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www.elsevier.com/locate/foodcont

drying process using genetic algorithm

Xueqiang Liu, Xiaoguang Chen, Wenfu Wu *, Guilan Peng

Biological and Agricultural Engineering School, Jilin University, Changchun 130025, China

Received 13 January 2006; received in revised form 18 May 2006; accepted 22 May 2006

Abstract

This paper is concerned with optimizing the neural network topology for predicting the moisture content of grain drying process using

genetic algorithm. A structural modular neural network, by combining the BP neurons and the RBF neurons at the hidden layer, was proposed to predict the moisture content of grain drying process. Inlet air temperature, grain temperature and initial moisture content were

considered as the input variables to the topology of neural network. The genetic algorithm is used to select the appropriate network architecture in determining the optimal number of nodes in the hidden layer of the neural network. The number of neurons in the hidden layer was

optimized for 6 BP neurons and 10 RBF neurons using genetic algorithm. Simulation test on the moisture content prediction of grain drying

process showed that the SMNN optimized using genetic algorithm performed well and the accuracy of the predicted values is excellent.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Grain drying; Predicting; Neural network; Genetic algorithm; Moisture content

1. Introduction

Grain drying is a non-linear process with a long delay.

Its main objective is to achieve the desired nal moisture

content. Over-drying requires excessive energy and even

can damage the quality of the dried material, especially

in case of seed. On the other hand the grain will be vulnerable to mildew if the moisture content remains high. There

is an option to determine the moisture content in the drying

process by measurement but the accuracy of this approach

is not satisfactory due to the technical limitations of the

available moisture sensors used in the on-line observing

process. In case of farm dryers, the weather conditions

and dust have a great eect on the accuracy, as well.

Another way to predict the moisture content is to calculate

it based on drying air parameters using physically based

models. But the accurate model is dicult to be established

for the drying process with a long delay is non-linear.

E-mail address: wwf@email.jlu.edu.cn (W. Wu).

0956-7135/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.05.010

Recently, the articial intelligence methods as well as neural networks have been proposed for process control of

grain drying.

The articial neural network (NN) is a well-known tool

for solving complex, non-linear biological systems

(De Baerdemaeker & Hashimoto, 1994) and it can give reasonable solutions even in extreme cases or in the event of

technological faults (Lin & Lee, 1995). Huang and Mujumdar (1993) created a NN in order to predict the performance of an industrial paper dryer. The NN model by

Jay and Oliver (1996) was used for predictive control of

drying process. Trelea, Courtois, and Trystram (1997) used

explicit time and recurrent NNs for modelling the moisture

content of thin-layer (5 cm) corn during the drying process

and for wet-milling quality at constant air ow rate and

absolute humidity and variable temperature. Thyagarajan,

Panda, Shanmugam, Rao, and Ponnavaikko (1997) modelled an air heater plant for a dryer using a NN. Sreekanth,

Ramaswamy, and Sablani (1998) predicted psychometric

parameters using various NN models. Kaminski, Strumillo, and Tomczak (1998) used a NN for data smoothing

and for modeling material moisture content and tempera-

NN to model moisture distribution in agricultural xedbed dryers. It is clear from past literature that NNs are

good for modelling drying process.

The selection of an appropriate NN topology to predict

the drying process is important in terms of model accuracy

and model simplicity. The architecture of a NN greatly inuences its performance. Many algorithms for nding the optimized NN structure are derived based on specic data in a

specic area of application (Blanco, Delgado, & Pegalajar,

2000; Boozarjomehry & Svrcek, 2001), but predicting the

optimal NN topology is a dicult task since choosing the

neural architecture requires some priori knowledge of grain

drying and/or supposes many trial-and-error runs.

In this paper, we present a genetic algorithm capable of

obtaining not only the trained optimal topology of a neural

network but also the least number of connections necessary

for solving the problem. In the following sections, the techniques used in this paper are briey reviewed, and the

design of the NN system for predicting the grain drying

process is discussed in detail. A grain drying process is used

to demonstrate the eectiveness of the neural network. The

nal section draws conclusions regarding this study.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Neural network system

The back-propagation neural network (BPNN) is a multilayer feed-forward network with a back-propagation

learning algorithm. The BPNN is characterized by hidden

neurons that have a global response. The commonly used

transfer function in the BPNN is the sigmoid function

1

f sj

1

1 expsj

where sj is the weighted sum of inputs coming to the jth

node.

Usually, there is only one hidden layer for the BPNNs as

the availability of such a layer is sucient to produce the

set of desired output patterns for all of the training vector

pairs.

The radial basis function neural network (RBFNN)

belongs to the group of kernel function nets that utilize

simple kernel functions as the hidden neurons, distributed

in dierent neighborhoods of the input space, and whose

responses are essentially local in nature. The RBF produces

a signicant nonzero response only when the input falls

within a small-localized region of the input space. The most

common transfer function in an RBFNN is the Gaussian

activation function

!

Pn

2

i1 xi C ki

/k exp

; k 1; 2 . . . q

2

b2

where xi is the ith variable of input; Cki the center of the kth

RBF unit for input variable i; and b2 is the width of the kth

RBF unit.

929

Because of the dierent response characteristics of hidden neurons in these two kinds of neural networks, the

interpolation problems can be solved more eciently with

a BPNN, and the extrapolation problems are better to be

dealt with an RBFNN.

Since the dierent properties of the BPNN and the

RBFNN are complementary, Nan Jiang, Zhao, and Ren

(2002) designed a structural modular neural network

(SMNN) with genetic algorithm and showed that the

SMNN constructed a better inputoutput mapping both

locally and globally. The SMNN combine the neurons in

the generalization capabilities of BPNN and the computational eciency of RBFNN together in one network structure. Its architecture is shown in Fig. 1, which has three

layers: the input layer which takes in the input data; the

hidden layer which comprises both the sigmoid neurons

and the Gaussian neurons; and the output layer where a

linear function is used to combine the BP part and the

RBF part.

In this research, we adapt their SMNN for predicting

moisture content of grain drying process. The number of

neurons in the input and output layers are given by the

number of input and output variables in the process. The

inputs of the structure can be variables such as inlet moisture content, grain temperatures, and air temperatures,

which are easily measurable. The output of the system is

the moisture content of the grain.

2.2. Design structural modular neural network using GA

The network conguration of the SMNN can be transformed into two subset selection problems: one is the number of BP hidden neurons; and the other is the distinct

terms nc which are selected from the N data samples as

the centers of RBF hidden neurons.

There are a few types of representation schemes available for decoding the neural network architecture, such

as the binary coding and the gray scale. In the present

work, the chromosome in the GAs population is divided

into two parts. One part is a xed length chromosome that

contains the number of BP hidden neuron in binary form.

The other part is a variable length chromosome (i.e. real

coding) that represents the number and position of the

RBF hidden neurons. The centers of the RBF part are randomly selected data point from the training data set and

the center locations proposed here are also restricted to

be the data sample. The data sample xi is labeled with index

i (i = 1, 2, . . . , N), then the RBF neurons can be coded as a

output

RBF hidden node

BP hidden node

input

930

range was given for the string length, and the string should

only contain distinct terms. So the chromosome is

Ci = Bi [ Ri. For example

B1 0

1 1

B2 0

1 0

R1 13

R2 17

C1 0

C2 0

15 10

11 12

1

1

1 0

0 1

16

15

1

0

17

19

13

17

11

14

13 20

15 10

11 12

16

15

17

19

11

14

0;

B2 0

1 0

13 20

which is like uniform crossover. The common terms in both

RBF part parents are searched and two binary template

strings are created to mark the common terms in both parents. If the corresponding term is the common term, the

binary bit in the template string will be set to 1, otherwise

it will be 0. Secondly, two random numbers of distinct

terms are selected from the RBF parents and exchanged

with each other. For example, the above R1 and R2 will

do rst step crossover as follows.

First create two template strings to mark the parents:

T1 1

1 0

T2 1

1 0

0 1

14

12

20

15

17 11

19 10

13

16

are changed to

1

0

1

0

0

1

13

17

15 14 20 17 11

11 12 15 19 10 13

16

nally. Therefore, the above two chromosomes become

2.2.1. Crossover

For selected two chromosomes (parents) from the population, the crossover will be done in two steps: (1) the binary part string representing the BP neurons (Bi) and the

real number encoding part string representing the RBF

neurons (Ri) will do crossover separately; (2) the whole

chromosome does crossover in which BP string and the

whole RBF string can be switched according to a probability distribution. Therefore, Bi part uses the traditional one

single point crossover: a point is selected between 1 and

L 1 where L is the string length of the BP part. Both

Bi strings are severed at this point and the segments to

the right of this point are switched. And the crossover point

is chosen with a uniform probability distribution. For

example, if the crossover site is 3, after carrying out the rst

step crossover, the above B1 and B2 will be

1

15

11

C1 0 1

C2 0 1

Ri represents the RBF part real code chromosome; and Ci

is the full length chromosome.

According to the validation method, the objective function used in this paper is the root mean squared error

(RMSE) of the test data which have not been used in the

training of the neural network. The genetic operators used

in this paper are as follows.

B1 0

R1 13

R2 17

distinct terms from the end of parent 2, and keep the common terms unchanged:

C1 0 1

C2 0 1

1

0

1

0

0

1

17 11

13 15

12

14

15

20

19

17

10 13

11

16

Like the crossover, for each selected chromosome from

the population, the string of the BP neurons and the string

of the RBF neurons mutate separately. A simple point

mutation is used in Bi part and the operator exchanges with

a given probability each term in Ri part with a randomly

selected term in the corresponding complementary subset

of the string. For example, the above C1 will be as follows

after mutation:

C1 0

1 0

17

11

12

15 19

48

13

16

The deletion and addition are only for RBF part to alleviate premature loss of allele diversity, which is caused by the

variable length crossover in RBF string. The deletion and

addition operators are applied to each selected string with

equal probability. For deletion operators, a random number of terms are removed from the RBF string beginning

from a randomly selected position. A random number of

terms are added to the end of the RBF string through

the addition operators. The newly added terms are randomly chosen from the complementary subset of the selected string.

The GA to evolve the SMNN structure is presented in

the following:

(1) Randomly choose an initial population of p individual chromosomes Ci (i = 1, 2, . . . , p). Each chromosome denes a network with number of b BP

hidden neurons and number of r RBF hidden neurons associated RBF center locations.

(2) Decode each chromosome. Each chromosome presents one network architecture. Using the LevenbergMarquardt algorithm to train the network and

compute the RMSE value of the training data and

the testing data for each chromosome Ci. Set the

number of generations Ng for evolution. Set counter

g = 0.

(3) Taking the RMSE of the testing data as the tness

f(Ci) (i = 1, 2, . . . , p) value of each individual chromosome. Rank tness value of each individual in

the population.

T7

T5

80

T4

T3

60

T2

40

T1

TU

20

TL

56

51

46

41

36

31

26

21

1

-20

16

TM

11

temperature/C

T6

100

time/h

TM, TL).

30

25

20

15

10

inlet MC

outlet MC

61

57

53

49

45

37

41

33

29

25

21

17

13

0

5

The experiment was carried out on a tower-type mixedow grain dryer with high of 26 m, section area of 16 m2

and solid ow rate from 2.4 to 4.0 m/h (see Fig. 2). The

dryer is quadrate in shape with the air in the drying section

owing through the grain column from the air plenum to

the ambient, and in the reverse direction in the cooling section. A grain turn-ow is located midway in the drying

column.

The controller of the dryer consists of the temperature

sensors, the data acquisition system, and a personal computer. The PC communicates with the sensors and the

grain-discharged motor through a data acquisition card.

The rpm of the grain-discharged motor is proportional to

05 V input to the driver of the grain-discharged motor.

T8

120

140

ospring:

(a) Use roulette wheel selection to produce the

reproduction pool.

(b) Apply two-step crossover with given probability

to two parent chromosomes in the reproduction

pool, create two ospring.

(c) Apply mutation with given probability to every

bit of the ospring.

(d) Apply deletion and addition with given probability to the RBF part strings of ospring, produce

the new generation.

(e) Decode each chromosome in new generation.

Train each network and compute the new RMSE

values of the training data and the testing data

for each new chromosome.

(f) Set g = g + 1, if g > Ng, stop. Otherwise, go to

step (a).

931

time/h

Fig. 4. The inlet and outlet moisture contents for training and testing

neural network.

60 h of data were collected while the dryer operated

under manual performance, with air ow rate from 0.27

to 0.42 m/s, the surrounding temperature from 27 to

10 C, and the drying-air temperature from 80 to

125 C. One set data per hour are chose, so there are 60 sets

data to be used to training and testing the neural network.

Figs. 3 and 4 show all the input graphs used for training the

NN.

3. Results and discussion

Fig. 2. Schematic of the tower-type mixed-ow grain dryer (T1T8 are the

grain temperatures).

The experiments are carried out with the SMNN algorithm proposed in this paper. For comparison purpose,

the results by using the evolved BPNN alone and by using

the evolved RBFNN alone are also calculated.

In this paper, the inlet moisture content (Min), grain

temperatures (T1T8) and drying-air temperatures (TU,

TM, TL) are taken as the input parameters, while the outlet

moisture content (Mout) as output parameter. Thus the

SMNN aims to nd a mapping f such that Mout = f(T1,

T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, TU, TM, TL, Min). The SMNN

used here has 12 neurons in the input layer and one neuron

in the output layer. The number of the hidden layer is

decided by the GA algorithm proposed in this paper.

The numbers of data for neural network training and

testing are 40 sets and 20 sets, respectively. The initial chromosome length of the BP part is 5. For the RBF part, the

minimum string length is dened as 2 and the maximum

average MSE

minimum MSE

best result

0.08

0.06

0.04

49

46

43

40

37

34

31

28

25

22

19

16

13

10

0.02

0

generation

testing results

Epochs

241

226

211

196

181

166

151

136

121

106

91

76

61

46

31

16

training results

MSE

Fig. 5. The average and minimum MSE for testing data in each

generation.

0.12

0.11

0.1

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

SMNN

BPNN

RBFNN

Number of

hidden neurons

MSE of

training data

MSE of

testing data

6-BP, 10-RBF

22

42

0.0298

0.0304

0.0309

0.0312

0.0368

0.0336

17

16

15

14

13

12

57

53

49

45

41

37

33

29

25

21

17

13

10

11

time/h

predicted data; dash line: measured data.

and the evolved BPNN and RBFNN can be seen at Table

1. It is clear that even though the generalization error of

evolved BPNN and RBFNN are similar as the evolved

SMNN, the evolved SMNN performs slightly better on

the testing data and the complexity of the evolved SMNN

is signicantly reduced compared with the other two

networks.

The predicted result from simulation test on the moisture content prediction of grain drying process based on

the SMNN is shown in Fig. 7. The gure shows that the

accuracy of predicted value is excellent.

0.12

0.1

Table 1

MSE of grain drying process prediction

probabilities for the crossover and the mutation are 0.5 and

0.02, respectively, and the probability of deletion and addition is taken as 0.04. The above GA parameters are selected

after a series of trial and error runs. Since the training set

containsP40 distinct terms, the search space therefore con13

i

tains 25 20

dierent networks. The geni2 C 40 1:98 10

eration number is set to be 50.

The evolution of average and minimum MSE of the testing data are shown in Fig. 5, where the average MSE is the

average value of MSE in the whole chromosomes for each

generation and the minimum MSE is the minimum one in

the whole population. The best result is the record of the

minimum value for one particular GA run. Fig. 5 indicates

that the average MSE decreases through the evolution and

the best generalization network is emerged at the 32th generation. For the best performance SMNN, the MSE values

on the training data and the testing data are 0.0298 and

0.0312, as shown in Fig. 6. The algorithm automatically

searches for the appropriate network size according to

the given objective. The best SMNN is at the 32th generation which has least neurons (6 BP neurons and 10 RBF

932

4. Conclusions

As would be expected there was a fairly strong inuence

of the NN topologies on the accuracy of the estimation.

Therefore, the selection of the most appropriate NN topology was the main issue. In this paper, the SMNN has been

proposed which comprises sigmoid and Gaussian neurons

in the hidden layer of the feed-forward neural network.

The GA is used to select the appropriate network architecture in determining the optimal number of nodes in the hidden layer of the SMNN. Since the GA is a global search

method, so it has less probability of being trapped at local

minima. It has been demonstrated that the proposed

SMNN algorithm can automatically determine the appropriate network structure, and the experimental results show

good performance of the SMNN over the BPNN and the

RBFNN.

This study also shows that neural network modeling can

be used to obtain good accurate of moisture content prediction during grain drying process over a wide experimen-

tal range. The technological interest of this kind of modeling must be related to the fact that it is elaborated without

any preliminary assumptions on the underlying mechanisms. The applications of neural networks and genetic

algorithm can be used for the on-line prediction and control of drying process.

Acknowledgements

This work was elaborated within the project of Precise

Drying System of Maize, No. 05EFN217100439 funded

by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Peoples

Republic of China.

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