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CWMC

REPAIR & REHABILITATION OF RCC


STRUCTURES DAMAGED BY CORROSION
Ashwini K Sinha
Principal Consultant, CWMC
(Ex-Additional General Manager (NETRA), NTPC)
ashwiniksinhacwmc@gmail.com
www.cwmcindia.com

Indian Power Stations - 2013


13th & 14th Feb. 2013

Corrosion and Water Management Consultants


Providing Solutions to Corrosion & Water Management Problems

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of RCC Structures


Damaged by Corrosion- Outline

Introduction to Corrosion of RCC structures & Cost of Corrosion


Deterioration of RCC Structures

Corrosion Induced Damages and Condition Assessment of RCC


Structures
Cases of Corrosion Induced damages to RCC Structures
Repair and Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced Damages of RCC
Structures
Corrosion Control of RCC Structures by Cathodic Protection
Conclusions
2

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Introduction to Corrosion Induced Damages To RCC


Structures and Cost of Corrosion

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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Corrosion Some Examples

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COSTS OF CORROSION

11

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COSTS OF CORROSION

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COSTS OF CORROSION

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COSTS OF CORROSION
EPRI in its research report on the "Cost of Corrosion in the
Electric Power Industry" estimated that the cost of corrosion in
Electrical Industry of USA was of the order of US $ 34.5 Billion per
annum in 2003. Based on the studies various corrosion problems
in the Fossil power plants were identified. Around US $ 11 billion
was due to boiler tube failures followed by US $ 6 billion due to
corrosion problems in turbines
At present no such studies have been conducted for Indian
power sector. However, based on various corrosion related
problems being analyzed by NTPC - R&D and the literature
analysis an attempt is being made to identify the high cost
corrosion related problems where research & development
efforts can be made to provide remedial measures and thereby
reduce O&M costs & forced outages and improve performance.

CWMC

COSTS OF CORROSION
Corrosion Problem

O&M Non- Fuel


Related Corrosion
Cost US $

Depreciation
Corrosion Cost
US $

Total Corrosion
Cost US $

All Corrosion Problems in Fossil


Steam Plants

3,43,50,00,000

1,14,20,00,000

4,57,70,00,000

Waterside/Steam side Corrosion


of Boiler Tubes

91,60,00,000

22,84,00,000

1,14,44,00,000

Turbine CF & SCC

45,80,00,000

14,27,50,000

60,07,50,000

Oxide Particle erosion of Turbines

27,48,00,000

8,56,50,000

36,04,50,000

Heat Exchanger Corrosion

27,48,00,000

8,56,50,000

36,04,50,000

Fireside Corrosion of Water wall


tubes

18,32,00,000

14,27,50,000

32,59,50,000

Generator clip to strand Corro

18,32,00,000

2,85,50,000

21,17,50,000

Copper deposition in turbines

9,16,00,000

5,71,00,000

14,87,00,000

Fireside Corrosion of SH & RH


tubes

9,16,00,000

5,71,00,000

14,87,00,000

CWMC

COSTS OF CORROSION
Corrosion Problem

O&M Non- Fuel


Related
Corrosion Cost
US $

Depreciation
Corrosion Cost
US $

Total Corrosion
Cost
US $

Corrosion of FGD system

4,58,00,000

8,56,50,000

13,14,50,000

Liquid Slag Corrosion of


Cyclone Boilers

9,16,00,000

2,85,50,000

12,01,50,000

Backend dew point corrosion

9,16,00,000

2,85,50,000

12,01,50,000

Generator Cooling water


clogging & plugging

9,16,00,000

2,85,50,000

12,01,50,000

FAC of steam plant piping

9,16,00,000

2,85,50,000

12,01,50,000

Corrosion of service water,


circulating water and other
water systems

9,16,00,000

2,85,50,000

12,01,50,000

All other (Corrosion of


structures, ash handling
equipment, CHP, oil pipes &
tanks, electrical equipment,

45,80,00,000

8,56,50,000

54,36,50,000

Total

3,43,50,00,000

1,14,20,00,000

4,57,70,00,000

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COSTS OF CORROSION

According to the US Federal Highway Administration's National Bridge


Inventory, at least 59% of the nation's 586,000 bridges are reinforced
concrete structures. The durability of concrete is compromised by
corrosion of reinforcement in certain environments or exposure conditions.
This degradation has an impact on the operation of the structure and/or
results in the reduction of overall structural integrity. In addition, corrosion
can result in catastrophic failures, with accompanying loss of human life
and significant impact on the local economy. With the limited availability of
maintenance and preservation funds, controlling corrosion has become a
top priority for many bridge owners.

A recent cost-of-corrosion study determined that the annual cost of


corrosion to all bridges is $8.29 billion, and the indirect cost to the
user resulting from traffic delays and lost productivity can be more
than 10 times the direct cost of corrosion.

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WHAT IS CORROSION

IRON OXIDE

STEEL

REFINING

CORROSION

MILLING

IRON OXIDE

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CORROSION

Corrosion is a natural process and


is a result of the inherent tendency
of metals to revert to their more
stable compounds, usually oxides.
Most metals are found in nature in
the form of various chemical
compounds called ores. In the
refining process, energy is added
to the ore, to produce the metal. It
is this same energy that provides
the driving force causing the metal
to revert back to the more stable
compound.

General Corrosion
Pitting Corrosion

Under deposit Corrosion

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WHAT IS CORROSION

CORROSION IS A NATURAL PROCESS BY VIRTUE OF


WHICH THE METALS TEND TO ACHIEVE THE
LEAST ENERGY STATE I.E. COMBINED STATE

M2+ + 2e-

ANODIC REACTION

N 2- + 2e
MIC

CATHODIC REACTION

Dezincification

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Corrosion Basics

Corrosion requires:
Oxygen & Water
Rusting takes place
presence of Air & Water

in

No rusting will occur if either


water or air is removed

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Atmospheric Corrosion

22
Relationship between corrosion rate and the moisture content of air shows the importance of
maintaining relative humidity below about 40%.

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Galvanic Series

(inert)
(active)

more anodic

more cathodic

Ranking the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater


Platinum
Gold
Graphite
Titanium
Silver
316 Stainless Steel (passive)
Nickel (passive)
Copper
Nickel (active)
Tin
Lead
316 Stainless Steel (active)
Iron/Steel
Aluminum Alloys
Cadmium
Zinc
Magnesium

23

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Galvanic Series

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Galvanic Series
PRACTICAL GALVANIC SERIES

Material

Potential*

Pure Magnesium

-1.75

Magnesium Alloy

-1.60

Zinc

-1.10

Aluminum Alloy

-1.00

Cadmium

-0.80

Mild Steel (New)

-0.70

Mild Steel (Old)

-0.50

Cast Iron

-0.50

Stainless Steel

-0.50 to + 0.10

Copper, Brass, Bronze

-0.20

Titanium

-0.20

Gold

+0.20

Carbon, Graphite, Coke

+0.30

* Potentials With Respect to Saturated Cu-CuSO4 Electrode

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Deterioration of RCC Structures

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Concrete Interior (untreated)

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Reinforced Concrete

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Concrete Deterioration

Durable concrete is defined as concrete fit for the purpose for which it
was intended, under the conditions to which the concrete is expected,
and for the expected life during which the concrete is to remain in
service.
ACI 201.2R Guide to Durable Concrete Durability of hydraulic
cement concrete is determined by its ability to resist weathering action,
chemical attack, abrasion, or any other process of deterioration.
ACI 201 Deterioration Modes Freezing & Thawing, Alkali-Aggregate
Reaction (AAR), Chemical attack, Corrosion of embedded metal,
abrasion
Corrosion is one of the major modes of deterioration of concrete
structures and is considered a big threat to the durability of the
structures especially for structures in contact with water/seawater.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
1
Structural Failure:
Actual structural failure, or even structural
cracking is only rarely encountered but it
is important to differentiate between
cracking from structural and other
causes.

Crazing is a pattern of fine cracks that do


not penetrate much below the surface
and are usually a cosmetic problem only.
They are barely visible, except when the
concrete is drying after the surface has
been wet.

Typical Appearance

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
Typical Appearance
3
Plastic Shrinkage Cracking: When water evaporates
from the surface of freshly placed concrete faster than it
is replaced by bleed water, the surface concrete shrinks.
Due to the restraint provided by the concrete below the
drying surface layer, tensile stresses develop in the weak,
stiffening plastic concrete, resulting in shallow cracks of
varying depth. These cracks are often fairly wide at the
surface.
4
Drying Shrinkage: Because almost all concrete is mixed
with more water than is needed to hydrate the cement,
much of the remaining water evaporates, causing the
concrete to shrink. Restraint to shrinkage, provided by the
subgrade, reinforcement, or another part of the structure,
causes tensile stresses to develop in the hardened
concrete. Restraint to drying shrinkage is the most
common cause of concrete cracking. In many
applications, drying shrinkage cracking is inevitable.
Therefore, contraction (control) joints are placed in
concrete to predetermine the location of drying shrinkage
cracks.

CWMC

Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
Typical Appearance
5
D-cracking is a form of freeze-thaw deterioration that has
been observed in some pavements after three or more
years of service. Due to the natural accumulation of water
in the base and subbase of pavements, the aggregate
may eventually become saturated. Then with freezing and
thawing cycles, cracking of the concrete starts in the
saturated aggregate at the bottom of the slab and
progresses upward until it reaches the wearing surface.
D-cracking usually starts near pavement joints.
6
Thermal cracks:
Temperature rise (especially significant in mass concrete)
results from the heat of hydration of cementitious
materials. As the interior concrete increases in
temperature and expands, the surface concrete may be
cooling and contracting. This causes tensile stresses that
may result in thermal cracks at the surface if the
temperature differential between the surface and center is
too great. The width and depth of cracks depends upon
the temperature differential, physical properties of the
concrete, and the reinforcing steel.

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
7
Corrosion of Steel:
Steel reinforcement is normally chemically protected
from corrosion by the alkaline nature of the concrete.
If this alkalinity is lost through carbonation or if
chlorides are present which can break down this
immunity, then corrosion can occur. Obviously, when
cover is low, the onset of corrosion will be sooner.

Alkali Silica Reaction:


Alkali-aggregate reaction: Alkali-aggregate reactivity is
a type of concrete deterioration that occurs when the
active mineral constituents of some aggregates react
with the alkali hydroxides in the concrete. Alkaliaggregate reactivity occurs in two formsalkali-silica
reaction (ASR) and alkali-carbonate reaction
(ACR). Indications of the presence of alkali-aggregate
reactivity may be a network of cracks, closed or
spalling joints, or displacement of different portions of
a structure.

Typical Appearance

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
9
Shrinkable Aggregates:

10

Some, mostly igneous, aggregates can contain inclusions of


weathered material in the form of clay minerals. These
minerals, in common with the clays encountered in the ground,
swell in the presence of moisture and shrink as they dry out.
They can cause excessive drying shrinkage of the concrete
and can cause a random crack pattern not unlike that
encountered with ASR
Chemical Attack:
Concrete buried in soils or groundwater containing high levels of sulfate
salts, particularly in the form of sodium, potassium or magnesium salts,
may be subjected to sulfate attack under damp conditions. An
expansive reaction occurs between the sulfates and the C3A phase to
form calcium sulfoaluminate (ettringite) with consequent disruption to
the matrix. Past experience has shown that true sulfate attack is rare in
concrete, only occurring with very low cement content concretes, with
less than about 300 kg/m3 of cement. As a guide, levels of sulfate
above about 4% of cement (expressed as SO3) may indicate the
possibility of sulfate attack, provided sufficient moisture is present.

Sulfate attack requires prolonged exposure to damp conditions.

Typical Appearance

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
11
Poor Quality Construction:

12

During construction lack of attention to proper


quality control can produce concrete which
may be inferior in both durability and strength
to that assumed by the designer. Particular
factors in this respect are compaction, curing
conditions, low cement content, incorrect
aggregate grading, incorrect water cement
ratio and inadequate cover to reinforcement.
Efflorescence:
In chemistry, efflorescence (which means "to
flower out" in French) is the loss of water or a
solvent of crystallization from a hydrated or
solvated salt to the atmosphere on exposure
to air.
Efflorescences can occur in natural and built
environments. On porous construction
materials it may present a cosmetic problem
only, but can sometimes indicate serious
structural weakness.

Typical Appearance

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Concrete Deterioration
S.No Deterioration Mode
13
Patch Accelerated Corrosion
Commonly referred to as "ring anode corrosion" or "halo
effect", patch accelerated corrosion is a phenomenon
specific to concrete restoration projects. When repairs
are completed on corrosion-damaged structures, abrupt
changes in the concrete surrounding the reinforcing steel
are created. Typical concrete repair procedures call for
removal of the concrete around the full circumference of
the reinforcing steel within the repair area, cleaning of
corrosion by-products from the steel, and refilling the
cavity with new chloride-free, high pH concrete. This
procedure leaves the reinforcing steel embedded in
adjacent environments with abruptly different corrosion
potentials. This difference in corrosion potential (voltage)
is the driving force for new corrosion sites to form in the
surrounding contaminated concrete. The evidence of
this activity is the presence of new concrete spalling
adjacent to previously completed patch repairs.

Typical Appearance

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Corrosion Induced Damages and Methods of


Condition Assessment of RCC Structures

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Corrosion Induced Damages To RCC Structures

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Corrosion Induced Damages To RCC Structures

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Visual Observations

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Concrete Quality at 165 m Level


(Walkway)

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Concrete Quality at 165 m Level


(Walkway)

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Anodic & Cathodic Reactions

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE


Whatever the source of deterioration and the mechanism of its
development, corrosion of embedded reinforcement is recognized
as the major problem affecting the durability of concrete structures.
It has been found that 40% failure of structures is on account of
corrosion of embedded steel in concrete. Therefore, corrosion
control of steel reinforcement is a subject of paramount importance.
Reinforcing steel in good quality concrete does not corrode even if
sufficient moisture and oxygen are available. This is due to the
spontaneous formation of a thin protective oxide film (passive film)
on the steel surface in the highly alkaline pore solution of the
concrete.

When sufficient chloride ions (from deicing salts or from sea water)
have penetrated to the reinforcement or when the pH of the pore
solution drops to low values due to carbonation, the protective film
is destroyed and the reinforcing steel is depassivated.

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

CAUSES OF CORROSION

Following are the two most common contributing factors leading to reinforcement
corrosion:
(i) Localized breakdown of the passive film on the steel by chloride ions called
chloride attack.
(ii) General breakdown of passivity by neutralization of the concrete, predominantly
by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide called carbonation.
CARBONATION
Carbon dioxide, which is present in the air at around 0.3 per cent by volume,
dissolves in water to form a mildly acidic solution. This forms within the pores of the
concrete, here it reacts with the alkaline calcium hydroxide forming insoluble
calcium carbonate. The pH value then drops from more than 12 to about 8.5.
In the case of carbonation, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with pore
water alkali according to the generalized reaction,
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

CAUSES OF CORROSION
It consumes alkalinity and reduces pore water pH to the 89 range, where steel is
no longer passive.
The carbonation process moves as a front through the concrete, on reaching the
reinforcing steel, the passive layer decays when the pH value drops below 10.5. If
the carbonated front penetrates sufficiently deeply into the concrete to intersect
with the concrete reinforcement interface, protection is lost and, since both oxygen
and moisture are available, the steel is likely to corrode.

CHLORIDE
The passivity provided by the alkaline conditions can also be destroyed by the
presence of chloride ions, even though a high level of alkalinity remains in the
concrete. The chloride ion can locally de-passivate the metal and promote active
metal dissolution. Chlorides react with the calcium aluminate and calcium
aluminoferrite in the concrete to form insoluble calcium chloroaluminates and
calcium chloroferrites in which the chloride is bound in non-active form. However,
the reaction is never complete and some active soluble chloride always remains in
equilibrium in the aqueous phase in the concrete. It is this chloride in solution that
is free to promote corrosion of the steel.

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

MECHANISM OF CORROSION
The corrosion process that takes place in concrete is electrochemical in nature.
Corrosion will result in the flow of electrons between anodic and cathodic sites on
the rebar. Concrete, when exposed to wet and dry cycles, has sufficient
conductivity to serve as an electrolyte.

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

MECHANISM OF CORROSION
The corrosion of steel in concrete in the presence of oxygen but without chlorides
takes place in several steps:
At the anode, iron is oxidized to the ferrous state and releases electrons
Fe

Fe2+ + 2e-

These electrons migrate to the cathode where they combine with water and oxygen
to form hydroxyl ions
2e- + H2O + 1/2O2
Fe2+ + 2OH-

2OHFe(OH)2

In the presence of water and oxygen, the ferrous hydroxide is further oxidized to
form Fe2O3
4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O
2Fe(OH)3

4Fe(OH)3
Fe2O3.2H2O

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

MECHANISM OF CORROSION
At the anode, iron reacts with chloride ions to form an intermediate soluble
ironchloride complex
Fe + 2Cl-

(Fe2+ + 2Cl-) + 2e-

When the ironchloride complex diffuses away from the bar to an area with higher
pH and concentration of oxygen, it reacts with hydroxyl ions to form Fe(OH) 2. This
complex reacts with water to form ferrous hydroxide.
(Fe2+ + 2Cl-) + 2H2O + 2e-

Fe(OH)2 + 2H+ + 2Cl-

The hydrogen ions then combine with electrons to form hydrogen gas
2H+ + 2e-

H2

As in the case of corrosion of steel without chlorides, the ferrous hydroxide, in the
presence of water and oxygen, is further oxidized to form Fe 2O3
4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O
2Fe(OH)3

4Fe(OH)3

Fe2O3.2H2O

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

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Corrosion Induced Cracking of the Concrete

Carbonation
Chloride Contamination

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Corrosion Induced Deterioration of Concrete


caused by severe environment in Natural-Draft
hyperbolic Cooling Towers

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Corrosion Induced Deterioration of Concrete caused


by severe environment in Natural-Draft hyperbolic
Cooling Towers

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Corrosion Progress

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

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CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

American Concrete Institute recommends the following limits for chloride in new
constructions (ACI 222R-01)
Category

Chloride limits for New Constructions


(% by Mass of Cement)
Test Method
Acid Soluble

Prestressed
Concrete

Water Soluble

ASTM C 1152

ASTM C 1218

Soxhlet

0.08

0.06

0.06

RCC
in
Conditions

Wet

0.10

0.08

0.08

RCC
in
conditions

dry

0.20

0.15

0.15

WRT Concrete = 0.03 0.04%

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

ACI Building Code 318: Sulphate Attack on Concrete


Negligible attack: When the sulphate content is under 0.1 percent in soil,
or under 150 ppm (mg/liter) in water, there shall be no restriction on the
cement type and water/cement ratio.
Moderate attack: When the sulphate content is 0.1 to 0.2 percent in soil, or
150 to 1500 ppm in water, ASTM Type II portland cement or portland
pozzolana or portland slag cement shall be used, with less than an 0.5
water/cement ratio for normal-weight concrete.
Severe attack: When the sulphate content is 0.2 to 2.00 percent in soil, or
1500 to 10,000 ppm in water, ASTM Type V portland cement, with less than
an 0.45 water/cement ratio, shall be used.

Very severe attack: When the sulphate content is over 2 percent in soil, or
over 10,000 ppm in water, ASTM Type V cement plus a pozzolanic admixture
shall be used, with less than a 0.45 water/cement ratio.

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

Reinforced concrete structures that are partially or fully submerged in seawater


are especially prone to reinforcing steel corrosion due to a variety of reasons.
These include high chloride concentration levels from the seawater, wet/dry
cycling of the concrete, high moisture content and oxygen availability. Three
areas on concrete structures in marine environments can be distinguished
regarding corrosion:

The submerged zone (always below seawater);


The splash and tidal zone (intermittently wet and dry); and
The atmospheric zone (well above mean high tide and infrequently
wetted).
The characteristics of the corrosion differ from one zone to another. The
corrosion level on reinforced concrete structure located below water level is
limited by low oxygen availability, and on the other hand lower chloride and
moisture content in the atmospheric zone limit the corrosion level above high
tide. Corrosion is most severe within the splash and tidal zones where
alternate wetting and drying result in high chloride and oxygen content.

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

Corrosion Control Measures:

Epoxy-coated reinforcing steel


Galvanized steel
Stainless steel
Cement and pozzolans
Water-cementitious materials ratio

Aggregate
Curing conditions
Corrosion inhibitors
Cathodic protection

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

Corrosion Control Measures:

Cathodic protection (CP) is the only known means of mitigating the


corrosion of reinforcing steel, which is caused by the presence of the
chloride ion in existing structures.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique to control the corrosion of a metal
surface by making it work as a cathode of an electrochemical cell.
M
(metal)

M+
+ e(soluble salt) (electron)

A common example is:


Fe Fe++ + 2e-

2H+
+
2e-
(hydrogen ions (gas)

H2
in solution)

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

Condition Assessment of RCC Structures:


Parameter
Concrete
Compressive Strength

Test/Method

Rebound Hammer
Windsor Probe
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Core
Capo
Pull out
Combination
Flexural Strength
Break-off
Direct Tensile Strength
Pull Off
Concrete
quality, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Homogenity, Honeycombing, Pulse Echo
Voids
Endoscopy
Gamma ray radiography
Damages Fire/Blast
Rebound Hammer
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

Parameter
Test/Method
Cracks Pavements/Water Tanks Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Acoustic Crack detector
Dye Penetration Test
X Ray Radiography
Gamma Ray Radiography
Thermal Imaging
Crack Scope
Steel
Location, Cover, Size
Rebar locator, Bar-sizer
Corrosion
Half-Cell Potential
Resistivity
Carbonation
Chloride Content
Condition
Endoscope/Boroscope
Integrity & Performance
Tapping
Pulse echo
Acoustic Emission
Radar
Petrography
Load Tests

CWMC

CORROSION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE

S.No.

Potential (mV Corrosion


Vs Cu/CuS04) Condition

Electrical
Resistivity
(KiloOhm cm)

Corrosion
Condition

> - 200

Low

> 20

Negligible

- 350 to - 200

Intermediate

10 to 20

Low

< - 350

High

5 to 10

High

< - 500

Severe

<5

Very High

CWMC

Survey Techniques include potential mapping

CSE potential: volts


0.20
0.20 to 0.35
0.35

Condition
Passive
Active or passive
Active

CWMC

Corrosion Rate measurements can be useful

CWMC

Cases of Corrosion Induced Damages To RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

1. Chloride Induced Damages to Natural Draft Cooling Towers in Contact with


Seawater:

Natural Draft Cooling Towers at a station operating on seawater with 35000 ppm
chloride were found to be suffering from corrosion induced damages such as spalling
of concrete, rusted reinforced bars, cracks on the concrete, delaminated concrete,
etc.
Half-cell potential values 165 to 550 mv Vs. Cu/CuSO4 - severe corrosion of
reinforcement bars)
Resistivity values - 0.4 26 kiloohms.cm - severe corrosion of rebars
Chloride content - 0.03 to 0.8% by weight of cement- high chloride
contamination of concrete
pH values lie between 8.0 to 12.5 - some chemical attack on concrete.
Rebound hammer & core tests - some deterioration of concrete strength.
Repairs were carried out to some racker columns. Inspection after about 2 years
indicated that cracks/spalling at the point of repairs had resurfaced indicating
normal patch repairs to chloride contaminated concrete are not successful and
more protective measures such as cathodic protection would be necessary for
ensuring durability of the structures.

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

Condition Assessment of RCC Structures

CWMC

Results of Condition Assessment

S.No Test

Results

Criteria

Spalling of Concrete &


Reinforcement bar corroded &
thickness reduced at many
locations (outer & inner
surfaces of NDCTs). Low
Concrete cover.

Remarks

Visual
observations

Corrosion
damages to RCC
structures. Less
damage at
Coated portions.

Rebound
CT (N) 10-19 MPa
Hammer Test CT 1 (S) 14-42 MPa
CT 2 (E) 14-26 MPa
CT 2 (W) 17-23 MPa

> 30 MPa

Lower portions
have better
compressive
strength

Half Cell
(-) 165 to (-) 550
Potential Test

More negative
than (-) 350 MV
90% Probability of
Corrosion

Most of the
readings are
more negative
than (-) 200 MV

Electrical
Resistivity

CT 1 2.1 to 8.67 Kohm cm


CT 2 2.16 to 8.62 Kohm cm

>20 no corrosion
< 5 Severe Corr.

Mostly corrosive

Carbonation

Only at outer layers

Chloride
content

0.03 to 0.73% (Wt. of Cement)

Good concrete

< 0.15%

Major cause
CP best option

CWMC

Raker Column of NDCT

26.05.09

08.05.11

01.07.12

CWMC

Raker Column of NDCT

26.05.09

08.05.11

01.07.12

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Ring Beam of NDCT 1 in 2009

Ring Beam of NDCT 1 in 2012

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Ring Beam of NDCT 1 in 2009

Ring Beam of NDCT 1 in 2012

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Raker columns of NDCT 1 in 2009

Raker Column of NDCT 1 in 2012


New Cracks observed

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Raker Column of NDCT 1 in 2012


New Cracks observed

Raker Column of NDCT 1 in 2012


New Cracks with spalling of
Concrete observed

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Deteriorating condition of NDCT 1 in 2012

CWMC

Condition of NDCTS

Ring Beam of NDCT 2 in 2009

Ring Beam of NDCT 2 in 2012

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

2. Chloride Induced Damages to RCC Structures such as Ash Handling, etc in


Contact with Seawater:

RCC structures such as Bottom Ash Hopper, ESP, Ash Slurry sump, etc at a station
operating on seawater with 35000 ppm chloride were found to be suffering from
corrosion induced damages such as spalling of concrete, rusted reinforced bars,
cracks on the concrete, delaminated concrete, etc.
Half-cell potential values: 382 to 556 mv Vs. Cu/CuSO4 - severe corrosion of
reinforcement bars;
Resistivity values: 1.8 9.2 kiloohms.cm - severe corrosion of rebars;
Rebound hammer & core tests: some deterioration of concrete strength.
Patch repairs have been carried out to some of these damages and the repairs are
under observation.

CWMC

ESP Buffer Hopper


Rebound Hammer: (N/mm2)

Half cell potential :(mV)

22

30

27

-457

-444

-408

15

30

28

-455

-434

-411

30

28

17

-426

-436

-423

Electrical Resistivity :( kilo ohm cm)


3.6
1.9

4.4

1.9

2.8

Very High Corrosion


Condition Assessment data

High Corrosion

CWMC

Ash Slurry Sump


Rebound Hammer: (N/mm2)

Half cell potential :(mV)

46

52

-382

-402

-417

48

48

-425

-395

-435

47

46

-410

-457

-415

Electrical Resistivity :( kilo ohm cm)


3.1
2.1

1.8

2.8
2.4

2.3

2.1

Very High Corrosion


Condition Assessment data

High Corrosion

CWMC

Bottom Ash Hopper


Half cell potential :(mV)

Rebound Hammer: (N/mm2)


40

45

35

45

26

35

38

25

48

Electrical Resistivity :( kilo ohm cm)


7.9
4.5

-557

-441

-409

-522

-498

-432

-514

-458

-465

High to Very High Corrosion

7.9
6.2

7.3

9.4

7.0

High Corrosion
Condition Assessment data

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

ESP Buffer Hopper Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

ESP Buffer Hopper Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

ESP Buffer Hopper Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

Bottom Ash Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

3. Carbonation Induced Damages to Induced Draft Cooling Towers in Contact


with Fresh Water:
A station operating on fresh water as cooling water for more than 15 years reported
some damages like cracks, spalling, delamination, etc of concrete structures of
Induced Draft Cooling Towers.
Half-cell potential and carbonation tests indicated that the potential values are
between 186 to 293 mv Vs Cu/CuSO4 indicating that corrosion attack is low
to high. Carbonation tests indicated severe carbonation/chemical attack

(plant uses sulphuric acid for pH/alkalinity control in the cooling water system). It was
inferred that most of the damages were on account of carbonation/chemical attack.
Repairs have been suggested and are expected to be undertaken shortly.
Subsequently anti-corrosive coatings for complete structure which are water or water
vapour touched, to be applied for further protection.

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

4. Chloride Induced Damages to Induced Draft Cooling Towers in Contact with


Seawater:

A station in coastal region and using seawater as cooling water with about 40000
ppm chloride reported severe damages to RCC structures of induced draft cooling
towers in less than 3 years time.
Visual observations indicated that generally efflorescence (salt deposition) was
prevalent on the structures and it appeared the concrete had high porosity, some
places rust spots could be observed, a few places reinforcements were exposed,
some surface cracks were also seen. On one CT Salt along with coal dust was
deposited on the roof surface. Some expansion joints were found to be leaking. The
observations are depicted in following photographs.

The half-cell potential values: 242 to 489 mv Vs Cu/CuSO4 for older towers
for a new tower the value was +9 mv.
Chloride contamination: 0.1 to 0.9 % of the weight of concrete (acceptable
value is < 0.03%) for the older towers.
Negligible carbonation
Severe corrosion induced damages are taking place on the older towers
whereas the new tower (yet to be put in operation) is not yet under durance
from chloride. Cathodic Protection for older towers & PU coating for Tower

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

5. Structural Damages to Dry Fly Ash Silo in Coastal Region:


A coastal station reported cracking of RCC dry fly ash silo structure from where fly ash was
oozing out. The damaged portion was repaired by patch repair and inside surface was
inaccessible due to fly ash. Preliminary condition assessment by carbonation test, half-cell
potential measurement and chloride contamination test was carried out. The plant uses a blend
of imported and indigenous coal as fuel and the blend ratio is variable. The fly ash is alkaline in
nature with about 11.5% calcium oxide and around 12.8% iron oxide (such ashes are
hygroscopic in nature). The half-cell potential and chloride contamination tests do not
indicate corrosion induced damages. Negligible carbonation was observed. Thus it was
inferred that the crack had developed due to tensile stresses on the concrete walls. The tensile
stresses could have developed due to any one or a combination of following reasons:

A large void (such as a horizontal arch or a vertical rathole) that forms within the body of the
stored material and later collapses, resulting in a significant dynamic load on the silo walls.
Non-uniform pressures acting on a circular silo wall that are used by an off-center channel in
the material adjacent to the Wall.
Local peak pressure at a point where a funnel flow channel intersects a silo wall.
Development of mass flow in a silo structurally designed for funnel flow.
Migration of moisture from wet to dry particles within the stored solids, which causes the dry
particles to expand and imposes strong radial loads on a silo.
Variation in operating practices in emptying the silos from design.
Variation in the quality of fly ash being stored
Asymmetric pressures caused by inserts (such as beams) across the cylinder section
of a silo. (In present case some modifications had been carried out in the silo, this

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Case Studies on Corrosion Induced Damages to


RCC Structures

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages To RCC Structures

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

Repair & Rehabilitation of Damaged RCC Structures:


Patch Repair:
By far the most common repair technique is the application of concrete patches to damaged
or deteriorated concrete. Furthermore, when other remediation techniques are being applied
in order to limit the extent of on-going corrosion mechanisms or to prevent their reoccurrence. Patch repairs are also used to reinstate the spalled or delaminated areas of
concrete.
Electrochemical Process:
Conventional patch repair is, and will always remain the primary method of repair of
reinforced
concrete
structures
suffering
from
corrosion
damage
to
the
reinforcement. Electrochemical techniques provide a useful set of methods for preventing or
limiting further damage to structures affected by reinforcement corrosion.

Cathodic Protection (CP): In cathodic protection, the corroding anodic areas of steel are
made cathodic by the supply of electrons from an anode applied either to the concrete
surface or embedded. There are two ways of applying cathodic protection to structures:
Galvanic and Impressed Current CP

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

Repair & Rehabilitation of Damaged RCC Structures:


Electrochemical Chloride Acceleration (ECE) is also known as desalination or chloride
extraction (CE). The fundamental principle involved in ECE is similar to that of CP. The only
major differences are the period and level of current application. CP is essentially a
permanent installation involving an application of current in the region of 5-20 mA/m2 of steel
whilst ECE is a temporary treatment where a much higher current density in the range of 0.52.0 A/m2 of steel is applied over a period of weeks. The chloride ions migrate to the concrete
surface where they are removed.

Electrochemical Re-alkalization is used for carbonated reinforced concrete structures and


entails the re-establishment of alkalinity around the reinforcement and in the cover zone.
Alkali ions are electrically driven toward the steel which, with the production of hydroxyl ions
at the steel, repassivate the steel and reduce corrosion activity to a negligible level. The
electrolyte is highly alkaline and drawn into the carbonated cover concrete by electro-osmosis
where it acts as a buffer zone.
Corrosion Inhibitors:

Concrete admixture inhibitors - used as a preventative measure.

Surface applied and drilled-in inhibitors - used as a curative or preventative


measure.

These two generic categories can be further subdivided into anodic, cathodic and ambiodic
(mixed) inhibitors depending upon the formulation of the inhibitor.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

Repair & Rehabilitation of Damaged RCC Structures:


Surface Treatments:

Three generic types of Surface Treatment are available for the decoration and protection of
concrete surfaces, designed to control chemical ingress as well as moisture movement. They
are described as follows:
Pore-liners these are hydrophobic impregnation treatments such as silicone
impregnants, which line the pores of concrete. They repel water and therefore
prevent it from entering the concrete, but continue to allow water vapour to escape.
Pore blockers these are materials that partially or completely block the in
concrete. They may accomplish this by either reacting with the concrete to produce
pore-blocking products or by physically blocking the pores.
Film-formers these are coating systems based on either organic resins such as
styrene butadiene and acrylic copolymers or inorganic resins such as potassium
silicate, which form a protective/decorative film on the surface of the concrete.
Coatings may be endowed with special properties, such as the ability to bridge moving cracks
whilst maintaining film integrity.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

SELECTING SUITABLE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR


DAMAGED RCC STRUCTURES:

To repair is defined as to replace or refix parts, compensating for loss or


exhaustion.
One definition of the word rehabilitate is to restore to proper condition.
If we want to rehabilitate a structure we want to restore it, not necessarily to
its original condition, because if we do, it may fail again because of intrinsic
flaws.
We want to establish its proper condition that is, resistant to corrosion. In other
words, to rehabilitate the structure we may need to improve it compared to its
original condition.
To repair is merely fixing the damage.
This implies that deterioration may continue.
Patch repairs are just what they say. They repair the damaged concrete. They will
not stop future deterioration and may accelerate it.
Cathodic protection and other electrochemical techniques can rehabilitate the
structure. They mitigate the corrosion process across the whole treated areas.
Coatings and barriers can also rehabilitate if applied well at the correct time.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

SELECTING SUITABLE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR


DAMAGED RCC STRUCTURES:

Conventional rehabilitation techniques, which consist of removing delaminated


areas of concrete, cleaning affected steel and patching with Portland cement
mortar, have proven to be ineffective for marine structures.
Repairs are often repeated every several years, which each successive repair
being increasingly greater in magnitude.
The presence of high levels of chloride ions remaining in the parent concrete will
allow the corrosion process to continue unabated.
The repair material also proves to be a problem since corrosion cells are
inadvertently created between steel embedded in the chloride-free repair material
and the steel embedded in the chloride contaminated concrete.
This result in corrosion damage along the periphery of the patch and eventually
complete failure will occur within the surrounding material and the repair itself.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

SELECTING SUITABLE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR


DAMAGED RCC STRUCTURES:
Long-Term Performance of Corrosion Inhibitors Used in Repair of
Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components - Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-097,
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Research and
Development, USA
----- An analysis of the results of visual and delamination surveys, half-cell potential surveys,
corrosion rate measurements, and total chloride ion content determination concluded that

neither of the corrosion inhibitors evaluated in this study, using the specified
repairs and exposed to the specific environments, provided any corrosioninhibiting benefit.

Long-Term Effectiveness of Cathodic Protection Systems on Highway


Structures - Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-096
After extensive research and testing, the Federal Highway Administration,
USA issued the policy statement that the only rehabilitation technique that
has proven to stop corrosion in salt contaminated bridge decks, regardless
of the chloride content of the concrete is cathodic protection

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

SELECTING SUITABLE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR


DAMAGED RCC STRUCTURES:
For undertaking repairs and rehabilitation of damaged RCC structures especially if they are in
contact with water/seawater or situated in coastal regions, it is recommended to carry out
condition assessment of the structures so as to confirm the reasons of damages.
It may be advisable to carry out preliminary tests such as visual examinations;
delamination; carbonation test; half-cell potential measurements; cover depth
measurements; etc at random locations to check if the structures are suffering from
corrosion or not. These tests can be carried out by the stations itself. Based on the results
of the preliminary tests decision of detailed condition assessment can be taken.
Decision on appropriate repair & rehabilitation technique can be taken on the
condition of the structures and life expectancy of the structures/criticality of the
structures.
If the damages are corrosion induced than suitable corrosion protection measures
such as cathodic protection need to be considered. The life of cathodically protected
structures can be extended to 40+ years.

Documents like ACI 222R.01 or BS EN 1504 need to be considered while selecting


repair & rehabilitation techniques and materials for RCC structures.

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures

BS EN 1504: Products and Systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures
BS EN 1504 9 Content

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures
BS EN 1504 9

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures
BS EN 1504 9

CWMC

Repair & Rehabilitation of Corrosion Induced


Damages to RCC Structures
BS EN 1504 9

CWMC

Corrosion Induced Deterioration of Concrete

t0 = the time for the environment to penetrate into the concrete to a level where corrosion starts
t1 = the time for the corrosion rate to increase to significant levels
t2 = the time for cracking to occur, and a subsequent further increase in corrosion rate
t3 = the time for significant structural distress to be caused
t0 will depend on quality of concrete and corrosive environment present

CWMC

CONCRETE COVER

Of the various standards the range of


values for minimum concrete cover are:
Marine Exposure
Below Grade Exposure
Above Grade Exposure
Indoor Exposure

65-80 mm.
65-80 mm.
55-70 mm.
40-50 mm.

CWMC

CONCRETE MODIFIERS

The primary purpose of all concrete modifiers


is to decrease the chloride diffusion rate by
reducing the concrete permeability.
Therefore in areas subject to continuous
chloride exposure such as seawater and
saline groundwater, concrete modifiers will
not prevent corrosion, but only delay the
day at which it starts.

CWMC

INHIBITORS

The primary benefit of calcium nitrate is to


increase the chloride threshold value for
corrosion initiation.
Grace Construction Products - NACE 1998,
Paper 652
Therefore in areas subject to continuous chloride
exposure such as seawater and saline
groundwater inhibitors will not prevent corrosion,
but only delay the day at which it starts.

CWMC

EPOXY COATED REBAR

For 95% (of bridge decks) the epoxy coating will debond
from the steel before the chloride arrives and thus provides no
additional service life.
Epoxy Coated Rebars are not a cost effective corrosion
protection system for bridge decks in Virginia. Thus their use
should be discontinued
Virginia Transportation Research Council - 1997

CWMC

CONCRETE COATINGS

Coating concrete for corrosion prevention


provides a barrier against Chloride ingress.

Coating only slow the onsett of corrosion and in


harsh environments degrade long before the
end of the design life of most structures.

CWMC

Corrosion Control of to RCC Structures by


Cathodic Protection

CWMC

THE CATHODIC PROTECTION CELL


Cathodic Protection ( Gain of Electrons / Ions )

e-

Electron Flow

e-

Current Flow

e-

Current Flow
Electrolyte ( Ionic Flow )

OH-

OHOH-

H+
OH

OH-

e-

OH-

OH-

OH-

OH-

OHCathode

Electron Flow

Current
Flow

e-

eAnode

Cation Flow
Anion Flow

OHCathode

Current
Flow
H+
0H

CWMC

Anode Mesh installation

Positive Connection

CWMC

Shotcrete Overlay

CWMC

Anode Mesh

CWMC

Ribon Anodes

CWMC

HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL APPROVALS

FHWA - 1982
UK CONCRETE SOCIETY - 1989
NACE RP0290-90 - 1990
NACE RP0390-90 - 1990
ACI 222 R- 01
BS 7361 - 1991
European Union Standard pr EN 12696-1 2000
124

CWMC

Official FHWA Policy Statement

Cathodic Protection is .the only


rehabilitation technique that has proven
to stop corrosion in salt-contaminated
bridge decks regardless of the chloride
content in the concrete.

125

CWMC

QUOTATION FROM BS 7361

.Cathodic Protection is a means,


possibly the only means, of indefinitely
extending the life of reinforced concrete
structures
which
are
suffering
reinforcing steel corrosion arising from
chloride intrusion.

126

CWMC

Some RCC Structures Protected by Cathodic


Protection

Some of the structures protected by cathodic protection systems


Structure

System type

Owner

JUPC Cooling Tower


Mesh ribbon installed in slots
Sharq Cooling Tower
Mesh ribbon installed in slots
Kayan Cooling Tower Mesh Ribbon
NCP Cooling Tower
Mesh Ribbon
Yansab Cooling Tower Mesh Ribbon
GPIC Intake Structure Mesh ribbon grouted in slots
Dubai Airport tunnel
Mesh ribbon installed in slots
Ghazlan power plant
Mesh ribbon installed in slots
Qarrayah Intake structure Mesh ribbon installed in slots

JUPC, KSA
Sharq, KSA
Kayan, KSA
NCP, KSA
Yansab, KSA
GPIC, Bahrain
Dubai, UAE
SCECO, KSA
SCECO, KSA

New Forced Draft CT Mesh Ribbon


(Under implementation at HPCL Mumbai Refinery)

HPCL, Mumbai
127

CWMC

Conclusions

CWMC

Conclusions

1. RCC Structures are subject to deterioration through different


mechanisms.
2. RCC structures in contact with seawater or water are subject to
Corrosion induced damages such as chloride induced corrosion or
carbonation induced corrosion affecting the durability of the
structures.
3. The damaged structures are required to be Repaired and
Rehabilitated to restore their durability, however; structures affected
by corrosion need special treatment to care of corrosion besides
restoration of strength.
4. Before undertaking repairs & rehabilitation of damaged structures it
is necessary to carryout detailed condition assessment so that
suitable remedial measures are taken.
5. Preliminary tests such as half cell potential, carbonation tests, visual
inspections, etc can indicate if corrosion induced damages have
initiated.
6. Best remedial measure for chloride induced damages is application
129
of Cathodic Protection besides patch repairs

CWMC

130