0.02 and 0.01 for zones V. IV, III,
II and I, respectively.
l = a coefficient depending on the importance of the structure, taken as 1.5 for major bridges of
over 300 m linear waterway, and as 1.0 for other bridges. = a coefficient depending upon the soil
foundation system, the value varying from 1.0 to 1.5 as given in the code.
The vertical seismic force to be resisted (Fv) is estimated from Equation 4.2
Fv = Wm.v
where v= 0.5h
The bridge as a whole and every part of it should be designed and constructed to resist the
stresses produced by seismic effects. For horizontal acceleration, the stresses should be
calculated as the effect of force applied horizontally at the centre of mass of the elements of the
bridges into which it is conveniently divided for the purpose of design. The forces can come from
any horizontal direction. Seismic forces need not be considered for bridges in zones I to III and for
bridges of spans less than 15 m.
7. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
Where a road bridge is situated on a curve, all portions of the structure effected by centrifugal
action of moving vehicles are designed to carry safely the stress induced by this action in addition
to all other stresses to which they may be subjected to. This centrifugal force should be determined
from the following formula:
C=WV2/127R
Here, C = Centrifugal force in tonnes acting normally to traffic (i) at the point or action of the wheel
loads (ii) uniformly distributed over every metre on which a uniformly distributed load acts.
W = Live load (1) in tonnes in case of wheel loads, each wheel load being considered as acting
over the ground contact and (ii) in tonnes per liner metre in case of uniformly distributed live load. V
= The design speed of the vehicle using the bridge in km. p.h. R = The radius of curvature in
metres. The centrifugal force should be considered to act at a height 1.2 m above the level of the
carriageway. This force is not increased for impact effect.
8. ERECTION FORCES
The forces which may act temporarily during erection should be considered. It is permissible to
allow for stresses during erection different from those which the member will be subjected to during
actual working.
9. FORCES DUE TO WATER CURRENTS
Any part of a bridge which may be submerged in running water should be designed to sustain
safely the horizontal pressure due to the force of the current. In case of piers parallel to the
direction of water current, the intensity of pressure should be calculated from the following formula:
P = 52KV2 Here, P = Intensity of pressure in kg/m2 due to the water current, K = A constant having
the following values for different shapes of the piers. V = The velocity of the current in metres/see.
10. SECONDARY STRESSES
In steel structures, secondary stresses are caused due to eccentricity of connections, floor beam
loads applied at intermediate points in a panel, cross girders being connected away from panel
points, lateral wind loads on the end posts of through girders, and movement of supports.
Secondary stresses are brought into play in reinforced concrete structures due either to the
movement of supports or to the deformations in the geometrical shape of the structure or its
member, resulting from causes such as rigidity of end connection or loads applied at intermediate

points of trusses or restrictive shrinkage of concrete floor beams. For reinforced concrete
members, the shrinkage coefficient for design purposes may be taken as 0.0002. All bridges
should be designed and constructed in such a manner that the secondary stresses are reduced to
a minimum and these stresses should be allowed for in the design.
11. ERECTION STRESSES
The stresses that are likely to be induced in members during erection should be considered in
design. It is possible that the erection stresses may by different from those which the member will
be subjected to in actual service.
12. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
Daily and seasonal variations in temperature occur causing material to shorten with a fall in
temperature and lengthen with a rise in temperature. These variations have two components: a
uniform change over the entire bridge deck and a temperature gradient caused by the difference in
temperatures at the top and the bottom of the deck. Suitable provisions should be made for
stresses or movements resulting from variations in temperature. The probable rise and fall in
temperature shall be determined from meteorological records for the locality in which the bridge is
located. In case of massive concrete members the time lag between air temperature and the
interior temperature should be considered. The coefficient of expansion per degree centigrade shall
be taken as 11.7 x 10-6 for steel and reinforced concrete structures and as 10.8 x 10-6 for plain
concrete structures.
13. DEFORMATION STRESSES
Deformation stresses are considered for steel bridges only. A deformation stress is defined as the
bending stress in any member of an open-web girder caused by the vertical deflection of the girder
combined with the rigidity of the joints. No other stresses are included in this definition. The design,
manufacture and erection of steel bridges should be so arranged as to keep the deformation
stresses to a minimum. If detailed computations are not made to provide otherwise, the
deformation stresses should be assumed to be not less than 16 per cent of the dead and live load
stresses.
2.6 INDIAN RAILWAY BRIDGE LOADING STANDARDS Railway bridge loadings should conform
to the specifications of the Indian Railway Standards (IRS) prescribed by the Ministry of Railways,
Government of India. The various loads to be used are specified in the IRS Bridge rules. Specific
recommendations are available for the design of steel. R.C.C, P.S.C. masonry and plain concrete
arch bridges in the relevant bridge codes. The railway tracks are classified according to the
importance of traffic as main and branch lines. The three types of gauges used in the Indian
Railways are : (i) Broad gauge (BG): 1676 mm (5'-6") (ii) Metre gauge (MG): 1000 mm (3-3.375)
(iii) Narrow gauge (NG): 762 mm (2'-6")
At present, the Indian Railway have adopted the unigauge policy with the broad gauge as the
standard gauge throughout the country. Consequently many important old lines are being
converted into broad gauge.
The various loads and forces to be considered in the design of the bridge are: i) dead and live
loads ii) Dynamic effects iii) Centrifugal force due to curvature of track iv) Temperature and
frictional effects v) Racking force vi) Wind and earthquake forces.
3.2 VARIOUS TYPES OF R.C.C. BRIDGES Reinforced concrete bridges may be of following types
as described below : (1) Dack Slab Bridge A deck slab bridge as shown in Figs. 3.1(a) and (b) or
solid slab bridge is the simplest type of construction, used mostly for culverts or small bridges with

a span not exceeding 8 m. Though the thickness of deck slab is considerable, its construction is
much simpler and the cost of form work is also minimum.
Wearing coat
Deck Slab
or" (a) Deck slab bridge
Foot path Wearing coat 4/11WAl21.11.11,Kor
Abutment
Slab Beam
(b) T-beam bridge Fig. 3.1.
(2) T-beam Bridge As shown in Fig. 3.1(b), T-beam bridge is another type of a simple R.C. bridge
used for spans between 10 to 20 metres. The number of longitudinal girders depends upon the
road width. The slab is generally built monolithic with girders so that T-beam effect is achieved. (3)
Hollow Girder Bridges Reinforced concrete hollow girder bridges are economical in the span range
of 25 to 30 m. The closed box shape provides torsional rigidity, and the depth can be varied
conveniently along the length as in continuous deck or in balanced cantilever layout. The crosssection can consist of a single cell or can be multi-cellular. The extra torsional stiffness of the
section makes this form particularly suitable for grade separations, where the alignment is normally
curved in plan. The cells can be rectangular or trapezoidal, the latter being used increasingly in
prestressed concrete elevated highway structures. Reinforced concrete hollow girder bridges are
currently not favoured. A typical cross-section of a reinforced concrete hollow girder superstructure
suitable for two-lane traffic on a National Highway for a simply supported clear span of 30 m is
shown in Fig. 3.2. The components of the girder are: (i) the cantilever portion including the kerb; (ii)
the top slab carrying the roadway; (iii) the webs, in this case two exterior webs and one central
web; and (iv) diaphragms, typically two end diaphragms and three intermediate diaphragms. The
design of the simply supported hollow girder can be performed on similar lines as for a T-beam
superstructure with a few modifications. The tensile bars are mainly spread over a larger
3.2 VARIOUS TYPES OF R.C.C. BRIDGES
Reinforced concrete bridges may be of following types as described below : (1) Dack Slab Bridge
A deck slab bridge as shown in Figs. 3.1(a) and (b) or solid slab bridge is the simplest type of
construction, used mostly for culverts or small bridges with a span not exceeding 8 m. Though the
thickness of deck slab is considerable, its construction is much simpler and the cost of form work is
also minimum.
(2) T-beam Bridge As shown in Fig. 3.1(b), T-beam bridge is another type of a simple R.C. bridge
used for spans between 10 to 20 metres. The number of longitudinal girders depends upon the
road width. The slab is generally built monolithic with girders so that T-beam effect is achieved. (3)
Hollow Girder Bridges Reinforced concrete hollow girder bridges are economical in the span
range of 25 to 30 m. The closed box shape provides torsional rigidity, and the depth can be varied
conveniently along the length as in continuous deck or in balanced cantilever layout. The crosssection can consist of a single cell or can be multi-cellular. The extra torsional stiffness of the
section makes this form particularly suitable for grade separations, where the alignment is normally
curved in plan. The cells can be rectangular or trapezoidal, the latter being used increasingly in
prestressed concrete elevated highway structures. Reinforced concrete hollow girder bridges are
currently not favoured. A typical cross-section of a reinforced concrete hollow girder superstructure
suitable for two-lane traffic on a National Highway for a simply supported clear span of 30 m is

shown in Fig. 3.2. The components of the girder are: (i) the cantilever portion including the kerb; (ii)
the top slab carrying the roadway; (iii) the webs, in this case two exterior webs and one central
web; and (iv) diaphragms, typically two end diaphragms and three intermediate diaphragms. The
design of the simply supported hollow girder can be performed on similar lines as for a T-beam
superstructure with a few modifications. The tensile bars are mainly spread over a larger area in
the soffit slab. A few of the rods can be accommodated in the webs as shown in Fig. 3.2. If
curtailment of bars is desired, the curtailed portion may be provided with nominal (smaller
diameter) bars. In situations of higher labour costs and relatively lower material costs as in
developed countries, it may even be desirable to extend the bars straight avoiding addition of
different sized bars for part length. The webs are designed to carry the shear. The main bars in
higher rows provided in the webs may be cranked as per bar curtailment from bending moment
consideration and anchored at the top. Vertical stirrups are provided to cater to the requirements of
shear. Usually two-legged stirrups of 12 mm of 16 mm diameter are adopted with variable spacing.
Rectangular openings are provided in the diaphragms to enable removal of formwork from inside
the cells after casting. Detailing of reinforcement should ensure that the edges are duly
strengthened. It is desirable to provide one access opening of 750 mm diameter in the soffit slab
for each cell near one of the abutments. This opening will enable maintenance personnel to inspect
the inside of the cells if necessary. Additional reinforcement of 2-14 at top and bottom on all four
sides totaling to 16 bars about 1400 mm long each should be provided to locally strengthen the
soffit slab at the opening.
(4) Balanced Cantilever Bridge
A balanced cantilever bridge consists of spans simply supported. It can be used for spans varying
from 35 to 60 metres. In yielding river beds, where foundations are expensive and small spans are
uneconomical, it can be used with advantage. They are also provided over deep gorges to be
crossed by a single span where the use of centering is not possible. The connection between the
suspended span and the edge of the cantilever is known as articulation. The bearings at
articulations should be alternatively of fixed and expansion types. The cantilever span is usually 20
to 25% of the supported span. The suspended span is designed as a simply supported span with
supports at the articulations. In order to design the supported or main span the maximum negative
moment at the supports is determined when the cantilever and suspended spans are subjected to
full live load with no live load on the supported span. The maximum positive moment at the midspan would occur with full live load on the main span and no live load on the cantilever and
suspended span.
The cross-section of a balanced cantilever bridge can be of T -beam or Hollow Girder type. The
depth at supports is kept greater than at mid-span because the negative moments are usually large
in magnitude than the positive moments at mid-span. The soffit can be arranged as two inclined
lines with a central horizontal line a parabolic profile. When compared to simply supported bridges,
it requires more elaborate detailing of reinforcements.
The balanced cantilever bridges have the following advantages over simply supported girder
bridges: (z) This requires lesser quantities of materials, i.e., There is saving in material cost e.g.,
concrete and steel cost and form-work cost. (it) This requires slender piers because reaction at
every pier is vertical and central. (iii) Only one bearing is required at every pier, whereas in case of
simply supported bridges two bearings are required. Hence, the width of the pier can be smaller.
(iv) This requires lower initial and maintenance cost because of fewer expansions bearings.

(5) Rigid Frame Bridges


Rigid frame bridges are structures consisting of a number of parallel girders (or slab instead of
girders) which are rigidly connected to the supporting columns or piers Usually the decking and
substructure are cast monolithically.
The arrangement of Type (a) [Fig. 3.4(a)] is suitable for single span openings as in the case of
bridges over railway tracks. Type (b) [Fig. 3.4(b)] shows a two-span bridge with the base of the
column fixed. If the base is hinged, which is a more common condition, the column is tapered
downward. This type can also be used for bridges with greater number of spans by adding the
required number of intermediate columns. Type (c) [Fig. 3.4(c)] offers an aesthetically pleasing
structure over restricted access highways and has been used extensively over expressways in USA
and Germany.
Rigid frames possess the advantages listed for continuous bridges and have the following
additional advantages: (z) No bearings are needed at the supports. (ii) The rigid connections result
in more stable supports, than possible with independent piers of comparable dimensions. (iiz) In
view of the slender dimensions, the supporting piers or columns cause the least obstruction to view
for the traffic below the bridge.
(6) Arch Bridges
Arch bridges are very commonly used from times immemorial. They are more graceful, pleasing in
appearance and suited for deep gorges within rocky sides. These bridges can be economically
used up to spans of about 200 m. The arches may be of barrel type or rib type. (1) Barrel Type or
Filled Spandrel Arches: Barrel type arches resemble a curved slab. Their deck ;s generally
supported on earth, filling placed on the arch slab and retained by spandrel walls. That is why it is
also known as filled spandrel arch.
(ii) Rib Type or Open Spandrel Ribbed Arches: A typical opens spandrel ribbed arch is shown in
Fig. 3.6. They are similar to curved beams spaced suitably along the width of the bridge. In this
case, the deck is supported on the columns which are in turn supported on arch ribs.
The type of arches used are : (i) Three Hinged Arch : This consists of a hinge at each springing
and a hinge at the crown. Three hinged arch is best suited for yielding foundation as small
movement of one foundation relative to other does not cause enomous stress. The disadvantage of
this type is that the thickness at the quarter point being more than that at springing, masking is
required for aesthetic purposes as shown in Fig. 3.7.
(ii) Two Hinged Arch : This consists of hinges placed at the abutments. In this case, only reactions
are transmitted to the supports, there being no bending moment in the arch at springings as shown
in Fig. 3.8.
(iii) Fixed Arch : This form is most commonly employed for good unyielding foundations. In this
case the construction is much similar than the three or two hinged type arch as shown in Fig. 3.9.
Broadly there are two types of hinges provided in archespermanent one in the hinged arches
and temporary ones in the fixed arches. The temporary hinges are built as an expedient to reduce
moment caused by shrinkage, plastic flow, elastic strain due to trust, and the settlement of the
abutment due to the push of the arch.
(iv) Bow String Girder Bridge : Bow string arches are economical when sufficient headroom is
required under a bridge. In this type horizontal thrust is resisted by horizontal ties and vertical
reaction by supports. The floor beams are suspended from the arches by means of vertical
suspenders. The main supporting system is known as bow-string girder, because of the

resemblance of the arch ring with a bow and the tie beam with a string. Slight vertical or angular
displacement of the abutments do not matter in the case of either two hinged arch or the bow string
girder. A bow string girder is unaffected even by small horizontal displacements of the abutments.
The details of bow-stung girder bridge are sketched in Fig. 3.10. They are commonly adopted for
arch bridges having spans of 30 to 45 metres.
(7) Continuos Bridges:
They are used for large spans and where unyielding foundations are available, as high stresses are
introduced even if slight settlements of piers or abutments occur. Usually, end spans are made
about 16 to 20% smaller than the intermediate spans. The deck can be in the form of slab, T-beam
or box-section. Generally, the bending moment at support is of larger magnitude than that at mid
span and is negative in nature. Therefore, at supports the thickness of slab is generally 1.3 to 1.8
times the minimum thickness at mid-span and the length of launched portion will be about 20 to
25% of the span.
3.3 COURBON'S METHOD
Courbon's theory or distribution of live load on longitudinal beams is applicable when the following,
conditions are satisfied : (i) The span-width ratio is greater than 2 and less than 4. (i) There are
atleast five symmetrical cross-girders or diaphragms connecting the longitudinal girders. (iii) The
depth of the cross-girders or diaphragms is atleast 3/4th of the depth of longitudinal girders.
(a) For Bending Moment When the live loads are eccentrically placed with respect to the axis of the
bridge (or C.G. of girder system), then reaction factor Rx for any given girder distant x from the
bridge axis can be represented by the linear law.
Rx=c+d.x ...(3.1) where c and d are constants. The above law is justified if the cross beams are so
rigid that the deflections vary linearly in the transverse direction, so that the load supported by each
beams is proportional to its deflection.
(c + d.x) =P ...(3.2) and (c + d .x)x = P.e ...(3.3) where e is the eccentricity of load P with respect
to the axis of the bridge. Measuring x to be positive towards the load P and ve in the other
direction, we have x = 0 Also, c=n.c where n is the number of longitudinal girders. P Hence,
from (3.1), c+ dx=P or nc+ 0 = P or c=P/n(3.4)
Also, from (3.3), cx+ dx2 =P.e or 0 +dx2=P.e
d=P.e/x2
or Substituting the values of c and d in

If there are several point-loads

where e is the eccentricity of C.C. of loads. Knowing Rx,the B.M. in the longitudinal girder can be
computed.
(b) For S.E : Two cases for S.F. may arise.

Case 1: This case arises when the load is placed beyond the diaphragm (or cross beam) closest to
the support. The reaction factors are found as for B.M.
Case 2 : This case arises when the load is placed between the support and the first intermediate
diaphragm. Figure 3.12 shows this case with four longitudinal girders, A, B, C and D, with the load
P placed between beams A and B.
The load P is distributed to A and B, as PA and PB by considering the slab to be simply supported.
The loads PA and PB are distributed to the support AB and diaphragm A'B', considering the beam
as simply supported. The portion of the load. going to the support is the direct S.F. in the beam,
while that going to the diaphragm is redistributed among all the beams by normal Courbon's
method.
Hence, S.F. QA due to PA is given by

where 1= span of the bridge, q = distance between support first intermediate diaphragm.