Anda di halaman 1dari 6

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof.

Iarrobino Solutions
100 pts = 100%. Scale: 85= A-, 70=B-, 55=C-,40=D-.
Problems #1-4 will each count twenty points. The best 1 of # 5-6 will count twenty points. A
second may count up to 10 pts extra credit. Show your work/reasoning to get full possible credit.
EC denotes extra credit. Good luck!
1. Let G = S7 , the permutations of the set T = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(a) Let g = (1, 2, 3) (2, 4, 6) (3, 6, 7, 2).
Determine the disjoint cycle decomposition of g and its order. Decide whether g is in
the alternating group A7 . Which powers of g generate the subgroup hgi? Also, list the
subgroups of hgi and give a generator for each subgroup.
Ans. g = (1, 2) (4, 6, 7) or g = (1, 2) (4, 6, 7) (3) disjoint cycle decomp.
Order LCM (2, 3) = 6, < g >
= Z6 , generated by g or g 5 (powers relatively prime to 6).
Subgroups < g >, < e >, < g 2 >, < g 3 >, note |g 2 | = 3, |g 3 | = 2.
Since g = (1, 2)(4, 7)(4, 6), product of an odd number of tranpositions, it is not in A7 .
(b) Consider the conjugation action of S7 on the set S = {S7 }. Let h = (1, 3, 4)(5, 6, 7) S.
Determine the orbit Orbit(h) (describe its elements in a way different from the definition
of orbit). Determine the stabilizer StabG (h) S7 of h in this action. Determine also the
cardinality #orbit(h) and the order |StabG (H)|, and verify that their product is |S7 |.
Ans. Orbit(h) = {all elements of S7 with disjoint cycle decomp (3, 3, 1) (two disjoint 3
cycles)}.
 2!2!
7
= 280.
# orbit (h) = 3,3,1
2!
Q
|StabG (h)| = 7!/280 = 18. This is also 3 3 2! = ini ni ! when there are ni cycles i.
StabG (h) : Let H =< (1, 3, 4) > < (5, 6, 7) >. Then StabG (h)=(H,gH), g=(1,5)(3, 6) (4, 7).
(idea: H is Z3 Z3 ; it has two cosets in StabG (h): here g switches the two three cycles, so
g(1, 3, 4) = (5, 6, 7).

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof. Iarrobino Solutions

2. (a) Prove that for a, b elements of a group G, and H a subgroup of G, that aH bH 6=


aH = bH.
Proof. aH bH 6= h1 , h2 H | ah1 = bh2 .
1
So a = b h2 h1
1 and h H, ah = b h2 h1 h bH, since H is a subgroup (closed under
multiplication). So we have aH bH.
By symmetry, bH aH, and we have shown equality aH = bH.
(b) List the left cosets of H = {e, (12)} in S3 . Decide whether H is normal in S3 , using two
different criteria.
Ans. There are |S3 |/|H| = 6/2 = 3 cosets:
H = {e, (12)} ; (13)H = {(1, 3), (1, 2, 3)}; (23)H = {(2, 3), (1, 3, 2)}.
Since (13)H(13)1 = {e, 13(12)(13)} = {e, (1, 3, 2)} =
6 H, H is not normal.
Also, since (13)H = {(1, 3), (1, 2, 3)} 6= H(13) = {(1, 3), (1, 3, 2)} H is not normal (left
and right cosets of (1, 3) are not the same.

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof. Iarrobino Solutions

3. Consider the map: : Z48 Z24 : (a) = 4a mod 24.


(a) Why is a homomorphism of groups?
Ans Since (a + b) = 4(a + b) mod Z24 = 4a + 4b mod Z24 = (a) + (b) and (a) =
4a = (a), is a homomorphism.
(b) Determine the kernel K Z48 of , and also the image Im () = (Z48 ) Z24 .
The kernel is K = (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42) and image is {0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 20}.
(c) List the left cosets of K in Z48 .
Ans 0 = 0 + K, 1 = 1 + K, 2 = 2 + K, 3 = 3 + K, 4 = 4 + K, 5 = 5 + K.
(d) Give the isomorphism from Z48 /K to the image Im() = (Z48 ).
Ans Z48 /K
= Z6 . The map (a) = 4a mod 24.
(e) (EC 4 pts) Determine how many homomorphisms : Z48 to Z24 have the same kernel
and image as .
Ans Two.
Explanation: A homomorphism of a cyclic group is determined by (1). The generators of Image ( = (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20) are 4(1) = 4 and and 4(5) = 20. So we may take
(1) = 4 obtaining or we take (1) = 20, (k) = 20k mod 24.

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof. Iarrobino Solutions

4. Let : G W be a group homomorphism.


(a) Prove that the kernel Ker() = 1 (eW ) is a subgroup of G. Here eW is the identity
element of W .
Warning: For w W, 1 (w) is a subset of G, in fact a coset of K. Thus 1 is not a
function or map. So to show K is a subgroup, one applies the subgroup test in G.
Proof. We must show K = Ker() is closed under multiplication, and under inverse.
Closure under multiplication: Let k1 , k2 K. Then by the homomorphism property,
(k1 k2 ) = (k1 ) (k2 ) = eW eW = eW . So k1 k2 1 (eW ) = K.
Closure under inverse. Let k K then (k 1 ) = (k)1 = e1
W = eW so
1
1
1
k (eW ) and k K.
(b) Let H be a normal subgroup of W . Show that L = 1 (H) is normal in G (you may
assume that it is a subgroup of G).
Proof Let g G and ` L. We need to show that g`g 1 = `0 for some `0 L. We have
(g`g 1 ) = (g)(`)(g 1 ) = whw1 with w = (g), and h = (`) H. By normality of
H in W we have whw1 = h0 H. So (g`g 1 ) H, implying g`g 1 L. This shows L
is normal in G.
(c) EC (4 pts). What is the relation between |W/H| and |G/L|? What is the relation
between W/H and G/L?
Ans. gives an isomorphism from G/L to the image of in W/H, so we may regard
G/L as a subgroup of W/H, equal to W/H if is surjective to W .
Since G/L is a subgroup of W/H the order |G/L| divides |W/H|.

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof. Iarrobino Solutions

5. Recall that the group D6 is the group of symmetries of the regular hexagon with vertices
A, B, C, D, E, F (in cyclic order). Let D6 act on the set R = {ABDE, BCEF , CDF A} of
three inscribed rectangles.
(a) Determine the stabilizer H = StabG (ABDE) D6 of ABDE. Determine the orbit of
ABDE. Verify the formula relating the order of H, the cardinality of the orbit and |D6 |.
Answer Orbit ABDE = R (the set of three rectangles).
H=StabG (ABDE) = (e, r3 , fCF = (AE)(BD), (DE)(AB)(CF ))).
|H| = 4 and |H| #R = 4(3) = 12 = |D6 |.
(b) Write the stabilizer of StabG (BCEF ) as a conjugate of StabG (ABDE).
Ans: StabG (BCEF ) = rHr1 .
Explanation: r1 maps BCEF to ABDE, H takes ABDE to itself, and r maps ABDE
to BCEF .
(c) Determine whether StabG (ABDE) is a normal subgroup of D6 . Explain your answer.
Ans. H is not normal, since its conjugate StabG (BCEF ) contains fAD which is not in
H.
(d) What changes if D6 acts instead on the set E of 6 edges AB, . . . , F A of the hexagon, in
the natural way? What is the stabilizer W of the edge AB? What is the orbit of AB.
Is the stabilizer normal in G = D6 ?
Ans. Orbit(AB) = E, the set of all six edges.
StabG (AB) = (e, (AB)(CF )(DE)).
The stabilizer is again not normal, as its conjugatge StabG (BC) = rStabG (AB)r1
contains (BC)(DA)(EF )
/ StabG (AB)
(e) EC (4 pts) Determine a suitable non-trivial action of D6 on a set K such that there is an
element k K satisfying, W 0 = StabD6 (k) is a normal subgroup of index |D6 /W 0 | = 2.
Ans (Ryan): K = {ACE, BDF }. Then StabD6 (ACE) = (e, r2 , r4 , fAD , fBE , fCF ), of
index two in D6 , so is normal, and equal to StabD6 (BDF ).

MATH 3175 Group Theory Exam 1 Fall 2012 - Prof. Iarrobino Solutions
6. Let G be the cyclic group < a >= {a, a2 , . . . , an = e} of order n. Let b be an integer between
1 and n. Let H =< ab > be the cyclic subgroup generated by ab . Prove that |H| = n/d where
d =GCD(b, n).
(a) Show that ad H.
Proof Let d = sb + tn, then ad = asb+tn = (ab )s (an )t = (ab )s et = (ab )s . This implies
ad < ab >, so < ad > < ab >.
(b) Show that ab < ad >.
Proof. Since d | b, we have b = du, so ab = (ad )u ab < ad > < ab >< ad >.
(c) Conclude that H =< ad >.
Proof. We have shown < ad >< ab > and < ab >< ad > so < ab >=< ad >.
(d) Show that |H| = n/d.
We have < ad >= {ad , (ad )2 , . . . , (ad )n/d = e} so | < ad > | = n/d.