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Industrial Training Report

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Candidates Declaratio

I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in the practical training seminar,
entitled BALL BEARING DIVISION in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering, submitted to the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Arya Institute of Engineering & Technology, Rajasthan Technical
University is a record of my own work carried under the Guidance of Mr.ADITYA
SHAHANI, (NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES LIMITED).
I have not submitted the matter presented in this Report anywhere for the award of any other
Degree.

(Signature of Candidate)

SANJAY KUMAR NIRANIA


Roll No.: 11EAIME053

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Acknowledgement
We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our Practical Training Guide Mr. ADITYA
SHAHANI, (NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES LIMITED) for guiding me
from the inception till the completion of the project. We sincerely acknowledge him/her for
giving his/her valuable guidance, support for literature survey, critical reviews and comments
for our Project.
We would like to first of all express our thanks to Dr. Arvind Agarwal, Chairman of Arya
Main Campus, for providing us such a great infrastructure and environment for our overall
development.
We express sincere thanks to Prof (Dr.) R C Bansal the Principal of AIET, for his kind
cooperation and extendible support towards the completion of our project.
Words are inadequate in offering our thanks to Er. Sandeep Jhamb, H.O.D of ME
Department, for consistent encouragement and support for shaping our project in the
presentable form.
We also express our deepest thanks to Er. Gurmeet Singh for his support in providing
technical requirement and fulfilling our various other requirements for making our project
success.
We also like to express our thanks to all supporting ME faculty members who have been a
constant source of encouragement for successful completion of the project.
Also our warm thanks to Arya Institute of Engineering & Technology, who provided us this
opportunity to carryout, this prestigious Project and enhance our learning in various technical
fields.
SANJAY KUMAR NIRANIA

Roll. No:-11EAIME053

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

ABSTRACT
This papar present detail of a computer interface developed for vibration monitoring and
diagnostic of ball bearing based on experiments conducted for bearing fault diagnosis. An
experiment setup was designed and fabricated for testing various ball bering to obtain their
vibration chracteristics three defect free and nine defective tapered roller bearing with
outer race defects ,ball defects. The bearing vibration data were acquired using NI DAQ and
lab view virtual instrumention software, which were futher processed using computer
interface used various time and frequency domain parameters like peak to valley, RMS
value,kurtosis envelope analysisetc.

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

CONTENT
Title

Page No.

Cover Page.....................................1
Certificates(Company & college).2
Candidate declaration...4
Acknowledgement..5
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION.10-15
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

1.6.

Company profile
Milestones
Technical collaboration
Main Customers
Manufacturing Facilities
BEARING INDUSTRY INDIAN SCENERIO

10
11
12
12
13
15

CHAPTER 2 ABOUT NEI.....16-17


2.1

Products

16

Chapter 3 BEARING...18-25
3.1 TYPES OF BEARING

18

3.2.1 Single Row Radial Ball Bearings

21

3.2.2 Single Row Radial Ball Bearing with Tapered Bore

22

3.2.3 Single Row Angular Contact Ball Bearing

22

3.2.4 Single Row Externally Aligning Ball Bearing

23

3.2.5 Double Row Self Aligning Ball Bearing

23

3.2.6 Double Row Self-Aligning Ball Bearing withTapered Clamping Sleeve and Nut23
3.2.7 Thrust Ball Bearing

23

3.2.8 Cylindrical Roller Bearing

23

3.2.9 Tapered Roller Bearing

24

3.2.10 Spherical Roller Bearing

25

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

CHAPTER 4 COMPONENT OF BALL BEARING.26-28


4.1 Bearing races

27

4.2 Types of bearing races

27

4.3 Raw material

27

4.4 Outer & inner races

27

4.5 Cages

28

4.6 Balls

28

CHAPTER 5 MANUFATURING PROCESS OF BALL BEARING29-43


5.1 Heat treatment process

30

5.2 Hardning process

34

5.3 Different process &Machines

36

5.4 Face grinding

36

5.5 OD grinding

36

5.6 Laser marking system

38

5.7 Grinding

39

5.7.1 Centerless grinding

39

5.7.2 Types of centerless grinding

41

5.7.3 Throughfeed centerless grinding

41

5.7.4 Infeed centerless grinding

42

5.7.5 Endfeed centerless grinding

43

CHAPTER 6 BALL ASSEMBLING PROCESS...44-50


6.1 Wire

45

6.2 Heading

45

6.3 Flashing

46

6.4 Grinding

47

6.5 Heat treatment

48

6.6 Tumbling

49

6.7 Lapping

49

6.8 Cleaning

49

LIST OF FIGURES
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

1.1 MILSTONES OF NEI

11

1.2 NEWAI PLANT

14

1.2 MENASAR PLANT

15

3.1 SINGLE ROW RADIAL BALL BEARING

22

3.2 SINGLE ROW RADIAL BALL BEARING

22

3.3 TAPPER BORE

24

3.4 CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING

25

3.5 TAPPERED ROLLER BEARING

25

4.1 COMPONENT OF BALL BEARING

26

5.1 CHUGAIRO FURNANCE

31

5.2 SALT BATH FURNANCE

36

5.3 CENTRELESS GRINDING

39

5.4 MECHANISM OF CENTRELESS GRINDING

40

5.5 THROUGH FEED GRINDING

41

5.6 DIMENSION OF THROUGH FEED GRINDING

42

5.7 INFEED GRINDING

43

5.8 ENDFEED GRINDING

43

6.1 WIRE

45

6.2 HEADER MACHINE

46

6.3 GRINDING MACHINE

47

6.4 HARD GRINDING MACHINE

48

6.5 CLEANING MACHINE

50

7.1 OUTER RACE GRINDING

51

7.2 DIAMOND TIP ALLIGNMENT

52

LIST OF FLOW CHART


1
2
3

MANUFATURING PROCESS OF BALL BEARING


HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS
ASSEMBLING PROCESS

29
33
44

CHAPTER 1

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

INTRODUCTION
1.1. COMPANY PROFILE:The renowned industrialist, late Shree B. M. Birla founded National Engineering Industries
Ltd., Jaipur in the year 1946 as a pioneer industry in the field of bearing manufacture, under
the name of "National Bearing Company Ltd."
The first bearing was manufactured in 1950 with a modest start of 30,000 bearings in 19 sizes.
The company is now manufacturing nearly 3.8 million bearings per month in over 500
different sizes ranging from 6 mm bore to 1300 mm outer diameter and has the capacity to
manufacture bearings upto 2000 mm outer diameter. At NEI, the development of bearings is a
never ending job. With ever increasing activities and grant of industrial licenses for other vital
industries and manufacturing of Roller Bearing Axle Boxes for Railway Rolling Stock, Steel
Balls, Tapered Roller Bearings, Spindle Inserts etc., the name of the company was changed in
1958 to "National Engineering Industries Ltd." retaining its original trade mark NBC.
The industry is spread over 118 acres of land in Jaipur and 56 acres in Gunsi (Newai). This is
the only unit in the country manufacturing wide variety and range of bearings such as Ball
Bearings, Steel Balls, Tapered Roller Bearings, Cylindrical Roller Bearings & Axle Boxes for
Railway Rolling Stock including Spherical Roller Bearings, Cartridge Tapered Roller
Bearings and Large Diameter special Bearings in separate fully equipped factories. The
development of National Engineering Industries Ltd., was pioneered with a theme
Indigenization

and Self-reliance".

NBC Bearings are widely used by 2 and 3 Wheelers, Cars, Trucks, Tractors, Electric Motors,
Railway wagon, Coach and Locomotive manufacturers as Original Equipment and Steel Mills,
Heavy Engineering Plants, Bulldozers, Shovels, Tillers and Thermal Power Plants all across
the country.

1.2. Milestones

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Fig.1.1 Milestones of NEI


i.

1946 -Company established as National Bearing Company (NBC) under technical

ii.
iii.

collaboration with Hoffman, U.K.


1950 Ball Bearing Production started.
1958 Company is renamed National Engineering Industries Limited (NEI); NBC

iv.

Trademark retained.
1967 Tapered Roller Bearing production started

v.

1975 Spherical Roller Bearings production begins

vi.

1981 Second Plant inaugurated in Newai.

vii.

1982 Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearing in Technical Collaboration with Brenco

viii.

Incorporated of U.S.A.
1985 Technical Collaboration with NTN Corporation of Japan for Ball, Cylindrical &

ix.

Spherical Roller Bearing.


1995 ISO - 9001 Quality Management System Certification

x.

1996 Technical collaboration with Izumi Kinzoku Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan for Machine
Retrofitting

xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.

2007 Third Plant inaugurated in Manesar.


2008 NBC receives TPM Excellence Award
2010 NBC receives Deming Award
2012 NBC receives the ACMA awards for Manufacturing and Technology Excellence
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

1.3. Technical collaboration


(i) BRENCO Incorporated of U.S.A. Since 1982 - For Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings for
railroad applications.
(ii) NTN Corporation of JAPAN Since 1985 - For Ball Bearings, Cylindrical & Spherical
Roller Bearings, JPU Bearings, Double Row Angular Contact Bearings, Hub Bearings Since
1997 - for Tapered Roller bearings.
(iii) Izumi Kinzoku of JAPAN Since 1996 for remanufacturing, retrofitting and overhauling of
Grinding and Super-finishing machines for bearing races.

1.4. Main Customers


Rolling Stock:

DLW (Diesel Locomotive Work)


CLW (Chittaranjan Locomotive Works)
ICF (Integral Coach Factory, Chennai)
RCF (Rail Coach Factor, Kapurthala)
CIMMCO
BEML (Bharat Earth Movers, Bangalore)
TEXMACO
Hindustan Motors Ltd.
Maruti Udyog Ltd.
Mahindra & Mahindra

Automobiles-LCV:

Ashok Leyland
Force Motors
Eicher Motors
Tata Motors

Automobiles-Two/ Three Wheelers:

Bajaj Auto Ltd.

Hero Honda Motors Ltd.

Honda Motorcycle & Scooters India Ltd.

Suzuki Motorcycle India

Majestic Auto

Piaggio India Ltd.


Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Royal Enfield Ltd.

Yamaha Motors India Pvt. Ltd.

TVS

Tractors:

Eicher

Escorts

HMT

International tractors

Mahindra & Mahindra

Punjab Tractors

TAFE

VST Tillers

Electric Motors & Pumps:

Crompton Greaves

G.E. Motors

Kirloskar Electric

NGEF

MICO

Bajaj Electricals

Crompton Greaves

Fans: -

1.5. Manufacturing FacilitiesNBC has manufacturing facilities at Jaipur (established in 1946), Newai (established in 1980)
and Manesar (established in 2006). A fourth plant, a green field project, at Savli in Gujarat
will ship out its first bearing in November 2013, ramping up production capacity to 150
million bearings per year once it is fully operational.

Jaipur Plant
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Newai (Gunsi) Plant


Manesar Plant

1.5.1. Newai (Gunsi) PlantEstablished in the year 1980-81 as an expansion project of NEI Ltd . The factory is equipped
with fully automated grinding lines with electronic in-process & post- process gauging and
centrally air-conditioned assembly lines with auto gauging and test equipments for quality and
reliability

of

the
products,
The

plant

is

spread
over

covered
area

of

7,200 Sq.
Meters.

Fig1.2: Newai (Gunsi) plant


1.5.2 Manesar Plant

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

NEI has set up its third Ball Bearing manufacturing plant in the fastest growing industrial
town of Manesar in Haryana. The plant is having a covered area of 5200 sq. meters. with
the most advanced and sophisticated machines imported from reputed manufacturers from
Europe and Japan .This plant is equipped with state of the art fully automated grinding
lines, assembly lines and inspection equipments.

Fig1.3: Manesar Plant

BEARING INDUSTRY INDIAN SCENERIO :


The Indian Bearing Industry is estimated at Rs. 30 BillionApproximately. The Industry has
established a highlydiversified product range of around 1000 type of Bearing,having High
Volume Demand. As much as 70% of the total
Demand for common varieties and size of bearing is met by the domestic Industry, and the
remaining demand to the tune of 30% is imported essentially for Industrial Application
andspecial purpose.
The Indian bearing Industry can be divided in to theorganized sector and un-organized sector.

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

The organized sector primarily caters to the original equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
Segment, which predominantly comprises Automotiverailway and other Industrial users. The
replacement market is dominatedby unorganized Sector.

CHAPTER 2
ABOUT NEI
National Engineering Industries(NEI) Ltd was established 150 year ago by multi-billion dollar
C.K. Birla group. It manufactures a wide range of maximum types of bearings bearings for
automotive and railway industry as well as for general industrial applications under the brand
name NBC . NEI was founded in the year 1946 as a pioneer industry in the field of bearing
manufacture. Now it manufactures nearly 80 Million Bearings per annum in over 500
different sizes ranging from 6 mm bore to 1300 mm outer diameter, also having capability to
manufacture the bearings upto 2000 mm as outer diameter.
NEI is one of the largest domestic bearing manufacturing company with gross annual
turnover of Rs 1051 crore in 2010-11.The company exports bearings to more than 20
countries and is also exporting to OEMs in Europe and USA.
NEI manufactures a wide range of bearings namely ball and cylindrical roller bearings,
double row angular contact bearings, tapered roller bearings for automobiles, railways and
industrial applications and large diameter bearings for steel plants and rolling mills. The three
plants situated at Jaipur, Newai and Manesar manufacture these products with approx. 2300strong team, supported by a well-equipped R&D with bearing life testing facility.
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE), Japan, for achieving distinctive
performance improvement through the application of Total Quality Management (TQM).The
Deming medal confirms that our quality management systems are one of the best ,globally
.For our customers, this means they were enjoying the consistently superior products and
assurance of highest quality for every NBC bearings theyuse .

2.1 Products:NEI manufactures a wide range of bearings namely ball and cylindrical roller bearings, double
row angular contact bearings, tapered roller bearings for automobiles, railways and industrial
applications and large diameter bearings for steel plants and rolling mills. These products with
approx. 2300-strong team, supported by a well-equipped R&D with bearing life testing
facilities. The products are:

Ball Bearings
Tapered Roller Bearings
Cylindrical Roller Bearings
Axle Boxes Spherical
Roller Bearings
Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings
Large Dia Special Bearings

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

CHAPTER 3
BEARING
A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts,
typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the
motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of
applied loads they can handle

3.1 Types:There are many different types of bearings.

Type
Plainbearing

Description Friction

Stiffnes

Rubbing

Depends

Speed
Life
Notes
s
Good, Low to Low to very Widely used,

surfaces,

on

provide very

high -

relatively high

usually with materials d wear high

depends

friction, suffers

lubricant;

and

upon

from stiction in

some

constructi but

application

some applications.

and

Depending upon

is low,

bearings use on, PTFE some


Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

has
pumped
lubrication
and behave
similarly to
fluid
bearings.

coefficient
of friction
~0.050.35,
depending
upon

the application,

slack is

lifetime can be

normall

lubrication

higher or lower
than rolling

present

element bearings.

fillers
added
Rolling
coefficient
of friction
with steel
can be
~0.005
(adding

Ball or

resistance Good, te to

rollers are

due to

but

high

seals,

some

(often

prevent or

packed

slack is require

minimize

grease,

usually s

rubbing

preload

present cooling

Rollingelementbe used to
aring

Modera

and

Moderate to
high
(depends on
lubrication,
often
requires

Used for higher


moment loads than
plain bearings with
lower friction

maintenance)

misalignm
ent can
increase
friction to
as much
Jewel bearing

Off-center
bearing rolls

as 0.125)
Low
Low

Low

due to

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

Adequate

Mainly used in

(requires

low-load, high

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Industrial Training Report

precision work
in seating

flexing

maintenance)

such as clocks.
Jewel bearings
may be very small.

Very
high
(usuall
y

Fluid is
forced
Fluid bearing

limited

Zero

between two friction at Very


faces and

zero

held in by

speed, low

high

to a
few
hundre
d feet

edge seal

per
second
at/by
Zero

infinite in
some
applications,
may wear at
startup/shutd
own in some
cases. Often
negligible
maintenance.

Indefinite.

Can fail quickly


due to grit or dust
or other
contaminants.
Maintenance free
in continuous use.
Can handle very
large loads with
low friction.

Magnetic

Faces of

bearings

bearing are friction at

practic Maintenance bearings (AMB)

kept

al limit free. (with

zero

Low

seal)
No

Virtually

Active magnetic
need considerable

separate by speed, but

electromagne power.

magnets

ts)

constant

Electrodynamicbea

(electromag power for

rings (EDB) do not

nets or

require external

levitation,

eddycurrent eddy
s)

power.

currents
are often
induced
when
movement
occurs,

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

but may
be
negligible
if
magnetic
field is
quasistatic
Very high or
low
Material

depending on Limited range of

flexes to
Flexure bearing give and

Very low Low

constrain

Very
high.

movement

materials and movement, no


strain in

backlash,

application. extremely smooth


Usually

motion

maintenance
free.
Stiffness is the amount that the gap varies when the load on the bearing changes, it is distinct

from the friction of the bearing.

3.2 TYPES OF BEARING:


3.2.1 Single Row Radial Ball Bearings
The initial technology was from Hoffman Manufacturing Company Ltd., U.K. a collaboration,
which continued for 20 years.
We offer a wide range of both metric and inch series deep groove ball bearings, angular
contact ball bearings, self-aligning ball bearings etc.
With our tie up with the world's leading bearing manufacturing company NTN Corporation,
JAPAN, we have gained access to the most advanced ball bearing technology i.e. thermo
mechanical bearings (TMB) and tensioner bearings available today and our wide range of ball
bearings is increasing under this collaboration.
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Fig. 3.1

Single row radial ball bearing

3.2.2 Single Row Radial Ball Bearing with Tapered Bore


The single row radial ball bearings with tapered bore are Identical to single row radial ball
bearings except that these have tapered bore which is used for easier mounting and for the
adjustment of radial clearance. Dimensions of tapered bore diameter refer to small bore.

Fig. 3.2

single row radial ball bearing with tapered bore

3.2.3 Single Row Angular Contact Ball Bearing


The single row angular contact ball bearings have higher axial load capacity than the single
row radial ball bearings. The radial load must always be less than axial load.The bearings can
carry axial load in one direction only andshould be adjusted against another bearing, if axial
load iscoming from both the directions.
Each bearing can be located endwise in one direction only.

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

3.2.4 Single Row Externally Aligning Ball Bearing


The single row externally aligning ball bearings are usedwhere accurate alignment cannot be
guaranteed betweenbearing positions. It can take radial loads. Axial loads can also be
accommodated.The shell housing must not be made an interference fit on their outside
diameter. If an interference fit is used, the shell housing may contract and prevent
alignment.These bearings can be located endwise in both the directions.

3.2.5 Double Row Self Aligning Ball Bearing


The double row self-aligning ball bearings have the common outer spherical race for both the
rows. This feature gives the bearings self-aligning properties. The bearings have the same
external dimensions as there equivalent single row radial ball bearings. They can take radial
loads and very light axial loads.They can be located endwise in both the directions.

3.2.6 Double Row Self-Aligning Ball Bearing withTapered Clamping Sleeve


and Nut
The double row self-aligning ball bearings with tapered clamping sleeve and nut are identical
to double row self-aligning ball bearing except that these have a tapered bore, which is used
for easier mounting and also a clamping sleeve and nut to clamp the bearings on the shaft. The
tapered bore is also used for the adjustment of radial clearance.

3.2.7 Thrust Ball Bearing


The thrust ball bearings are used for high axial loads at low speeds. These cannot operate at
high speed as it will give rise to centrifugal or radial forces which cannot be taken by the
bearings.
They can be located endwise in one direction only.

3.2.8 Cylindrical Roller Bearing:


The cylindrical roller bearings have greater radial load capacity than ball bearings of same
external dimensions and are particularly suitable for arduous duties. The bearing features a
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

modified line contact between rollers and raceways toeliminate edge stressing. These bearings
have a high radial load capacity and are suitable for high speeds. Due to detachabledesign
character they have advantage of mounting inner ring and outer ring separately.

Fig. 3.3

Cylindrical roller
bearing

3.2.9 Tapered Roller Bearing


Tapered roller bearings are designed in such a way that vertices of the cone for each roller and
those for the inner and outer raceways coincides on the bearing axis or extensions of the
raceways and rollers converge at a common point on the axis of rotation. This results in true
rolling motion of the rollers on the raceways at every point along the rollers.
The tapered roller bearings support radial loads and axial loads from one direction only. The
line contact between rollers and raceways provide the bearings with a high load carrying
capacity. Steep angle tapered roller bearing with exceptionally steep cone angle enables the
bearings to take heavier axial load.
The bearings are of separable type, enabling separate mounting of cups and cones.
Since the tapered roller bearings can absorb thrust loads in one direction only, these bearings
should generally be installed as opposed mountings. The correct amount of radial and axial
clearance is obtained by adjusting the two bearings against each other.
Besides, double row and four row tapered roller bearings are also widely used for heavy loads
such as rolling mills.

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Fig. 3.4

tappered roller bearing

3.2.10 Spherical Roller Bearing


Spherical roller bearings are particularly suitable for carrying heavy loads. They are usually of
the double row design, both of the rows of the rollers having common spherical raceways in
the outer ring. This feature of this bearing has great practical importance in those cases where
it is difficult to obtain exact parallelism between the shaft and housing both axes. So these
bearings are suitable where misalignment can arise from mounting errors or from deflection of
the shaft.

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Fig 3.5 Spherical roller bearing

CHAPTER 4
COMPONENT OF BEARING
There are four major parts to a standard ball bearing: the outer race, the rolling balls, the inner
race,

and

the

cage

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

or

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retainer.

Industrial Training Report

Fig. no. 4.1 component of ball bearing

4.1 BEARING RACE'S


The SSI Races Manufacturing Units of Jaipur areManufacturing outer & Inner Bearing Races
in Different sizes.According to the Demand in the market. The turned Races aresupplied in
Soft

condition

and

remaining

operation

of

Hardening,

Tempering

Grinding

Honing/polishing are beingdone by the Bearing Manufacturer.


The Detail of type and size of Bearing Races are as under:-

4.2 Type of Bearing Races Inner Dia Ranger

1. Ball Bearing Races:

10mm to 80mm

2. Roller Bearing Races:

17mm to 100 mm

3. Cylindrical Roller Bearing Races:

20mm to 75 mm

4. Special type of Bearing Races for:

20mm to 75 mm

Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Transport Vehicles (Thrust Bearing)


5. Axle Box Bearing Races for Railway:

100mm to 200 mm

4.3 RAW MATERIAL:


The Races & Rolling elements of Bearing are subjected tostress on a very small contact
surface must be of such materialso as to with stand wear and have high elastic Limit & fatigue
Limit. The raw material being used by the Industry forManufacturing of various Bearing
components are as under:

4.4 Outer and Inner Races


The raw material used in the Manufacturing of bearingRaces is SAE 52100 high Carbon
Chrome bearing steel, whichhas composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6 As per
BISspecification). The raw material for Bearing Races is in the formof Rods & Seamless
Hollow Tubes. This is a SpheroidsAnnealed Steel. Approx. 80% of the Seamless Hollow tubes
arepurchased by the Industry from M/s. Indian Seamless Metal tubePUNE, while the rest of
the tube used in the cluster is importedmaterialThe Steel bar are purchased from M/s. Indian
SeamlessSteel & Alloy Pune & M/s. Mahindra Ugine Steel CompanyKHAPOLI
(Maharashtra). Some of the units are buying the steelscrap rod for manufacturing bearing
races.
Bearing Races material and their heat treatment arerequired to be selected carefully, taking
account the mechanicalstrength and required life of the Bearing, so that each materialmay
perform at maximum capability.Approximate required composition for bearing races
areConstitute % Composition
Carbon 0.95 to 1.1
Chromium 1.4 to 1.6
Manganese 0.50 max.
Silicon 0.15 to 0.35
Sulphur 0.025 (Max.)
Mechanical Engg. Deptt. A.I.E.T., Jaipur

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Industrial Training Report

Phosphorous 0.05

4.5 CAGE'S
Cage is used to return balls at proper distance to preventthem from containing each other and
to prevent a temp.rise and resultant damage due to friction.
The Material for manufacturing cages is CRCA Strips ofC2015 Bearing grade steel having
carbon percentage at0.08% max. and Magnesium ranging from 0.25% to 0.45%

4.6 BALL'S
Steel Balls of grade 20, 16 &10 with close tolerance,smooth surface made by using SAE
52100 High CarbonChrome Bearing Steel.

CHAPTER 5
MANUFACTURING OF BALL BEARING
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF BALL BEARING:

Forged rings (De-scaled) as raw material


(SAE 52100 steel)

Turning Operation

Centre Less Grinding

Heat Treatment

Hardness Testing
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Rough Grinding

Finish Grinding

Honing & Super Finishing

Washing

Application for Rust Preventive

Ready For Dispatch to Assembly


Flow chart 1

Manufacturing process of ball bearing

Heat Treatment Process:Heat treatment process is the process of hardening the soft material. The row material is soft
material and it has to be hardened before grinding, and hardening increase the life of bearing.
Hardening is done in a special furnace named CHUGAIRO furnace. The soft machined
material is feed in the furnace and washed at 600 C, then send to a chamber where the material
heated in four chambers the first chamber has the temperature 840 0 C and further chamber
contains the 8500 C temperature. Then it dipped into an oil tank at temperature 250C where the
material get quenched then it washed and then it tempered in water about 90 min. at
temperature 1050 C . then dried and cooled in air. The hardened material is obtained.
The systematic flowchart is shown in following fig.

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Fig 5.1 Chugairo Furnance

Reference: http//www.nbcprojectreport.com

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Reference: http//www.heattreatmentprocess.com

Heat Treatment

Raw Material
(Carbon Steel)

Carburizing
(Carbon Shield Layer increases Hardness)
(10 12 hrs.) (940 0C) (GC Furnace)

Hardness I
(Revolving Furnace)
(920 0C) (Time Dependent on Job)
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Annealing
(6 hrs.) (650 0C)

Shot Blasting

Hardening II
(Revolving Furnace)
(820 0C) (Time Dependent on Job)

Sub-Zero Treatment
(-60 0C) (Increases Toughness)

Tempering
(160 0C) (4 hrs.)

Shot Blasting
(Wheel Abrator)

Hardness Inspection
(60 HRC)

Flow chart 2

heat treatment

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After heat treatment following process are done to get a new ready to use ball bearing.

Hardening Procedure
Steel Material Carbon (0.9% - 1.10%)
HC Steel (High Carbon Steel)

Air
Process

Hardening

Heat the
Furnace
Procedure

850-870O C

Quenching

Fast cooling
600 C Oil
Quenching

Tempering

Cooling

Furnace

Cool at Room

Heating

Temperature

1650-1800C

1800C Salt Bath

Hardness

Time

------

35-60 min.

62 66 HRC

5-15 min.

60 64 HRC

------

150 min.

------

According to
the job
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Hardening Procedure
Steel Material
LC Steel (Low Carbon Steel)

Process

Carburizing

Hardness

Time

Quenching

Tempering

Carbon Furnace

Furnace

Fast cooling 600

Heat the

heating at

temperature at

C for oil

Furnace at

8500 C 8700 C

quenching only

1650 C-1800 C

60 64 HRC

52 62 HRC

5-15 min.

120-180 min.

Procedure

Hardening

940 C - 950 C

.200 - .250

8 10 hours

------

35-60 min.
According to
the job.

Salt Bath Furnace

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Reference : http//www.superheatfurnance.com
FIG NO. 5.2 SALT BATH FURNANCE

Different process and Machines:-

Face Grinding:Face is the surface at side of the inner and outer race , face should be finished indeed to get the
desire width of the bearing and since the bearing is a mating part and it has to be assembled
somewhere in the machine where it should be fit precisely. The face grinding is done in a
machine where the faces are grinded in between the grinding wheel.

OD(Outer Dia.) Grinding:OD is the circumferential surface of the outer race of the bearing. The OD should be surface
finished since the bearing has to be assembled in machine. It is obtain in an OD grinding
machine in this machine the outer race is rotated between two grinding wheel.The outer race
is passed in machine two times to get highly finished. First rough and second highly finished.
At G-12 line the different machines.
Job No. 6211
G-114 Outer race track grinding machine.
G-115 Outer race track honing machine.

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G-103 Inner race bore grinding.


G-343 Inner race track grinding.
G-363 Inner race face grinding machine.
G-344Inner race track honing machine.

Assembly Line:A-439Auto inner outer race washing m/c.


A-440Auto inner outer race measuring m/c.
A-441Auto inner outer race combining m/c.
A-442Auto cage assembly m/c.
A-443 Auto demagnetizing m/c.
A-444Auto washingm/c for semi-finished product.
A-445Shower cleans.
A-446 Autoinner outer diameter inspection and sensitivity checking m/c.
A-447 Auto radial internal clearance inspection m/c.
A-448Autowashing and drying m/c.
A-449 Auto double side vibration testing m/c.
A-450 Auto Greasing and weighing m/c.
A-451 Auto shielding m/c.
A-452 Auto conservation oil spraying and visual inspection m/c.

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Laser Marking System:

A Laser marking system marks a highly visible mark on the job without touching it.

Job Number

NBC INDIA

Date Code

Important parts
a) Marker
b) Controller
c) Water-cooled Unit
d) Filter Kit
e) Console
f) Control Panel
g) Mechanical Handing System

The Laser is produced with the help of a diode which is focused on the job by using a lens.
The Laser beam produces a external high thermal energy; this thermal energy marks a dark
mark on the job extra thermal energy is then absorbed through the cooling system.

Thus, in this form the laser beam produced from a diode marks a dark mark on the job. With
the help of the machine customerrequirements like; customer code, part number etc. can be
marked according.

GRINDING
Centre less Grinding
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Fig 5.3

Centerless Grinding

Centerless grinding is a method of material removal through grinding, similar to centered


grinding except for the absence of the spindle. It has high throughput, i.e. a large number of
parts can be manufactured in a short time.
The workpiece is set up between the regulating wheel (or back up wheel) and the grinding
wheel, and is supported by the work blade (or work rest). The work rest is located between the
wheels. The work is placed upon the work rest, and the latter together with the regulating
wheel is fed forward forcing the work against the grinding wheel. Axial movement of the
work past the grinding wheel is accomplished by tilting the regulating wheel at a slight angle
from horizontal. An angular adjustment of 0 to 8 or 10 degrees is provided in the machine for
this purpose.
Centerless grinding is classified into two types:

Throughfeed grinding - the workpiece is fed into the machine along the work blade

Plunge grinding - the workpiece is placed between the wheels on a work blade and the
grinding wheel is plunged into the workpiece.

Some of the benefits of centerless grinding include the ability to grind parts with geometries
that do not allow them to be OD ground, the ability to remove three, five and other odd
numbered lobing on the shaft of a part, and to maintain size beyond what is typically capable
of an OD grinder due to the low overall pressures spaced out along the workpiece.
An example of a centerless ground application is the outer diameter of the bearing races.
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Mechanism:

Fig no 5.4 Mecanism of centerless grinding

Types of Centerless grindings

There are three main types of centerless grinding:


1.

Through-feed grinding.

2.

In-feed grinding.

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3.

End-feed grinding.

Through-Feed Grinding

In through-feed grinding, the part rotates between the grinding wheel and a regulating wheel
as shown below.

Fig. no. 5.5 Through feed grinding

For through-feed grinding, one or both wheels of the centerless grinding machine are canted
out of the horizontal plane, as shown below. This imparts a horizontal velocity component to
the work piece, so that outside feed mechanisms are not necessary.
The grinding wheel is canted with respect to the other two axes so that a component of its
surface velocity pushes the part in the direction shown below. This auto feeding characteristic
is useful for rapidly processing many parts in quick sequence.
Because of the axial movement, through-feed parts can only have right circular cylindrical
ground surfaces. The wheel cannot be dressed to grind more complex shapes.

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Below are parts produced with the through-feed centerless grinding process. As can be seen
from the quantities produced, through-feed grinding is primarily a mass-production process
because of its high throughput.

Fig. no 5.6 Dimensios Of through feed grinding

In-Feed Grinding

In-feed grinding differs from through-feed grinding in that the part is not fed axially so that
the ground surface does not need to be a right circular cylinder. The grinding wheel can be
dressed to accomodate the part. Once the work piece part is in place, the grinding wheel is fed
in radially.
Because of the set up time involved for each part, in-feed griding does not have the high
throughput of through-feed grinding. In-feed grinding is illustrated below.

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Fig, no. 5.7 infeed grinding

End-Feed Grinding

In end-feed grinding, the part moves in axially between the grinding wheels, stops for
grinding, and then moves out again. The wheel can be dressed to form more complex shapes,
but the part can only get progressively smaller in diameter. End-feed grinding is illustrated
below.

Fig. no. 5.8 End feed grinding

CHAPTER 6
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ASSEMBLING PROCESS
BALL ASSEMBLING PROCESS:-

Forged wire(De-scaled) as raw material


(SAE 52100 steel)

Heading Operation

Flashing

Grinding

Heat treatment

Hard Grinding

Tumbling

Lapping

Washing

Testing and Fine Inspection

Packing and launching

Flow chart 4

Assembling Process

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1. WIRE

Fig. no. 6.1 Wire

2. HEADING PROCESS:Heading is the process in which the wire of suitable dia is pressed b/w two dies one is
fixed and another is reciprocating

moveable

die.

That

die works at slider crank

mechanism.
The process is known as heading due to formation of head and flash as the extra metal. The
extra metal remains due to passes between two dies. Use of head and flash is to assure that
the formed ball is completely filled and fully solid with metal.

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Fig. no. 6.2 Header machine

3.FLASHING:The flashing is the operation in which we remove the flash on the ball having head and flash.
It is also a grinding operation.The wheels are used are coarse grain type. The time taken in
flashing is18hrs approx.

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Fig. no. 6.3 Flashing

3. GRINDING:After flashing balls are send to grinding machines.Soft grinding process are used to finish the
ball to remove the major defect the balls are now begain to take shape but not fully finished.

Fig. no .6. 4 grinding machine

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4.HEAT TREATMENT:The grinded ball are soft due to many operation like heading, flashing, grinding performed
earlier so by using Chugai RO furnace . The heat treatment is been done by which the balls
are hardened and the hardened balls capable to have loading at it for along time. Thegas used
in heat treatment is Indo Gas which is mixture of LPG & Air.In the heat treatment there are 3
steps.

Heating

Quenching

Tempering

The process time is approx 3 hrs.

5.HARD GRINDING:The heat treated balls are then send to hard grinding where is the extra metal are remove. It is
also a similar operation like a soft grinding but the wheel used is harder than the soft grinding
machine. The process time is approx 3hrs.

Fig. no. 6.5 hard grinding machine

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6. Tumbling :Tumbling is the process is which the hard grinded balls are washed in a slower process in
emulsion and at here the defective ball are removed from the lot.

7. Lapping :It is also a metal removal process in which the balls are finished very well. The metal removal
is very less in order to microns. The wheels which are used are finer grain sized and the
friction agent between the balls is abrasive paste of hollino oil. The lapping operations
are of two types.

Lapping-1:The lapping-1 is the process in which the diameter of balls

is reduces in order to micron.

The finishing of balls are very high. The dB values, tally round, surface finish, parameters are
acheive. The process time is 36hrs

Lapping-2-3:The lapping 2-3 is the operation in which the dia is not reduced so much but the surface finish
is increased very much. The polish is used instead of abrasive paste so the friction is
less. The process time 24hrs.

8.CLEANING:In this process the finished balls are washed in Kerosene Oil for approx 1hr.

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Fig. no. 6.6 Cleaning machine

9.TESTING:In the testing we test each ball individually. Three test are performed at each ball

ECT eddy current test

EOT optical test

EVT vibration test

The test in case of failure the ball is rejected and the cause of failure is discontinuity in
internal structure.

10.FINE INSPECTION:In this segment the each ball is inspected by human eyes the surface defect are inspected by
that means.

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CHAPTER 7

PROBLEM STUDIED DURING TRAINING:Ball Bearing Grinding

Problem No. 1:G-1 Line Job No. 6213 (outer race of bearing)
Machine No. G-241
The abnormal lines were seen at the face of job. Initial prediction was that the backing plate is
damaged. The backing plate is part of machine which holds the job during grinding process at
rotates the job against the grinding wheel. The backing plate has worn out because it has
friction and relative motion between job, when it hold the job.
The backing plate has certain limit to wear about 3 mm. Scratches occur on the face of
backing plate which further produce the lines on the job face. The backing plate holds the job
as shown in fig.

Fig. no. 7.1 outer race grinding


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The backing plate supports the job at the back side.


The backing plate and the shoe and shoe fixture was replaced.
But the wowel was found in the job rotation, the shoe is the device which supports the job at
bottom and one side during the grinding process. And shoe fixture fixes the shoes.
The woweling was produced due to the carbide tip was damaged when the disassembling the
backing plate.

Problem No. 2:G-1 Line Job No. 6213 (Inner race track grinding)
Machine No. G-245
Inner race track grinding wheel changed because the wheel was has completed its life and not
able further use. Then it dressed for curvature setting as normally it dressed. But the black and
hot job obtained at outlet of machine. The prediction is that the dressing of wheel was not
done properly and curvature is not settled for job. Then prediction was that diamond has
finished then it was changed. New diamond setted and then dressed the grinding wheel but the
curvature was not right then and job was heated. Then again wheel dressed and job obtained
satisfactory
But the diamond has to be changed very frequently, and curvature was not satisfactory. The
problem was that the diamond position was not right the right position is shown in the
following fig.

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Fig 7.2 diamond tip alignment

Problem No. 3:G-1 Line Job No. 6213 (Inner race track grinding)
Machine No. G-245
The machine was taking more cycle time to grind the job. The machine was checked no
problem was found. Then the ovality checked of input job then it was found about 100 to 300
micron. Then 100 random pieces were checked then it was found the ovality was more than
the standard limit. When the ovality is more the wheel has to remove more material From
job.Hence increased cycle time.
Ovality occurs when the job heat treated. And it can be controlled.

Problem No. 4:G-1 Line Job No. 6213 (outer race track grinding)
Machine No. G-252
The track center of the outer race was found varied from the standard dimension. Initially the
lock nut to be adjusted, it was found that there was ply in the lock nut and the lock nut was
damaged due to hammering. The new lock nut was prepared in the tool room and fitted in the
machine. Now the track center adjusted.

Problem No. 5:G-12Line Job No. 6


211 (Inner race track Honing)
Machine No. G-343
Job rotation problem was found. It was due to the band in the window.
Window is the holding device for the honing stone and O ring. The band was due to
hammering action of the arbor.

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