Anda di halaman 1dari 61

Dr.

Rajendra Prasad: The First President of India


Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first president of India; was born on 3rd Dec, 1884. He lived 79 successful years
with great zeal, strengthening the foundation of our country, in a nice way. He served the nation for a long
time with his extremely strong leadership. The great leader contributed a lot to motivate the Indian citizens
to attain freedom and live the life with full liberty. Thats why; he was admired by the people as the first
president of India after freedom. He was proved as an intelligent motivator for young people and proved as
a role model for them, even after being belonged to a small village Ziradei in Siwan, Bihar.Lifetime
achievements-Dr. Rajendra Prasad contributed for the progress of India up to the great extent. He served his
motherland so dearly that he dedicated all his life for the holy service of the country. Being a good leader,
he was selected for various posts in the Indian cabinet. His main achievements in the series are as follows:He was chosen as the first president of India; at the age of 63 years.Being the president of the constituent
assembly, he employed his intelligent views and ideas full of farsightedness in order to build a strong
constitution for the country.Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president of congress, the most popular
national party during the year of 1939 and 1943.One of the interesting facts about the political carrier of Dr.
Prasad that he served as the cabinet minister in the first Indian government, after freedom.Family and
earlier life-Dr. Rajendra Prasad was a very simple, honest and intelligent leader. Being the disciple of
Gandhiji, he followed his rules such as non violence, honesty, truthfulness and became one of the crucial
members of the freedom struggle. His father, Mahadev Sahay and mother, Kamleshwari Devi brought him
up with great love and care as he was the youngest child among his siblings. He was a scholar of Persian
and Sanskrit language. His elder brother, Mahendra Prasad was admired by him a lot.He was committed for
the customs and riots of his community crucially, from his childhood only. He was taught Persian by a
private maulavi, at the age of five years. His great intelligence and analyzing power made him the expert of
Hindi and arithmetic. He was married to Rajvanshi Devi, at the age of 12 years.Graduation and young lifeDr. Rajendra Prasad was an extremely brilliant student. He was the topper student in the entrance
examination of Calcutta University and achieved the scholarship of Rs. 30 per month, in the year of 1902.
He went to presidency college of Calcutta where he got the chance of learning science under the great
Indian scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose. Later, he selected arts as his subject instead of science and
completed the study of MA. He became master of Law and initiated swadeshi movement by the inspiration
of his brother mahendra Prasad. He became the member of the dawn society which was being run by satish
Chandra mukherji and sister nivedita at the time.Political careerDr. Prasad came into contact with gandhiji
during his arrival on the Indian national scene. He was highly influenced with the great personality and
became dedicated for the freedom struggle after meeting father of the nation . His disciplined life and
dedication for the motherland inspired Prasad in a great way that he took part in salt satyagrah and got
arrested by police in 1930. When the earthquake struck Bihar in 1934, he was in jail only. As he was
released from jail after 2 days of the event, he started collecting fund and economic relief for the people
who were suffering from destruction by the natural calamity. He became successful in collecting about 3.8
million Rs. in which the one third parts was contributed by the viceroy.Just after this event, he was selected

as the president of Indian national congress and leaded the Bombay session. From this point his political
carrier caught speed and he became the president of the country. After serving the country for 12 years in
this highly admirable stage, he was awarded Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of India. He died on
28th February, 1963, after retirement.Literary contributionsSatyagraha at Champaran (1922)India Divided
(1946)Atmakatha (1946), his autobiography written during his 3-year prison term in Bankipur JailMahatma
Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminisences (1949)Bapu ke Kadmon Mein (1954)Since Independence
(published in 1960)
Source: IAS
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
creativity is often part of a mental illness, with writers particularly susceptible, according to a study of more
than a million people.Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, unipolar
depression, and substance abuse, the Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute found.They were
almost twice as likely as the general population to kill themselves.The dancers and photographers were also
more likely to have bipolar disorder.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@
it is essential to get ur hands dirty to clear the garbage

Poverty - Types and Indicators


Poverty can be of different types like absolute poverty and relative poverty. There may be many other
classifications like urban poverty, rural poverty, primary poverty, secondary poverty and many more.
Whatever be the type of poverty, the basic reason has always been lack of adequate income. Here comes
the role of unemployment behind poverty.Lack of employment opportunities and the consequential income
disparity bring about mass poverty in most of the developing and underdeveloped economies of the
world.Absolute PovertyPoverty is usually measured as either absolute or relative poverty (the later being
actually an index of income inequality). Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over
time and between countries.The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US $1.25 (PPP)
per day, and moderate poverty as less than $ 2 a day (but note that a person or family with access to
subsistence resources, e.g. subsistence farmers, may have low cash income without a correspondingly low
standard of living - they are not living on their cash income but using it as a top up). It estimates that in

2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption level below 1$ a day and 2.7$ billion lived on less than $2 a
day.Relative PovertyRelative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context,
hence relative poverty is a measure of income inequality. Usually, relative poverty is measured as the
percentage of population with income less than some fixed proportion of median income. There are several
other income inequality metrics, for example for Gini coefficient or the Theil Index.Relative poverty
measures are used as official poverty rates in several developed countries. As such these poverty statistics
measure inequality rather than material deprivation or hardship. The measurements are usually based on a
person's yearly income and frequently take no account of total wealth. The main poverty line used in the
OECD and the European Union is based on 'economic distance' a level of income is set at 60% of the
medial household income. Multidimensional Poverty IndexThe multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was
developed in 2010 ny Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative and the United Nations
Development Program. The MPI is an index of acute multidimensional povety. It reflects deprivations in
very rudimentary services and core human functioning for people across 104 countries. Although deeply
constrained by data limitations, MPI reveals a different pattern of poverty than income poverty, as it
illuminates a different set of deprivations.The MPI has three dimensions - health, education, and standard
of living. These are measured using ten indicators. Each dimension and each indicator within a dimension
is equally weighted.These 10 indicators are used to calculate the MPI:Education (each indicator is weighted
equally at 1/6)Years of Schooling - Deprived if no household member has completed five years of
schooling.Child Enrollment - Deprived if any school aged child is not attending school in years 1 to
8.Health (each indicator is weighted equally at 1/6)Child Mortality - Deprived if any child has died in the
familyNutrition - Deprived if any adult or child for whom there is nutritional information is
malnourished.Standard of Living (each indicator is weighted equally at 1/18)Electricity - Deprived if the
household has no electricity.Sanitation - Deprived if they do not have an improved toilet or if their toiled is
shared (MDG Definition).Drinking Water - Deprived if the household does not have access to clean
drinking water or clean water is more than 30 minutes walk from home (MDG Definition).Floor - Deprived
if the household has dirt, sand or dung floor.Cooking Fuel - Deprived if they cook with wood, charcoal or
dung.Assets - Deprived if the household does not own more than one of radio, TV, telephone, bike or
motorbike.A person is considered poor if they are deprived in at least 30% of the weighted indicators. The
intensity of poverty denoted the proportion of indicators in which they are deprived.
Source: Finanomics
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
WORLD FAIR TRADE ORGANISATION (WFTO)
The World Fair Trade Organisation (WFTO) formerly the International Fair Trade Organisation was created
in 1989 and is a global association of 324 organisations in over 70 countries. Members are fair trade

producer cooperatives association, export marketing companies, importers , retailers, national and regional
fair trade networks and Fair Trade Support Organisations. WFTO's mission is to improve the livelihoods
and well being of the disadvantaged producers by linking and promoting Fair Trade Organisation and
speaking out for great justice i the world. In 2004 WFTO launched a fair trade certification. The FTO mark
identifies registered fair trade organisations world wide and guarantees that standards are being
implemented regarding working conditions, wages, child labor, and the environment. The FTO mark is
available to all WFTO members who meet the requirements of the WFTO Standards and Monitoring
System. "Fair trade is about giving marginalized producers a chance to succeed at the market place that
generally excludes them and using the purchasing power of the consumer as a tool for real social and
economic change."Fair Trade is market led solution to poverty which aims to use trade, not aid. In India
Fair Trade Forum India ( FTF-I) is the representative body of WFTO. Established in 2000, it has been
working to sensitize the people or the consumer as a tool to strengthen the producer. A national network of
80 Fair Trade Organisations, the forum organizes workshops, lectures, talks in schools, colleges, shopping
complexes using producer group case studies and documentaries to provide the soul stirring insights.
Presently these 80 small and medium organizations work with more than 3500 producer groups all over
India with an outreach to almost 1 lakh farmers and artisans. FTF-I members registered a combined
turnover of approximately 250 crores in the year 2010-2011. 80% of this comes from the exports to various
countries. Awareness Among Indian ConsumersIndian consumers are unaware that by choosing fair trade
products they can support development of socially and environmentally sustainable supply chains and thus
improve the livelihoods of the producers and preserve environment. As a result, despite the market potential
there is currently low market demand for fair trade products. To counter this Pro-Sustain campaign aimed at
promoting sustainable consumption has been launched. Pro-Sustain activities are covered out across
schools, universities, companies, corporate houses, exhibitions along with Fair Trade retail shops. Despite
ample production of Indian fair trade products for export they are not readily available on domestic retail
shelves. There is neither a single dedicated shop brand for fair trade products nor a way for consumers to
identify the fair trade products in the mainstream outlets. As a result, fair trade products are not widely
available to potential fair trade consumers. An "I Support Fair Trade" campaign has been launched in
Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Agra and is being spread across the country with the aim to increase consumption
of fairly traded products. Government's Stand The government has not adopted a policy of promoting a fair
trade as an effective means to catalyze socially and environmentally sustainable production. Various govt.
agencies are involved in the promotion of the agricultural produce, textiles and handicrafts. Yet, because of
lack of knowledge of fair trade, using it as a tool to promote sustainable supply chains has not featured in
promotional activities of the agencies like the Ministry of Textiles, Commerce, Agriculture and MSME's.
Policy workshops and consensus building to lobby with various govt. agencies is one of the core focus
areas.
Source: IAS

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Pollution
The addition of constituents to water, air or land, which adversely alter the natural quality of our
environment is known as Pollution. Pollution may also be defined as an undesirable variation in the
physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our water, air and land that may or will harmfully affect
human life or that of desirable species, our industrial processes, living conditions and cultural assets, or that
may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources. Global Aspect of Pollution Entire world can be
considered as a single vast ecosystem of the universe consisting of two parts:(I) Biotic Community (or
Living Part) That is, the Biosphere in which life exists. The lack of living creatures and dis-balance in their
life balance, gives rise to the crises in biological community.(II) Abiotic Community (or Non-Living Part of
Physical Environment) The abiotic or physical environment of all organism existing on the earth exists in
three zones: Atmosphere, Lithosphere, and Hydrosphere. Causes of Environmental Pollution The root cause
of environmental pollution has been men's behave with the nature. Albeit, there are several reasons for
environmental pollution, for example: A. Harmful Gases in the Atmosphere The concentration of harmful
gases is increasing day by day in the atmosphere. Increasing Carbon dioxide content will warm up the earth
atmosphere to such an extent that it will melt the polar ice and will cause a subsequent rise in sea level.
Thus low line areas will be submerged, carbon dioxide is harmful to our health. Carbon mono-oxide,
Sulpur dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Nitrogen oxide, Ozone etc also constitute the other harmful pollutant.
B. Industrial Waste (Effluents) Discharge of untreated industrial effluents (for example Breweries,
Tanneries, Dying, Textile and Paper can cause very serious pollution indeed. C. Swage and Domestic
Wastes Dumping of tonnes of sewage, dead humans and animals and domestic wastes from cities into the
water reservoirs are one of the major causer of water pollution. Discharge of untreated or partially treated
sewage may cause: (a) depletion of oxygen content caused by biological oxidation of organic matter; and
(b) stimulation of algae growth. The above effects affects the diverse uses of water. D. Insecticides and
Pesticides Insecticides used to kill insects which destroys (damages) our corps, spread several diseases in
man, after spraying are washed off to the rivers and lakes and become a part fish body and other animal
there. In the same way pollution of food grains by insecticides and pesticides and the various diseases
caused by such food grains are also well known. E. Automobile/Factory Exhausts The air becomes foul by
the exhaust from the internal combustion engines of automobiles used for personal conveyance, transport of
goods and passenger traffic in the modern world. This polluted air is unhealthy for human and animal.
Carbon monoxide is a deadly poisonous gas discharged from the automiles and factories is a serious
problem in big cities of the world. It causes headaches, loss of vision, nausea, pain, convulsions, asthmatic
spasm etc. F. Fertilizers and Detergents Fertilizers applied in the fields are also washed off into streams,
rivers and the seas. Here they increase the growth of algae (algae is a microscopic green plan). This algae
consumes the oxygen of water much more then they returned to water in dissolved state (during
photosynthesis). In short supply of oxygen the animal living in water become suffocated.Detergents also

causes a serious problem to the fresh water resources. Major ingredients of most detergents are phosphates.
When discharged into water they support luxuriant growth of algae. Different types of pollution Pollution
can be classified mainly on the basis of (i) Environmental (water, soil and air etc.); and (ii) Pollutants (lead,
carbon-dioxide, solid waste etc.). On the basis of these two ways pollution may be classified as: Air
PollutionMercury PollutionNoise PollutionPesticide and Herbicide PollutionRadioactive PollutionSoil
PollutionThermal PollutionWater Pollution
Source: IAS
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen
Originally, the Fundamental Duties were not provided in the Constitution. On the basis of the
recommendations of Swarn Singh Committee, these duties were included in the Constitution under Article
51A of part IV by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976. Under these provisions, a citizen of India
is expected to faithfully observe the following fundamental Duties.It shall be the duty of every citizen of
India:To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideas and institutions, the National Flag and the National
Anthem;To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;To uphold
and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;To defend the country and render national service
when called upon to do so;To promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of
India, transcending religious, linguistic, regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory
to the dignity of women;To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;To protect and
improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, river, and wildlife and to have compassion for
living creatures;To develop the scientific temper, humanism and spirit of inquiry and reform;To safeguard
public property and to abjure violence;To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and
collective activities so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement;To
provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between age of 6 and 14
years;The 11th point was adopted by 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.The fundamental duties are
inspired by the constitution of former former Soviet Union. Since, the fundamental duties are included in
part IV of the constitution, these can not come into force automatically, neither can these duties be enforced
by judicial process. The constitution, like directive principles of state policies, leaves to the goodwill of
citizen to abide these provisions. According to the famous constitutional expert D D Basu, the constitution
does not make any provision to enforce these duties automatically or any sanction to prevent the violation
of these duties by the citizen. However, it is expected that if a law is enacted by the legislature to enforce
these provisions, its shall not be declared unconstitutional on the ground of its inconsistency with the
provisions of Article 14 and that of 19. According to him, these provisions would act as a warning to all
those who does indulge in not paying due regard to the constitution and destroying public property. The
supreme court may issue such warning to citizen to take these provisions seriously. The legislature may

also enact laws to enforce these duties. In fact, there are already many laws which directly or indirectly
enforce these duties. For example, there is law for the protection of public property as well as environment
and animal species.However, the Supreme Court, in Surya Vs Union of India (1992) case, ruled that
fundamental duties are not enforceable through judicial remedies by court. In Vijoy Immanuel Vs State of
Kerala (1987), the Supreme Court overruled the decision of Kerala High Court and decided that though to
Constitution provides it to be the duty of citizen to respect the National Anthem, it does not provide that
singing of the National Anthem is part of such respect. Even a person, while standing during the singing of
National Anthem (without himself singing it) can show respect to the National Anthem.
Source: IAS
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Fundamental Rights to Indian Citizens
The Constitution guarantees elaborate Fundamental Rights to Indian citizens, These are contained in Part
III of the Constitution. The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that
all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil
liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most
liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of
association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the
protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at
overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in sucessfully abolishing the
"untouchability"; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and
forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in
protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their
distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions. Originally, the right to
property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in
1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that "No person shall be deprived of his property save
by authority of law." Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the
press, can be limited "in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State,
friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court,
defamation or incitement to an offence" Right to Equality Article 14: Equality before law and equal
protection of lawArticle 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or
place of birth.Article 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employmentArticle 17: End of
untouchabilityArticle 18: Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however,
exemptedRight to Freedom Article 19: It guarantees the citizens of India the following six fundamentals
freedoms:-Freedom of Speech and ExpressionFreedom of AssemblyFreedom of form AssociationsFreedom
of MovementFreedom of Residence and SettlementFreedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and

BussinessArticle 20: Protection in respect of conviction for offencesArticle 21: Protection of life and
personal libertyArticle 22: Protection against arrest and detention in certain casesRight Against
Exploitation Article 23: Traffic in human beings prohibitedArticle 24: No child below the age of 14 can be
employedRight to freedom of Religion Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and
propagation of religionArticle 26: Freedom to manage religious affairsArticle 27: Prohibits taxes on
religious groundsArticle 28: Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational
institutionsCultural and Educational Rights Article 29: Protection of interests of minoritiesArticle 30: Right
of minorities to establish and administer educational institutionsArticle 31: Omitted by the 44th
Amendment ActRight to Constitutional Remedies Article 32: The right to move the Supreme Court in case
of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by BR Ambedkar)Forms of Writ checkHabeas
Corpus: Equality before law and equal protection of law
Source: IAS
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Mutual Fund
A mutual fund is a trust that pools the saving of a number of investors who share a common financial goal.
The money thus collected is then invested in capital market instruments such as shares, debentures and
other securities. The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciation realized are
shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them.The mutual fund industry in
India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India, at the initiative of the Government of India
and the Reserve Bank of India. The History of mutual fund in India can be broadly divided into four
distinct phases:First Phase (1964-87)Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established in 1963 by an act of
parliament, it was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the regulatory and
administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the
Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory and administrative control in place
of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. At the end of 1988 Unit had 6700 crore
of assets under management.Second Phase (1987-93)1987 marked the entry of non-UTI, public sector
mutual fund setup by the public sector banks and life insurance corporation of India (LIC) and General
Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI mutual fund was the first non-UTI mutual fund established in
June 1987 followed by CanBank Mutual Fund (December 1987), Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund
(August 1989), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Novemeber 1989), Bank of India (June 1990), Bank of Baroda
Mutual Fund (October 1992). LIC established its Mutual Fund in June 1989 while GIC set up its Mutual
Fund in December 1990.Third Phase (1993-2003)With the entry of private sector funds in 1993, a new era
started in the Indian mutual fund industry, giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. Also,
1993 was a year in which the first Mutual Fund regulation came into being, under which all mutual funds
except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Poneer (now Merged with Franklin

Templeton) was the first private sector Mutual fund registered in July 1993.The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund)
Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulation in 1996. The
industry now function under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulation 1996.Fourth Phase (Since February
2003)In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated into
two separate entities. One is the specified undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under
management of 29,835 crore as at the end of Jan 2003, representing broadly the assets of US 64 scheme,
assured return and certain other schemes. The specified undertaking of Unit Trust of India, functioning
under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the
purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations.The second is the UTI Mutual Fund, sponsored by SBI, PNB,
BoB and LIC. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. With the
bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI had in Mach 2000 more than 76,000 crore of assets under management
with the setting up of UTI Mutual Fund, conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations, and with recent
mergers taking place among the different private sector funds, the mutual fund industry has entered its
current phase of consolidation and growth.
Source: Finanomics
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) of India
The oldest stock market in Asia, BSE stands for Bombay Stock Exchange and was initially known as "The
Native Share and Shock Brokers Association". Incorporated in 1875, BSE became the first exchange in
India to be certified by the administration. It attained a permanent authorization from the Indian
Government in 1956 under Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956.Over the year, the exchange
company has played an essential part in hte expansion of Indian investment market. At present the
association is functioning as incorporated body integrated under stipulations of Companies Act, 1956.While
BSE is now synonymous with Dalal Street, it was not always so. The first venues of the earliest stock
brokers meetings in the 1850s were in rather natural environs - under banyan trees - in front of the Town
Hall, where Horniaman Circle is now situated.A decade later, the brokers moved their venue to another set
of foliage, this time under banyan trees at the junction of Meadows Streets and what is now called
Mahatma Gandhi Road.As number of brokers increased, they had to shift from place to place, but they
always overflowed to the streets. At last, in 1874, the brokers found a permanent place, and one that they
could, quite literally, call their own, the new place was, aptly, called Dalal Street (Brokers Street).In 2002,
name "The Stock Exchange, Mumbai" was changed to Bombay Stock Exchange. Subsequently on August
19, 2005 the Exchange turned into a corporate entity from an association of persons (AoP). And renamed as
Bombay Stock Exchange Limited.BSE which had introduced the securities trading in India, replaced its
own outcry system of trading in 1995, with the totally automated trading through the BSE Online Trading
(BOLT) system. The BOLT network was expanded nationwide in 1997.

Source: Finanomics
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Healthy Life is Biggest Asset
The meaning and importance of having good health can only understood after it start deteriorating. May be
because of busy lifestyle, our diet and schedule became unhealthy. As we grow up from teenage to 20+ our
physical activities decrease to nearly zero, games no more remains a part of our routine. We stop our
regular walk to shops, school/college and become completely dependent on cars or motorbikes to cover
smallest distance. This is the first invitation to illness. It is not very hard to notice difficulties arising with
age, like digestion capacity. In our 30s everything remains OK so most of us don't bother to find any health
clinic unless our company has any compulsory regular checkup policy. And after 30 it become often very
hard to maintain a fit health because of late in starting up and putting up little more than manageable extra
weight, diabetes, and pressure of rising responsibilities everyday at home and in office. Avoiding small
symptoms of health deterioration in daily life ultimately results into a life with pills and problems. Living a
healthy life is not that hard, all it needs to keep health at its best is just a regular and disciplined routine,
everyday workout, little yoga session, and a small walk. It is never too late to start something good. Don't
over stress yourself with sudden resolution for fitness, it is a continuous process make it a part of your daily
life. Small changes in you can increase your healthy life by 10 years. You can buy everything back but
health.
Source: Prafull's Blog

Appointments and Nominations in 2011-12


Parvin Kiran SinclairParvin Kiran Sinclair will be the new head of the National Council of Educational
Research & Training (NCERT), The NCERT has been functioning without a fulltime director for nearly
two years. Sinclair was also Chief Advisor, Mathematics Syllabus Design Committee, NCERT, in 2005 and
2006.Vinod RaiComptroller & Auditor General of India (CAG), Vinod Rai has been elected as the
Chairman of the Panel of External Auditors of the United Nations, the Specialized Agencies and the
International Atomic Energy Agency. He succeeds Mr.Norbert Hauser, Vice-President, Federal Court of
Auditors, Germany.Kamal al-GanzuriEgypt s interim leaders had appointed former premier Kamal al
Ganzuri as the country s new prime minister, amid continuing political uncertainty. The national salvation
government, headed by 79-year-old Kamal al Ganzuri was sworn in, with Supreme Council of Armed
Forces granting the new Prime Minister greater powers except over the military and judiciary.E.
SreedharanE. Sreedharan, Managing Director of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and the man
behind the changing face of the Indian public transport , handed over the reins of the DMRC to Mangu

Singh, after successful 16-year tenure as its chief. Sreedharan (79), fondly known across the country as the
Metroman , had joined the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation in 1995 spending 16 years in the DMRC.N
SrinivasanN. Srinivasan would take over the reins of BCCI from incumbent President Shashank Manohar
at the Cricket Board s 82nd Annual General Meeting.Helle Thoning-SchmidtHelle Thoming-Schmidt was
elected as the first female Prime Mminister of Denmark ending the far-right s 10-year grip on the
Scandinavian country. She defeated Lars Loke Rasmussen of Danish People s Party (DPP) by very thin
margin.Kamalesh SharmaIndian diplomat Kamalesh Sharma was reappointed as Secretary General of the
54-nation Common-wealth grouping for a four-year term beginning April 2012. India proposed 70-year-old
Sharma s name for a second term to the coveted post at the concluding session of the 21st Commonwealth
heads of government meeting in Perth. Pakistan seconded it. The proposal was accepted unanimously by
everybody.Ashok ChawlaMr Ashok Chawla took charge as the Chairman of Competition Commission of
India. Before being ap-pointed as the Chairman of CCI he has held key positions in several Ministries
including the top administrative post in the Ministry of Finance.Mangu SinghAs E Sreedharan prepares to
call it a day after 16 years of heading the Delhi Metro, his right-hand man -Director (Works) Mangu Singh is selected to take over as the Managing Director of the corporation from January 1, when Sreedharan s
tenure comes to an end.K.V. KamathThe Board of Directors of Infosys Ltd., which met in Bangaluru on
May 1,2011, decided to appoint K.V. Kamath as Chairman of Infosys after its founder, N.R. Narayana
Murthy, steps down from his position as Chairman on August 20 when he turns 65.Leeta SamsonThe
CBFC, which is responsible for censoring and rating all films shown in India, recently got a new Chief
when the govemmeni appointed Bharatanatyam dancer, choreographer and teacher Leela Samson as its
Chairperson. Ms. Samson s ap-pointment drew attention as she is the first non-film personality in many
years to hold the post.Ajit Kumar SethSenior Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer Ajit Kumar Seth
has been appointed the next Indian Cabinet Secretary succeeding K M Chandrashekhar. Seth, a 1974 batch
IAS officer from Uttar Pradesh, is serving as Secretary, Public Grievances and Co-ordination in the Cabinet
Secretariat. Seth will have fixed two year tenure. He has been on central deputation since January 1, 2009.
Bom on November 24, 1951, Seth has Masters Degree in Chemistry.Goodluclf JonathanNigerian President
Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in on May 29 following an election seen as the fairest in two decades, but he
faces a divided nation after deadly post-poll riots. Jonathan was inducted amid tight security at a colourful
ceremony with full military honours, including a fly past in the capital of Abuja.Yinglucl- ShinawatraThe
woman, who is poised to become Thailand s first female prime minister after her landslide victory in
parliamentary elections, has announced she will form a five- party coalition government. Yingluck
Shinawatra 's Puea Thai Party took a majority of 265 seats in the 500-seat lower house of parliament
making it only the second time in Thai political history that a single party won a parliamentary majority. By
announcing a broad 299- seat coalition, Ms Yingluck (44) will give her government stability and head >ff
fears of factional violence linked to her exiled brother, former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Mr
Abhisit, a British-born, Oxford-trained economist, stepped down as leader of the Democrat Party yesterday
because of the poor electoral showing.Maria Gomes ValentimA Brazilian woman Maria Gomes Valentim,

ranked by Guinness World Records as the world s oldest person died at the age of 114,Pradeep
KumarDefence Secretary Pradeep Kumar was unanimously chosen Central Vigilance Commissioner
(CVC). The selection was made by a high-power committee headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
and including Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj and Union Home Minister P.
Chidambaram.The top slot in the Central government s anti-corruption watchdog body fell vacant after the
Supreme Court, on March 3, quashed the ap-pointment of P.J. Thomas as CVC.Christine LagardeFrance s
Christine Lagarde has been named the first-ever female chief of the IMF, faced with an immediate crisis as
violent Greek protests rocked the stability of the eurozone. The French finance minister, respected for her
leadership during the financial crises that have shaken Europe over the past three years, was selected by the
International Monetary Fund s executive board to take up the five-year job from July 5.Ban Ki-moonThe
U.N. General Assembly voted unanimously to give Ban Ki-moon a second term as Secretary-General,
praising him for strengthening the world body s role and visibility in difficult circumstances.Yoshihiko
NodaFinance Minister Yoshihiko Noda was chosen to become Japan s sixth prime minister in five years.
Noda was declared the winner after defeating his nearest rival, the trade minister, Banri Kaieda.Tony
TanFormer Deputy Prime Minister Tony Tan Keng Yam has been declared elected Singapore 's seventh
President by defeating his nearest rival by a thin margin of 7,269 votes in the first ever four-comer
presidential election campaign.Baburam BhattaraiNepal s legislature-parliament elected Baburam
Bhattarai, Vice-Chairman of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), and new Prime Minister.
Bhattarai was the deputy prime Minister and finance minister in the government led by Maoist Chairman
Prachanda in 2008. Bhattarai succeeded Jhalanath Khanal, who resigned in August. Dr. Bhattarai has been
in the Left movement for three decades.Veerendra KumarM.P Veerendrakumar, Chairman and Managing
Director of the Mathrubhoomi group of newspapers, was elected chairman of the Board of Directors of
Press Trust of India (PTI) after the annual general meeting of the agency s shareholders. Veerendrakumar,
who has served as PTI chairman twice earlier, succeeds Vineet Jain, Managing Director of the Times of
India Group.R. LakshmipathyR Lakshmipathy, Publisher of the Tamil daily Dinamalar, was elected vicechairman. Lakshmipathy Is a leading figure in the media industry. He has been president of the INS,
chairman of the Audit Bureau of Circulation and a member of the Press Council of India. He runs several
educational institutions.Rohit NandanRohit Nandan, Joint Secretary in the Civil Aviation Ministry, has been
appointed as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of Air India for a three-year period. Nandan was
earlier Joint Secretary, Ministry of Civil Aviation, Govt of India.Mamta SharmaMamta Sharma has taken
charge as chairperson of the National Commission for Women (NCW). She took over from Yasmeen Abrar,
who was the acting chairperson after Girija Vyas demitted office. The NCW has been without a full time
chief since April. Ms. Sharma, a Congress leader from Rajasthan, was a member of the Legislative
Assembly and also the president of the Rajasthan State Women Congress Committee.
Source: IAS
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Indias Five Year Plans at a Glance


The Five Year PlansThe development plans are drawn by the Planning Commission to establish Indias
economy on a socialistic pattern in successive phases of five year Periods-called the Five Year Plans.Major
Bodies Behind the Making of Five Year PlansThe organisation was set up to formulate basic economic
policies, draft plans and watch its progress and implementation. It consists of:(I) Planning Commission of
India(ii)

National

Planning

Council(iii)

National

Development

Council

and

State

Planning

CommissionsDETAILS OF THE FIVE YEAR PLANSFIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN (1951-56)In July 1951,
the Planning Commission issued the draft outline of the First Five Year Plan for the period April 1951 to
March 1956. It was presented to the Parliament in December 1952. In the First Plan, agriculture received
the main thrust, for sustaining of growth and development of industries which would not be possible
without a significant rise in the yield of raw materials and food.Objectives:i) To increase food
production.ii) To fully utilise available raw materials.iii) To check inflationary pressure.Outlay: The total
proposed outlay was Rs. 3,870 crore.SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN (1956-61)The main objective was to
launch upon industrialisation and strengthen the industrial base of the economy. It was in this light that the
1948 Industrial Policy Resolution was revised and a new resolution of 1956 was adopted. The Second Plan
started with an emphasis on the expansion of the public sector and aimed at the establishment of a
socialistic pattern of society.Objectives:i) A sizeable increase in national income so as to raise the level of
living.ii) Rapid industrialisation of the country with particular emphasis on the development of basic and
key industries.Outlay: The Second Plan proposed a total public sector outlay of Rs. 4,800 crores though
actual outlay was only Rs. 4,672 crore.THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN (1961-66)In the third Plan, the
emphasis was on long-term development. The Third Plan report stated that during the five-year period
concerned, the Indian economy must not only expand rapidly but, at the same time, become self-reliant
and self-generating.Objectives:i) An increase in national income of more than 5 per cent annually. The
investment pattern laid down must be capable of sustaining this growth rate in the subsequent years.ii) An
increase in the agricultural produce and to achieve self sufficiency by increasing food grain production.iii)
Greater equality of opportunities, more even distribution of economic power and reducing wealth and
income disparities.FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1969-74)After the Plan Holiday, the Fourth Plan was
begun in 1969.Objectives:i) To achieve stability and progress towards self-reliance.ii) To achieve an overall
rate of growth of 5.7 per cent annually.iii) To raise exports at the rate of 7 per cent annually.Outlay: The
total proposed outlay was Rs. 24,880 crore, which included Rs. 15,900 crores as public sector outlay and
Rs. 8,980 crore as private sector outlay.FIFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1974-79)The Plan was formulated
against the background of sever inflationary pressure.Objectives: In addition to removal of poverty and
attainment of self-reliance, the Fifth Plan had the following major objectives.i) 5.5 per cent overall rate of
growth in Gross Domestic objectives.ii) Expansion of productive employment and fuller utilisation of
existing skills and equipment.iii) A national programme for minimum needs and extended programmes of
social welfare.Outlay: A total outlay of Rs. 53,410 crore was proposed for the Fifth Plan.SIXTH FIVE
YEAR PLAN (1980-85)The draft of the Sixth Five Year Plan (1978-1983) was presented in 1978.

However, the plan was terminated with the change of Government in January 1980. The new Sixth Five
Year

Plan

was

implemented

in

April

1980.Objectives:i)

To eliminate

unemployment

and

underemployment.ii) To raise the standard of living of the poorest of masses.iii) To reduce disparities in
income and wealth.Outlay: The proposed outlay for the Sixth Plan totalled Rs.1, 58, 710 crore.SEVENTH
FIVE YEAR PLAN (1985-90)The draft of the Seventh Plan was approved on November 9, 1985 by the
National Development Council. The plan was part of the long-term plan for the period of 15
years.Objectives:i) Decentralisation of planning and full public participation in development.ii) The
maximum possible generation of productive employment.iii) Removal of poverty and reduction in income
disparities.EIGHTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1992-97)The Eighth Plan proposed a growth rate of 5.6 per cent
per annum on an average during the plan period. The Eighth Plan focused on (i) clear prioritisation of
sectors/projects for investment in order to facilitate implementation of the policy initiatives taken in the
areas of fiscal, trade and industrial sectors and human development.Objectives:i) Generation of adequate
employment of achieve near full employment level by the turn of the century.ii) Containment of population
growth through peoples active co-operation and an effective scheme of incentives and disincentives.iii)
Universalisation of elementary education and complete eradication of illiteracy among the people in the age
group of 15 to 35 years.THE NINTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN (1997-2002)It began on April 1, 1997. The Ninth
Plan was the first concrete attempt to translate the programme of economic reforms and the New Economic
Policy within the framework of an indicative Plan. The Approach Paper to the Ninth Plan (1997-2002) was
approved by the N.D.C. on 16th January, 1997.Objectives:i.) Priority to agriculture and rural
developmentii.) Accelerating growth rate of economyiii.) Food and nutritional security for alliv.)
Containing growth rate of populationv.) Empowerment of women and socially disadvantaged groups such
as SC/ST, backward classes and minorities.vi.) Promoting and developing participatory institutions like
Panchayati Raj institutions, co-operatives and self-help groups.TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2002-07)On
December 21, 2002, the Tenth Five Year Plan was approved by the National Development Council (NDC).
The Plan has further developed the NDC mandated objectives, of doubling per capita income in 10 years,
and achieving a growth rate of 8% of GDP per annum. An 8% growth rate is considered necessary for
achieving the social and economic targets of Tenth Plan Keeping in mind decadal growth performance and
the steady acceleration that the country has recorded in growth over the past two decades, it is a realisable
target. The plan has a number of new features, such as, for the first time(a) It recognises the rapid growth of
labour force over the next decade(b) Addresses the issue of poverty and the unacceptably low levels of
social indicators(c) Adopted a differential development strategy to equate national targets into balanced
regional development as there is vast difference in the potentials and constraints of each state(d)
Recognises that the governance is perhaps one of the most important factors for ensuring realisation of the
Plan(e) Identifies measures to improve efficiency, unleash entrepreneurial energy, and promote rapid and
sustainable growth(f) Proposes major reforms for agricultural sector making agriculture the core element
of the Plan.Since economic growth is not the only objective, the Plan aims at harnessing the benefits of
growth to improve the quality of life of the people by setting the following key targets:1. All children to be

in school by 2003 and all children to complete five years of schooling by 20072. Reduction in poverty ratio
from 26% to 21%3. Growth in gainful employment to, at least, keep pace with addition to the labour
force4. Decadal population growth to reduce from 21.3% in 1991-2001 to 16.2% by 2001-115. Reducing
gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by 50%6. Literacy rate to increase from 65% in 1999-2000 to 75%
in 20017. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to be reduced from 72 in 1999-2000, to 45 in 20078. .Maternal
Mortality Rate (MMR) to be reduced from 4 per 1000 in 1999-2000 to 2 per 1000 in 20079. Providing
portable drinking water in all villages10. Cleaning of major polluted river stretches11. Increase in
forest/tree cover from 19% in 1999-2000 to 25% in 2007ELEVENTH PLAN (2007-2012)The United
Progressive Alliance government issued a paper in the eleventh plan titled Towards faster and more
inclusive growth. According to the approach paper, the monitorable targets of five-year plan are:1. GDP
growth rate to be increased to 10% by the end of the plan;2. Farm sector growth to be increased to 4%;3.
Creation of seven crore job opportunities;4. Reduce educated unemployed youth to below 5 percent5.
Infant mortality rates to be reduced to 28 per 1000 births;6. Maternal death rates to be reduced to 1 per
1000 births;7. Clean drinking water to all by 2009;8. Improve sex ratio to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by
2016-17;9. Ensure electricity connection to all villages and broadband over power lines (BPL) households
by 200910. Roads to all villages that have a population of 1000 and above by 2009;11. Increase forest and
tree cover by 5%;12. Achieve the World Health Organization standard air quality in major cities by 201112;13. Treat all urban wastewater by 2011-12 to clean river waters;14. Increase energy efficiency by 20
percent by 2016-17
Source: Finanomics
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Bicameral Parliamentary System
A bicameral system is a parliamentary system of two legislative Chambers. Indian system is bicameral
because both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha are involved in the process of making new laws.
Bicameral literally means 'two chamber'.
Countries with Bicameral Parliamentary System:
Australia-ParliamentSenateHouse of Representatives
Austria-ParliamentFederal CouncilNational Council
Antigua and Barbuda-ParliamentSenateHouse of Representatives
The Bahamas-ParliamentSenateHouse of Assembly
Barbados-ParliamentSenateHouse of Assmebly

BelizeNational AssemblySenateHouse of Representatives


Belgium-Federal ParliamentSenateChamber of Representatives
Bhutan-Parliament (Chitshog)Bhutan will become a Democratic Constitutional Monarchy in 2008
National Council (Gyalyong Tshogde) National Assembly (Gyalyong Tshogdu)
Canada-ParliamentSenateHouse of Commons
Czech Republic-ParliamentSenateChamber of Deputies
Ethiopia-Federal Parliamentary AssemblyHouse of Federation House of Peoples Representatives
GermanyBundesrat (Federal Council)Bundestag (Federal Diet)
Grenada-ParliamentSenateHouse of Representatives
India-ParliamentRajya Sabha (Council of States)Lok Sabha (House of People)
Ireland-OireachtasSeanad ireannDil ireann
Iraq-National AssemblyCouncil of Union [2]Council of Representatives
Italy-ParliamentSenate of the RepublicChamber of Deputies
Jamaica-ParliamentSenateHouse of Representatives
Japan-DietHouse of CouncillorsHouse of Representatives
Malaysia-ParliamentDewan NegaraDewan Rakyat
The Netherlands-States-GeneralEerste KamerTweede Kamer
Pakistan-Majlis-e-ShooraSenateNational Assembly
Poland-ParliamentSenateSejm
Romania-ParliamentSenateChamber of Deputies
Saint Lucia-ParliamentSenateHouse of Assembly
Slovenia-ParliamentNational CouncilNational Assembly
South Africa-ParliamentNational Council of ProvincesNational Assembly
Spain-Cortes GeneralesSenateCongress of Deputies

Switzerland-Federal AssemblyCouncil of StatesNational Council


Thailand-National Assembly [3]SenateHouse of Representatives
Trinidad and Tobago-ParliamentSenateHouse of Representatives
United Kingdom-ParliamentHouse of LordsHouse of Common
Posted in: Polity
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Unicameral Parliamentary System
In government, unicameral is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a
unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.
Unicameral legislatures typically exist in small and homogeneous unitary states, where a second chamber is
considered unnecessary.
Countries having Unicameral Parliamentary System
AlbaniaKuvendi
BangladeshJatiyo Sangshad
BulgariaNational Assembly
Burkina FasoNational Assembly
CroatiaSabor
DenmarkFolketing
DominicaHouse of Assembly
EstoniaRiigikogu
FinlandEduskunta
GreeceHellenic Parliament
HungaryNational Assembly
IcelandAlthing

IsraelKnesset
Kurdistan RegionKurdistan National Assembly
LatviaSaeima
LithuaniaSeimas
MaltaHouse of Representatives
MoldovaParliament
MongoliaState Great Khural
MontenegroParliament
New ZealandParliament
Norway*Storting
Palestinian AuthorityParliament
Papua New GuineaNational Parliament
PortugalAssembly of the Republic
Saint Kitts and NevisNational Assembly
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHouse of Assembly
SamoaFono
SerbiaNational Assembly
SingaporeParliament
SlovakiaNational Council
SwedenRiksdag
TurkeyGrand National Assembly
UkraineVerhovna Rada
VanuatuParliament
Posted in: Polity

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Boson, Higgs Boson and LHC
What is Boson?
The universe is made up of two classes of particles: bosons and fermions. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein
statistics a collection of them can condense together into a state where the particles are indistinguishable.
This theory was developed by SN Bose and expanded by Einstein. The special state of matter, called BoseEinstein condensate, was created in 1995. All bosons can condense into the state at very low temperatures.
What is Higgs Boson?
There are several kinds of bosons, some elementary and other composite. A special kind of boson called
the gauge bosons mediates or carries the forces of nature. The photons (particles of light) mediate the
electromagnetic force, the W and Z bosons mediate the weak nuclear force, and the gluons carry the strong
nuclear force. The hypothetical gravitation might mediate the gravitational forces but we know nothing
about it. W and Z bosons, of which are all made of, are thought to get their masses through another
mediator, the Higgs Boson. To find it, physicists need to observe it at its creation as it immediately decays
into other particles.
How does LHC find it?
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) whirls around protons through a hollow tube and then meets them head
on. The debris that flies from these collisions would include the Higgs Boson for a fraction of seconds. Two
particle detectors look for attributes of these flying particles.
The data that come out of these detectors - 40 m pictures a second - are beyond what any network of
computers can process.
A processor farm of 50,000 computing cores selects 300 pictures a second, enough data every second to fill
three million DVDs. 10,000 computers in 34 countries analyse these data, and 10,000 physicists look at the
results.
What did CERN announce?
That they have found a particle with a mass of 125 billion electron volts that exhibits the characteristics of
the Higgs Boson. Which means that it is the kind of particle that, according to the Standard Model of
physics, would give masses to other particles.
They do not yet know, or are not absolutely sure, that it is the Higgs Boson, officially. Unofficially, all

physicists know that they have found the Higgs Boson.


What Work is Still Left to be Done?
Physicists would study this particle intensely for several years. The LHC will shut down next year for one
year. When it comes back, it will crank up its energies to twice the present levels. Protons will collide more
intensely, computers will crunch more data, and physicists might observe more particles.
Credit: ET
Posted in: Physics,Research,Science
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
50 Interesting Science Facts
The speed of light is generally rounded down to 186,000 miles per second. In exact terms it is 299,792,458
m/s (equal to 186,287.49 miles per second).
It takes 8 minutes 17 seconds for light to travel from the Suns surface to the Earth.
10 percent of all human beings ever born are alive at this very moment.
The Earth spins at 1,000 mph but it travels through space at an incredible 67,000 mph.
Every year, over one million earthquakes shake the Earth.
When Krakatoa erupted in 1883, its force was so great it could be heard 4,800 kilometers away in Australia.
Every second around 100 lightning bolts strike the Earth.
Every year lightning kills 1000 people.
In October 1999 an Iceberg the size of London broke free from the Antarctic ice shelf .
If you could drive your car straight up you would arrive in space in just over an hour.
Human tapeworms can grow up to 22.9m.
The Earth is 4.56 billion years oldthe same age as the Moon and the Sun.
The dinosaurs became extinct before the Rockies or the Alps were formed.
Female black widow spiders eat their males after mating.
When a flea jumps, the rate of acceleration is 20 times that of the space shuttle during launch.

If our Sun were just inch in diameter, the nearest star would be 445 miles away.
Astronauts cannot belch there is no gravity to separate liquid from gas in their stomachs.
The air at the summit of Mount Everest, 29,029 feet is only a third as thick as the air at sea level.
One million, million, million, million, millionth of a second after the Big Bang the Universe was the size of
pea.
DNA was first discovered in 1869 by Swiss Friedrich Mieschler.
The molecular structure of DNA was first determined by Watson and Crick in 1953.
The first synthetic human chromosome was constructed by US scientists in 1997.
The thermometer was invented in 1607 by Galileo.
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite in 1866.
Wilhelm Rontgen won the first Nobel Prize for physics for discovering X-rays in 1895.
The tallest tree ever was an Australian eucalyptus In 1872 it was measured at 435 feet tall.
Christian Barnard performed the first heart transplant in 1967 the patient lived for 18 days.
An electric eel can produce a shock of up to 650 volts.
Wireless communications took a giant leap forward in 1962 with the launch of Telstar, the first satellite
capable of relaying telephone and satellite TV signals.
The Ebola virus kills 4 out of every 5 humans it infects.
In 5 billion years the Sun will run out of fuel and turn into a Red Giant.
Giraffes often sleep for only 20 minutes in any 24 hours. They may sleep up to 2 hours (in spurts not all
at once), but this is rare. They never lie down.
There are 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.
An individual blood cell takes about 60 seconds to make a complete circuit of the body.
On the day that Alexander Graham Bell was buried the entire US telephone system was shut down for 1
minute in tribute.
The low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest noise made by a living creature.

A quarter of the worlds plants are threatened with extinction by the year 2010.
Each person sheds 40lbs of skin in his or her lifetime.
At 15 inches the eyes of giant squids are the largest on the planet.
The Universe contains over 100 billion galaxies.
Wounds infested with maggots heal quickly and without spread of gangrene or other infection.
More germs are transferred shaking hands than kissing.
The fastest speed a falling raindrop can hit you is 18mph.
It would take over an hour for a heavy object to sink 6.7 miles down to the deepest part of the ocean.
Around a million, billion neutrinos from the Sun will pass through your body while you read this sentence.
The deepest part of any ocean in the world is the Mariana trench in the Pacific with a depth of 35,797 feet.
Every hour the Universe expands by a billion miles in all directions.
Somewhere in the flicker of a badly tuned TV set is the background radiation from the Big Bang.
Even traveling at the speed of light it would take 2 million years to reach the nearest large galaxy,
Andromeda.
A thimbleful of a neutron star would weigh over 100 million tons.
Posted in: General-Knowledge,GK,Science
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Inspiration
"Most great people have attained their greatest success just one step beyond their greatest failure."
Napoleon Hill
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Motivation
"You are never given a wish without also being given the power to make it come true. You may have to
work for it, however." Richard Bach

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Success
"Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up."
Thomas Edison
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
What is Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.
These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-aService (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud
symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.
A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on
demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service
as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs
nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and
distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have
accelerated interest in cloud computing.
A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently,
Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a
data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public
cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the
goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services.
Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instanceAPI) to start, stop,
access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company
to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this payfor-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred
to as utility computing.
Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on
the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet.
PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals or gateway software installed on the customer's computer.
Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to

know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some
providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform.
In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software
product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be
anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider
hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere. (Source:
TechTarget)
Posted in: Computing,GK,IT,Science,Technology
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Never let your limitations put a limit on your dreams.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Two fundamentals for a perfect life.
Walk like u r the King, or Walk like u don't care who the King is. LIVE LIFE ur own way.!
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Reply to Young Students Tanaya and Aditya

Dear Tanaya and Aditya,


I have received your email, and am giving my reply, but before doing so in detail I wish to make
some preliminary remarks:

1.

I have been misquoted in the press reports, but it is true that I have said that 90% Indians (not all)

are fools. My intention in saying so was not to hurt anyone but to awaken people to the realities, that is, the
widespread casteism, communalism, superstitions, and other backward traits in the mindset of a large
section of our people which is blocking our progress and keeping us poor.

2.

The figure 90% is not a mathematical figure, it simply means that in my opinion a large proportion

of Indians (and again I repeat, not all) are fools.

3.

I never named you, nor any community, caste, or sect, and I never said that you are in the category

of 90%. Hence I do not see how you are defamed.

4.

I made this comment not to humiliate or harm anyone but because I love the Indian people, they are

my people, and I wish them to prosper and have decent lives, which is only possible if the Indian masses
develop the scientific outlook and scientific temper and give up casteism, communalism, superstitions and
other mental attitudes which a large part (not all) of them presently suffer from. I wish to see India in the
front ranks of the advanced industrialized nations of the world, with our people having a high standard of
living, instead of suffering from the present evils of massive poverty, unemployment, price rise, corruption,
farmers suicides, child malnutrition, absence of health care and good education, casteism etc. So you see I
made that statement not to harm the Indian people, whom I love, but to benefit them. The truth is
sometimes bitter, but sometimes bitter medicine has to be given to an ailing person.
Having said this, I may proceed to give a more elaborate explanation.
I wish to first of all clarify that I do not regard Indians as inherently stupid or foolish. It is only at
present that large parts of our people are foolish. But there was a time when we were leading the whole
world in science and technology, and India was perhaps the most prosperous country in the world. It is now
that we are having bad times, but we had a glorious past and shall have a glorious future too, but for that we
have to get rid of casteism, communalism, superstitions and other backward traits in the mentality of a large
part of our people (because of which I call them fools).

Indias Past

With the aid of science we had built mighty civilizations thousands of years ago when most people
in Europe( except in Greece and Rome) were living in forests. We had made outstanding scientific
discoveries e.g. decimal system in mathematics, plastic surgery in medicine, etc (see in this connection my
article Sanskrit as a Language of Science on my blog justickatju.blogspot.in and on the website
kgfindia.com). However, we subsequently took to the unscientific path of superstitions and empty rituals,
which has led us to disaster. The way out of the present morass is to go back again to the path shown by our

scientific ancestors, the path of Aryabhatta and Brahmagupta, Sushrut and Charak, Panini and Patanjali,
Ramanujan and Raman.

It is not necessary to mention here all the great achievements of our ancestors, but I may just
mention a few.

1.

The decimal system in mathematics was the most remarkable and revolutionary invention in the past,

and it was created by Indians. To understand its significance, one must know that the ancient Romans, who
built a great civilization (The civilization of Caesar and Augustus), felt very uncomfortable with numbers
above 1000. This was because they expressed their numbers in alphabets, I standing for 1, V for 5, X for
10, L for 50, C for 100, D for 500, and M for 1000. There was no single alphabet expressing a number
above 1000. Hence to write 2000 an ancient Roman had to write MM, to write 3000 he had to write MMM,
and to write 1 million he had to write M one thousand times, which would drive him crazy.

On the other hand, our ancestors discovered the number 0, and hence to write 1 million they had
simply to put 6 zeros after 1.
2.

Plastic surgery was invented by Sushrut 2000 years ago, whereas Europeans invented it only about

100 or 200 years back.

3.

The English alphabets are all arranged haphazardly, there is no reason why D is followed by E, or E

by F, or F by G, etc. On the other hand Panini in the first 14 sutras of his Ashtadhyayi arranged the
alphabets in Sanskrit scientifically. Thus , the first sequence of 5 consonants (the ka varga i.e. ka, kha, ga,
gha, na ) are all sounds which emanate from the throat, the second sequence from the middle of the tongue,
the third from the roof of the mouth, the fourth from the tip of the tongue, and the fifth from the lips. The
second and fourth consonants in each sequence are aspirants in which the sound ha is combined with the
previous consonant e.g. ka+ha =kha.

4.

5000 years ago in the Indus Valley Civilization the system of town planning was created with straight

streets, covered drains, water and sewage system, etc.

Before the coming of the British India was a prosperous country. Its share in world trade in 1700 was about
30%, which fell to 2% by the end of British rule and is still not more than 3%.

Indias Present

Today there is no doubt that India is a poor country. While there are some pockets of affluence,
about 80% of our people are afflicted with poverty, unemployment and other evils, and one major cause of
this is the mental backwardness of a large part of our people.
(though there are also brilliant people like the Indian scientists and engineers in Silicon Valley)

Consider the following:

1. When most of our people go to vote they cast their votes on the basis of caste or religion, not the merit of
the candidate. What else is the meaning of vote banks? And this is exploited by some unscrupulous
politicians who know how to manipulate and manage these vote banks. That is why many persons with
criminal backgrounds get elected.

2. Honour killings are common in many parts of the country. This is a barbaric practice, and shows how
backward many of us still are.

3. Dowry deaths are common in India, and as a former Judge I can tell you that our courts have a large
number of cases of young married women who are murdered in a barbaric manner by their in laws for not
getting dowry e.g. by pouring petrol on them and setting them on fire.
4.

Scheduled castes are still often treated inhumanly, and an example is the recent attack on dalits in

Dharmapuri district in Tamil Nadu.

5. Female foeticide is common in many parts of India. Often when a male child is born the relatives are
happy and distribute sweets, but when a female child is born often relatives get dejected. This is also a sign

of backwardness among many of us.

6. Communalism, which was almost non-existent in 1857, is widespread in our society today. Muslims
often face discrimination in getting jobs, houses on rent, etc, as the Justice Sachar Committee report has
highlighted. Muslims are often falsely implicated in bomb blasts and they have to spend years in jail
though ultimately found innocent.

As I mentioned, upto 1857 communalism was almost non-existent in India. There were no doubt
differences between Hindu and Muslims, but there was no enmity between them. In the Mutiny of 1857
Hindus and Muslims jointly fought against the British. After crushing the Mutiny the British decided that
the only way to control India was divide and rule. Consequently, the policy came from London to create
hatred between Hindus and Muslims. The British Collector used to secretly call the Panditji and gave him
money to speak against the Muslims, and similarly he gave money to the Maulvi Saheb to speak against
Hindus. All communal riots began after 1857. The communal award in the Minto-Morley Reforms of
1909 introduced separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims. Year after year, decade after decade, the
communal poison was injected by the British into our body politic, and even after 1947 there are elements
which continue this (see online History in the Service of Imperialism and my article What is India on my
blog justicekatju.blogspot.in)

Certain agent provocateurs take advantage of our backwardness to incite communal riots, and
unfortunately many people fall prey to these evil designs and get emotionally carried away by communal
propaganda and fight with each other.

5.

Superstition is rampant in India. Most people believe in astrology, which is pure superstition and

humbug. And it is not just the illiterates who believe in it, it is also most of the so called educated people in
India. Many Ministers and Judges prefer to take oath of office at the auspicious time.
A few years back it was announced that Lord Ganesh is drinking milk, and there was a rush of
people to offer milk to Ganesh. Earlier, a miracle chapati was circulating.

6.

A large section of the media, taking advantage of the backwardness of a large section of our people,

dishes out lives of filmstars, cricket, etc as if these are the real issues before the people, when the real issues

are socio-economic.

As I said above, when I called most people(not all) fools I did not wish to harm them, rather it was
just the contrary. I want India to become a prosperous country, but this is possible only when the mindset of
a large number of people changes, and their minds are rid of casteism, communalism, superstitions, and
other backward ideas and they become scientific and modern.

By being modern I do not mean wearing a nice suit or a beautiful sari or skirt. By being modern I
mean developing a modern mind, which means a rational mind, a scientific mind, and a questioning mind.
As already stated above, at one time we led the whole world in science and technology, but today we are
undoubtedly far behind the West and even China. How did this happen? Why were we left behind, why did
we not have an Industrial Revolution like Europe? This is known as Needhams Question or Needhams
Grand Question, named after Prof. Joseph Needham of Cambridge University (1900-1995). It is high time
Indians try to answer this question, instead of trying to evade the reality of the backwardness of most of us.

The worst thing in life is poverty, and 80% of our people are poor, which is largely because of the
mental backwardness of most (not all) of us. To abolish poverty we need to spread the scientific outlook to
every nook and corner of our country. It is only then that India will shine. And until that happens the vast
majority of our people will continue to be taken for a ride.

Justice Markandey Katju


10.12.2012
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Of all the friends Ive ever met. Your the one I wont forget.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
The morning is just a few moments away. Go to sleep and when you wake up, remember me as a friend
who is allways there for you and never let you down

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Memories last forever, they simply never die, true friends stay together they NEVER say good-bye.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
A very special m8 of mine.in my heart all da time.to c u wiv a happy smile makes my life feel
worthwhile.warm & carin ur feelins true.im glad i av a m8 like u!
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Kehne Ko Hamare Paas Lafz Nahi Hain Bhejne Ko Acha Sa Sms Nahi Hai Par Dil Se 1afz Aate Hai Har
Bar Apna Khayal Rakha Karo QyoKi Hamare Paas Aap Jesa Dost Nahi
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
Hum se Na Ruthna kabhi, Andaaz E Dosti to ek ada hai Us ke bina Zindagi mein Na Maza hai,Is liye kehte
hain Hum se Na Ruthna kabhi, kyon k DOST ka Ruthna bhi ek Saza hai.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
May you have all the joy your heart can hold, All the smiles a day can bring,
All the blessings a life can unfold,
May you have Gods best in everything.
Wish u a Happy Birthday
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@

:
, ?
: ,
?
: ....
!!


..;
:
?
:
?
:
:


:
!!
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

A gf is not one who says,


.
.
.
"mai teri kismat me nai, tu mujhe
bhul jao"
bhul jao."
.
.
.
.
A true gf is one who says,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
"tu padhai pe dhyan de,
placement ke baad ghar se utha
lena..
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@

26 :

1.

1893

2.

2,444

3.

12.5 ,

50

20

4.

10 65

5.

6.

7.

, , , 3

8.

99.9999

9.

2005 7.13

1.46

10.

100

11. ''

12. 2600

, ( ) ,

13. 129


@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@
Company Name Origin/Meaning
1. Mercedes - Name of the daughter of
the founder
2. Nokia - Name of city in Finland
3. Pepsi - Named from the digestive
enzyme pepsin

4. Honda - From the name of its


founder Soichiro Honda
5. Sony - from the Latin word
'sonus'meaning sound
6. Maggi - Food company named after
its founder, Julius Maggi
7. Suzuki - From the name of its
founder, Michio Suzuki
8. Samsung - Meaning 'three stars'
inKorean
9. Toyota - From the name of founder,
Sakichi Toyoda . .
10. Yamaha - After Torakusu Yamaha,
who founded the
company
11. Adidas - From the name of the
founder Adolf (Adi) Dassler. (das)
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

?
10 ,
, :

100


700 . .

5000


2600

, , ,

,

: 500

500 ..

2500



, ,

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
<<< May the special day of yours be filled with loving memories full of fun and the
company
of good friends.Hope you never lose the brightest smile of yours
Happy Birthday!
<<< I wish that for every extra candle on your cake, you receive an extra reason to
smile. Happy Birthday to you!
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
People clamouring for Narendra Modi should realise the only policy which can take
India on the path of progress is equal respect and treatment for all communities

Narendra Modi is being projected by a large section of Indians as the modern Moses,
the one who will lead the beleaguered and despondent Indian people into a land of
milk and honey, the man who is best suited to be the next Indian Prime Minister. And
it is not just the Bharatiya Janata Party and RSS who are saying this at the Kumbh
Mela. A large section of the Indian so-called educated class, including many of our
educated youth, who have been carried away by Mr. Modis propaganda is saying
this.

I was flying from Delhi to Bhopal recently. Sitting beside me was a Gujarati
businessman. I asked him his opinion of Mr. Modi. He was all praise for him. I
interjected and asked him about the killing of nearly 2,000 Muslims in 2002 in
Gujarat. He replied that Muslims were always creating problems in Gujarat, but after
2002 they have been put in their place and there is peace since then in the State. I
told him this is the peace of the graveyard, and peace can never last long unless it is
coupled with justice. At this remark he took offence and changed his seat on the
plane.

The truth today is that Muslims in Gujarat are terrorised and afraid that if they speak

out against the horrors of 2002 they may be attacked and victimised. In the whole of
India, Muslims (who number over 200 million) are solidly against Mr. Modi (though
there are a handful of Muslims who for some reason disagree).

Dubious spontaneity

It is claimed by Modi supporters that what happened in Gujarat was only a


spontaneous reaction (pratikriya) of Hindus to the killing of 59 Hindus on a train in
Godhra. I do not buy this story. First, there is still mystery as to what exactly
happened in Godhra. Secondly, the particular persons who were responsible for the
Godhra killings should certainly be identified and given harsh punishment, but how
does this justify the attack on the entire Muslim community in Gujarat? Muslims are
only 9 per cent of the total population of Gujarat, the rest being mostly Hindus. In
2002 Muslims were massacred, their homes burnt, and other horrible crimes
committed on them.

To call the killings of Muslims in 2002 a spontaneous reaction reminds one of


Kristallnacht in Germany in November 1938, when the entire Jewish community in
Germany was attacked, many killed, their synagogues burnt, shops vandalised after a
German diplomat in Paris was shot dead by a Jewish youth whose family had been
persecuted by the Nazis. It was claimed by the Nazi government that this was only a
spontaneous reaction, but in fact it was planned and executed by the Nazi
authorities using fanatic mobs.

In terms of historical evolution, India is broadly a country of immigrants and


consequently, it is a land of tremendous diversity. Hence, the only policy which can
hold it together and put it on the path of progress is secularism equal respect and
treatment to all communities and sects. This was the policy of the great Emperor
Akbar, which was followed by our founding fathers (Pandit Nehru and his colleagues)
who gave us a secular Constitution. Unless we follow this policy, our country cannot
survive for one day, because it has so much diversity, so many religions, castes,
languages, ethnic groups.

India, therefore, does not belong to Hindus alone; it belongs equally to Muslims,
Sikhs, Christians, Parsees, Jains etc. Also, it is not only Hindus who can live in India as
first-rate citizens while others have to live as second or third rate citizens. All are
first-rate citizens here. The killing of thousands of Muslims and other atrocities on
them in Gujarat in 2002 can never be forgotten or forgiven. All the perfumes in
Arabia cannot wash away the stain on Mr. Modi in this connection.

It is said by his supporters that Mr. Modi had no hand in the killings, and it is also said
that he had not been found guilty by any court of law. I do not want to comment on
our judiciary, but I certainly do not buy the story that Mr. Modi had no hand in the
events of 2002. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat at the time when horrible events
happened on such a large scale. Can it be believed that he had no hand in them? At
least I find this impossible to believe.

Let me give just one example. Ehsan Jafri was a respected, elderly former Member of
Parliament living in the Chamanpura locality of Ahmedabad in Gujarat. His house was
in the Gulbarga Housing Society, where mostly Muslims lived. According to the
recorded version of his elderly wife Zakia, on February 28, 2002 a mob of fanatics
blew up the security wall of the housing society using gas cylinders. They dragged
Ehsan Jafri out of his house, stripped him, chopped off his limbs with swords and
burnt him alive. Many other Muslims were also killed and their houses burnt.
Chamanpura is barely a kilometre from a police station, and less than two kilometres
from the Ahmedabad Police Commissioners office. Is it conceivable that the Chief
Minister did not know what was going on? Zakia Jafri has since then been running
from pillar to post to get justice for her husband who was so brutally murdered. Her
criminal case against Mr. Modi was thrown out by the district court (since the Special
Investigation Team appointed by the Supreme Court found no evidence against him
and filed a final report), and it is only now (after a gap of over 10 years) that the
Supreme Court has set aside the order of the trial court and directed that her protest
petition be considered.

I am not going into this matter any further since it is still sub judice.

Mr. Modi has claimed that he has developed Gujarat. It is therefore necessary to
consider the meaning of development. To my mind development can have only one
meaning, and that is raising the standard of living of the masses. Giving concessions
to big industrial houses, and offering them cheap land and cheap electricity can
hardly be called development if it does not raise the standard of living of the masses.

Questionable progress

Today, 48 per cent of Gujarati children are malnourished, which is a higher rate of
malnourishment than the national average. In Gujarat, there is a high infant mortality
rate, high womens maternity death rate, and 57 per cent poverty rate in tribal areas,
and among Scheduled Castes/Backward Castes. As stated by Ramachandra Guha in
his recent article in The Hindu (The man who would rule India, February 8)
environmental

degradation

is

rising,

educational

standards

are

falling,

and

malnutrition among children is abnormally high. More than a third of adult men in
Gujarat have a body mass index of less than 18.5 the seventh worst in the country.
A UNDP report in 2010 has placed Gujarat after eight other Indian States in multiple
dimensions of development: health, education, income levels, etc.

Business leaders no doubt claim that Mr. Modi has created a business friendly
environment in Gujarat, but are businessmen the only people in India?

I appeal to the people of India to consider all this if they are really concerned about
the nations future. Otherwise they may make the same mistake which the Germans
made in 1933.

(Markandey Katju, a former judge of the Supreme Court, is Chairman of the Press
Council of India)
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Fly,
High...
don't be shy

Fly,
as If there are no heights
between men
there are no fights.

Fly,
without caring
Fly with all daring

Fly,
it is the time
to raise voice against crime

Fly,
go and create your own sky
never let your thoughts dry

Don't quit but try


and remember always

Fly
High..
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@


........

1.

, :

"RED SOCIETY" 9940217816


2.

, .

www.friendstosu pport.org
3.

/ : :

: - 9842062501 9894067506.
4.

Kodaikanal PASAM .
. : 045420-240668,2 45732
"Helping Hands are Better than PrayingLips"
5.

, ,

, , .

.
6.

(0-10 ) Sri Valli Baba Institute Banglore .

: 9916737471
7.

'Imitinef Mercilet'

"Adyar Cancer Institute in

Chennai"

. Create Awareness. It might help someone.

"Adyar Cancer Institute in Chennai"

:
: East Canal Bank Road , Gandhi Nagar , Adyar
Chennai -600020
Landmark: Near Michael School
Phone: 044-24910754 044-24910754 , 044-24911526 044-24911526 , 044-22350241
044-22350241
9.

...

/ , +1098 ( )
- , .
.


@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
<<<<santa class me hass raha tha..
ek ladkiboli : stand up. kon ho tum..

santa : tum kon ho ?


ladki : mai MONITOR hu.
santa : hahahahahaha tere din gaye pagli..ab LCD ka zamana hai.
<<<<Santa in airplane going 2 Bombay ..

While its landing he shouted: " Bombay .. Bombay "

Air hostess said: "B silent."


Santa: "Ok.. Ombay. Ombay"
<<<<<<<<
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
RBI : IMPORTANT INFORMATION

1.Establishment on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provision of the Reserve


Bank India Act, 1934.
2.Central office at Mumbai since inception.
3.Though originally privately owned, since nationalization in 1949 fully owned by the
Government of India.
The preamble prescribes the objective as : to regulate the issue of bank notes and
keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally
to operated the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.

Central board :
1. Appointed / nominated by the central Government for a period of 4 years.
2. Constitution: Official Directors:
Full-Time: Governor and not more than four deputy governors.
Non-official Directors:
Nominated by Government: Ten directors from various field and one government
official.
Others: Four Directors one each from four local boards.

Functions :General superintendence and direction`s of the Bank`s affairs.

Local boards:
a) One each for the four regions of the country in Mumbai, Calcutta (Kolkata),
Chennai and New Delhi.
b) Membership:
Consists of 5 members each
Appointed by central government.
For a term of 4 years.
c)Functions; To advice the Central board on local matters and to represent territorial
and economics interests of local cooperative and indigenous banks: to perform such
other functions as delegated by Central board from time to time.

Umbrella Acts
1. Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 : Governs the Reserve Bank functions.
2. Banking regulation act, 1949 governs the financial sector.

Acts governing specific functions


a. Public debt act, 1944/Government Security Act (proposed) : Governs government
debt market .
b. Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 : Regulates government security market.
c. Indian coinage Act , 1906 : Governs currency and coins,
d. Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973/Foreign Exchange Management Act,
1999:Governs foreign exchange market.

Acts governing Banking operations

a. Companies Act ,1956 :Governs bank as companies.


b. Banking companies (acquisition and transfer of undertakings) Act 1970/1980
Relates to nationalization of banks.
c. Banker`s books evidence act
d. Banking secrecy act
e. Negotiable instruments ACT ,1881

Acts Governing Individual Institutions


1. State Bank of India Act , 1954
2. Industrial development Bank of India
3. National Bank for Agriculture rural development ACT
4. National Housing Bank act
5. Deposit insurance and credit guarantee Cooperation Act

Monetary Authority:
1. Formulates, implements and monitor the monetary policy .
2. ObjECTIVE ---------------------->>>>>>>>>> read full at

http://www.iaspaper.org.in/2013/05/rbi-important-1.html
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
India's 'human computer' Shakuntala Devi dies...

Mathematical genius Shakuntala Devi, nicknamed as "human computer" for her


ability to make complex mental calculations, died at a hospital Bangalore today
following respiratory problems. She was 83.

Shakuntala Devi found a slot in the Guinness Book of World Record for her
outstanding ability and wrote numerous books like 'Fun with Numbers', 'Astrology for
You', 'Puzzles to Puzzle You', and 'Mathablit'. She had the ability to tell the day of the
week of any given date in the last century in a jiffy.

In 1977, Shakuntala Devi extracted the 23rd root of a 201-digit number mentally. She
answered in 50 seconds. Her answer of 546372891 took a UNIVAC 1108 computer a
full minute (10 seconds more) to confirm that she was right after it was fed with
13000 instructions.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@






- 15


-

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@



....


-----------------

22 , 1947

,
-

. . -1971

-2 ,
-

, ,

( ) ,

-

26 2002
,
- 2001


26 2002

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Indias First women in air Indias first lady pilot Sarla Thakral
he year 1936 when the flying was like dream, flying in air was like miracle.

There were only male in the cockpit of the airplane.

At that time one lady entered the cockpit of a Gypsy Moth and flew into the blue
skies, and made a history as Indias first lady pilot.

The dashing, courageous, Sarla Thakral. She was only 21 year old when she achieved
that sky.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

--- 112
112 .
!
--- ,
*3370#

, 50

!
!
- ,

*#06#

. 15 .

.
!
-
!
!

, ! ?

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@
>> Fathers Of Different Fields <<
*************************
1. Father of Astronomy : Copernicus
2. Economics : Adam Smith
3. Biology : Aristotle
4. Chemistry : Antoine Lavoisier
5. Geometry : Euclid
6. History : Herodotus
7. Genetics : G.J. Mendel
8. Botany : Theophrastus
9. Classical mechanics : IsaacNewton
10. Computer : Charles Babbage
11. Comedy : Aristophanes
12. English poetry : GeoffreyChaucer
13. Homeopathy : Heinemann
14. Indian Green Revolution : M.S.Swaminathan
15. India's Communication Revolution : Sam Pitroda
16. Medicine : Hippocrates
17. Modern physics : GalileoGalilei
18. Nuclear physics : Ernest Rutherford
19. Nuclear science : Marie Curie , Pierre Curie
20. Pentium Chip : Vinod Dham

21. Periodic table : Dmitri Mendeleev


22. Political science : NiccolMachiavelli
23. Quantum mechanics : Max Planck
24. Relativity : Albert Einstein
25. Robotics : Al-Jazari
26. Thermodynamics : Sadi Carnot
27. Zoology : Aristotle
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
1) Golden City - Amristar

2) Manchester of India - Ahmedabad

3) City of Seven Islands - Mumbai

4) Queen of Arabian Sea - Cochin

5) Space City - Bangalore

6) Garden City of India - Bangalore

7) Silicon Valley of India - Bangalore

8.) Electronic City of India - Bangalore

9) Pink City - Jaipur

10) Gateway of India - Mumbai

11) Twin City - Hyderabad Sikandarabad

12) City of Festivals - Madurai

13) Deccan Queen - Pune

14) City of Buildings - Kolkata

15) Dakshin Ganga - Godavari

16) Old Ganga - Godavari

17) Egg Bowl of Asia - Andhra Pradesh

18) Soya Region - Madhya Pradesh

19) Manchester of the South - Coimbatore

20) City of Nawabs - Lucknow

21) Venice of the East - Cochin

22) Sorrow of Bengal - Damodar river

23) Sorrow of Bihar - Kosi river

24) Blue Mountains - Nilgiri

25) Queen of the Mountains - Mussoorie


@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@

1. UNO - New York


2. UNICEF - New York
3. UNESCO - Paris
4. UNIDO - Vienna
5. WHO - Geneva
6. UNFPA - New York
7. ILO - Geneva
8. IMF - Washington DC
9. WTO - Geneva
10. International Court Of Justice -The Hague 11. International Atomic Energy Agency

- Vienna
12. World Bank - Washington D.C.
13. International Committee of theRed Cross - Geneva
14. International Maritime Organisation - London
15. Universal Postal Union - Berne
16. Food and Agricultural Organisation - Rome
17. WorldMeteorological Organisation - Geneva
18. SAARC - Kathmandu
19. Amnesty International - London
20. Transparency International - Berlin
21. World Intellectual Property Organization - Geneva
22. International Renewable Energy Agency - Abu Dhabi (UAE)
(Interim HQs)
23. Commonwealth of Nations -London...
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Easy Way to Remember country's members~~~~

~~SAARC (A MBBS PIN)


Afghanistan, Maldives, Bangladesh,Bhut an,Srilanka, Pakistan, India, Nepal

~~ASEAN ( BPLTV MIMCS)


Brunai,

Philipines,

Combodia, Singapore

Lavos,

Thailand,Vietnam,

Malaysia,

Indonesia,

Mynamar,

~~G8 Members (ABC FR JIG)


America, Britan, Canada, France, Russia, Japan,Italy, Germany

~~G5 Members (CM IBSA)


China, Mexico, India, Brazil, SouthAfrica Admin John Biswal The Youth Inspirer

~~SCO Members (TRUCKK)


Thazikistan, Russia, Uzbeckistan, China,
Khazikistan, Kirgisistan
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
With passing of #FSB bill, Rupee falls, so does the stock Market - for obvious reasons.
They say only 22% are poor but they want FSB for 67% of population. It's estimated
that the FSB will cost us over 3% of GDP (i.e. over Rs. 350,000 crores)

1) The govt which can't store food now wants to guarantee Food Security ? Three
years back this same UPA govt. declared it's not possible to provide free food to poor

2) We could have created over 2 million decent jobs with the same amount of money.
But Now due to FSB, taxes and inflation will rise.

3) Rupee value will decline much further and given the fiscal deficit generated, it will
leave our economy at the mercy of IMF and World Bank.

4) In all probability the benefits of FSB will go to millions of illegal immigrants from

Bangladesh and Myanmar and other designated 'vote banks' who wont need to work
for money or earn for food.

5) Add this to direct cash transfer scheme and in effect, government is paying selfish
groups in return for their votes. Something they have done for quite a long time now.
Only this time the money doesn't come from their swiss accounts- it comes from your
savings accounts and national debt.

6) BJP had to support this bill because #Congress had enough majority(due to #UPA
allies like Leftists-Socialists parties of SP, DMK, BSP) to pass this bill "with or without"
BJP but had BJP opposed it, Congress would have shown BJP as "enemy of the poor" in
their election campaigns (as common man on the ground do NOT understand the evil
designs of colonial Congress, due to Anti-India Media propaganda). Which is what this
entire bill is about - Votes by deciet and destruction of India from within.
-----------------------------------------------Take a look at the Food Security Bill of the BJP ruled Chattisgarh state and why
Congress FSB bill is Anti-National Bill, and good for the western countries.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@



...
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@
Android Secrete codes
-----------------------------------1. Phone Information, Usage and
Battery *#*#4636#*#*

2. IMEI Number *#06#


3. Enter Service Menu On Newer
Phones *#0*#
4. Detailed Camera Information
*#*#34971539#*#*
5. Backup All Media Files
*#*#273282*255*663282*#*#*
6. Wireless LAN Test
*#*#232339#*#*
7. Enable Test Mode for Service
*#*#197328640#*#*
8. Back-light Test *#*#0842#*#*
9. Test the Touchscreen
*#*#2664#*#*
10. Vibration Test *#*#0842#*#*
11. FTA Software Version
*#*#1111#*#*
12. Complete Software and
Hardware Info *#12580*369#
13. Diagnostic Configuration
*#9090#
14. USB Logging Control
*#872564#
15. System Dump Mode *#9900#

16. HSDPA/HSUPA Control Menu


*#301279#
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Ravish Kumar
>>>>>


>>>


>>>>>
>>>>>>

?
>>>

?
>>>>-
>>>>>


>>>>>


>>>>history reading is not an easy task ! Requires patience and sense of curiosity !
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

. . .. .............
... ....
.

..... ,
. . ...
.......
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
General knowledge questions regarding Supreme Court :

1. In which year Supreme Court of India came in to force ?


Answer: 1950 January 28
2. Who is the first chief Justice of India ?
Answer: Harilal J Kania
3. Who is the 39th Chief Justice of India ?
Answer: Altamas Kabir (Incumbent)
4. Which article in Indian Constitution gives the power of Writ jurisdiction to Supreme
court ?
Answer: Article 32
5. Who appoints the judges of supreme court ?
Answer: President
6. What is the monthly salary of chief Justice of Supreme court ?
Answer: 1 lakh
7. What is the monthly salary of judge of Supreme court ?
Answer: 90,000
8. Who is the present (40th) Chief Justice of
India ?

answer: P. Sathasivam
9. Who is the first female supreme court chief
justice ?
answer: No female CJI yet
10. Who is the first female judge of supreme
court ?
Answer: Fathima Beevi.