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CHAPTER 1 : MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON LIVING THINGS

MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON LIVING THINGS


DEFINITION OF
MICROORGANI
SMS

Match diagram below with correct type of microbes


DIAGRAM

TYPE OF MICROBES

VIRUS

ALGAE

BACTERIA

FUNGI

PROTOZOA

Complete the table below.


Characteristic
(a) Exist in different shapes and are generally named according to their shapes.

Group of microorganisms

(b) Cannot reproduce outside living cell.


(c) Can be crystallized.
(d) They are able to make their own food by photosynthesis.
(e) Most reproduce asexually by formation of spores or sexually by conjugation.
(f) They are unicellular animals and have the structure of general animal cells.
(g) They can form spore if the condition is not suitable
(h) They are plants but cannot make their own food
(i) The smallest microbe and only can be seen through electron microscope
(j) The largest microbe
Fill in the boxes below with type of reproduction
MICROORGANISMS
Bacteria

METHOD OF REPRODUCTION

Fungi
Protozoa
Virus
Algae
CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA

B.

Study the diagram below.

YEAST
1. How does yeast reproduces?
_________________________________
2. How does yeast get its nutrient?
_________________________________

FACTORS AFFECT THE GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS

1. The growth of microorganisms is very much affected by environmental factors such as


(a) ____________________

(b) _________________

(d) ____________________

(e) _________________

(c) __________________

2. Complete the table below


FACTORS
Temperature

CONDITION FOR THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA


SUITABLE CONDITION
UNSUITABLE CONDITION
30oC, 37oC
too high and too low

Humidity

20% of water

dry

Light intensity

dark

bright

pH Value

pH 7 (neutral)

too acidic or alkaline

Nutrient

has nutrient

no nutrient

PEKA 1

EFFECT OF PH VALUE ON THE GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS

OBSERVATIONS

EXPERIMENT : EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF


MICROORGANISMS

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STEPS
1. Four sterile petri dishes containing sterile nutrient agar are labelled as A,B,C and D
respectively.
2. Using a syringe,1cm3 bacteria culture solution is added onto the agar surface in each
petri
dish.
3. The petri dishes are covered with their lids and sealed using cellophane tape.
4. The petri dishes are inverted and placed in various places as stated below:
a. Petri dish A in a refrigerator at 5oC
b. Petri dish B in a cupboard
c. Petri dish C in an oven at 70oC
5. The petri dishes are left for two days.
6. The observations on the bacterial growth are recorded at the end of the experiment.
OBSERVATIONS

ANALYSIS

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USEFUL MICROORGANISMS
1. The statements below show the uses and roles of beneficial microorganisms in daily life
A Yeast acts on carbohydrate to produce carbon dioxide that cause breads and cakes to rise.
B Dead organisms such as plants and animals undergo a process called decomposition caused by
bacteria and fungi
C Penicillin, which is produced from a certain type of fungus helps us to produce antibiotics.
D Microorganisms such as bacteria and virus play an important role in the preparation of vaccines.
E Certain algae produce beta carotene to prevent cancer
F Bacteria living in herbivores digestive system secrete an enzyme called cellulose which helps to
digest cellulose.

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G Nitrogen fixing bacteria helps to bind nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it to nitrate in the
soil.
H Yeast acts on glucose solution to produce alcohol.
I Bacteria is used to oxidize alcohol in making of vinegar
J Microorganisms are also used in biological control

Group the above statements into five categories


Category

Statement

(a) Food digestion


(i).
(b) Decaying process
(i).
(i) ..
(c) Medicine

(ii) ..
(iii) .

(d) Agriculture

(i) ..
(ii) ..
(i) ..

(e) Industry

(ii) ..
(iii) .

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF MICROORGANISMS

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KAEDAH JANGKITAN PENYAKIT


KAEDAH JANGKITAN
PENYAKIT

air

water

food

contact

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vectors

body fluid

Jenis penyakit

Jenis penyakit

Jenis penyakit

Jenis penyakit

Jenis penyakit

KAEDAH MENCEGAH PENYAKIT YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH MIKROORGANISMA

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KAEDAH MENCEGAH PENYAKIT YANG


DISEBABKAN OLEH MIKROORGANISMA

Control of
vectors

sterilisation

immunisatio
n

1. KAWALAN VEKTOR

VEKTOR

: Organisms or animals that carry


pathogens
examples : mosquitoes, housefly, coacroach
CONTOH :
CONTROL OF VECTOR - MOSQOUITOE

CONTROL OF VECTOR HOUSEFLY


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2.

PENSTEILAN

PENSTERILAN :
Padankan Rajah di bawah :

Kaedah
pensterilan
menggunakan haba

Dilakukan oleh
Antiseptic, disinfektan

menggunakan bahan
kimia
menggunakan
sinaran
Jenis bahan kimia

Sinaran gama, sinaran


ultraungu
Pendidihan, pemanasan

Antiseptik (Contoh : larutan iodin,


alkohol)

Fungsi
Chemicals used to kill or inhibit
growth of microorganisms on skin
(wounds)

Disinfektan (example :
formaldehaid,
fenols)

Chemicals used to sterilize


rooms, toilets, clothes, utensils
Stronger than antiseptics and
cannot be used on skin

3. IMMUNITY
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IMMUNITY : The ability of body to fight against


pathogens

WAYS TO PREVENT AND TO TREAT DISEASES CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS


Match diagram below.
EXPLANATION

WAYS TO
PREVENT/TREAT

Chemical stimulates white


blood cells to produce
antibody

ANTIBIOTIC

Chemical that contains


antibody injected to
infected person

SURGERY

Chemical extracted from


bacteria and fungi to kill
bacteria and fungi

TRADITIONAL
TREATMENT

The tissue or organ that is


damaged is removed or
replaced

VACCINE

Parts of plants or herbs


used to treat diseases

PEKA 2

ANTISERUM

THE ACTION OF AN ANTIBIOTIC ON BACTERIA

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ANTIBIOTIC KILLS BACTERIA


OR
ANTIBIOTIC RETARDS THE GROWTH OF
BACTERIA

1. Study the terms below.


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Vector

Vaccination

Immunity

Sterilization

Antigen

Antiseptics

Serum

Vaccine

Antibody

Pathogen

Complete the following statements with the correct terms.


Statement
(a) Process of injecting vaccine

Term

(b) A process to kill microorganisms


(c) Chemicals used to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms
on the skin
(d) Produced by white blood cells to fight against the invading
antigens
(e) Harmful microorganisms causing diseases.
(f) Substance containing animal antibodies
(g) Pathogen or microbes in blood
(h) An agent that carries diseases
(i) Substance containing weakened pathogen
(j) The ability of the body to resist pathogens infections

2. The following are steps how to prepare the serum from a horse.
(a) The body of the horse produces antibodies for a particular disease.
(b) The horse blood is centrifuged to obtain the serum
(c) The horse is injected with microorganism of a particular disease.
(d) The horses blood is extracted.

Rearrange the steps above to show how to prepare the serum from a horse.
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(i)

(ii)

(iii) .
(iv) .
3. The diagram below shows the types of immunity.
Immunity

Active

Example: E

Natural

Example:
Vaccine

Example: F

Example: G

Name
A : .

E :

B: .

F :

C: ..

G:

D: .
WAYS TO TREAT DISEASES CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS
Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. Choose the word from the box given.
Penicillin

cancer

biotechnology

antibiotic

killed

liver

replaced

herbs

virus

pathogens

doctors

tuberculosis

kidneys

rabies

gonorrhea

removed

insulin

tetanus

radiotherapy

bacteria

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1. During surgery, the tissue or organ that is damaged or infected by diseases is or

2. Antibiotic given by the doctor must be consumed based on the allocated time and quantity. This is to ensure that
all the pathogens causing the diseases are . by the antibiotic. Otherwise, the surviving
.. will develop resistance towards the antibiotic. Hence, the same .. will
not be able to cure the same diseases in the future.
3. Example of diseases that can be cured with antibiotics include .and Antibiotic
cannot be used to cure diseases that are caused by .
4. . (x-rays or gamma rays) is used to kill .. cells in tumour.
5. In . , microorganisms are used in genetic engineering such as the production of
.. for diabetics.
6. To conserve the environment, . is used in the treatment of sewage.
7. Drugs are harmful to the body if taken in excess amounts. Over consumption of aspirin in the long term can
damage the .. and .
8. Antibiotics such as .. can only be taken when prescribed and supervised by
.. .
9. Use of is a common type of traditional treatment.
10. Two examples of diseases that are easily treated with antiserum are .. and
.

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