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Light

and Color

Red flash
Eye unit
External

Built-in flash

Light enters the eye at


different angles, diffusing
as it leaves the eye.

Light enters the eye and


bounces straight back into
the camera, causing the
red-eye effect.

source such as the sun in a clear sky, a candle, bare light bulb or a small
flash unit, this light is harsh. Objects throw contrasty, sharp-edged
LIGHTING:
Bigger
light
source
shadows. Figure
2.5 shows
how
having all the light issuing from one
spot must give a sudden and complete shut-off of illumination at the

nt light
bjects
ow. A
ed
eet of

LIGHTING:
Bounced
light
sca=ers
When light
reaches
a surface

Figure 2.6 A lamp, sunlight or


flashgun directed entirely onto a
matt white surface such as a wall
or large card will reflect to also

shadow edge. Bu
the light beam (o
matt white wall,
it. The light pas
proceeding in al
The object you w
shadow, and the
and contrasty the
area cannot be co
previously in sha
would happen w
Its very imp

produced
a light camera
source sensors,
the illumination
response by
in digital
etc. Thelooks
more white
intense and
the light,
colourless.
But
if
only
some
wavelengths
are
present
the
light
appears
the more photons it contains.
Figure 2.3 Some of the
coloured. For example, in Figure 2.3, wavelengths between about
electromagnetic spectrum (left),
400 nm and 450 nm are seen as dark purpley violet. This alters to blue
and the small part of it forming
if wavelengths are changed to 450500 nm. Between 500 nm and
the visible spectrum of light
Wavelengths
580 nm the lightand
lookscolours
more blue-green, and from about 580 nm to
(enlarged, right). Mixed in roughly
the proportions shown in colour
600 nm you see yellow. The yellow grows more orange if the light
here, the light appears white
What
you recognize
as light
isnm
just
part red,
of becoming
an enormous
of
wavelengths
become longer;
at 650
it looks
darker range
as

LIGHTING: How color is made?

Figure 2.4 Most sources of light


produce a mixture of
wavelengths, differing in colour
and expressed here in greatly
simplified form

Figure 2.3 Some of the


electromagnetic spectrum (left),
and the small part of it forming
the visible spectrum of light
(enlarged, right). Mixed in roughly
the proportions shown in colour
here, the light appears white

electromagnetic radiations. As shown left, this includes radio waves


with wavelengths of hundreds of metres through to gamma and cosmic
rays with wavelengths of less than ten thousand-millionths of a
millimetre. Each band of electromagnetic radiation merges into the
next, but has its own special characteristics. Some, such as radio, can be
transmitted over vast distances. Others, such as X-rays, will penetrate
thick steel, or destroy human tissue. Most of this radiation cannot be
seen directly by the human eye, however. Your eyes are only sensitive
to a narrow band between wavelengths 400 nm and 700 nm approximately. (A nanometre or nm is one millionth of a millimetre.) This
limited span of wavelengths is therefore known as the visible
spectrum.
When a relatively even mixture of all the visible wavelengths is
produced by a light source the illumination looks white and
colourless. But if only some wavelengths are present the light appears
coloured. For example, in Figure 2.3, wavelengths between about
400 nm and 450 nm are seen as dark purpley violet. This alters to blue
if wavelengths are changed to 450500 nm. Between 500 nm and
580 nm the light looks more blue-green, and from about 580 nm to
600 nm you see yellow. The yellow grows more orange if the light
wavelengths become longer; at 650 nm it looks red, becoming darker as

LIGHTING: When light reaches

on. Top:
matt
ely evenly.
urface light
t. Oblique
f at the
d
oured
flect and
engths
ver,
hen the
d

Light: how images form

UNDERSTANDING HISTOGRAMS

This low-contrast image has all the tones squished into one end
of the grayscale.

A high-contrast image produces a histogram in which the tones are


spread out.

This image has fairly normal contrast, even though there are no true
blacks showing in the histogram.

UNDERSTANDING HISTOGRAMS

An underexposed image will look like this

Increasing exposure will produce a histogram like this

Histogram of an overexposed image will show clipping at the right


side

ISO to determine the best way to illuminate the shot and how much light is needed. Because youll
be investing a long period of time in this procedure, youll want to make sure everything is perfect.

Shu=er

Shawn Peterson, Bodie Wheel of Wonder, Bodie, California, 2008

Shawn Peterson, Bodie, Wheel of Wonder, California, 2008


23, 4 min exposures sWtched together

Light PainWng

HOTOGRAPHY

Cenci Goepel & James


Warnecke, 2007
Somewhere in ArgenWna

Light PainWng

Cenci

Goepel & James
Warnecke, 2007

Somewhere in Norway

Reciprocity 28_29

Each step
halves

Each step
doubles

Aperture

Shutter
speed

less light
f/32

more time
1

f/22

f/16

f/11

f/8

15

f/5.6

30

f/4

60

f/2.8

125

f/2

250

f/1.4

500

f/1
more light

1000
less time

Each step
doubles

Each step
halves

COLOR THEORY
Hue
Hue is what we see as color
SaturaWon

Brightness


COLOR THEORY
Understanding color temperature

Amazing thing about brain

The Basics of Color Editing

COLOR THEORY
12
(a) Highly saturated

(b) Less saturated than a

Part I: The Basics of Color Editing


(a) Highly saturated

SaturaWon
a

(b) Less saturated than a

a
(c) Greatly desaturated

(d) Completely desaturated (no color)

(c) Greatly desaturated

(d) Completely desaturated (no color)

Figure 1-2: A green patch shown at different levels of saturation.

Figure 1-2: A green patch shown at different levels of saturation.

Brightness (Least bright to max bright)


Figure 1-3: These three cyan color patches vary in brightness values,
from least bright on the left to brightest on the right.

distance we move something on earth is trivial compared to the distance from the earth to
sun.

Inverse square law

Inverse square law

Intensity of light
falls of as the
square of the
distance from the
source. In other
words, if you
double the distance,
the intensity is
1/4th

4 metres
1/16th as bright

2 metres
1/4 as bright
1 metre

16

Depth of field 78_79

focused
here

near

distant

aperture

maximum
acceptable
blur circle

depth of field

focused here

much greater depth of field

film or
sensor

Capture
Pre-shoot

Pre-shoot

Why RAW?

Choose compression

RAW
files
Choose bit depth (8or 16-bit)

Choose image size

Choose tone curve (contrast)

RAW
--

126_127

Choose colour space (sRGB or Adobe RGB (1998))


JPEG
TIFF
Set white balance
Choose ISO sensitivity
Choose amount of sharpening Choose compression

--

Choose
amount
of noise
Choose
bit depth
(8- orreduction
16-bit)

Choose image size

Choose tone curve (contrast)

Choose colour space (sRGB or Adobe RGB (1998))

Exposure-important

Set
white balance
Exposure
critical

Choose amount of sharpening

Choose amount of noise reduction

Colour space

Brightness and contrast


White balance
Colour
saturation
Colour
space

Non-destructive

Orientation and crop


Exposure important
Shadows and highlights

Sharpening
Image size, bit
depth and resolution
Noise reduction
Orientation
and crop
Shadows and highlights

ructive

Post-processing Capture

Image size, bit depth and resolution


Exposure critical

Anything you do tends to degrade quality

using a single EV number, now only certain professional camera lenses retain this convenience.
The EV number is transferred from the light meter to the lens, which locks the shutter speeds
and apertures in the appropriate relationship, from which a suitable pair can then be chosen.

Exposure Values

Table of exposure values (ISO 100)


shutter (s)
60
30
15
8
4
2
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60
1/125
1/250
1/500
1/1000
1/2000
1/4000
1/8000

1
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

1.4
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

2
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

2.8
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

f-number
4
5.6
-2
-1
-1
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18

EV+ increases exposure (brightens the shot)


EV decreases exposure (darkens the shot)

8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

16
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

32
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

45
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

64
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Exposure Value (EV) number single number representing a range of equivalent combinations of aperture and

19

USE OF FLASH

When do we use ash?


In low light?

Using ash as a ll in during the day Wme

20

INDOOR FLASH

Which has a more natural segng?

USE OF FLASH

superimpose a crisp image of the subject into the blurred backgrou


guidelines for balancing ambient and flash apply as slow sync can
form of fill flash (see pages 1067).

Flash sync on first curtain (Front sync)

Front or rear ash

Resulting image

end

start

Exposure
Flash sync on second curtain (Rear sync)
Resulting image

end

start

Exposure

USING FLASH FILL

Use ash ll (leh) to


light up the face

LIGHTING: Shadows
Shadows can create a lot of drama in
the picture. Look for them around you

Light travels in straight lines, as if in wave motion. Wavelengths are


measured in nanometers. Light forms a tiny part of a much wider
range of electromagnetic radiation. It transmits energy in the form of
photons.
Your eyes recognize wavelengths between 400 nm and 700 nm as
progressively violet, blue, green, yellow, red the visible spectrum.
All colours if present together are seen as white light.

LIGHTING: When light reaches


Figure 2.20 Conjugate distances.
The positions where subjects at
different distances from a lens are
sharply imaged

20th Century Photographers

Ralph Gibson
From: The Sonambulist, 1968
Gibson preferred black and
white and grainy work iniWally.
This picture became his
signature photo

26

every possible colour it would start and end at the same place (cyan, in the case of the
Photoshop sliders).

COLOR THEORY
The colour wheel

Red

Yellow

Magenta

Green

Blue

Cyan

Reference material, not for copy.


27
Property of DPC

Part I: The Basics


of Color Editing
10 COLOR
THEORY
Red

Yellow
(Red + Green)

Magenta
(Red + Blue)

Green

Blue

Cyan
(Green + Blue)

WHITE BALANCE
Use dierent segngs to get dierent results in your picture.
Cloudy or shadows to get warm picture

LIGHTING SCHEME

LIGHTING SCHEME EXAMPLE

Too dark subjects

Exposure 34_35

Black cat (left)


The kind of subject that demands accurate
metering. A reflected meter (in-camera)
reading would produce without
exposure compensation a mid-grey
image of this cat.
Photographer: Brad Kim.
Technical summary: Canon EOS 10D, Canon EF
70200mm f/2.8L zoom lens at 200mm focal length.
Underexposed by 2 stops from the camera meter
reading. Photoshop levels applied for final tonal
adjustment.

White tulips (below)


Another difficult subject to expose by using a reading from a reflected light meter. Without
positive EV compensation (up to 2 stops overexposure on reading) these tulips would be grey.
Photographer: Marion Luijten.
Technical summary: Canon 10D Sigma 105mm 1/125 sec at f/13 ISO 400, lit by two Bowens Esprit 500DX

70200mm f/2.8L zoom lens at 200mm focal length.

Too much brightness

Underexposed by 2 stops from the camera meter


reading. Photoshop levels applied for final tonal
adjustment.

White tulips (below)


Another difficult subject to expose by using a reading from a reflected light meter. Without
positive EV compensation (up to 2 stops overexposure on reading) these tulips would be grey.
Photographer: Marion Luijten.
Technical summary: Canon 10D Sigma 105mm 1/125 sec at f/13 ISO 400, lit by two Bowens Esprit 500DX
monoblocs, one with softbox and one with umbrella.

1/125 s
f/13
ISO 400