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8866 Hl PHYSTCS

DATA AND FORMULAE

Data

3.00 x 108 m s
1
speed of light in free space, c
1e
elementary charge, e 1.60 x 10 c
the Planck constant, h 6.63x1034Js

unified atomic mass constant, 1.66x1027kg


31
rest mass of electron, me 9.11 x '10 kg

rest mass of proton, 1.67x102rkg


2
acceleration of free fall, s 9.81 m s

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, ut+%a(


2
u2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, 11y = pAV

hydrostatic pressure, p= Nh
resistors in series, R = R1 +R2+...

resistors in parallel, 1lR = 1lR1 + 1lR2 +


Section A
Answer all questions

The least distance between two points of a progressive transverse wave which
have a phase difference of I rad is 0.050 m. lf the frequency of the wave is

500 Hz, what is the speed of the wave?

A 75msr B 150ms1 C 250msr D 1670 m s 1

The diagram below shows the screen of a calibrated cathode ray oscilloscope. The
time base has been set at 1 ms / division and the gain has been set at 1 V / division.
Determine the frequency of the wave.

0.5 Hz B 50 Hz 500 Hz D 1000 Hz

A point source of sound emits energy equally in all directions at a constant rate and
a detector placed 3.0 m from the source measures an intensity of 3.0 W m 2. The
amplitude of the source is then doubled. What intensity would the detector measure
if it is now placed at a distance 5.0 m from the source?

A 21Wm2 B 2.5Wm2 c 3.6Wm2 D 43W m 2

4 A loudspeaker emits sound of frequency f. The sound waves are reflected from a
wall. The arrangement is as shown below.

K
speaker WAII
When a microphone is moved along the line SW, minimum loudness of sound is
detected at points P, Q and R. There are no other minimum loudness positions
betlveen these points. The separation of the minima is d.

The speed of sound wave is

t lra
2
BfcfdD2rd
d

Which of the following diagrams best shows the diffraction of waves by an obstacle?

AB

Direction
of wave
travel

f+ *ll+
D

Direction
of wave
i#1.]+
f+
travel

A standing wave is set up on a stretched string PS as shown in the diagram.

The vibrations of the two points Q and R, shown on the string have

A different amplitude and are in anti-phase.


B different amplitude and are in phase.
C the same amplitude and are in anti-phase.
D the same amplitude and are in phase.
7 A wave entering a closed pipe causes the air particles inside to vibrate, and the
1.
extent of the vibration is as shown below. The speed of the wave is 320 m s

6.00 m

What is the frequency of the wave?

A 133H2 B 40.0H2 C 53.3 Hz 66.7 Hz

A teacher sets up the apparatus as shown below to demonstrate two-slit


i nte rfe ren ce pattern on a screen.
screen
double slit
single slit

'
t.

Which change to the apparatus will decrease the fringe spacing?


A decreasing the distance p
B decreasing the distance q
C decreasing the distance r
D changing the source of light to one with a longer wavelength

I A wire P with resistivity, p, and length, 1, has a resistance R. lf the wire is stretched
and its length is increased by 5% what would be the change in resistance of the
wire? (Assume the volume of the wire has not changed.)

A - 100k B 5% C 5./. D 'too/"


10 The diagram shows a circuit consisting of a cell E and a variable resistor R.

-l
ri

lf the electromotive force of the cell is 10.0 V and the internal resistance, r, of the
cell is 2.00 O calculate the maximum power that is delivered to R.

A sOOW 12 5W 250W 50.0 w

11 An electrical kettle requires 0.10 kwh of energy to bring its contents to a boil.
Express this energy in terms of joules.

A 0.028 J B 0.36 J 6x1o3J 3.6 x 105 J

12 The diagram below shows connected wires which carry currents of various values.
What is the value and direction of the current,l in shown in the diagram?

A 'l A away from X B 1 A towards X

c 1'l A away from X D 'llAtowardsX


.13
An e.m.f. source E. of internal resistance r, is connected to an external resistor of
resistance R.

Which of the following graphs represents how the current 1, through the external
resistor, varies with the potential difference Y, across the resistor R?

14 The circuit below consists of 10 identical resistors of resistance R.

What is the effective resistance across X and Y?

B 2R C
17n D 3R
6
15 The circuit below consists of four identical resistors.

I'

Which of the circuits below has an equivalent configuration of resistors as the above
circuit? A B

16 The electrical power P, dissipated in a resistor R, when a current /, passes through


the resistor is given by P = t'?R. How may R be expressed in base units?

A kg-t m-2 s-2 42 B kg m2 s'2 A2

C kgm2s3A2 D WA2

17 A track is inclined at an angle of 30' to the horizontal and the frictional force
between the track and the body is '100 N. What is the instantaneous power required
1?
when a body of mass 50 kg moves up the track at 20 m s

A 25KW B 49KW c 6.9 kw D gBKW


18 A biker movinq horizontally takes off from a point 2.4 m above the ground. What is
the minimum speed at take-otf for the biker to be able to land 20 m away?

2.4 m

20m

A 8.33ms1 14.0 m s-l 19.8ms1 28.6ms1

19 A force F acts on a 2 kg body for 5.0 s. The body moves with an initial velocity of
4.0 m s l along the positive x-direction. F varies as shown below.

F/ N

:l I t t/"
34 5

What is the maximum kanetic energy gained by the body?

A 4.OJ B 16 J c 25J 36J

20 A 2 kg mass is attached to a 5 kg mass by a light inextensible string which runs


through a smooth pulley. smooth
pulley

lf the slope on which the 2 kg mass lies is frictionless, determine the acceleration of
the 2 masses.

A 0 m s2 B 1.40 m s2 c 5.61 m s2 9.81 m s2


Section B
Answer all the questions in this section

1 (a) (i) Define, with respect to waves, the following terms.

1. Speed ofwave. v: ........................

2. Frequency, f

3. Wavelength,,l:

4. Period, I:

l2l

(ii) Hence deduce the equation linking the speed of the wave, v, the frequency,
I of the wave and the wavelength, ,,1, of the wave. t1l
(b)A sound wave of speed 330 m sr passes through air. The variation of particle
displacement with distance along the wave at one instant of time is shown in
Fig. 1.1 below. The direction of travel olthe wave is from left to right.
Y (at a distance of 8.75m)

2.O
E
E
c
E

_q
o
.9
o

Fig 1.1

(i) Distinguish belween longitudinal and lransverse progressive waves, and


state whether the wave in Fig. 1.1 is an example of a longitudinal or a
transverse wave.

t2l

(ii) Calculate the maximum speed of particle A, vna,, given v^., = 2nfxo , where f
is the frequency of the wave and xo is the amplitude.

lvlaximum speed of particle A, v."" = ms'[2]


(iii) State the directions of the velocities of particles X and Y at this instant. Take
displacement to the right to be positive.

Direction of velocity of particle X: .......................... [0.5]

Direction of velocity of particle Y: .......................... t0.51

(iv) Calculate the phase difference between point X and point Y.

phase difference = radians [2]

(c) Fig 1.2 below shows the shape of a string at a particular instant in time (t = 0 s) as a
progressive transverse wave lvl travels along it. The speed of wave M is 1.60 m s '.

Displacement / cm direction of traver

Wave M

Distance / cm

10.0 20. 0.0 90.0 100.

Fig. 1.2
Sketch, on Fig 1.3 below, the displacement{ime graph of point G for the range of
time between 0 s and 1.0 s. I3l

Displacement / cm

Fig 1.3

(d) Wave N is another progressive transverse wave with the same wavelength and
frequency and travelling in the same direction as wave l\il. The intensity of wave N
is four times that of wave l\.4.
'2I
Given that wave N leads wave M by radians, sketch
the wave profile of wave N on Fig. 1.2. t2)
2 (a) Explain what is meant by coherenl sources.

. t1l

(b) s tate 3 conditions for observable fringe patterns.


1

2.

(c) Red light of wavelength 650 nm is incident normally on a double slit arrangement.
The interference fringes formed are viewed on a screen placed parallel to and at a
distance of 1.60 m from the double slit, as shown in Fig 2.1.

1.60 m

t I

*----'.---..-- I
Light of

Wavelength 650 nm

double slit

Fig 2.1
I
(i) Calculate the fringe separation produced on the screen if the slit separation
is 1.0 x l0'a m.

fringe separation = mm [2]

(ii) State and explain the changes, if any, to the frlnge separation and contrast oI
the interference pattern produced if

1. both slits are made narrower whilst keeping the slit separation constant.

fringe separation:

contrasl:

t31

2. the amplitude of light emerging from one of the slits is reduced to half of
its previous value.

fringe separation:

contrast:

t3l
3. the light is replaced with yellow light.

frinqe sepdration:

contrast:

t3l
(a) Define the voll and use energy considerations to distinguish between electromotive
force of a cell and potential difference between its terminals.

t3l

(b) A battery of e.m.f. 12.0 V and internal resistance 0.50 O is connected to a resistor
of resistance 7.50 O as shown in Fig 3.1.

E=12.0Y
R=7.50O
r= 0.50 O

B
Fig 3.1

(i) Mark with an X, on Fig 3.1, the position of a switch so that the voltmeter may
be used to measure either the e.m.f. E of the cell or the terminal potential
difference Y. t1l

Determine

(i) the current in the circuit,

current = A t2l
(ii) the potential difference across the 7.50 O resistor,

potential difference = ................. V [2]

( iii) the potential at points A and B in the circuit,

v [1]

v [1]

(iv) the power supplied to the 7.50 O resistor.

power supplied - .................. W [2]

(c) Explain why the potential difference across the terminals of the cell is normally
lower than the e.m.f ol the cell. Under what condition is the potential difference
across the terminals a cell is equalto its e.m.f.?

t3l
4(a) Fiq. 4.1 shows a circuit containing a 10.0 V battery with a non-negligible internal
resistance r, and 6 external resistors.

Fig.4.1

The potential differences across some ofthe resistors are given in Table 4.1 below.

Resistor Potential Difference / V

B 4.O

c 30

F 2.5

1.0

Table 4.1

(i) Complete Table 4.1 to show the potential difference across each resistor. [3]
(ii) Complete Table 4.2 to show the potential values at positions V, W, X, Y and Z.
t5l

Position Potential / V
U

Table 4.2

(iii) Sketch a graph to show how the potential y, varies along the loop UWXZY.
Labelthe graph with appropriate values. 131

U Y

Distance
I

:
(b) Fig. 4.2 shows a circuit consisting of a 9.0 V battery containing of a t\.^io-way switch,
which can be closed at positions A or B.

9.0 v

Two-way

Fis. 4.2

(i) The switch is closed at position A. What is the potential difference across the
4.0 O resistor?

Potential difference = v l2l


(ii) The switch position is now changed to position B. What is the amount of
current drawn from the battery?

current = A I2l