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SVENSSON

SURNAME
REGISTRATION
NUMBER
MODULE
TITLE

FIRST NAME

Building Science

ASSIGNMENT
NUMBER

CW2 Lab Report

MARKER

John Begg

JOINT
ASSIGNMENTS

JOSEF

COURSE
MODULE
CODE
DEADLINE

E3

A C
22

02

2012

Ten, Stanislav 133184171

Svensson, Josef

Wang, Xu 136072501

Szelag, Marlena 133685081

Woods, Nicholas 133795461

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YoungsModulusof
Elasticity

BySvenssonJosef,SzelagMarlena,TenStanislav,WangXu,WoodsNicholas

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Contents:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Objectivespg.3
Procedurepg.3
Observationspg.3
Resultspg.4
Discussion

pg.6
Conclusion

pg.10
References

pg.11
Bibliography

pg.11
CertificatesofAttendance
andSignedDeclaration

pg.12

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Objective:
TodetermineEforsoftwood(ParanaPine)andonehardwood(Mahogany[Keruing])usinga
threepointbendingjig.
TodetermineEforoneferrousmetal(LowCarbonSteel0.3%)andonenonferrous(Brass
60/40)usingaanelectronicextensometer.

Procedure:
AsLabSheet.

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Observations:
TogetYoungsModulus,E,formetals,suchasBrassandMildSteel,thetestinvolvesloading
thespecimenintensionandmeasuringtheresultingextension.Duringtheexperiment,
therewasnovisiblechange.Themetalsamplestestedintension,didnotchangevisiblyin
anyway,normadeanysound.
SincemetalshaveahighYoungsmoduli,largeforcesmustbeappliedtoproduce
measurableextensionsinsmallspecimens,howevernoneofthemodificationswere
noticeableaswedidnotgopasttheYoungsmodulus,thereforenotcausinganyvisible
deformation.
YoungsModulus,E,fortimberismeasuredbycarryingoutthetestincompressionmode
usingtestingmachinefittedwithathreepointbendingjig.Inthiscase,howeverthe
changesweredetectible,asthetimbersamplesdidslightlybendundertheappliedloadand
sprungbackwhentheloadwasremoved.

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Results:

60/40Brass

87x25.74600=F=1639.4N

0.0180.002=x=0.016mm

1639.4/pix(7.97/2)^20.016/50=102690Nmm^2

102690x10^6=102690000000Pa=102.69GPa

Young'smodulusof70/30BrasshasYoung'smoduluswithavalueof100GPa.Our
calculatedvalueisthereforerelativelycorrect.

0.3%CarbonSteelMildsteel

(110x80)(110x22)=F=6380N

0.040.01=x=0.03mm

6380/pix(7.97/2)^20.03/50=213138.99Nmm^2

213139x10^6=213139000000Pa=213.139GPa

TheYoung'smodulusofourmildsteelisapproximately213GPa,thevaluethatweare
givenaccordingtothetableis210whichisthereforerelativelycorrect.

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TimberParanaPine

(120^3/419.637.63^3)340/3.96
=4254Nmm^2

4254110^6=4254000000Pa

=4254MPa

TimberMahogany

(120^3/4x20.08x7.55^3)290/2=7248Nmm^2

7248x1x10^6=7248000000Pa

=7248MPa

Material

Published value

Calculatedvalue

Mildsteel

210GPa

213.139GPa

Brass

100GPa

102.69GPa

Mahogany

010000MPa

7249MPa

Pine

1120020000MPa

4253MPa

Toconclude,inmosttheresultsfromtheexperimentpresenteduswithaYoung'sModulus
closetothegivenvaluesforthematerials.Thefindingspresentediswith3GPaincaseof
thetestedmetalsandtimberpublishedvaluescouldonlybefoundinthetermsofMPa.

Mega=1x10^6
Giga=1x10^9

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Discussion:
Question1:CompareyourresultswithpublishedvaluesofE.
Comment.

Material

Published value

Calculatedvalue

Mildsteel

210GPa

213.139GPa

Brass

100GPa

102.69GPa

Mahogany

010000MPa

7249MPa

Pine

1120020000MPa

4253MPa

ThetableaboveshowsthevaluesofEthatwegotfromourexperimentandtheprovided
valuesthatarequotedonvariousinternetandbooksourcesastowhattheactualvalueis
(Kermani1999,andMatbase).
Thetableshowsthatthemildsteelandbrassvaluesarerelativelyclose,withonlyasmall
variationfromthepublishedvalues,howeverthetimbermaterialsofParanaPineand
Mahoganyseemtobeoutbyalargeamount,pineinparticular.Thiscanindicatethatthe
metalshavelessvariationinqualityofthematerial,asthesamplestestedwasclosetothe
industrystandardsone,whereasthePinematerialmayhavebeenanolderorweaker
despitebeingofthesameorigin.
WehavedoublecheckedtheEvaluesfortimbertomakesurethatourvalueswerecorrect
andhaveresearchedseveralotherwebsitesthatmayprovideuswiththepublishedvalues
ofE,inallcasesParanapinewasoutbyalargeamountwhereasmahoganyfellwithinthe
approximaterange,showingthatthesamplethatwehadwouldnothavemettheindustry
standardsastheEvalueisconsiderablylessthanthosethathavebeenpublished.
ThepublishedvalueofBrassthatwehaveusedwasintheexperimenthandbook,thegiven
valuewasgivenfor70/30brass,meaningthatitwas70%copperand30%zinc,whereasour
samplewas60/40.DuetocopperhavinghigherYoungsmodulusthanzinc,thatwould
meanthattheoreticallyourvalueof60/40shouldhavebeenlowerthanthatof70/30,it
wasinfacthigher,butstilllikelywithinarationalmarginoferror,ourvaluesmayhavebeen
differentduetoerrorincalculationoftheareaorcalculationofthegradientofthegraph
thatwewereprovidedwith.
Insummary,thevaluesthatwehaveattainedhavebeenrelativelyclosetothepublished
valueswiththeexceptionoftheParanapine,itmayhavebeenduetofaultysampleor
otherunknownvariationthatcausedtheEvaluetobeconsiderablylowerthanthe
publishedvaluesfoundontheinternet.
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Question2:Distinguishbetweencomponentstiffnessand
materialstiffness.
Stiffnesscanbedescribedastheabilityofamaterialtomaintainitsshapewhenacted
uponaload(CraneandFurness1997p.92)anddependsontheYoungsmodulusofthe
material,howtheloadisperformingonitandbythegeometricalshapeofthespecificpiece
ofthatmaterial.
Thecomponentstiffnesswillchangedependingontheshape,size,lengthandapplicationof
thematerial.IllustratedinFigure1itisevidentthatasthesampleismodified,itisableto
withstandmoreload.However,thecomponentstiffnessdoesnotonlydependonthe
youngsmodulusofthe
materialusedbutalsoon
howthematerialisloaded
whetherthroughtension
orbending.
Figure1:Showingthreebeams
withequalcrosssectionarea.
(CraneandFurness1997p.94)

Therefore,duringthedesignstage,componentstiffnesscanbeimprovedamaterialcan
beusedtodeflectundermoreloadsbeforedeformingpermanently,whereasitis
impossibletochangethematerialsinheritedstiffnessalsoknownastheYoungsmodulus,
whichisuniquetoallmaterials.Forexample,changingthecarboncontentcanimprovethe
stiffnessofamaterial,allowingittowithstandmoreweightthroughreinforcementof
moleculesbutthecomponentstiffnesscanbechangedwithoutmodificationonmolecular
levelbyjustvaryingthesizeorlengthofthesamematerial.AmaterialwithalowEvalue
thatbysomereasonispreferredoveranothermaterial,byaestheticreasonsorother
properties,cantherebyhaveitsstructuraldesignmodifiedsoitcanovercomeits
disadvantagesofhavingalowmaterialstiffness.Forinstanceatimberjoistofaspecific
timbercanbeproduceswithdifferentdimensionstobeabletowithstanddifferentload.
Thestiffnessofthetimberitselfwillnotchangebutthemanipulationofthegeometrical
shapewillhavechangedthetimberjoistscomponentstiffness.

Question3:Onthebasisofresults,whichmetalismostsuitablefor
structuralapplications?Explainwhy
Onthestressstraindiagramofourexperimentresults,itshowsastraightlinebetween
stressandstrain.Itmeansanincreasestressoccursaproportionateincreasestrain.This
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factisknownasHookesLaw.Itcanbeexpressedmathematicallyas=E.Theconstantof
proportionalityEistheYoungsmodulus(Hibbeler,2011)p.156.Youngsmodulusisa
measurementofmaterialsstiffnessorresistancetoelasticdeformationunderload
(WilliamD.Callister,2010).Hence,thehigherEvalue,thestifferthematerial.Inthetable
6.1somemetalsyoungsmodulusispresented.

(WilliamD.Callister,2010)p.157

Onthebasisofourexperimentresults,theYoung'sModulusofcarbonsteelis213.139GPa.
ItismuchhigherthantheYoung'sModulusofbrass,whichis102.69GPa.Inotherwords,
thecarbonsteelisrelativelyastiffermaterial.Astiffmaterialmeansitchangesitsshape
onlyslightlyunderelasticloads(UniversityofCambridge,DepartmentofEngineering,
2002).Inrealitythestructuralapplicationsarerequiredtobeasstiffaspossible,sothatitis
abletowithstandtheloadsappliedtobuildings.
Furthermore,carbonsteelalsoisahighlyductilematerial.Itmeansitisabletoreturntoits
originaldimensionwhenthestressisreleasedwithinitselasticlimit.Ifthestresscarrieson
beyondtheelasticlimit,itwillnotbeabletoreturntoitsoriginaldimensionwhenthestress
isreleased,butitwillnotbefracturedimmediately(Leslie,2007).
Inconclusion,carbonsteelhashighstiffness,highductilityandelasticlimit.These
propertiesmeettherequirementsofstructuralapplicationsneedsaswellasitcanbeused
tocalculatetheloadbearingcapabilities.Thereforeitcanbeusedpreciselyand
economically.Thatiswhycarbonsteelisthemostsuitableforstructuralapplicationsofthe
metalstested.

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Conclusion:
Inconclusion,theseseriesofexperimentstofindoutyoungmodulusofvariousmaterials
helpedustounderstandthateachmaterialhasadifferentloadbearingcapacitybeforeit
beginsdeformingpermanently.Asaresult,itiswisetoselectmaterialsappropriateforthe
specificstructurebeforebeginningconstruction.Ifweknowwhatthetotalsumofallloads
wouldbeonthebuilding,wecanuseappropriatematerials,suchasusingmetalswithhigh
carbonpercentageforthebuildingswhichareexpectedtosustainbigloadstomakesure
thatthebuildingdoesnotcollapseasaresultofmaterialdeformation,whichcanoccur
aftertheEvaluehasbeenreached.
Wehavealsodiscoveredthecomponentandmaterialstiffness,andidentifiedthe
differencesinboth,whereascomponentstiffnesscanbeimprovedthroughmodificationof
sizeofthesampleorlength,thematerialstiffnessremainsthesameunlessthematerial
itselfismodifiedinawayourswere,suchasthebrassbeingcombinationofcopperand
zinc,changingthe%wouldhaveadirectimpactupontheyoungsmodulus.
Theexperimentalsoshowedthateverymaterialhasauniqueyoungsmoduli,notallmetals
havethesameEvalue,nordoalltimber.Insomecasescombiningthematerialssuchas
thebrassbeingcombinationofcopperandzinc,theyoungsmoduluswasactuallylower
thanthosematerialswouldhavehadindividually,despitetheloweryoungsmodulus,itis
likelythatthecomponentstiffnessofthematerialwasgreaterthaniftheyweretested
individually.
Wehavealsoworkedwithwhatappearedtobeafaultysample,asthequotedbookvalue
ofEwasconsiderablyhigherthanwhatwehadattained;thissortofexperimentisusefulin
determiningwhetherthematerialprovidedbythesupplierisingoodenoughconditionto
beusedfortheplannedconstruction;decreasingthechanceofaccidentsorcollapseofthe
building.

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References:
CraneF.A.A.andFurnessJ.(1997)SelectionandUseofEngineeringMaterials,3rdEd,Elsevier
Science&TechnologyBooks
KermaniA.(1999)StructuralTimberDesign,Cambridge:Blackwellscience

LESLIE,J.A.A.T.(2007).Designtech:Buildingscienceforarchitects..1stEdition.Oxford:
ElsevierLtd.
MatbaseMECHANICAL,PHYSICALANDENVIRONMENTALPROPERTIESOFMATERIALS,[online]
Availablefrom:http://www.matbase.com/material/wood/

WILLIAMD.CALLISTER,J.D.G.R.(2010).Materialsscienceandengineering:anintroduction.
8thEdition.USA:JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.

Bibliography:

HIBBELER,R.C.(2011).MechanicsofMaterials.8thEdition.USA:PearsonPrenticeHall
UniversityofCambridge,DepartmentofEngineering,(2002).PropertyInformationYoung's
ModulusandSpecificStiffness[online]Availablefrom:<http://www
materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/properties/>[Accessed30Jan2012]

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AnisotropyofTimber

BySvenssonJosef,SzelagMarlena,TenStanislav,WangXu,WoodsNicholas

17

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Contents:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Objectivespg.19
Procedurepg.19
Observationspg.20
Resultspg.22
Discussionpg.28
Conclusion

pg.33
References

pg.34
Bibliography

pg.34
CertificatesofAttendance

pg.35
AndSignedDeclaration

18

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Objectives:

Samplesofstraightgrainpine,plywoodandchipboard,at0,45and90aregivento
examinehowtheyareaffecteddifferentlywhencompressionforceisapplied.Forthemain
investigationweareaimingtoestablishtherelationshipbetweenstrengthandgrain
direction.Twospecimensofeachmaterialateachorientationweretested.

Procedure:
AsLabSheet.

19

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Observation:
Duringtheexperiment,wehavetestedstraightgrainedtimber,plywoodandchipboardin
turns,withcutsparallel,45degreesandperpendiculartothegrainineachofthesamples.
Thedifferentsampleshaveallexperiencedsomesortofvisibledamage,insomecasesit
wasseveresuchastheexamplefallingapartcompletelybutinmosttherewerevisible
cracksandloudcreakingwhenthepressurewasappliedonthem.

StraightGrainedtimberwasthefirst
samplestested,slightcreakingcould
beheardduringtheapplicationofthe
weightanddeformationofthe
sampleshasbecomeevidentafterwe
removedthesamples.

Figure1:StraightGrainedTimber(BritishColumbianPine)aftercompression.
Fromrighttoleft:04590

Theplywoodsampleshaveexperiencedconsiderablymoredamagethanthetimber,
althoughthedamagewasnotapparentuntilweveremovedthepressurefromthesamples,
audiblecreakingcouldbeheardassamplesbeganbreakingasaresultoftheload.

Figure2:Plywoodaftercompression,Fromrighttoleft:04590

Figure3showshowthechipboardhasbeenaffectedbythepressure,inthecaseonfar
right,thesamplehascrackednoticeably,whereasthesamplesthathaveparallelandthe45
degreecuthavenotexperiencedasdrasticofachangeintermsofdamage.Duringthe
experiment,loudaudiblecreakingcouldbeheard,butlikeinthecaseofPlywood,visible
damagewasnot
apparentuntilafterthe

20

Figure3Chipboardaftercompression,Fromrighttoleft:04590

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sampleshavebeenremoved.

Duetoourinexperiencewithusingthisparticulartestingequipmentwefailedtocorrectly
adjusttheequipmentbetweensamplesonafewoccasionswhichledtoinconclusivedataas
aresult.Thesesampleswerereplacedwithsamplesofthesamepropertiesandthetesting
wasredone.Allresultspresentedbelowarefromsamplestestedcorrectly.

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Results:
FailureStress=FailureLoad/OriginalCrosssectionalarea
FailureStress/Area=FailureLoad
TabulateddimensionsandresultsforAnisotropyofTimber.StraightGrainedTimber
(BritishColumbianPine).
Timberat0
1. Area:14.9915.31=229.5mm
75.1229.4969=17,235N(FailureLoad)

2. Area:14.8715.13=225.0mm
59.8225=13455N

Timberat45
1. Area:15.7615.03=236.9mm
13.1236.9=3103.39N

2. Area:15.6615.16=237.4mm
21.3237.4=5056.74N

Timberat90
1. Area:15.4715.23=235.6mm
7.2235.6=1696.32N

2. Area:15.1015.68=236.8mm
6236.8=1420.60N
Table1
Timber

Width

Thickness

StraightGrainedTimber
[BritishColumbianPine]

(mm)

(mm)

At0degrees

14.99

At0

Originalcross
sectionalarea
(mm)

Maximum
load

Failure
Load

(N)

Failure
Stress
(N/mm)

15.31

229.5

17,244

75.1

17,235

14.87

15.13

225.0

13,458

59.8

13,455

At45

15.76

15.03

236.9

3,107

13.1

3,103

At45

15.66

15.16

237.4

5,064

21.3

5,057

At90

15.47

15.23

235.6

1,702

7.2

1,696

At90

15.10

15.68

236.8

1,413

6.0

1,421
22

(N)

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Resultsinaverage,calculatedfromtableabove
Table2
Maximum
Load
(N)

Failure
Stress

Failure
Load

(N/mm)

(N)

227.3

15,351

67.45

15,345

15.1

237.2

4,086

17.2

4,080

15.46

236.4

1,558

6.6

1,559

Timber

Width

Thickness

Crosssectionalarea

StraightGrainedTimber
[BritishColumbianPine]

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

At0

14.93

15.22

At45

15.71

At90

15.29

80

BrittishColumbiaPine

sample1

sample2

75,10
70
60

59,80

FailureStress(N/mm)

50
40
30
21,30

20

13,10

10

6,00

7,20

Graindirection
0 degree

45degeree

90degree

Graph1:ShowingThefailurestressofBritishColumbiaPinesamplestested

TabulateddimensionsandresultsforAnisotropyofTimber.Plywood.

Plywoodat0
1. Area:14.6715.16=222.40mm
30.3222.4=6738.7N

2. Area:15.1214.50=219.24mm
39.9219.24=8747.7N

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Plywoodat45
1. Area:14.6514.77=216.38mm
10.1216.38=2185.4N

2. Area:14.7214.65=215.70mm
9.9215.7=2135.4N

Plywoodat90
1. Area:14.9814.91=223.40mm
29.5223.4=6590.3N

2. Area:14.9814.62=219.00mm
28.4219=6219.6N

Table3
Plywood

Width

Thickness

(mm)

(mm)

Originalcross
sectionalarea
(mm)

(N)

Failure
Stress
(N/mm)

(N)

Maximum
load

Failure
Load

At0degrees

14.67

15.16

222.4

6,733

30.3

6,739

At0

15.12

14.50

219.2

8,757

39.9

8,748

At45

14.65

14.77

216.4

2,183

10.1

2,185

At45

14.72

14.65

215.7

2,127

9.9

2,135

At90

14.98

14.91

223.4

6,587

29.5

6,590

At90

14.98

14.62

219.0

6,222

28.4

6,220

Resultsinaverage,calculatedfromtableabove
Table4
Plywood

Width

Thickness

Crosssectionalarea

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

Maximum
Load
(N)

Failure
Stress

Failure
Load

(N/mm)

(N)

At0

14.9

14.83

221.0

7,745

35.1

7,744

At45

14.69

14.71

216.1

2,155

10

2,160

At90

14.98

14.77

221.3

6,405

29

6,405

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sample1

sample2

45
40

39,30

FailureStress(N/mm)

35
30

30,30

29,50

28,40

25
20
15
10

10,10

9,90

5
0
0 degree

Graindirection
45degeree

90degree

Graph2:ShowingThefailurestressofPlywoodsamplestested

TabulateddimensionsandresultsforAnisotropyofTimber.Chipboard.

Chipboardat0
1. Area17.6917.80=314.90mm
19.9314.9=6267N

2. Area17.7017.66=312.60mm
20312.6=6252N

Chipboardat45
1. 17.7517.74=314.90mm
19.3314.9=6078N

2. 17.7317.62=312.40mm
19312.4=5937N
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Chipboardat90
1. 17.9617.69=317.70mm
18.9317.7=6005N

2. 17.6817.84=315.40mm
17.7315.4=5583N

Table5

Chipboard

Width

Thickness

(mm)

(mm)

Originalcross
sectionalarea
(mm)

Maximum Failure
load
Stress
(N)
(N/mm)

Failure
Load
(N)

At0degrees

17.69

17.80

314.9

6,216

19.9

6,267

At0

17.70

17.66

312.6

6,241

20.0

6,252

At45

17.75

17.74

314.9

6,080

19.3

6,078

At45

17.73

17.62

312.4

5,933

19.0

5,937

At90

17.96

17.69

317.7

5,998

18.9

6,005

At90

17.68

17.84

315.4

5,574

17.7

5,583

Maximum
Load
(N)

Failure
Stress

Failure
Load

(N/mm)

(N)

Resultsinaverage,calculatedfromtableabove
Table6
Chipboard

Width

Thickness

Crosssectionalarea

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

At0

17.7

17.73

313.8

6,251

19.95

6,260

At45

17.74

17.68

313.6

6,007

19.15

6,008

At90

17.82

17.77

316.7

5,786

18.3

5,794

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sample1

20,5

sample2

20,00

FailureStress(N/mm)

20
19,90
19,5
19,00
19,30

19

18,90
18,5
18

17,70

17,5

Graindirection
0 degree

45degeree

90degree

Graph3:ShowingThefailurestressofChipboardsamplestested

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Discussion:
Question1:Explainthevariationincompressivestrengthoftimber
withtestdirection.

Anisotropyisthestateorqualityofhavingdifferentpropertiesalongdifferentaxes.The
anisotropyoftimbercanbetestedusingacompressiontest;thisconsistsoftwoplates
compressingtogethertotellustheboundsatwhichamaterialcantakebeforeeventually
failing.Wecanthenunderstandthematerialsstructuralpropertiesanditscompressive
strength.Compressivestrengthistheabilitytosupporttheforcesexertedontoamaterialat
differentdegrees.Thematerialthenreachesalimittowhichitcanwithstandandthen
bucklesundertheload.Atalternatedegreesamaterialhasdifferentcapacitiesatwhichitis
abletosupportacompressiveload.
Timberisanaturalmaterial,whichhasuniquecharacteristicsandstructuralproperties;this
isduetothenatureofthegrain.Thegraingivesthetimberitsstrength.Tounderstandthis,
thenatureofthegrainwassubjecttoacompressivestrengthtest,twiceat0paralleltothe
grain,twiceat45,andtwiceat90perpendiculartothegrain.Inordertotryandachievea
roughaveragethetestwascarriedouttwice,thisalsocatersforfailedtests.
Wecanclearlyseefromtheresultspresentedearlierthattestdirectionproducesdifferent
results.Itshowsusclearlythattestingparalleltothegrainiswherethetimberhasmostof
itsstructuralproperties.Overthetworesultsofeachspecimenwecanalsounderstandthat
a90degreesturnofthetestdirectioncandecreasethestructuralpropertiesbyanaverage
of13,794N.Thecompressivestrengthoftimberat0isgreaterthantimberat90tothe
grain.Thevariationincompressivestrengthcouldbeduetothecellalignmentinthe
timber.Thegrainismadeupoftimbercells,towhich90%ofthesearealignedvertically.So
whenthespecimeniscompressedtheverticallyalignedtimbercellsresistthebending
moment,actinglikeawebofasteelbeam.Theverticalcellsrequiremoreforceto
compresswhereaswhenthespecimenisrotated90thecellsareverticallyalignedmaking
themeasytocompressandeventuallycausingthematerialtobuckleundertheload.Once
thegrainisrotatedto45and90theresistancedecreases.Thisissincecovalentbondingis
presentalongthedirectionofthemicrofibersintimber,whilsthydrogenbondsisactivein
betweenthemicrofibers.Thusitwillrequirelessforcetobreakthebondingbetweenthe
cellwallsiftheforceisappliedperpendiculartothefibredirectiontheniftheforceis
appliedalongthegraindirection.

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Question2:Itisnotpossibletocomparemeaningfullythe
magnitudesofthefailurestressesforthedifferentmaterials.Why
isthis?
Itisnotpossiblesincewoodcomesfromalivingorganism.Therewillbedifferentproperties
ofdifferentsamplesdependingonthespecifictreethatthespecificpieceoftimber
originatesfrom,independentofwhatgrainangleitiscut.Thereforeseeminglyidenticaltest
piecescanhavedifferentproperties.Anumberofcontributingfactorswilldeterminethe
individualpropertiesofthetestedsamplessuchasdensity,knots,otherdefectsandgrowth
rate.Alsowhenusedinconstructionandstructurestimberisusedindifferentsizes,
temperaturesandenvironmentsthenthosepresentinthisexperiment.Thiswillhave
varyingeffectonthepropertiesofthematerialsused.Evenifweassumethatallthe
samplestestedwereofequalmoisturecontentandstoredinthesameenvironmentthere
arefactorsthatcanhaveanimpactonthepropertiesofthematerials.
Thedensityoftimbervariesnotonlybythemoisturecontentandtemperatureofthe
samplebutcanalsobedependentontheamountoflatewoodandearlywoodinasample.
Sincetreesgrowindifferentratesatdifferentstagesitaffectsthepropertiesofthewood.
Strengthanddensitywillbelowestatthelowercenterofatreeandwillincreaseslightly
upwardsandoutwards(Desch&Dinwoodie1996).Theoriginofthetreewillalsoaffectthe
propertiesofaspecificpieceoftimber.Twosamplesofidenticalsizethatarecutinthe
sameangletothegraincanhaveslightlydifferentpropertiesdependingonwhereonthe
treetheyoriginatefromaswellasfromwhichtree.
Sinceknotsareanirregularityinthegrainandaffecttheangleofthegrainsitwillhavean
impactonthestrengthofthematerial.Knotsvaryinsizeandcanoccuranywhereinapiece
oftimberandtheeffectswillthereforevary.Iftheknotforinstanceispositionedonthe
edgeofapieceitwillhaveadifferentimpactonthepropertiesofthepiecethenifitis
positionedinthecenterofthepiece.Itisthereforedifficulttoquantifytheeffectofknotsin
specificpiecesoftimber(Desch&Dinwoodie1996).
Thepropertiesofplywoodandchipboardalsodepend,inthesamewayastimberpieces,
greatlyonthespecificpiecesoftimberusedandnotonlyonthepropertiesoftheadhesive
orresinused.Sincebothplywoodandchipboardiscomposedofdifferentpiecesoftimber
ofdifferentkind,factorssuchasknotsandirregularitiesindensityhaveasmallereffecton
themechanicalpropertiesofthesematerials.Butthepropertiesoftheusedtimberwill
reflectonthepropertiesonthemanufacturedplywoodorchipboard.Youcouldintheory
calculatethestrengthpropertyofplywoodwithdetailedinformationofthetimberpieces
andadhesiveused.(Illston1995).
Sinceonlytwopiecesofeachgrainandcutanglewastesteditisnotpossibletodrawa
meaningfulconclusionsbasedonthetestsperformed.Andasseeninthegraphspresented
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earliertherearevaryingdifferencebetweenthetwosamplestested.Anumberoftimber
piecesfromdifferentoriginandsuppliersofthesamekindandstandardwouldhavebeen
necessarytobetterindicatethevariationsofthesamekindsofwood.
Gradingoftimbernowadaysisdonewithstructuralsizedpiecesoftimbertobetter
determinethepropertiesofdifferenttimbersinthewaytheywillperforminstructures.
Thereforetheresultsintheexperimentwillbedifferentcomparedtostructuralsized
testing.
Inadditiontomeasuringthetestsamplesitcouldhavebeeninterestingtoweighthemto
determinethedensityoftheindividualsamplesofthesamegrainandcutangletoidentify
anydifferences.Ifalargeramountofsamples,orlargerpieces,wastestedandweighed
perhapssomeabnormalitiescouldhavebeenidentifiedandmoreaccuratelyindicative
resultscouldhavebeenpresentedforthedifferentpiecesoftimber.

Question3:Comparethevariationinpropertiesfortimber,
plywoodandchipboardandoutlinethesignificancefortheuseof
thesematerials.
Asstatedpreviously,wehavebeengiventimber,plywoodandchipboardsamplestotest
themintermsofcompressionresistance,andanalysethem.
Timberasanaturalsourcehasclearlyvisibledifferencesthanplywoodandchipboard.As
showninthetable1,timbercutparalleltothegraincanwithstandmuchmoreload
(average15,351N)andittakesmoreFailureload(average15,345N)thancutat45or90.
ItsbeenfoundthattheTensileandCompressionstrengthsisreachingmaximumatparallel
positiontothegrain,andminimumatperpendicular.Tocomparethistotheplywoodand
chipboardresults,Timberhasthebestcompressionresistancecutparalleltothegrainthan
anyofthematerialatdifferentangles.Totakethesefactorsunderconsideration,Timberis
highlyanisotropic,whichmeanhasdifferentpropertiesindifferentdirections.
LookingattheTable4,whereplywoodresultsareaveraged,itcanbeassumedthatthis
materialcanbeslightlyanisotropic,whileitsmaximumloadisvisiblydecreasedwherethe
sampleswerecutat45,thanat0and90.
ComparingtheconclusionsabovetotheTable6,wherethechipboardresultsaretabulated,
thismaterialisnotanisotropic,asithasthesamepropertiesindependentontheanglecut.
Beingatimberbasedmaterial,plywoodhastheabilitytoaccommodatetheoccasional
shorttermoverload;uptotwicethedesignload.Thismeans,thatwhenloadingisapplied

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forashortterm,anelasticresponseispresent.Longtermloadingcancausecreep,which
followonfailureofthematerial.
Particleboardisareconstitutedwoodpanelproductmanufacturedfromwoodparticles.It
canalsobemanufacturedusingwoodflakesorstrands.
Amatofindividualwoodparticlesiscoatedinadhesiveresinandpressedtogetherintoa
finishedpanel.Asthewoodfibresintheparticlesarerandomlyoriented,thefinishedpanel
hasuniformpropertiesineachdirection.
This means, that the properties of the material, depends on its contents. Looking at the
table 6, chipboard has similar maximum load and failure load at the different angles. It is
possibletogetthechipboardresistanttomoisture,ifadequateresinisusedtomanufacture
thematerial.
Althoughtimbersmechanicalpropertiesarefixedbythegrowthcycle,plywoodand
chipboardspropertiesarefixedbyresinbywhichtheywereglued,andwhichtimberparts
theyaremadeof.Examiningclosureanatureoftimer,betweenhardwoodsandsoftwoods,
thereisadifferenceinstructure,butnotinmechanicalproperties.
Durability
Whileitisunlikelyincoolerenvironments,particleboardisstillsusceptibletofungiand
termites;howeveramoisturecontentofover18%wouldneedtobeachieved.
Particleboardflooringisthemostcommonapplicationtoencountermoistconditionsand
fungusresistantandtermiteresistantflooringisavailabletohelppreventdeterioration.
Particleboardwillperformsatisfactorilyinareasofhighhumidityandcanalso
accommodatetheoccasionalwaterspillagebutitisnotdesignedtobecontinuallywet.
Particleboardshouldbeconditionedtohumidityleveloftheenvironmentitwillbeusedin,
withanormalmoisturecontentrangeof1012%
Thedurabilityofplywoodwillinpartdependonthebondqualityusedinmanufacturing.
Althoughtheuseofadurableadhesiveprovidesabondoflongtermeffectiveness,itdoes
notguaranteethattheveneersbeingbondedtogetherwillhaveanylongtermdurability.
Asstructuralplywoodismanufacturedfromarangeofhardwoodandsoftwoodspecies,it
maynotbedurableinexposedweathersituationssomustbetreatedwithpreservativeto
ensureitsfullservicelifecanbereached.
Uses
Plywoodisnotrecommendedforfullyexposedhorizontalapplicationslikedeckingbecause
severecheckingcanoccur,butitisagoodsubstrateformembranesinthisapplication.Face
veneersarealsopronetocrackingifleftunprotectedinunsuitableweatherconditions.

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Doors,ExteriorStairs,ExternalCladding,Flooring,Framing,InteriorRailsandBalustrades,
InteriorStairs,InternalPanelling,InternalPanelling,TimberJoineryProductsandTimber
PortalFramesareexamplesofpotentialuses.
Timberisoneofthemostversatilematerialsforbothinternalandexternaluses.Whether
manufacturedfromsolidorengineeredtimber,therearemanyoptionsinfinishesthatwill
notcompromiseonstrengthandstructuralperformance.
Materialswhichwehavebeengiventotestandanalysearemostlyusedinnonforce,or
littleforceappliedobjects.Timberandtimberlikesuppliesareknownofitsstrength,
durability,flexibilityandeasyworkability.HoweverChipboardismainlyusedasafloor
board,itisalsostrongandnaturalmaterial.

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Conclusion:
Inconclusion,asdiscussedabove,timberishighlyanisotropic,duetoitsnaturalstructure.It
showsgreatcompressivestrengthparalleltothegrainandleastperpendiculartothegrain.
Thefailurestressoftimberisinconclusivetocomparesince,evenifthepiecestested
derivedfromthesametree,eachindividualpieceofthetimberhastheirownproperties
suchasgrainangle,cellstructureanddensityetc.allofthesefactorsaffectthestrengthof
thetimber.Forthevarietiesofthecharacteristicoftimberitisusedwidelyinourlifesuch
asstructuralbeams,flooring,furniture,frameetc.
Plywoodandchipboardaremanufacturedproducts.Plywoodisproducedbymeansof
crossbindingtimberveneers,thereforethecompressivestrengthparalleltothegrainand
perpendiculartothegrainareapproximatelyequal.Thefailurestressdependsonthetype
ofadhesiveusedandqualityoftheveneers.Itcanbeusedasconstructionstructure
material,fordecorationorgeneralpurposeaccordingtothedifferenceofbonding
performance.
Chipboardhassimilarmaximumloadandfailureloadatthedifferentangles,asitis
producedbypressingthewoodparticlesbondedtogetherwithadhesiveandithasuniform
propertiesineachdirection.Thepropertiesofchipboardwillvarybecauseitdependsonthe
sizeofthechip,densityoftheboardandthetypeoftheresinused.Chipboardismostly
usedasflooringandforfurniturepurposes.

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References:
DeschH.E.&DinwoodieJ.M.(1996)Timber,Structure,Properties,ConversionandUse,
SeventhEd,London:Macmillan
IllstonJ.M.(1994)ConstructionMaterials,TheirNatureandBehavior,SecondEd,Suffolk:E
&FSpon

Bibliography:
FindlayW.P.K(1975)Timber,PropertiesandUses,London:CrosbyLockwoodstaples
MerrittF.RickettsJ.(2000)BuildingDesignandConstructionHandbookSixthEd,McGraw
Hill
WoodSolutions(2011)[online]Availablefrom:http://www.woodsolutions.com.au/Wood
ProductCategories/[Accessed10022012]

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