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Episode 3

For your first question, a Table of Specification (TOS) is very important in the content for validity
of test as it puts the one who gave the test and the candidate on the same footing. This meas
that both are thinking of the same question, item, specification and other details. This is very
important when giving tests that has tendencies of multiple interpretation. For the second
question, a multiple type of question may be a good way to determine to know a person`s
quality of learning but may not be very applicable to a set of manipulative skills. The best way to
test a person`s manipulative skill is to do an actual demonstration. The same type of demo is
required for other manipulative test like getting a driver`s license. In your case,if you want to
know a person`s skills on the microscope, have an actual test. Give him or her a microscope
with a subject on it, then give him or her instructions and let him or her write what are his
observation for every instruction.
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With your question "Is a multiple choice type of test valid to determine learning assessment
strategies?", the answer is dependent. Validity means that a test must measure what is
supposed to be measured. That`s right. In order for a test to be valid, the purpose should be
achieved. What is the purpose? The purpose is your objectives. If your objective is to determine
learning assessment strategies, you should first know what level of cognitive domain you want.
The levels of cognitive domain of Bloom`s taxonomy are Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis,
Application, Synthesis, and Evaluation. If the objective is under the knowledge level, the test
should also be under the knowledge level. Each test item should be analyzed in order to
determine if the right level of cognitive domain is achieved. Multiple Choice, True or False,
Matching Type are best for Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis, and Apllication levels. Essays
are best for Synthesis level. In other words, multiple choice can be a valid type of test if the
items achieved the correct cognitive domain it is supposed to be in. If you want to determine
learning assessment strategies, analysis and application are the best levels in the cognitive
domain to use. You will be able to apply these levels in the multiple choice type of test if you
provide real-life situations in classroom assessment. This way, a multiple choice type of test
would be valid.
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The content validity of a periodical test was based on the papers, books, documents and the
lessons that you took under your curriculum. All of your professors / teachers are the one who
does make it and it should be vouch or approved by their immediate supervisor before making it
your periodical test.

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Yes, the test is valid if the multiple choice type of examination measures knowledge of the skills
in focusing a microscope. You may arrive at a situational typle of question that will test whether
the student really understand the procedure in focusing a microscope.
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Episode 4
Before implementing scoring rubrics, many teachers and assessors would grade
students individually and the notes would be shared privately. This gave the teacherstudent relationship something closer than what was in the classrooms. The notes the
teachers gave to each student`s works were given out on each assignment. As a
student, this was helpful on a per assignment basis. The notes and critiques were
specific and gave a better assessment of what needed to be done for improvement.
Overall, before the advent of scoring rubrics, students still had the opportunity for in
depth evaluation but on a more personal basis.
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The two types of rubrics are Analytic and Holistic Rubrics. In analytic rubic, it resembles
a grid with the criteria for student product and the levels of performance. The student
product is listed in the leftmost column. The levels of performance is listed across the
top row, using numbers or descriptive tags. The cells within the center of the rubic may
contain descriptions of what the specified criteria looks like for each level of
performance or it may be left blank. Scoring with analytic rubric is, each criteria is
individually scored. While in a holistic rubric, it consist of a single scale. All the criteria
are considered together to be included in the evaluation. Based on overall judgement of
the student work, the rater assigns a single score. The rater matches the piece of
student work to the single description on the scale. The advantages are: It saves time
by minimizing the number of decisions the raters make, it can be applied by trained
raters, to increase reliability and emphasizing on what the learner can demonstrate

rather than what she/he can`t do. The disadvantages are: It doesn`t provide specific
feedback for improvement, the criteria can`t be weighed and it can be difficult to select
the best description, when the student work is varying levels spanning the criteria points
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Rubrics are important basis for a performance tests,projects or output of of the students. A
teacher may experience difficulty in adapting rubrics which do not measure the target learning
outputs of the students. There will be mismatch between what you taught them and how do you
measure their performance. It is best for teacher to review the criteria and scoring of rubrics to
match the learning outputs versus the learning assessments.
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